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Sample records for bus evaluations joint

  1. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  2. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  3. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  4. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  5. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  6. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

  7. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  8. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  9. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  10. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  11. Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.

  12. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  13. Development and Evaluation of Bus Operation Control System Based on Cooperative Speed Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Teng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buses often have strong bunching or large interval tendency when traveling further along the route. To restrain this further deterioration of operation service, this paper developed a bus operation control system to dynamically adjust bus speed, bus dwell time, and traffic signal timings along the running path. In addition, a simulation platform was developed to evaluate the proposed control system with the actual data collected from bus route number 210 in Shanghai. The simulation results show that the proposed control system can mitigate the amplification trend of the headway deviation along the route to produce headways within a given tolerance.

  14. Dissimilar metals joint evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. E.; Apodaca, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    Dissimilar metals tubular joints between 2219-T851 aluminum alloy and 304L stainless steel were fabricated and tested to evaluate bonding processes. Joints were fabricated by four processes: (1) inertia (friction) weldings, where the metals are spun and forced together to create the weld; (2) explosive welding, where the metals are impacted together at high velocity; (3) co-extrusion, where the metals are extruded in contact at high temperature to promote diffusion; and (4) swaging, where residual stresses in the metals after a stretching operation maintain forced contact in mutual shear areas. Fifteen joints of each type were prepared and evaluated in a 6.35 cm (2.50 in.) O.D. size, with 0.32 cm (0.13 in.) wall thickness, and 7.6 cm (3.0 in) total length. The joints were tested to evaluate their ability to withstand pressure cycle, thermal cycle, galvanic corrosion and burst tests. Leakage tests and other non-destructive test techniques were used to evaluate the behavior of the joints, and the microstructure of the bond areas was analyzed.

  15. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  16. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  17. Glacier Going to the Sun Road Rehabilitation Mitigation Shuttle Bus Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    As a mitigation measure during reconstruction of the Going to the Sun Road, Glacier National Park operated a shuttle bus system along three routes during the 2007 season. This report presents a multi-dimensional evaluation of the transportation servi...

  18. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  19. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Portela S; Marcos, Queiroga R; Amanda, Constantini; Paulo, Zannin H T

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A.), a little annoyed (L.A.) and highly annoyed (H.A.)). The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus

  20. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  1. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system.

  2. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  3. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... body, members such as rub rails which are entirely outside of body panels, ventilation panels... contribute to the strength of the joint, support members such as rub rails which are entirely outside of body... the strength of a body panel joint, such as rub rails on the outside of body panels or underlying...

  4. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  5. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  6. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  7. Evaluation of fatal school bus related crashes and near-term crash mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Donoughe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS, a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.

  8. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  9. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  10. Evaluation of Effective Factors on Travel Time in Optimization of Bus Stops Placement Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargegol, Iraj; Ghorbanzadeh, Mahyar; Ghasedi, Meisam; Rastbod, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    In congested cities, locating and proper designing of bus stops according to the unequal distribution of passengers is crucial issue economically and functionally, since this subject plays an important role in the use of bus system by passengers. Location of bus stops is a complicated subject; by reducing distances between stops, walking time decreases, but the total travel time may increase. In this paper, a specified corridor in the city of Rasht in north of Iran is studied. Firstly, a new formula is presented to calculate the travel time, by which the number of stops and consequently, the travel time can be optimized. An intended corridor with specified number of stops and distances between them is addressed, the related formulas to travel time are created, and its travel time is calculated. Then the corridor is modelled using a meta-heuristic method in order that the placement and the optimal distances of bus stops for that are determined. It was found that alighting and boarding time along with bus capacity are the most effective factors affecting travel time. Consequently, it is better to have more concentration on indicated factors for improving the efficiency of bus system.

  11. Evaluating Operational Effects of Bus Lane with Intermittent Priority under Connected Vehicle Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxin Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus lane with intermittent priority (BLIP is an innovative method to improve the reliability of bus services while promoting efficient usage of road resources. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication is an advanced technology that can greatly enhance the vehicle mobility, improve traffic safety, and alleviate traffic jams. To explore the benefits of BLIP operation under a connected environment, this study proposed a three-lane cellular automata (CA model under opening boundary condition. In particular, a mandatory BLIP lane-changing rule is developed to analyze special asymmetric lane-changing behaviors. To improve the simulation accuracy, a smaller cell size is used in the CA model. Through massive numerical simulations, the benefits and influences of BLIP are explored in this paper. They include impacts on neighborhood lanes such as traffic density increasing and average speed decreasing, lane-changing behaviors, lane usage, and the impacts of bus departure interval and clear distance on the road capacity of BLIP. Analysis of traffic flow characteristics of BLIP reveals that there is a strong relationship among bus departure interval, clear distance, and road capacity. Furthermore, setting conditions for deployment of BLIP under the V2V environment such as reasonable departure interval, clear distance, and traffic density are obtained.

  12. Health impacts of free bus travel for young people: evaluation of a natural experiment in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phil; Steinbach, Rebecca; Green, Judith; Petticrew, Mark; Goodman, Anna; Jones, Alasdair; Roberts, Helen; Kelly, Charlotte; Nellthorp, John; Wilkinson, Paul

    2013-08-01

    We used the introduction of free bus travel for young people in London in 2005 as a natural experiment with which to assess its effects on active travel, car use, road traffic injuries, assaults, and on one measure of social inclusion, total number of trips made. A controlled before-after analysis was conducted. We estimated trips by mode and distances travelled in the preintroduction and postintroduction periods using data from London Travel Demand Surveys. We estimated rates of road traffic injury and assault in each period using STATS19 data and Hospital Episode Statistics, respectively. We estimated the ratio of change in the target age group (12-17 years) to the change in adults (ages 25-59 years), with 95% CIs. The proportion of short trips travelled by bus by young people increased postintroduction. There was no evidence for an increase in the total number of bus trips or distance travelled by bus by young people attributable to the intervention. The proportion of short trips by walking decreased, but there was no evidence for any change to total distance walked. Car trips declined in both age groups, although distance travelled by car decreased more in young people. Road casualty rates declined, but the pre-post ratio of change was greater in young people than adults (ratio of ratios 0.84; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.87). Assaults increased and the ratio of change was greater in young people (1.20; 1.13 to 1.27). The frequency of all trips by young people was unchanged, both in absolute terms and relative to adults. The introduction of free bus travel for young people had little impact on active travel overall and shifted some travel from car to buses that could help broader environmental objectives.

  13. Three-Phase Fault Currents Evaluation for Nigerian 28-Bus 330kv Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, Gafari A.; Tijani, Muhammed A.; Sanusi, Mufutau A.; Olatunji, Dauda O.

    2012-03-01

    Fault studies are important power system analysis for stable and economical operations of power systems. Faults are categorised as symmetrical and unsymmetrical. In this paper, three-phase symmetrical fault is simulated using the Nigerian 28-Bus, 330kV Transmission Grid. Two different MatLab based programmes were developed; one program was for Load Flow Studies which determines prefault conditions for the power system based on Newton-Raphson method. The other program determines fault current magnitudes for threephase short-circuit on the power system. The information gained from the fault studies can be used for proper relay selections, settings, performances and coordination.

  14. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  15. Field Evaluation of Red-Coloured Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements for Bus Rapid Transit Lanes in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coloured pavements have been implemented by metropolitan areas to denote dedicated lanes for bus rapid transit to maintain a high level of safety. Transit benefits of these installations are well documented. However, field performance of various types of coloured pavement has not been investigated systematically, with questions not being answered. In collaboration with the Regional Municipality of York (ON, Canada where red pavement sections have been in operation for years for its bus rapid transit lanes, the Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology at the University of Waterloo (Waterloo, ON, Canada assessed the performance of various types of red pavements including epoxy paint and red asphalt mixes. It was found that, with significant lower texture depth, epoxy paint surface has disadvantages to red asphalt pavement from a pavement texture and safety perspective. The red asphalt sections in this study were observed as lower yet compatible frictional levels to conventional black pavement. Various types of contamination onto the red pavement were observed during field survey. In addition, the ultraviolet radiation degraded the colour of red asphalt pavement over time and may make it less effective for lane designation. Long-term monitoring is recommended to evaluate the functional and structural performance of red asphalt pavement.

  16. Evaluating a GPS-Based Transportation Device to Support Independent Bus Travel by People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Holloway, Shane; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the utility of a PDA-based software system with integrated GPS technology for providing location-aware visual and auditory prompts to enable people with intellectual disability to successfully navigate a downtown bus route. Participants using the system were significantly more successful at completing a bus route than were people in a…

  17. Evaluation of estrogenic potential of flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and MCF7/BUS cell proliferation assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia A Resende

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, there is a search for compounds with estrogenic activity that can replace estrogen in hormone replacement therapy during menopause, without the undesirable effects of estrogen, such as the elevation of breast cancer occurrence. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the estrogenic activity of flavonoids with different hydroxylation patterns: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone via two different in vitro assays, the recombinant yeast assay (RYA and the MCF-7 proliferation assay (E-screen, since the most potent phytoestrogens are members of the flavonoid family. In these assays, kaempferol was the only compound that showed ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity by RYA, showing 6.74±1.7 nM EEQ, besides acting as a full agonist for the stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells. The other compounds did not show detectable levels of interaction with ER under the conditions used in the RYA. However, in the E-screen assay, compounds such as galangin, luteolin and fisetin also stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells, acting as partial agonists. In the evaluation of antiestrogenicity, the compounds quercetin, chrysin and 3-hydroxyflavone significantly inhibited the cell proliferation induced by 17-β-estradiol in the E-screen assay, indicating that these compounds may act as estrogen receptor antagonists. Overall, it became clear in the assay results that the estrogenic activity of flavonoids was affected by small structural differences such as the number of hydroxyl groups, especially those on the B ring of the flavonoid.

  18. Electrical Design and Evaluation of Asynchronous Serial Bus Communication Network of 48 Sensor Platform LSIs with Single-Ended I/O for Integrated MEMS-LSI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Shao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For installing many sensors in a limited space with a limited computing resource, the digitization of the sensor output at the site of sensation has advantages such as a small amount of wiring, low signal interference and high scalability. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS Large-Scale Integration (LSI (referred to as “sensor platform LSI” for bus-networked Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS-LSI integrated sensors. In this LSI, collision avoidance, adaptation and event-driven functions are simply implemented to relieve data collision and congestion in asynchronous serial bus communication. In this study, we developed a network system with 48 sensor platform LSIs based on Printed Circuit Board (PCB in a backbone bus topology with the bus length being 2.4 m. We evaluated the serial communication performance when 48 LSIs operated simultaneously with the adaptation function. The number of data packets received from each LSI was almost identical, and the average sampling frequency of 384 capacitance channels (eight for each LSI was 73.66 Hz.

  19. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chung-Won; Lee, Ho-Seong; Won, Jong-Phil; Lee, Moo-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volum...

  20. GO Bus impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  1. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  2. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  3. Evaluating the influence of modernization of the urban bus fleet in Krakow in the years 2010–2015 on the amount of pollutants emitted into the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bździuch Paulina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and environmentally friendly public transport is a requirement of a modern city. For many years, Krakow has been building a modern multimodal transportation system, with the bus services playing a significant role. The article presents the results of the studies carried out on the fleet of urban buses operating within the Krakow agglomeration in the years 2010-2015. The influence of modernization of the urban bus fleet in the specified period on emissions of the most significant air pollutants into the air was evaluated. The studies have confirmed a total reduction in emissions from buses during the study period at levels of approximately 28 % for NOx, approximately 35 % for PM10, approximately 39 % for PM2.5 and approximately 43 % for NMVOC.

  4. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  5. Evaluation of Brazed Joints Using Failure Assessment Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Fitness-for service approach was used to perform structural analysis of the brazed joints consisting of several base metal / filler metal combinations. Failure Assessment Diagrams (FADs) based on tensile and shear stress ratios were constructed and experimentally validated. It was shown that such FADs can provide a conservative estimate of safe combinations of stresses in the brazed joints. Based on this approach, Margins of Safety (MS) of the brazed joints subjected to multi-axial loading conditions can be evaluated..

  6. Wrist rhythm during wrist joint motion evaluated by dynamic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Hiroki; Tada, Kaoru; Suganuma, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that wrist joint motion involves a "wrist rhythm" similar to the scapulohumeral rhythm. Therefore, we used a flat-panel detector to evaluate the ratio of radiolunate and capitolunate joint motions during wrist joint motion by dynamic radiography. The subjects were 20 healthy men. Dynamic imaging of the wrist joint was performed during active exercise for a total of ten seconds. In this study, we defined the radiocarpal (RL angle) and midcarpal joint angle (CL angle) as the wrist joint angle in the obtained images and measured the variation of these angles. The average curve was plotted and regression lines calculated from the average curve. The ratio was calculated from the slopes of the regression lines of the RL CL angles. These findings indicated that the ratio of the RL and CL angle motions was approximately 1:4 during palmar flexion and approximately 2:1 during dorsiflexion.

  7. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  8. JUPITER PROJECT - JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project builds on the technology of two widely used codes for sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis of environmental models: PEST and UCODE.

  9. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  10. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  11. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volume flow rate of the coolant water of the electrical devices. Heating capacity, compressor work, and heating COP were measured; their behaviors with regard to the parameters were observed. Experimental results showed that heating COP increased with decrease of outdoor temperature, from 20.0 °C to 0 °C, and it observed to be 3.0 in the case of 0 °C outdoor temperature. The observed characteristics of the heating COP suggest that the heat pump is applicable as the cabin heater of an electric vehicle, which is limited by short driving range.

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of 3 stabilization methods on acromioclavicular joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, Jakob V; Sellenschloh, Kay; Bishop, Nick; Jauch, Sabrina; Briem, Daniel; Hoffmann, Michael; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Pueschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Rueger, Johannes M; Großterlinden, Lars G

    2013-06-01

    Traumatic acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations can be addressed with several surgical stabilization techniques. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate biomechanical features of the native joint compared with 3 different stabilization methods: locking hook plate (HP), TightRope (TR), and bone anchor system (AS). The HP provides higher stiffness than the anatomic reconstruction techniques. Controlled laboratory study. A new biomechanical in vitro model of the AC joint was used to analyze joint stability after surgical repair (HP, TR, and AS). Eighteen cadaveric specimens were randomized for bone density and diameter in the midclavicle section. Joint stiffness was measured by applying an axial load and a defined physiological range of motion for internal and external rotations and upward and downward rotations. Data were recorded at 3 stages: for the native joint after dissecting the AC ligaments, directly after repair, and after axial cyclic loading (1000 cycles with 20 and 70 N at 1 Hz). To evaluate which implant mimics physiological joint properties best, axial stiffness of vertical stability was assessed in combination with rotation. Finally, static loading in the superior direction was applied until failure of the joints occurred. Axial stiffness of the TR and AS groups was 2-fold higher than for the HP group and the native joint (67.1, 66.1, and 22.5 N/mm, respectively; P < .004). Decreased load-to-failure rates were recorded in the HP group compared with the TR and AS groups (248.9 ± 72.7, 832.0 ± 401.4, and 538.0 ± 166.1 N, respectively). The stiffness of the rotations was not significantly different between the treatment methods but was lower in horizontal and downward rotations compared with the native state. Thus, native AC ligaments contributed a significant share to joint stiffness. The TR and AS groups demonstrated higher vertical load capacity. Compared with the TR and AS, the HP demonstrated an axial stiffness closest to the native

  13. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  14. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  15. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the coxofemoral joint region in young foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottensteiner, U; Palm, F; Kofler, J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to map the coxofemoral region in foals to obtain ultrasonographic reference values for the interpretation of potentially pathological findings in hip joints. Using a 7.5 MHz linear transducer, 38 examinations were carried out: 10 (20 joints) on cadavers and 28 (55 joints) on live healthy foals up to 8 weeks of age. The chosen plane of examination was caudolateral-craniomedial oblique on an imaginary line connecting the greater trochanter and the cranial edge of the tuber sacrale. The relatively thin muscular layer covering the coxofemoral joint allowed good image quality. The evaluated structures included the bone surface of the ilium and acetabulum, the subchondral bone on the femoral head and greater trochanter, the joint cartilage on the femoral head, the fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum, the femoral capital physis, the cartilaginous layer covering the greater trochanter, the joint capsule and the presence of visible synovial fluid and the gluteal muscles. A bilateral anatomical frozen section in the plane of examination was made in one cadaver. A good correlation was found between ultrasonographic and corresponding anatomical measurements on the frozen section. This study indicated that ultrasound is a valuable diagnostic tool which can provide good image quality in neonates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  17. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Jiankun; Fan, Hao; He, Hongwen; Pan, Deng

    2015-01-01

    .... To evaluate the controller area network (CAN) bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built...

  18. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  20. Global body posture evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Tiemi Saito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles. Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS: Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation, lumbar spine (hyperlordosis, thoracic spine (rectification, head (deviation to the right and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth. There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder.

  1. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  2. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  3. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  4. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  5. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  6. Evaluation of Longitudinal Joints of HMA Pavements in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Longitudinal joints between lanes of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements are commonly susceptible to moisture damage and other failures. In 2006, the Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT) identified longitudinal joint failure as one of the major ...

  7. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using movable and reusable boarding and alighting (B&A) pads at bus stops. : Potential design alternatives in terms of materials and structural support for these pads were evaluated. The review : focused on the ...

  8. Bus lane efficiency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tovornik, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The upper Celovška road has been dealing with traffic jams for quite some time now. Traffic jams are concentrated in time of morning (in direction towards towns center) and afternoon (in direction towards Gorenjska) peak hour , whereas jams in between times are not excluded. There are many solutions to solve the problem and are variable. In this assigment I am focusing on one of potencial solutions, with special bus lanes. It is a measure that can be, if used in right way, very effective and ...

  9. Natural gas powered bus; Erdgasbusprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted.

  10. An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Bus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with highly developed instrumentation, sensing and actuation technologies, it is possible to foresee an important advance in the field of autonomous and/or semi-autonomous transportation systems. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS have been subjected to very active research for many years, and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT is one area of major interest. Among the most promising transport infrastructures, the articulated bus is an interesting, low cost, high occupancy capacity and friendly option. In this paper, an experimental platform for research on the automatic control of an articulated bus is presented. The aim of the platform is to allow full experimentation in real conditions for testing technological developments and control algorithms. The experimental platform consists of a mobile component (a commercial articulated bus fully instrumented and a ground test area composed of asphalt roads inside the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC premises. This paper focuses also on the development of a human machine interface to ease progress in control system evaluation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the potential of the proposed platform.

  11. Evaluation of gait kinetics in puppies with coxofemoral joint laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mandi J; Quinn, Margaret M; Markel, Mark D

    2006-02-01

    To characterize ground reaction forces (GRFs) and determine whether there were correlations between forces and passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies. Fifty-one 16-week-old hound-breed dogs. Force-plate gait evaluation and distraction radiographic imaging were performed. Ground reaction forces evaluated included x (mediolateral), y (craniocaudal breaking and propulsion), and z (vertical) peak force and impulse. Z-plane limb loading and unloading rates, loading interval, and weight distribution and y-plane stance time breaking and propulsion percentages were calculated. One-way ANOVA with the Duncan multiple range test was used to evaluate differences in gait variables among limbs. The relationships of left, right, highest, and mean distraction index (DI) with individual limb data of each dog were evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation. Left and right DIs were compared by means of linear regression analysis. Mean +/- SEM DI was 0.67 +/- 0.02. Left and right DIs were strongly correlated, but there were no significant relationships between DIs and gait variables. Most fore- and hind limb gait variables differed significantly, whereas paired fore- and hind limb gait variables did not. Asymmetry was most pronounced in the x- and y-planes. GRFs were consistent with those of clinically normal mature dogs, supporting an absence of association between GRF and DI in young dogs. The GRFs and elucidation of the relationship between GRFs and DI may be useful for future studies in immature dogs.

  12. Testing and Treating Women after Unsuccessful Conservative Treatments for Overactive Bladder or Mixed Urinary Incontinence: A Model-Based Economic Evaluation Based on the BUS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Goranitis

    Full Text Available To compare the cost-effectiveness of bladder ultrasonography, clinical history, and urodynamic testing in guiding treatment decisions in a secondary care setting for women failing first line conservative treatment for overactive bladder or urgency-predominant mixed urinary incontinence.Model-based economic evaluation from a UK National Health Service (NHS perspective using data from the Bladder Ultrasound Study (BUS and secondary sources.Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision tree and a 5-year time horizon based on the outcomes of cost per woman successfully treated and cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and a value of information analysis are also undertaken.Bladder ultrasonography is more costly and less effective test-treat strategy than clinical history and urodynamics. Treatment on the basis of clinical history alone has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of £491,100 per woman successfully treated and an ICER of £60,200 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women on the basis of urodynamics. Restricting the use of urodynamics to women with a clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only is the optimal test-treat strategy on cost-effectiveness grounds with ICERs of £19,500 per woman successfully treated and £12,700 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women based upon urodynamics. Conclusions remained robust to sensitivity analyses, but subject to large uncertainties.Treatment based upon urodynamics can be seen as a cost-effective strategy, and particularly when targeted at women with clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only. Further research is needed to resolve current decision uncertainty.

  13. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  14. Radiographic evaluation of feline appendicular degenerative joint disease vs. Macroscopic appearance of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Mila; Robertson, Ian; Bondell, Howard D; Brown, James; Hash, Jon; Pease, Anthony P; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is common in domesticated cats. Our purpose was to describe how radiographic findings thought to indicate feline DJD relate to macroscopic cartilage degeneration in appendicular joints. Thirty adult cats euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study were evaluated. Orthogonal digital radiographs of the elbow, tarsus, stifle, and coxofemoral joints were evaluated for the presence of DJD. The same joints were dissected for visual inspection of changes indicative of DJD and macroscopic cartilage damage was graded using a Total Cartilage Damage Score. When considering all joints, there was statistically significant fair correlation between cartilage damage and the presence of osteophytes and joint-associated mineralizations, and the subjective radiographic DJD score. Most correlations were statistically significant when looking at the different joints individually, but only the correlation between the presence of osteophytes and the subjective radiographic DJD score with the presence of cartilage damage in the elbow and coxofemoral joints had a value above 0.4 (moderate correlation). The joints most likely to have cartilage damage without radiographic evidence of DJD are the stifle (71% of radiographically normal joints) followed by the coxofemoral joint (57%), elbow (57%), and tarsal joint (46%). Our data support radiographic findings not relating well to cartilage degeneration, and that other modalities should be evaluated to aid in making a diagnosis of feline DJD. © 2011 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  15. Radiological Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Followed by Clinical Symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won; You Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-11-15

    The authors analyzed the clinical findings, radiological findings and their correlations in the temporomandibular joint disorders. 1. The most prevalent age group was in the first decade, then the second decade and the third decade. Female were more common with a ratio of 3.4 : 1. 2. The most common clinical findings was the pain on open mouth position (42.43%), then came the clicking and limitation of mouth opening. 3. The most common bone change on the condyle side was the erosion, then came the flattening, the osteopyte and the sclerosis in that orders. 4. In the case of the crepitus, the coarse crepitus showed more radiological change than the fine crepitus. 5. In the case of the mouth opening limitation, the evaluation of the translatory movement by transcranial projection was in accordance with the clinical evaluation. 6. The correlation between the clinical symptom and the condylar position within the mandibular fossa was not present and in the case of diagnosis of disc displacement, the transcranial projection seemed not to be able to substitute for the arthrography. 7. Radiographically, the most prevalent age group which showed the bone change was in the first, the second and the third decade. And the bone change seemed to have no relationship with aging.

  16. Public transport policy, social engagement and mental health in older age: a quasi-experimental evaluation of free bus passes in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Erica; Courtin, Emilie; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-01-19

    Social engagement and social isolation are key determinants of mental health in older age, yet there is limited evidence on how public policies may contribute to reducing isolation, promoting social engagement and improving mental health among older people. This study examines the impact of the introduction of an age-friendly transportation policy, free bus passes, on the mental health of older people in England. We use an instrumental variable (IV) approach that exploits eligibility criteria for free bus passes to estimate the impact of increased public transportation use on depressive symptoms, loneliness, social isolation and social engagement. Eligibility for the free bus travel pass was associated with an 8% (95% CI 6.4% to 9.6%) increase in the use of public transportation among older people. The IV model suggests that using public transport reduces depressive symptoms by 0.952 points (95% CI -1.712 to -0.192) on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. IV models also suggest that using public transport reduces feelings of loneliness (β -0.794, 95% CI -1.528 to -0.061), increases volunteering at least monthly (β 0.237, 95% CI 0.059 to 0.414) and increases having regular contact with children (β 0.480, 95% CI 0.208 to 0.752) and friends (β 0.311, 95% CI 0.109 to 0.513). Free bus travel is associated with reductions in depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness among older people. Transportation policies may increase older people's social engagement and consequently deliver significant benefits to mental health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. The Coupling Fields Characteristics of Cable Joints and Application in the Evaluation of Crimping Process Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The internal defects of cable joints always accelerate the deterioration of insulation, until finally accidents can arise due to the explosion of the joints. The formation process of this damage often involves changes in the electromagnetic, temperature and stress distribution of the cable joint, therefore, it is necessary to analyze the electromagnetic-thermal-mechanical distribution of cable joints. Aiming at solving this problem, the paper sets up a 3-D electromagnetic-thermal-mechanical coupling model of cable joints under crimping process defects. Based on the model, the electromagnetic losses distribution, temperature distribution and stress distribution of a cable joint and body are calculated. Then, the coupling fields characteristics in different contact coefficient k, ambient temperature Tamb and load current I were analyzed, and according to the thermal-mechanical characteristics of a cable joint under internal defects, the temperature difference ΔTf and stress difference Δσf of cable surface are applied to evaluate the internal cable joint defects. Finally, a simplified model of the cable joint is set up to verify the accuracy of the coupling field model proposed in this paper, which indicates that the model can be used to analyze the coupling fields characteristics of cable joints and the method can be applied to evaluate crimping process defects of cable joints.

  18. Clinical study evaluating the accuracy of injecting the distal tarsal joints in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabaugh, K A; Selberg, K T; Mueller, P O E; Eggleston, R B; Peroni, J F; Claunch, K M; Markwell, H J; Baxter, G M

    2017-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the centrodistal (CD) and tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints is a common cause of lameness in horses. Intra-articular diagnostic anaesthesia and/or therapeutic injection are relied upon to help diagnose and treat many horses with OA of these joints. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of arthrocentesis of the CD and TMT joints using a sample population of equine surgeons and surgery residents. Randomised experimental study. Six operators each injected four CD and four TMT joints in 12 sedated horses. The operators were randomly assigned to inject either the left CD and right TMT or the right CD and left TMT on four randomly assigned horses. The joints were injected with a 4 ml solution of contrast medium (2 ml), sterile saline (1.5 ml) and amikacin (0.5 ml). A minimum of two radiographs of each joint was obtained to evaluate the presence of contrast medium within the target joint. The TMT joint was successfully injected in 23/24 joints (96% accuracy). The CD joint was successfully injected in 10/24 joints (42% accuracy). Communication between the TMT and CD joints was visible in 26% of successful TMT injections. Communication between the CD and TMT joints was visible in 20% of successful CD injections. Despite specific requests to do so, we were unable to standardise the injection technique across all operators. The accuracy of injecting the TMT and CD joints of sedated horses was 96 and 42%, respectively. The CD joint was frequently missed with contrast medium being placed in the periarticular tissues. These data support the clinical impression of the difficulty of injecting the CD joint and suggests that practitioners should utilise ancillary methods, such as radiographs, to ensure proper needle placement. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Public transit: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Contents: part 1--bus operations--service reliability program of the southern california rapid transit district: a test of the short-term impacts on line 26-51; bus route o-d matrix generation: relationship between biproportional and recursive methods; transportation systems management options to improve urban bus route performance using computer simulation; development and application of performance measures for rural public transportation operators; rural public transportation in alaska: present and future options; particulate trap installation in a man articulated transit bus; part 2--paratransit--methodology for conducting a transportation survey of persons with disabilities; marketing rural transit among senior populations; evolution of functional eligibility and certification for paratransit service: the chicago experience; part 3--ridesharing--the state of the commute in southern california; hispanic market research in the southern california market; evaluation of second-year effectiveness of guaranteed ride home service at warner center transportation management organization; effectiveness of a statewide ridesharing promotion: california rideshare week.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging-based temporomandibular joint space evaluation in temporomandibular disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Disc and condylar position were observed on MRIs of temporomandibular joint disorder patients and condylar position agreement between MRI and tranascranal radiography was evaluated. MRI and transcranial radiographs of both TM joints from 67 patients with temporomandibular disorder were used. On MRI, the position and shape of disc and condylar position as anterior, middle, posterior was evaluated at medial, center, and lateral views. On transcranial radiographs, condylar position was evaluated using the shortest distance from condyle to fossa in anterior, superior, and posterior directions. 1. On MRI, 96 joints (71.6%) of 134 had anterior disc dispalcement with reduction and 38 joints (28.4%) without reduction. 2. Fourteen (14.6%) of 96 reducible joints showed anterior condylar position. 19 (19.8%) showed central position, 63 joints (65.6%) showed posterior position. Two joints (5.3%) of 38 non-reducible joints showed anterior condylar position, while 9 (23.7%) showed central position, and 27 (71.1%)-posterior position. 3. In 85 joints (63.4%) of 134, the transcranial condylar position agreed with that of the central MRI view, 10 joints (7.5%) with that of medial, 16 joints (11.6%) with that of lateral, and 23 joints (17.2%) disagreed with that of MRI. On MRI, most of the reducible and non-reducible joints showed posterior condylar position. Transcranial radiographs taken with machine designed for TMJ had better agreement of condylar position with that of MRI. Extremely narrow joint spaces or very posterior condylar positions observed on transcranial radiographs had a little more than fifty percent agreement with those of MRIs.

  1. Evaluation of cold crack susceptibility on HSLA steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio-Freire Júnior, R. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses an evaluation of the effect of several welding parameters on cold cracking formation in welded joints of High Strength and Low Alloy steels, as well as the resulting microstructures and hardness values. The main parameters studied include the variation of the preheating temperature, drying time of the electrode, chemical composition and thickness of the base metal. The presence of cold cracking in the joints was analyzed from Tekken tests using steel plates made of SAR 80 T, 100 T and 120 T with of various thickness. The plates were welded by Shielded Metal Arc Welding either with or without pre-heating. Different preheating temperatures were studied, i.e., 375, 455 and 525 K. AWS E 12018 G and 11018 G electrodes were used under different conditions, i.e., not dried or dried up to 2, 3 and 4 h at 515 K. The results indicated the presence of cracks in the welded metals with the combination of hardness values above 230 HV and the formation of high contents of acicular ferrite (above 93 % in the welds without preheating. Higher crack susceptibility was also observed in the thick welded metal plates.

    Este trabajo evalúa la influencia de la variación de temperatura de precalentamiento, del tiempo de secado del electrodo, de la composición química y del espesor del metal base sobre la formación de fisuras en frío, inducidas por el hidrógeno en juntas soldadas de aceros de alta resistencia y baja aleación y su relación con la microestructura y dureza resultante. Para esto, se analizó la presencia de fisuras en frío en probetas para ensayos Tekken, fabricadas a partir de chapas de aceros SAR 80 T, 100 T y 120 T, con diferentes espesores y soldados por proceso de arco eléctrico con electrodo revestido, sin precalentamiento y con precalentamiento, a 375, 455 y 525 K, empleando electrodos AWS E 12018 G y 11018 G no secados y secados durante 2, 3 y 4 h. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron la presencia de fisuras

  2. Evaluation of longitudinal construction joints on traffic operations and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Motorists generally follow the guidance provided by pavement markings, which are normally marked in : coincidence with the longitudinal construction joints, when the markings are necessary. At some locations, : however, there may be a difference betw...

  3. Stress radiographs in the evaluation of degenerative femorotibial joint disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallroth, K.; Lindholm, T.S.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-eight osteoarthrotic knees were examined to assess the widths of the femorotibial joint spaces. Radiographs were exposed with the patient lying, in a standing position, and with an adduction and abduction force. Forced compression of the osteoarthrotic joint compartment caused, on average, 18% greater narrowing than when loading it in the standing position. Compared to the joint space at rest, the non-weight-bearing compartment widened by 16% in the standing position and narrowed by 20% when stress was applied. Furthermore, the results showed an increase in laxity proportional to the degree of arthrosis. Stress radiographs significantly display the real cartilage width of both joint compartments. Knowledge of the condition of the articular cartilage in the non-weight-bearing compartment is important when considering a transfer of loading stresses by means of osteotomy. (orig.)

  4. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy – in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  5. distance bus drivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders. (WRMSDs) is defined as poor optimisation and functioning of multiple joints, muscles, tendons, nerves and bones due to the work environment.[1] WRMSDs are induced by postural defects, repetitive tasks, environmental factors, and prolonged stresses and strains experienced in ...

  6. The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Christer; Gink Lövgren, Maria; Nilsson, Mats; Willstrand, Tania; Anund, Anna

    2018-02-26

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate if an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with fyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15 - 25 % while turning, and with up to 68 % in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  7. Single and joint action toxicity evaluation of insecticide and laundry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further analysis based on the isobologram model was in conformity with RTU and SR models. The significance of this study showed the relevance of joint action toxicity studies in setting realistic safe limits in order to protect aquatic organisms. Therefore, proper disposal and management strategies for wastes should be ...

  8. Evaluation of extraarticular consequences of Temporomandibular joint disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Jafari

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporo Mandibular Joint disorders are the most important ethiologic factor for chronic orofacial pain and have a relatively new place in scientific researches and clinical studies in dentistry. Since dentists can play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, routine dental examination should include functional examination of osteomatognatic apparatus.

  9. Evaluating the contributions of muscle activity and joint kinematics to weight perception across multiple joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Morgan L; Amazeen, Eric L

    2017-08-01

    Perceived heaviness is clearly a function of muscle activity: objects feel heavy, in part because they are lifted with more force than lighter feeling objects. Recent research showed that participants scale their perceptions to the ratio of muscle activity to lift acceleration during elbow lifts (Waddell et al. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 42:363-374, 2016). The current study sought psychophysiological functions relating perceived heaviness to EMG and peak lift acceleration across multiple lifts employing different muscles as prime movers. Participants lifted objects with three arm lifts-shoulder, elbow, and wrist-and reported perceived heaviness. In each lift, EMG was recorded from the anterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and forearm flexors, and peak angular acceleration was recorded about each joint. The resulting psychophysiological functions revealed the hypothesized ratio of muscle activity to peak lift acceleration in all lifts. Principal component regressions showed that the EMG of the forearm flexors and peak acceleration of the lifting joint were most relevant for perceived heaviness. The special role of forearm flexors in perceiving heaviness across different lifts was interpreted in terms of the invariant structure of the inertia tensor about the wrist.

  10. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  11. Evaluation of the coracoclavicular reconstruction using LARS artificial ligament in acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Zhu, Lei; Ye, Tianwen; Chen, Aimin; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Zhiling; Zhu, Qinghua; Guo, Qinghe; Yang, Di

    2014-09-01

    The most appropriate procedure for surgical treatment of severe acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation was still not clear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of coracoclavicular (CC) reconstruction with ligament augmentation and reconstruction system (LARS) artificial ligaments for the treatment of acute complete AC joint dislocation. Twenty-four patients (16 male and 8 female, ages ranged from 21 to 45) with acute complete AC joint dislocations were treated with CC reconstruction using LARS artificial ligaments. All these dislocations were unstable injuries. Clinical evaluation was used by the Constant scores and VAS. The radiographic evaluation consisted of Zanca radiographs for bilateral AC joint and axillary radiographs for the injured shoulder. All patients had follow-up times of 36 months (range 6-60). The Constant scores rose from 62.3 ± 6.9 preoperatively to 94.5 ± 9.3 at final evaluation (P dislocations. IV.

  12. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  13. Variability and Similarity of Gait as Evaluated by Joint Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle....... Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within...... this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can...

  14. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) Extended Wear Comfort Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    mounted components AIRSAVE vest CRU-93/A oxygen regulator (centrifuge mounted component) PCU-15/P torso harness LPU -36/P life preserver (USAF...and Navy fighter/attack only) LPU -10/P life preserver (USAF, Navy, and USA bomber/tanker/transport only) CRU-94/P oxygen connector Joint...shoulders slight Left shoulder has discomfort from vest and LPU . Can get some relief with adjustment. 5 13-right side of head moderate Hot spot

  15. Non destructive evaluation of adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced composite lap joints with varied bond quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R. L.; Bhat, M. R.; Murthy, C. R. L.

    2012-05-01

    Structural adhesive bonding is widely used to execute assemblies in automobile and aerospace structures. The quality and reliability of these bonded joints must be ensured during service. In this context non destructive evaluation of these bonded structures play an important role. Evaluation of adhesively bonded composite single lap shear joints has been attempted through experimental approach. Series of tests, non-destructive as well as destructive were performed on different sets of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite lap joint specimens with varied bond quality. Details of the experimental investigations carried out and the outcome are presented in this paper.

  16. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... 8, 2009. The Livability Bus program makes funds available to public transit providers to finance... 2-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust... Metropolitan Office, Region 2-New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel. 212-668-2202...

  17. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or... bus-related projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies... projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public...

  18. Magnetic resonance evaluation of nonsurgical treatment for internal derangement with closed lock of the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Masatoshi; Kumagai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Teshima, Teiichi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1994-02-01

    This study used 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the positional and morphological changes of the disc and condyle in patients with closed lock treated nonsurgically. A total of 20 joints (19 patients) which were successfully unlocked by nonsurgical treatment were studied. Nonsurgical treatment was gradually applied a follows: mandibular manipulation, anterior splint assisted manipulation, pumping manipulation, and stabilization splint therapy. The joints were evaluated by MRI in the closed-and open-mouth positions before and after treatment. Post-treatment MRI was also performed with the splint in place. Each imaging procedure was made in the same sagittal plane. After treatment, 19 patients experienced significant improvement in pain, range of motion, and mandibular dysfunction. Post-treatment MRI revealed that only one joint was normal. Six joints had anterior disc displacement with reduction (DWR), and 13 joints had anterior disc displacement without reduction (DNR). Evidence of disc repositioning with the splint in place was seen in 4 joints in the DWR group. Disc mobility increased with improved condylar translation in 19 joints. Disc deformity progressed in 10 joints of the DNR group. These results suggest that successful treatment for internal derangement with closed lock may require an increase in the mobility of the disc, regardless of disc position. (Author).

  19. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  20. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  1. Photoacoustic evaluation of human inflammatory arthritis in human joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Xu, Guan; Marquardt, April; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging combined with ultrasonography (US) holds promise to offer a novel and powerful tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis, including early detection and treatment monitoring. As a complement to US, PA imaging can assess additional hemodynamic changes in inflammatory synovium, including hyperemia and hypoxia, both important and early physiological biomarkers of synovitis reflecting the increased metabolic demand and the relatively inadequate oxygen delivery of the inflammatory synovial tissue. In this study on arthritis patients and normal volunteers, the targeted metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were imaged using our real-time US-PA dual-modality imaging system. The blood volume and the blood oxygenation in the segmented synovium were quantified, and the results from the arthritis patients were compared to those from the normal volunteers. This initial study on human subjects demonstrated that PA imaging, by working at the optical wavelengths that are sensitive to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, is capable of identifying and characterizing inflammation in joints based on the detection of hemodynamic changes.

  2. An evaluation of charity care for tax-exempt hospitals engaging in joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela C

    2006-01-01

    The study examines whether the level of charity care and financial stability contribute to a nonprofit hospital's motivation for partnering with a for-profit hospital through a joint venture. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has heightened its scrutiny of joint ventures within the health care sector. Considering recent calls to investigate the merit of the tax-exempt status of hospitals engaged in joint ventures, this research will assist policy makers in the evaluation of nonprofit hospitals. Constituents will continue to question whether joint ventures contribute to a reduced focus on charitable activities. Results indicate that the propensity to engage in a joint venture significantly increases with increased levels of charity care. Furthermore, nonprofit hospitals with lower profitability are more likely to engage in joint ventures. These results are useful to policy makers when evaluating the level of charity care provided by hospitals seeking alternative strategic alliances. Considering many critics allege hospitals are reducing the provision of charity care to the community, it is imperative for management to be conscious of the impact of joint ventures on the provision of charity care.

  3. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  4. Computation on Bus Delay at Stops in Beijing through Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delays at bus stops have seriously affected the efficiency of bus operation and the improvement of level of services of public transportation and greatly influenced the preferences of passengers to choose bus services. In this paper, the analysis on arriving, dwell and leaving process of buses and the method to calculate bus delays at stops are proposed according to survey data from three bus routes in Beijing. Statistical analysis is then adopted respectively to evaluate average times that buses are docking at curbside and bay-style stops. Moreover, it is noted that different load factors of passengers in buses have significantly influenced the average boarding and alighting time per person. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods is illustrated through case studies. This study is crucial and helpful for the planners and operators to evaluate the efficiency and level of service of urban public transportation.

  5. A hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit stop spacing is an important indicator in deploying public transit services. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing distribution of bus stops in the context of multi-modal transit development in large cities. Firstly, connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Secondly, key stops are identified based on a coverage model that minimizing total distance, using node centrality value as weight. Thirdly, ordinary bus stops are optimized with coverage model that maximizing potential transit demand. The analytical process is based on a combination of raster and vector data models in Geographical information system, which allows for flexible computing and effective evaluation.

  6. Non-destructive three-dimensional evaluation of pores at different welded joints and their effects on joints strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Rie; Takayama, Yasuko; Tsuchida, Fujio; Nakajima, Hiroyuki

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the porosity in different laser welded cast alloys non-destructively using X-ray micro-focus computerized tomography (micro-CT) and to evaluate the effect of porosity on the tensile strength of the welded joints. The welding procedure was conducted in rectangular cast metals, CoCr, Ti and platinum added gold alloy (AuPt). The metal plates were butted CoCr to CoCr (CoCr/CoCr) or Ti to Ti (Ti/Ti) for welding of similar metals and Ti to AuPt (Ti/AuPt) for welding of dissimilar metals. Specimens were welded under several laser-welding conditions; with groove (normal), without groove (no groove), spatter, crack, or no overlapped welding (no overlap) (n=5). Porosity in the welded area was evaluated using a micro-CT. Tensile strength of the welded specimens was measured at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Multiple comparisons of the group means were performed using ANOVA and Fisher's multiple comparisons test (α=.05). The relationship between the porosity and the tensile strength was investigated with a regression analysis. Three-dimensional images of Ti/AuPt could not be obtained due to metal artifacts and the tensile specimens of Ti/AuPt were debonded prior to the tensile test. All other welded specimens had porosity in the welded area and the porosities ranged from 0.01% to 0.17%. The fractures of most of the CoCr/CoCr and Ti/Ti specimens occurred in the parent metals. Joint strength had no relationship with the porosity in the welded area (R(2)=0.148 for CoCr/CoCr, R(2)=0.088 for Ti/Ti, respectively). The small amount of porosity caused by the laser-welding procedures did not affect the joint strength. The joint strength of Ti/AuPt was too weak to be used clinically. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  8. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  9. Numerical and microstructural evaluation of 9%Cr welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Bauer, M.; Kauffmann, F.; Klenk, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2008-07-01

    Microstructural changes after creep at 600 C were investigated on E911 welded joints, focusing on the influence of multiaxiality of stress on microstructure of the fine-grained heat-affected zone (FGHAZ). In FGHAZ, more creep voids were observed in the interior portion of the specimen, compared with the outer surface. This is due to the higher multiaxiality of stress in the interior portion. There was no significant growth of VX particles during creep because of their higher thermal stability in base metal and FGHAZ. For M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, the growth during creep in FGHAZ was faster than in the base metal. There was no large difference in the growth rate of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} between the interior portion and near the outer surface. The number of Z-phase particles after creep in the base metal was higher than that in the FGHAZ. For FGHAZ, the number of Z-phase particles was higher in the interior portion of the specimen in contrast with near the outer surface. Increase in subgrain size and decrease in dislocation density were observed after creep in the base metal and the FGHAZ. For FGHAZ, the subgrain size and dislocation density after creep in the interior portion were almost the same as near the outer surface. (orig.)

  10. [Evaluation of treatment outcomes in tuberculosis of knee and hip joints in 2005-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocholáč, D; Kala, B; Gallo, J; Netval, M; Chaloupka, R

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in a joint region presents high risk of damage to the joint. Consequences of a late diagnosis and inadequate therapy may be serious particularly in the large joints of lower extremities. Tuberculosis of knee and hip joints accounts for about 25% to 35% of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OAT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the objective and subjective results of tuberculosis treatment in knee and hip joints. Of 258 OAT patients treated at the Specialised Treatment Centre Jevíčko between January 2005 and September 2012, tuberculosis of the hip joint was diagnosed in 31 patients in whom three hips were treated by incision and drainage and 10 by total hip replacement; 18 patients had tuberculosis of the knee joint with the following treatment: puncture in seven knees, incision and drainage in eight, excochleation of a tuberculous focus in the proximal tibia in two, removal of a bursa in one, arthrodesis in four and total knee replacement in four patients. The patients continued to be followed up at the Jevíčko Centre. The scale of 1 to 5 (best to worst) was established for evaluation of objective and subjective results of the treatment. The data were analysed using the basic statistical characteristics and compared. The objective evaluation was better for the hip joint; the sums of relative frequencies of marks 1 to 3 were 72.22% in the knee and 80.65% in the hip. In the knee more than 50% of the cases fell in the interval , in the hip this was . The hip joint was better subjectively evaluated, it had a higher sum of relative frequencies of marks 1 to 3, i.e., 96.77% as compared with 88.89% for the knee. In the knee more than 50% of the cases had marks in the interval ; in the hip this was . The hip joint was better evaluated both objectively and subjectively. An early diagnosis allows for the treatment of synovitis, which has a better prognosis than an arthritic disease. The subjective perception of treatment results showed a better

  11. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  12. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  13. Evaluation of mechanical strength of the joints in JT-60 toroidal field coil conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, S.; Ohkubo, M.; Sasajima, H.

    1980-04-01

    Toroidal field (TF) coils of JT-60 produce a toroidal field of 45 KG at a plasma axis, they have an inner bore of 3.90 m and a weight of about 80 metric tons per coil. Eighteen TF coils are located around a torus axis at regular intervals. TF coil conductors are mostly jointed by high frequency induction brazing, the rest jointed by welding. In deciding the details of the jointing procedures, the conductor size and the requested mechanical strength are mainly taken into consideration. Described are non-destructive inspection methods for the brazed joints, strength evaluation, and the inspection criteria. Ultrasonic testing method is found to be the most effective in evaluation of mechanical properties of the brazed joints especially in terms of fatigue strength. The ultrasonic inspection method and the detectability of this apparatus are described in detail, and the defects of known size are compared with the indication values and display figures. The apparatus developed for JT-60 is operated automatically also recording the inspection results. Mechanical strength of the brazed joints with initial defects is discussed.

  14. Radiosynoviorthesis of acromioclavicular joint using 169Er-citrate: prospective evaluation of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereb, Marika; Liepe, Knut; Fischer, Manfred; Kaliska, Lucia; Noskovicova, Lucia; Balogova, Sona

    2018-01-10

    There is a clinical need for therapeutic alternative in patients with persisting painful arthritis of AC-joint and failure of previous treatments. However, no radiopharmaceutical is currently explicitly approved for radiosynoviorthesis of acromioclavicular joint. The aim of our study was to prospectively assess the efficacy and safety of radiosynoviorthesis of acromioclavicular joint using erbium-169 citrate. Radiosynoviorthesis of acromioclavicular joint was performed in 51 consecutive patients (18 males, 33 females) mean age 64.3 (range 43.8-82.6, median 63.6) years with clinically confirmed arthritis of 85 acromioclavicular joints. The efficacy of RSO was reported by patients according to 10-step visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (0=no pain, 10=most severe pain) at 6 months after radiosynoviorthesis and by ranking the global therapeutic effect of RSO in 4 categories (1=the best effect, 4=no change). To assess the variation of blood perfusion in treated joints, the efficacy of RSO was also evaluated by variation of target (acromioclavicular joint)/non-target (soft tissue) uptake ratio (T/NTR) of metylendiphosphonate (99mTc) measured as number of counts over region of interest on blood pool phase of two-phase bone scintigraphy performed before and 6 months after RSO. Radiosynoviorthesis was followed by significant decrease in VAS, mean -3.1 (-47%). Excellent, good, moderate and bad response was observed in 57(67%), 25 (29%), 1 (1%) and in 2 (2%) of acromioclavicular joints respectively. A significant correlation between decrease of T/NTR and variation of VAS in % (=0.532, parthritis of acromioclavicular joint in whom previous line(s) of treatment did not lead to satisfactory pain relief.

  15. Results of total joint arthroplasty and joint preserving surgery in younger patients evaluated by alternative outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klit, Jakob

    2014-04-01

    Knee and hip OA is the clinical and pathological outcome of a functional and structural failure of the joint, resulting in pain and physical dysfunction. Despite the similarity in clinical presentation the pathogenesis seems to differ. Where knee OA is associated with obesity and trauma, hip OA is associated with FAI covering three fundamentally different hip deformities, including acetabular dysplasia; all hypothesized to initiates OA development. Where PAO is used worldwide as a joint-preserving procedure in acetabular dysplasia, TKA and THA are the treatment of choice of end stage OA. Traditional main outcomes are clinically objective surgeon-reported endpoints. Patient perceived outcomes are known to differ from these and PROMs are now recommended as the core set of outcomes. When evaluating the outcome in younger patients, this high demanding group can show ceiling-effects of the scores. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the consequences of PAO, TKA, and THA in younger patients evaluated by alternative outcomes in relation to satisfaction, fulfillment of expectations, symptoms of depression, the socioeconomic effects, and abilities in sex-life; to improve patient information prior to PAO, TKA and THA surgery. This PhD thesis is based on three studies. Study I is a cross-sectional survey of preserved hip joints with a mean follow-up of ten years after PAO. One hundred patients (121 PAO's) were eligible for inclusion. An inquiry to the National Patient registry identified 36 of PAO's (in 35 patients) being converted to THA. The 61 remaining patients (80 preserved hip joints) were asked to participate in this questionnaire based follow-up. Fifty-five patients (70 preserved hip-joints) accepted and constituted the study population. All patients received a questionnaire concerning aspects of functional ability, patient satisfaction, expectations, and quality of life following PAO. Both Study II and Study III are prospective multicenter cohort

  16. Evaluation of serum cytokines in cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E; Messenger, Kristen M; Thomson, Andrea E; Griffith, Emily H; Aldrich, Lauren A; Vaden, Shelly; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease is common in cats, with signs of pain frequently found on orthopedic examination and radiographs often showing evidence of disease. However, understanding of the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease and associated pain remains limited. Several cytokines have been identified as having a role in pain in humans, but this has not been investigated in cats. The present study was performed to use a multiplex platform to evaluate the concentration of 19 cytokines and chemokines in serum samples obtained from cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain. Samples from a total of 186 cats were analyzed, with cats representing a range of severity on radiographic and orthopedic evaluations and categorized by degenerative joint disease scores and pain scores. Results showed that cats with higher radiographic degenerative joint disease scores have higher serum concentrations of IL-4 and IL-8, while cats with higher orthopedic exam pain scores have higher concentrations of IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α; increased concentration of IL-8 in degenerative joint disease and pain may be confounded by the association with age. Discriminant analysis was unable to identify one or more cytokines that distinguish between groups of cats classified based on degenerative joint disease score category or pain score category. Finally, cluster analysis driven by analyte concentrations shows separation of groups of cats, but features defining the groups remain unknown. Further studies are warranted to investigate any changes in cytokine concentrations in response to analgesic therapies, and further evaluate the elevations in cytokine concentrations found here, particularly focused on studies of local cytokines present in synovial fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Results of total joint arthroplasty and joint preserving surgery in younger patients evaluated by alternative outcome measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knee and hip OA is the clinical and pathological outcome of a functional and structural failure of the joint, resulting in pain and physical dysfunction. Despite the similarity in clinical presentation the pathogenesis seems to differ. Where knee OA is associated with obesity and trauma......-effects of the scores. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the consequences of PAO, TKA, and THA in younger patients evaluated by alternative outcomes in relation to satisfaction, fulfillment of expectations, symptoms of depression, the socioeconomic effects, and abilities in sex-life; to improve patient...... received a questionnaire concerning aspects of functional ability, patient satisfaction, expectations, and quality of life following PAO. Both Study II and Study III are prospective multicenter cohort studies. Consecutive patients less than 60 years of age scheduled for (study II) unilateral or bilateral...

  18. 76 FR 78732 - FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans Transportation and Community Living Initiative AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...

  19. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  20. CAN and FPGA communication engineering implementation of a CAN bus based measurement system on an FPGA development kit

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The Controller Area Network (CAN), invented by Bosch in 1983, is a serial field bus protocol which was originally used in road vehicles and now is widely applied in other industrial fields. Since its birth automotive electronic engineers have been use Microcontrollers (MCU) to control the CAN bus. Today, as the Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has become very advance, this book introduces a new method which uses an FPGA and a MCU jointly instead of a single MCU is to design a CAN bus measurement system. Furthermore the designed system should be able to work at the fastest

  1. Evaluation of temporomandibular joint disc displacement as a risk factor for osteoarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, I M; Cordeiro, P C de F; Devito, K L; Tavares, M L F; Leite, I C G; Tesch, R de S

    2016-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement is a clinical sign often found in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and associated with TMJ osteoarthrosis. Osteoarthrosis is a degenerative joint disease that may be associated with pain and functional disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the odds ratio (OR) of joints with disc displacement presenting osteoarthrosis via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. In total, 224 TMJ images from patients with signs and symptoms of a TMD were evaluated. The OR, a measure of association, was used to calculate the likelihood of TMJ disc displacement (with or without reduction) with osteoarthrosis. Joints with anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) were 2.73- and 8.25-times, respectively, more likely to have osteoarthrosis. A nine-times greater likelihood of osteophyte occurrence was observed in cases of ADDwoR, whereas a lower OR for their occurrence (OR 2.96) was observed in cases of ADDwR. The significant OR of joints with disc displacement presenting osteoarthrosis, particularly in cases of ADDwoR, emphasizes the importance of accurate assessment of changes in disc position, which may be associated with other painful and functional disorders of the TMJ. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic radiologic evaluation of horizontal instability in acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Mark; Koller, Heiko; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Resch, Herbert

    2010-06-01

    Biplane radiologic evaluation is indispensable for the correct diagnosis of acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries. Thus far, no functional radiographic techniques have been quantified to evaluate horizontal instability in acute AC joint dislocations. Supine dynamic axillary lateral shoulder views detect horizontal instability of the distal clavicle in patients with acute AC joint dislocations. Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-five consecutive patients with a mean age of 39 +/- 14 years with acute AC joint injury underwent biplane radiologic evaluation, including a conventional Zanca view and an axillary lateral view in a sitting position. In addition, supine axillary lateral views with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction and 60 degrees of flexion and extension were taken to evaluate the horizontal dynamics of the distal clavicle. The gleno-acromio-clavicular angle (GACA) was introduced and used to quantify the horizontal clavicular dynamics in terms of angle differences. The unaffected shoulders served as the control group. Superior dislocation of the lateral clavicle in the Zanca view was classified as Rockwood type II in 7 patients, type III in 15, and type V in 3. The axillary lateral view in a sitting position showed posterior dislocation of the distal clavicle in 8 patients (Rockwood type IV injury). Dynamic radiologic evaluation revealed an average GACA difference between the neutral and anterior position of the arm of 7.1 degrees +/- 5.5 degrees for the unaffected shoulder. In the injured AC joints, 11 patients showed no radiologic evidence of horizontal instability (group A) with a GACA difference of 7.1 degrees +/- 4.8 degrees . Increased anteroposterior translation was evident in 14 patients (group B) with a GACA difference of 30.3 degrees +/- 14.3 degrees (P < .001). Functional axillary radiologic evaluation seems to represent a simple imaging tool to reveal dynamic horizontal instability. Horizontal instability of the distal

  3. Does evaluation of the ligamentous compartment enhance diagnostic utility of sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P; Chan, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    in the ligamentous compartment and their potential diagnostic utility in axial SpA. We therefore aimed to evaluate the ligamentous compartment on sacroiliac joint MRI for lesion distribution and potential incremental value towards diagnosis of SpA over and above the traditional assessment of the cartilaginous...

  4. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    is that ‘organisation matters’ and that the reforms may have changed significantly the institutional conditions for the implementation of sustainable transport policies and easures. We have focused the research on public transport in larger cities and how their organisation has changed due to the reforms. At the NECTAR......, and will be elaborated by the time of the NECTAR workshop in May: • Deregulation and privatisation have not changed negative trends in modal split in Greater Manchester, but likely made it worse at least compared to London. • Deregulation and privatisation have worsened conditions for a greening of the bus fleets...

  5. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  6. Facet joint injuries in acute cervical spine trauma : evaluation with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeon Ju; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Keon; Kwon, Hyeok Po; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Yun, Seong Mun [Dongkang General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate injury patterns of facet joints and associated soft tissue injuries in patients with acute traumatic cervical facet joint injuries. From among patients with cervical spine trauma, 27 with facet joint injuries, as seen on CT and MRI, were chosen for this study. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the location of facet joint injury, the presence or absence of facet dislocation or fracture, and other associated fractures. MR images were analyzed with regard to ligament injury, intervertebral disc injury, intervertebral disc herniation, and spinal cord injury. The most common location of facet joint injury was C6-7 level(n=10), followed by C5-6(n=8). Among these 27 patients with facet joint injuries, 12(44%) had bilateral injuries and 15(56%) unilateral injuries. Facet fractures were present in 17 cases(63%) and the fracture of inferior facet was more frequent than superior. Patterns of fracture were vertical, transverse, or comminuted, but vertical fracture was the most common. Various degrees of dislocation were observed in patients with facet fractures. Fractures other than facet included pillar(n=11), lamina(n=6), transverse process(n=14), body(n=13), and spinous process(n=3). On MR images, anterior longitudinal ligament injury was found in 8 patients(30%), posterior longitudinal ligament injury in 4(15%), and interspinous ligament injury in 20(74%). Twelve patients(44%) had spinal cord injuries including edema(n=8) and hemorrhage(n=4). Among patients with disc abnormalities, 11(41%) had intervertebral disc injuries, and traumatic disc herniations were found in nine. Traumatic cervical facet joint injuries were manifested as various patterns and frequently associated with other fractures or soft tissue injuries. Analysis of CT and MR findings of these injury patterns helped formulate a therapeutic plan and determine of prognosis.

  7. Evaluation of risk factors for degenerative joint disease associated with hip dysplasia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G K; Popovitch, C A; Gregor, T P; Shofer, F S

    1995-03-01

    Passive coxofemoral joint laxity of dogs, as quantitated by a distraction-stress radiographic method, may have important prognostic value in determining susceptibility to hip dysplasia. Data from 151 dogs, representing 13 breeds, were included in a logistic regression model to evaluate the contribution of factors such as age, breed, weight, sex, distraction index, and Norberg angle to the risk of developing degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the coxofemoral joint. Of the factors studied, the amount of passive hip laxity, as quantitated by the distraction index, was the most significant (P joint. In the longitudinal and cross-sectional components of the study, distraction index was a significant (P hip laxity:DJD correlation increased with the age of dog. In contrast, the Norberg angle, a measure of hip laxity on the standard hip-extended radiograph, was not found to be a significant risk factor for DJD, either in the longitudinal or cross-sectional analyses. Breed-specific probability curves of DJD susceptibility indicated that German Shepherd Dogs had a significantly (P Dogs. The information derived from this statistical model will help to scientifically characterize the role of passive hip laxity as a component in the pathogenesis of DJD of the coxofemoral joint.

  8. Evaluation of occlusal factors in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Dória Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the relation between the main occlusal factors and the temporomandibular disorder (TMD. METHODS: We analyzed 100 patients (50 diagnosed with TMD and 50 asymptomatic volunteers, control group through a questionnaire that classified TMD as absent, mild, moderate and severe. Then, an evaluation was made of intraoral occlusal factors: Absence of posterior teeth, wear facets, overjet, overbite, open bite, posterior crossbite, sagittal relationship (Class I, II and III, centric relation discrepancy for maximum intercuspation, anterior guidance and balancing occlusal interference. The c² examined the association between TMD and considered occlusal variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of studied occlusal factors was higher in patients with moderate and severe TMD. Statistically significant results were found on: Absence of five or more posterior teeth, overbite and overjet greater than 5 mm, edge-to-edge bite, posterior crossbite, Class II and III, the absence of effective anterior guide and balancing side interferences. CONCLUSIONS: Indeed, it is concluded that there is a relationship between TMD and occlusal factors, however it can not be told to what extent these factors are predisposing, precipitating or perpetuating the disease. Therefore, despite its multifactorial etiology, one can not neglect the occlusal analysis of these patients.OBJETIVO: o presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência e relação dos principais fatores oclusais com a disfunção temporomandibular. MÉTODOS: foram analisados 100 pacientes (50 com diagnóstico de DTM e 50 voluntários assintomáticos, grupo controle através de um questionário para classificação do grau de DTM, em ausente, leve, moderada e severa. Em seguida, foi realizada uma avaliação intrabucal dos fatores oclusais ausência de dentes posteriores, facetas de desgaste, overjet, overbite, mordida aberta anterior, mordida

  9. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  10. In vivo pilot study evaluating the thumb carpometacarpal joint during circumduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira; Leng, Shuai; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Cooney, William P; Kakar, Sanjeev; Zhao, Kristin

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of arthrokinematics may have clinical use in the diagnosis of dynamic instability of the thumb and wrist. Recent technological advances allow noninvasive, high-resolution imaging of skeletal (thumb and carpal bones) structures during motion. The primary purpose of this study is to define the arthrokinematics, estimated joint contact patterns, and distribution ratios of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb using four-dimensional CT (three-dimensional CT + time) and registration algorithms. The second purpose is to validate the accuracy of the approach. Four-dimensional CT scans were obtained using a nongated sequential scanning technique. Eighteen image volumes were reconstructed over a 2-second cycle during thumb circumduction in one healthy volunteer. Using a registration algorithm, serial thumb motions as well as estimated joint contact areas were quantified. To evaluate the accuracy of our approach, one cadaveric hand was used. During circumduction, the ranges of motion of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were: flexion-extension, 27.3°; adduction-abduction, 66.9°; and pronation-supination, 10°. The magnitude of the translation of the center of the estimated joint contact area of the metacarpal was 4.1, 4.0, 1.0, and 1.5 mm when moving from the initial key pinch position to adduction, adduction to palmar abduction, palmar abduction to opposition, and opposition to the initial key pinch position, respectively. The maximum estimated contact area on the trapezium and on the metacarpal was in palmar abduction; the minimum was in adduction. Dominant central-volar contact patterns were observed on both the trapezium and the metacarpal bone except in adduction. This analysis approach had an average rotational error of less than 1°. During circumduction, the estimated joint contact area was concentrated on the central-volar regions of both the trapezium and the metacarpal bones except when the thumb was adducted. This tool provides quantification of

  11. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  12. Bus stops and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Johnston, Brian D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Ebel, Beth E

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. This was a matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossings in Lima, Peru. We performed a random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February 2011 to September 2011. A total of 97 intersection cases representing 1134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October 2010 and January 2011, and their matched controls, were included. The main exposures assessed were presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. The main outcome measure was occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53 to 7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Formal and informal bus stops were associated with higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76 to 22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37 to 6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high-income countries. In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a threefold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices, such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Genetic conditions of joint Nordic genetic evaluations of lifetime competition performance in warmblood sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Å; Furre, S; Eriksson, S; Vangen, O; Philipsson, J

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for warmblood sport horses are similar in the Nordic countries Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway, and stallions of same origin are used. The aim was to investigate whether a joint Nordic genetic evaluation based on lifetime competition performance is feasible and beneficial for breeding competitive sport horses in the Nordic countries. Results for almost 45,000 horses in show jumping and 30,000 horses in dressage were available. The larger populations in Sweden and Denmark contributed with 85% of the results. Heritabilities and genetic correlations between performances in the different countries were estimated, and comparisons of accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBVs) and number of stallions with EBVs based on national or joint data were studied. The heritabilities ranged between 0.25 and 0.42 for show jumping and between 0.14 and 0.55 for dressage. The genetic correlations between competition performances in the Nordic countries were estimated to 0.63-1.00. EBVs based on joint data increased accuracies for EBVs for stallions by 38-81% and increased the number of available stallions with EBVs by 40-288%, compared to EBVs based on national data only. A joint Nordic genetic evaluation for sport horses is recommended. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Evaluation of joint toxicity of nitroaromatic compounds and copper to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Limin; Zhang, Xujia; Yuan, Xing; Zhao, Yuanhui; Zhang, Dongmei; Qin, Weichao

    2012-11-30

    The individual toxicities of Cu and 11 nitroaromatic compounds to Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined. The toxicity was expressed as the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15 min exposure (IC(50)). To evaluate the joint effect between the metal ion and the 11 nitroaromatic compounds, the joint toxicity of Cu and 11 nitroaromatic compounds were measured at different Cu concentrations (0.2IC(50), 0.5IC(50) and 0.8IC(50)), respectively. The result shows that the binary joint effect between Cu and nitroaromatic compounds is mainly simple addition at the low Cu concentration (0.2IC(50)). However, an antagonism effect, 55% and 64%, was observed between Cu and 11 nitroaromatic compounds for Cu at medium and high concentrations (0.5IC(50) and 0.8IC(50)). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was performed to study the joint toxicity for the 11 nitroaromatic compounds. The result shows that the toxicity of nitroaromatic compounds is related to descriptors of Connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV) and dipolarity/polarizability (S) at low Cu concentration. On the other hand, the toxicity is related to Connolly accessible area (CAA) at medium and high Cu concentrations. The result indicates that different QSAR models on complex mixtures need to be developed to assess the ecological risk in real environments. Using single toxic data to evaluate the toxic effect of mixtures may result in wrong conclusions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrospective Evaluation Of MRI Findings Of Knee Joint In 255 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective evaluation of knee MRI obtained from 255 cases and to demonstrate most common knee joint pathologies in our region.In our study knee joints of 255 cases who admitted to different clinics of our hospital with various complains of knee between October 1996 and December 1998 were examined in wide spectrum with MRI. Via 1.0 Tesla MRI device and special knee coil in sagittal, coronal and axial plains MRI images were obtained. The number of male and female patients were 173 and 82 and their ages were ranged between 14 and 70, and the mean age was 3413.The most common knee pathologies were intra-articular fluid (%58.04, medial (%46,66 and lateral (%12.55 meniscal injuries, anterior cruciate ligament injury (%17.25 and osteoarthritis (%14.9. The other important lesions were degeneration of medial and lateral meniscus, Baker’s cyst, bursitis, posterior cruciate ligament injury , medial and lateral collateral ligament injuries, synovial hypertrophy, chondromalasia of patella, and contusion.In our images of knee the most common lesions were injuries of meniscus and ligament. Because of being noninvasive technique for knee joint pathologies, capacity of multiplanar imaging, high contrast resolution and chance of detailed anatomic evaluation MR imaging was found to be most appropriate imaging technique for knee joint pathologies.

  16. Clinical and magnetic resonance evaluation of the temporomandibular joint with rotational disc displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Masatoshi; Sakurada, Motoyuki; Echigo, Seishi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Dentistry; Kumagai, Masahiro; Kochi, Shoko

    1998-03-01

    The most common direction of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement is anterior. Anterior disc displacement is associated with lateral or medial disc displacement, termed rotational disc displacement (RDD). There have been few systematic studies of the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of TMJs with RDD. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of RDD and to evaluate the relations between the direction of disc displacement (anteromedial RDD, anterolateral RDD, and pure anterior disc displacement) and clinical findings, including joint pain, joint sound, and range of motion, as well as MRI findings, including disc shape, disc reduction, disc mobility, degree of disc displacement, bone changes of the condyle, and degree of condylar translation. The study was based on MRI of 529 TMJs in 409 patients with symptoms and signs of TMJ. Sagittal and coronal T1-weighted SE images (1.5 Tesla) were used. MRI showed anteromedial RDD in 96 joints (18.1%), anterolateral RDD in 64 joints (12.1%), and anterior disc displacement in 207 joints (39.1%). There were no statistical differences between anterolateral RDD, anteromedial RDD, and anterior disc displacement with regard to clinical findings. The incidence of reducible disc was higher in anterolateral RDD than in anteromedial RDD or anterior disc displacement. The incidence of bone changes was lower in anterolateral RDD than in anterior disc displacement. There were no significant differences between anteromedial RDD and anterior disc displacement with regard to MRI findings. In conclusion, anteromedial RDD may represent the same clinical entity as anterior disc displacement, but it remains unclear whether or not anterolateral RDD differs from anteromedial RDD or anterior disc displacement. (author)

  17. Subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling in the evaluation of shoulder muscle and joint function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Lee, Peter V S; Bryant, Adam L; Galea, Mary; Ackland, David C

    2016-11-07

    Upper limb muscle force estimation using Hill-type muscle models depends on musculotendon parameter values, which cannot be readily measured non-invasively. Generic and scaled-generic parameters may be quickly and easily employed, but these approaches do not account for an individual subject's joint torque capacity. The objective of the present study was to develop a subject-specific experimental testing and modeling framework to evaluate shoulder muscle and joint function during activities of daily living, and to assess the capacity of generic and scaled-generic musculotendon parameters to predict muscle and joint function. Three-dimensional musculoskeletal models of the shoulders of 6 healthy subjects were developed to calculate muscle and glenohumeral joint loading during abduction, flexion, horizontal flexion, nose touching and reaching using subject-specific, scaled-generic and generic musculotendon parameters. Muscle and glenohumeral joint forces calculated using generic and scaled-generic models were significantly different to those of subject-specific models (pMuscles in generic musculoskeletal models operated further from the plateau of their force-length curves than those of scaled-generic and subject-specific models, while muscles in subject-specific models operated over a wider region of their force length curves than those of the generic or scaled-generic models, reflecting diversity of subject shoulder strength. The findings of this study suggest that generic and scaled-generic musculotendon parameters may not provide sufficient accuracy in prediction of shoulder muscle and joint loading when compared to models that employ subject-specific parameter-estimation approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design, construction, and evaluation of "sensor lock": an electromechanical stance control knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Baniasad, Mina; Samadian, Mohammad; Golchin, Navid

    2017-03-28

    Most currently-available stance control knee ankle foot orthoses (SCKAFOs) still need full knee extension to lock the knee joint, and they are still noisy, bulky, and heavy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design, construct, and evaluate an original electromechanical SCKAFO knee joint that could feasibly solve these problems, and thus address the problems of current stance control knee joints with regards to their structure, function, cosmesis, and cost. Ten able-bodied (AB) participants and two (knee ankle foot orthosis) KAFO users were recruited to participate in the study. A custom SCKAFO with the same set of components was constructed for each participant. Lower limb kinematics were captured using a 6-camera, video-based motion analysis system. For AB participants, significant differences were found between normal walking and walking with the SCKAFO for temporal-spatial parameters and between orthoses with two modes of knee joints in the healthy subjects. Walking with stance control mode produced greater walking speed and step length, greater knee flexion during swing, and less pelvic obliquity than walking with a locked knee, for both AB and KAFO users. The feasibility of this new knee joint with AB people was demonstrated. Implications for rehabilitation Stance control knee ankle foot orthoses (SCKAFOs) are designed to stop knee flexion in stance phase and provide free knee movement during swing phase of walking. Due to their high cost, size, excessive weight, and poor performance, few SCKAFO were optimal clinically and commercially. The feasibility of the new knee joint with able-bodied people and poliomyelitis subjects was demonstrated.

  19. Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit in Copenhagen: A Mesoscopic Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Kornerup Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    upgrades (busways and enhanced stations) ensure a reduction to traveltime whereas no improvements to reliability occur. Upgrades to technology and serviceplanning (pre-paid fare collection, boarding and alighting from all doors, special BRT vehicles, ITS, and active bus control) ensure an increase...... for large scale corridors due to the vast amount of data and resources required.Hence, it is relevant to investigate how to model and evaluate BRT efficiently.In this paper the effects of implementing BRT in Copenhagen is discussed including how to evaluate and model bus operations.For this purpose......-simulation models.The developed model is capable of modelling bus operations in terms of travel time and reliability including important mode-specific issues such as bus bunching.The model is applied to a BRT project proposal with different combinations of BRTelements. The model results show that infrastructure...

  20. Dynamic evaluation method of lower limbs joint alignment (MADAAMI for dancers during the plié

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaanda Nabilla Souza Gontijo

    Full Text Available Abstract In classical ballet, the joint misalignments during the plié can generate various injuries. To evaluate potential misalignments during the plié the aim of this study was to present a method for dynamic evaluation of lower limb alignment articulation (called MADAAMI. MADAAMI was validated by 12 experts, and for the evaluation of its reproducibility and for agreement with 3D kinematics, 20 dancers were assessed using a video recording of their plié. For statistical analysis we used the Kappa coefficient (k (p 0.40 and C > 80%, and it is a suitable and valid method for use by the same examiner.

  1. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  2. Radiographic evaluation of cervical spine of subjects with temporomandibular joint internal disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Cesar Munhoz; Amélia Pasqual Marques; José Tadeu Tesseroli de Siqueira

    2004-01-01

    Although the etiopathophysiology of internal temporomandibular joint internal disorders (TMJ ID) is still unknown, it has been suggested that head and body posture could be related to its initial onset, development and perpetuation. The purpose of the present study was to observe the relationship between cervical spine X-ray abnormalities and TMJ ID. This investigation evaluated 30 subjects with internal TMJ disorder symptoms (test group) and 20 healthy subjects (control group). Subjects were...

  3. Comparison of Plain MRI and MR Arthrography in the Evaluation of Lateral Ligamentous Injury of the Ankle Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chun Chou

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: For evaluating ankle disability, using plain MRI alone is not adequate for correctly detecting lateral collateral ligamentous injury of the ankle joint. MR arthrography improves the sensitivity and the accuracy for ATaF and CF ligament injuries. It also helps in assessing coexisting pathologic lesions of ankle joints, especially impingement syndromes and osteochondral lesions, and provides more information for therapeutic decision making.

  4. Bus and Tag Terminators for IBM system/360

    CERN Multimedia

    Control units were connected to the channels with "Bus and Tag" cable pairs. The bus cables carried the address and data information and the tag cables identified what data was on the bus. There were three general types of bus-and-tag cables produced by IBM.

  5. MR imaging of the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers: evaluation of 38 patients with chronic joint disability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theumann, Nicolas H. [AP-HP - Universite Paris V, Service de Radiologie B, CHU Cochin, Paris (France); Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); CHUV, Service de Radiologie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pessis, Eric; Chevrot, Alain [AP-HP - Universite Paris V, Service de Radiologie B, CHU Cochin, Paris (France); Lecompte, Martin [Universite de Sherbrooke, Department of Radiology, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada); Viet, Dominique Le; Valenti, Philippe [Clinique Jouvenet, Institut de la Main, Paris (France); Bittoun, Jacques [AP-HP - Universite Paris XI, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, CIERM, Hopital de Bicetre (France); Schnyder, Pierre [CHUV, Service de Radiologie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Resnick, Donald [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); Drape, Jean-Luc [AP-HP - Universite Paris V, Service de Radiologie B, CHU Cochin, Paris (France); AP-HP - Universite Paris XI, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, CIERM, Hopital de Bicetre (France)

    2005-04-01

    To report the MR imaging findings of painful injured metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the fingers. MR imaging of 39 injured MCP joints in 38 patients was performed after a mean delay of 8.8 months. The MR images were obtained with the fingers in extended and flexed positions using T2-weighted and T1-weighted sequences before and after intravenous injection of a gadolinium compound. Ten patients were treated surgically. Mean clinical follow-up was 1.8 years. Tears of the collateral ligaments were the most common lesion (30/39), most being radial in location. Contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighted images with the MCP joint in a flexed position showed these lesions optimally. Ten tears were partial and 20 were complete. In 13 patients, MR images showed 17 associated lesions including injuries of the extensor hood (10/17), interosseous tendon (3/17), palmar plate (3/17), and an osteochondral lesion (1/17). Sagittal MR images were essential to highlight palmar plate tears. Partial or complete tears of the collateral ligaments are prevalent MR imaging findings in patients with chronic disability resulting from injuries to the MCP joints. Although conservative treatment generally is sufficient for isolated injuries of the collateral ligaments, surgical repair is often required in cases of more extensive injuries. MR imaging may clearly delineate associated lesions of and about the MCP joints. (orig.)

  6. Developing a multi-joint upper limb exoskeleton robot for diagnosis, therapy, and outcome evaluation in neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yupeng; Kang, Sang Hoon; Park, Hyung-Soon; Wu, Yi-Ning; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2013-05-01

    Arm impairments in patients post stroke involve the shoulder, elbow and wrist simultaneously. It is not very clear how patients develop spasticity and reduced range of motion (ROM) at the multiple joints and the abnormal couplings among the multiple joints and the multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOF) during passive movement. It is also not clear how they lose independent control of individual joints/DOFs and coordination among the joints/DOFs during voluntary movement. An upper limb exoskeleton robot, the IntelliArm, which can control the shoulder, elbow, and wrist, was developed, aiming to support clinicians and patients with the following integrated capabilities: 1) quantitative, objective, and comprehensive multi-joint neuromechanical pre-evaluation capabilities aiding multi-joint/DOF diagnosis for individual patients; 2) strenuous and safe passive stretching of hypertonic/deformed arm for loosening up muscles/joints based on the robot-aided diagnosis; 3) (assistive/resistive) active reaching training after passive stretching for regaining/improving motor control ability; and 4) quantitative, objective, and comprehensive neuromechanical outcome evaluation at the level of individual joints/DOFs, multiple joints, and whole arm. Feasibility of the integrated capabilities was demonstrated through experiments with stroke survivors and healthy subjects.

  7. Joint evaluation of fracture azimuth by electromagnetic wave and elastic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuan; Liu, Cai; Wang, Qiao; Wang, Kai; Lu, Qi; Xue, Jian; Liang, Wenjing; Yu, Yue; Ren, Qianci

    2013-12-01

    With the multi-wave, multi-component seismic wave exploration, one can apply the anisotropy of fracture media to analyze the attributes of the fracture media, including the fracture azimuth. In the meantime, the techniques of full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave, including full-polarimetric borehole radar, can also be used to analyze the attributes of the fracture. However, the analysis precision of both the multi-component elastic wave exploration and full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave exploration is prone to the influence of noise and other factors. So far, some researchers have conducted studies on the joint inversion of electromagnetic waves and seismic waves. This paper develops evaluation techniques of fracture azimuth by electromagnetic wave, elastic wave, and joint analysis of coincident elastic reflection and electromagnetic data. Firstly, based on the shear wave splitting of elastic waves, this paper develops a statistical analysis technique which applies Pearson correlation coefficient to count and analyze the azimuth angle of fracture. Secondly, based on the information of electromagnetic polarization rotated by fracture, this paper develops a statistical analysis method of full-polarimetric electromagnetic waves which applies the maximum amplitude ratio between the co-polarization and cross-polarization to analyze the azimuth angle of fracture. Furthermore, based on the analysis result of the elastic wave and full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave, this paper develops a joint analysis technique which adopts the standard deviation. At last, authors in this study conduct joint detection experiments on the coincident fracture medium by using the ultrasonic and full-polarimetric ground penetrating radar. The experimental result indicates that both single geophysical methods are capable of analyzing the fracture azimuth angle, but the joint analysis is more accurate.

  8. Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthanaya P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.

  9. Computed tomography evaluation of temporomandibular joint alterations in class II Division 1 subdivision patients: condylar symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Telles, Carlos De Souza

    2002-04-01

    Thirty persons ranging from 12 years 8 months to 42 years of age with Class II Division 1 subdivision malocclusions underwent computed tomography of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from axial slices were evaluated for possible asymmetries in size and position that may exist between the condylar processes associated with this malocclusion. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations were determined after measurements on both Class I and Class II sides were obtained. The results of this study showed no statistically significant asymmetries between the condylar processes evaluated in this sample.

  10. Bus operator perceptions of safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of TriMet bus operators addressing safety risks in their assigned work. Surveyed risk factors : were organized into five categories: vehicle design and condition; route layout; operating conditions; fatigue...

  11. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  12. Does evaluation of the ligamentous compartment enhance diagnostic utility of sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P; Chan, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Inflammation of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) is a fundamental clinical feature of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). The anatomy of the irregularly shaped SIJ is complex with an antero-inferior cartilaginous compartment containing central hyaline and peripheral fibrocartilage, and a dorso...... in the ligamentous compartment and their potential diagnostic utility in axial SpA. We therefore aimed to evaluate the ligamentous compartment on sacroiliac joint MRI for lesion distribution and potential incremental value towards diagnosis of SpA over and above the traditional assessment of the cartilaginous...... compartment alone. METHODS: Two independent cohorts of 69 and 88 consecutive back pain patients ≤50 years were referred for suspected SpA (cohort A) or acute anterior uveitis plus back pain (cohort B). Patients were classified according to rheumatologist expert opinion based on clinical, radiographic...

  13. Avaliação do Desempenho de Linhas RodoviáriasPerformance evaluation of bus routesEvaluación del desempeño de las Líneas Viarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA-BROCHADO, Ana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOUm grande número de abordagens divulgadas na literatura tem incidido sobre a análise de empresas de transportes e de sistemas de transportes. No entanto, é importante para os agentes de decisão a disponibilidade de medidas de desempenho desagregadas. Este trabalho pretende apresentar uma metodologia para a avaliação do desempenho entre corredores (linhas. Dado que o desempenho de uma linha deve ser comparado com o de linhas operando em ambientes semelhantes, é proposta uma classificação de 78 linhas que integram a rede de transporte público urbano da cidade do Porto. Esta classificação é realizada tendo por base variáveis físicas, de procura e de oferta, e com recurso a técnicas de análise classificatória. Concluí-se que os grupos obtidos podem ser organizados e associados a diferentes níveis de desempenho financeiro. Antecipa-se que esta avaliação de desempenho desagregado possa fornecer aos agentes de decisão informação operacional para a melhoria da rede de transportes.ABSTRACTExisting approaches in the literature have mainly measured performance of transit agencies or whole transit systems. Nevertheless, the challenge for decision-makers remains on how to focus on disaggregated performance measurement. This works intends to present a methodology designed to evaluate the performance within corridors (bus routes. As the performance of a route should be compared with operating routes in similar environments, we first propose a classification of 78 lines which integrate the public transport system in OPORTO city. Such classification is conducted based on physical features, demand characteristics, and supply indicators as well as making the use of cluster analysis techniques. We have concluded that the obtained groups could be ranked and are associated with different levels of financial performance measures. It is also anticipated that this disaggregate performance evaluation could provide decision-makers with

  14. MPBUS: Modular Power bus for Space Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricardo; Remírez Eduardo; Alonso Javier; Priel Eran; Carapelle Alain; Actis Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cost reduction in the access to space is leading the space race in the launchers market. Launcher’s companies are looking for a more efficient and economical way to place satellites in orbit. MPBUS project proposes a decentralized power bus distribution with jettisonable smart batteries combined with the use of PLC technology, data over DC, achieving overall weight reduction and harness simplification, both goals in line with Next Generation Launchers (NGL) targets. Two different bus in...

  15. ISET ORS Bus Standards and Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhoo, Gurpartap; Johnson, Mark; Raynor, William; Hurley, Michael; Stadter, Patrick; Marley, Michael; Apland, Clint; Lee, Robert; Bruzzi, Jonathan; Williams, Bruce; SCHAEFER, EDWARD, JAY; Vernon, Steven; Schwartz, Paul; Moretti, George; Doyne, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Advancing sound and accepted spacecraft bus standards is the objective of the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s (OSD) Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Bus Standards Initiative. This effort involves multiple government, industry, and academia participants assembled into an Integrated System Engineering Team (ISET). The core ISET industry team members include AeroAstro, Boeing, Design Net Engineering, General Dynamics Spectrum Astro, Loral, Microcosm, MicroSat, Orbital, Raytheon, and Swa...

  16. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-12-16

    a critical thickness (0.0005 in.). A diffusion barrier that exceeded this thickness would likely fail. The joint fabrication method must therefore mechanically bond the two materials causing little or no interdiffusion upon formation. Co-extrusion fits this description since it forms a mechanical joint between two materials by using heat and pressure. The two materials to be extruded are first assembled and sealed within a co-extrusion billet which is subsequently heated and then extruded through a die. For a production application, once the joint is formed, it is dejacketed to remove the outer canister. The remaining piece consists of two materials bonded together with a thin diffusion barrier. Therefore, the long-term stability of the joint is determined primarily by the kinetics of interdiffusion reaction between the two materials. An experimental design for co-extrusion of refractory metals and nickel-based superalloys was developed to evaluate this joining process and determine the long-term stability of the joints.

  17. A Diagram for Evaluating Delamination of GFRP/Stainless-steel Adhesive Joints by Using Stress Singularity Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Masaaki

    Static tests on double-lap and T-type adhesive joints were performed. We developed a device that applies contact pressure to glass-fiber reinforced plastics/stainless-steel double-lap adhesive joints. The device contains a bolt with which a strain gauge is bonded for controlling contact pressure. Using this device, we investigated the effect of contact pressure on the delamination strength of double-lap adhesive joints. We applied tensile shear loading to double-lap adhesive joints under contact pressure to their adhesive interfaces. We found that the delamination strength of the double-lap adhesive joints increased with increasing contact pressure. On the contrary, when we applied compressive shear stress to them, the delamination strength stayed constant. Therefore the delamination strength of double-lap adhesive joints is dominated by normal stress when contact pressure under tensile shear loading is applied. On the other hand, it was dominated by shear stress when contact pressure under compressive shear loading was applied. Then stress singularity parameters for double-lap and T-type adhesive joints were performed by the FEM. Stress distributions near the bonding edge could be expressed by the stress singularity parameters. Finally, a delamination evaluation diagram using stress singularity parameters was developed. This diagram enables us to evaluate the delamination strength of adhesive joints.

  18. Long-term creep testing and microstructure evaluation of P91 steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandova, D.; Kasl, J.; Kanta, V. [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2007-06-15

    Trial weld joints were made from wrought and cast modified 9Cr-lMo-V steel using GTAW and SMAW methods. Creep testing was carried out at temperature range from 525 deg C to 625 deg C and stresses from 50 to 240 MPa. Time to rupture of welds made from tube segments and cast plates reached almost 30 000 hours and 20 000 hours respectively. Creep strength was evaluated according the Larson-Miller parametric equation and microstructure was investigated using both light and electron microscopy. Creep rupture strength of both weld joints tested at temperatures below 600 deg C falls into the {+-}20% scatter band of the creep rupture strength of the parent material. At 600 deg C and 625 deg C the creep strength dropped by 27% and 30% for the plate weld and the tube weld respectively. All ruptures occurred in fine grain and intercritically reheated heat affected zones either in the parent material or in the weld metal. Observation of thin foils prepared from selected regions of the weld joints revealed differences in precipitation processes and the structure recovery causing decrease of dislocation density in some regions. Fine ferritic grains with low density of fine carbonitride precipitate occurred in critical localities. Soft grains were deformed and cavities at grain boundaries initiated the crack propagation. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of Corrosion Performance of Titanium/Steel Joint Brazed by Cu-Based Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrefaey, A.; Wojarski, L.; Tillmann, W.

    2012-05-01

    Furnace vacuum brazing has been employed to join commercially pure titanium and low carbon steel using copper-based filler metal with the composition of Cu-10.6Mn-1.9Ni, at.%. Three different brazing temperatures 930, 970, and 1000 °C and a holding time of 15 min were studied and evaluated. The corrosion behavior of the joint in 0.1 M sulfuric acid was investigated using immersion and electrochemical tests. Measurements of corrosion potential, corrosion current density, corrosion rate, polarization resistance, weight loss, and morphology of corrosion attack were used in this study. Experimental results showed that severe corrosion attack of the steel side at the interfacial area is clearly observed. Despite the difference in corrosion rate values obtained by electrochemical and weight loss measurements, the trend of results was identical to a large extent. Corrosion resistance of the joint showed a general tendency to increase with rising brazing temperature. The lowest corrosion rate was obtained for the couple bonded at 1000 °C. Meanwhile, at the lowest joining temperature of 930 °C, corrosion rate showed a higher value. The results of joints corrosion resistance were attributed to the difference in microstructure features and chemical analysis.

  20. Evaluation of the marsh deer stifle joint by imaging studies and gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigue, D A; Rahal, S C; Schimming, B C; Santos, R R; Vulcano, L C; Linardi, J L; Teixeira, C R

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the stifle joint of marsh deer using imaging studies and in comparison with gross anatomy. Ten hindlimbs from 5 marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) were used. Radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in each stifle joint. Two hindlimbs were dissected to describe stifle gross anatomy. The other limbs were sectioned in sagittal, dorsal or transverse planes. In the craniocaudal radiographic view, the lateral femoral condyle was broader than the medial femoral condyle. The femoral trochlea was asymmetrical. Subsequent multiplanar reconstruction revealed in the cranial view that the external surface of the patella was roughened, the medial trochlea ridge was larger than the lateral one, and the extensor fossa at the lateral condyle was next to the lateral ridge. The popliteal fossa was better visualized via the lateral view. Sagittal MRI images identified lateral and medial menisci, caudolateral and craniomedial bundles of cranial cruciate ligament, caudal cruciate ligament, patellar ligament and common extensor tendon. In conclusion, the marsh deer stifle presents some anatomical characteristics of the ovine stifle joint. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Evaluation on joint toxicity of chlorinated anilines and cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hao, E-mail: realking163@163.com [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China); Wang, Chao; Shi, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Cd has different effects on joint toxicity when in different concentrations. • The toxicity of most binary mixtures decreases when Cd concentration rises. • Different QSAR models are developed to predict the joint toxicity. • Descriptors in QSARs can help to elucidate the joint toxicity mechanism. • Van der Waals’ force or complexation may reduce the toxicity of mixtures. - Abstract: The individual IC{sub 50} (the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15 min exposure) of cadmium ion (Cd) and nine chlorinated anilines to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) were determined. In order to evaluate the combined effects of the nine chlorinated anilines and Cd, the toxicities of chlorinated anilines combined with different concentrations of Cd were determined, respectively. The results showed that the number of chlorinated anilines manifesting synergy with Cd decreased with the increasing Cd concentration, and the number manifesting antagonism decreased firstly and then increased. The joint toxicity of mixtures at low Cd concentration was weaker than that of most binary mixtures when combined with Cd at medium and high concentrations as indicated by TU{sub Total}. QSAR analysis showed that the single toxicity of chlorinated anilines was related to the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}). When combined with different concentrations of Cd, the toxicity was related to the energy difference (E{sub HOMO} − E{sub LUMO}) with different coefficients. Van der Waals’ force or the complexation between chlorinated anilines and Cd had an impact on the toxicity of combined systems, which could account for QSAR models with different physico-chemical descriptors.

  2. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1993-02-01

    During 1992, the design of the three test bed buses evolved. Georgetown participated in all the working meetings and the preliminary design review of the Test Bed Bus (TBB). Throughout the Year, Georgetown provided input on system design and integration issues, transit industry requirements, and bus performance. GU also attended technical seminars, presenting papers at two. The computer simulation 'HYBRID', developed by Georgetown, was used to assess performance of different bus designs and system control algorithms. GU also modified the simulation to be more flexible and allow easier evaluation of designs. Georgetown had Exhibitgroup design and construct, to our specifications, a fuel cell bus display with a 1/10 scale model of the TBB for use at trade shows and exhibits. Energy Partners of West Palm Beach, Florida completed their subcontract for the engineering design study of a hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell-powered multi-passenger vehicle. Georgetown performed a study to determine the size of the US bus fleet and expected new bus deliveries over the next 10 years. Trojan Battery Company of Santa Fe Springs, California conducted a study to determine the specific design characteristics required of a lead acid battery to meet the special requirements posed by hybrid vehicle operation. Finally, GU assisted the prime contractor with the design of the system controller and its control algorithms.

  5. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  6. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents 16 case studies of attacks planned or carried out against Israeli bus targets, along with statistical data on the number, frequency, and lethality of attacks against bus targets that have taken place in Israel since 1970 and duri...

  7. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  8. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  9. Evaluation of early rheumatic disorders in PIP joints using a cw-transillumination method: first clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavat, Viravuth; Luhmann, Till; Krause, Andreas; Backhaus, Marina; Beuthan, Juergen; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents first clinical results of an in vivo experimental study on the detection of early pathological changes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a near IR cw- transillumination method on finger joints (PIP). The inflammation of a joint system when caused by RA leads to changes in the synovial membrane and synovial. Measurements have shown that these rheumatic induced processes results in a variation in optical properties within the joint system. Using a cw system the PIP-joint is transilluminated with diode lasers at the articular cavity in order to use the entire scattered distribution of the transmitted radiation intensity for diagnostic purposes. The study includes results of in vivo measurements on 24 joints with known status and the evaluation of the feasibility of different distribution properties for detection of early RA.

  10. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  11. Quantitative in vivo MRI evaluation of lumbar facet joints and intervertebral discs using axial T2 mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzeneder, David; Messner, Alina; Scheurecker, Georg; Goed, Sabine; Friedrich, Klaus M.; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre-High Field MR, Vienna (Austria); Vlychou, Marianna [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre-High Field MR, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Larissa, Department of Radiology, Larissa (Greece); Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre-High Field MR, Vienna (Austria); University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Pieber, Karin; Pflueger, Verena [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    To assess the feasibility of T2 mapping of lumbar facet joints and intervertebral discs in a single imaging slab and to compare the findings with morphological grading. Sixty lumbar spine segments from 10 low back pain patients and 5 healthy volunteers were examined by axial T2 mapping and morphological MRI at 3.0 Tesla. Regions of interest were drawn on a single slice for the facet joints and the intervertebral discs (nucleus pulposus, anterior and posterior annulus fibrosus). The Weishaupt grading was used for facet joints and the Pfirrmann score was used for morphological disc grading (''normal'' vs. ''abnormal'' discs). The inter-rater agreement was excellent for the facet joint T2 evaluation (r = 0.85), but poor for the morphological Weishaupt grading (kappa = 0.15). The preliminary results show similar facet joint T2 values in segments with normal and abnormal Pfirrmann scores. There was no difference in mean T2 values between facet joints in different Weishaupt grading groups. Facet joint T2 values showed a weak correlation with T2 values of the posterior annulus (r = 0.32) This study demonstrates the feasibility of a combined T2 mapping approach for the facet joints and intervertebral discs using a single axial slab. (orig.)

  12. The neural time course of evaluating self-initiated joint attention bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; de Lissa, Peter; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    During interactions with other people, we constantly evaluate the significance of our social partner's gaze shifts in order to coordinate our behaviour with their perspective. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural time course of evaluating gaze shifts that signal the success of self-initiated joint attention bids. Nineteen participants were allocated to a "social" condition, in which they played a cooperative game with an anthropomorphic virtual character whom they believed was controlled by a human partner in a nearby laboratory. Participants were required to initiate joint attention towards a target. In response, the virtual partner shifted his gaze congruently towards the target-thus achieving joint attention--or incongruently towards a different location. Another 19 participants completed the same task in a non-social "control" condition, in which arrows, believed to be controlled by a computer program, pointed at a location that was either congruent or incongruent with the participant's target fixation. In the social condition, ERPs to the virtual partner's incongruent gaze shifts evoked significantly larger P350 and P500 peaks compared to congruent gaze shifts. This P350 and P500 morphology was absent in both the congruent and incongruent control conditions. These findings are consistent with previous claims that gaze shifts differing in their social significance modulate central-parietal ERPs 350 ms following the onset of the gaze shift. Our control data highlights the social specificity of the observed P350 effect, ruling out explanations pertaining to attention modulation or error detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  14. Success factors for international HTA projects: evaluating EUnetHTA Joint Action as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guegan, Eleanor Woodford; Cook, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation is essential for the management of international projects or networks in health technology assessment (HTA). It extends beyond the normal process of project management by incorporating qualitative dimensions and provides information about a project's effectiveness and achievements. This article aimed to identify the factors that are important for the success of international HTA projects. The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) is presented as an exemplar. METHODS for the evaluation of international HTA projects include interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, observations and documentary review, and the key points of these approaches have been summarized. The impact and effectiveness of the EUnetHTA JA was evaluated by questionnaires of project participants and external stakeholders, and by documentary review. The response rate for the three annual questionnaires sent to project participants ranged from 86 percent to 88 percent and for external stakeholders ranged from 65 percent to 88 percent. Key factors for project success included production of deliverables according to the workplan, achievement of objectives, added value generated, effective communication, involvement of external stakeholders, workstream management and progress from the preceding EUnetHTA 2006-2008 project. The experience of this project can inform the evaluation of future international HTA collaborations, such as the EUnetHTA 2nd Joint Action and HTAsiaLink. A high response rate was achieved to the self-completion questionnaires and the strategy followed is recommended for evaluation of international HTA projects. Future assessments of international HTA projects should strive to measure outcomes and impact, not just outputs and process.

  15. Evaluation of creep damage in a welded joint of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongkui; Monma, Yoshio; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki

    2010-10-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the creep damage of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel under 600 °C operating conditions, using constitutive equations based on the continuum damage mechanics. The accumulation of voids over a long period is believed to contribute to the formation of Type IV cracking, which in turn leads eventually to the failure of weldment under conditions of higher temperatures and lower stresses. Specimens of base metal, a simulated fine-grained heat affected zone, and a thin (thick) welded joint were kept under stress from 80 to 160 MPa at 600 °C. During the creep tests of thick plate welded joint specimens, the application of stress was suspended several times, and the creep damage as indicated by the void distribution was examined quantitatively using a laser microscope. The combined effect of the equivalent creep strain and the stress triaxial factor was considered and introduced into the constitutive equations with the aid of a finite element method. The logarithms of m and 1/λ in the continuum damage mechanics equations were determined to have a linear correlation with the ratio of the applied stress to the yield stress for homogeneous materials. In this way, the damage distribution and evolution in the fine-grained heat affected zone were evaluated successfully.

  16. Analysis and design of rolling-contact joints for evaluating bone plate performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Alexander H; Cervantes, Thomas M; Seldin, Edward B; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2012-09-01

    An apparatus for testing maxillofacial bone plates has been designed using a rolling contact joint. First, a free-body representation of the fracture fixation techniques utilizing bone plates is used to illustrate how rolling contact joints accurately simulate in vivo biomechanics. Next, a deterministic description of machine functional requirements is given, and is then used to drive the subsequent selection and design of machine elements. Hertz contact stress and fatigue analysis for two elements are used to ensure that the machine will both withstand loads required to deform different plates, and maintain a high cycle lifetime for testing large numbers of plates. Additionally, clinically relevant deformations are presented to illustrate how stiffness is affected after a deformation is applied, and to highlight improvements made by the machine over current testing standards, which do not adequately re-create in vivo loading conditions. The machine performed as expected and allowed for analysis of bone plates in both deformed and un-deformed configurations to be conducted. Data for deformation experiments is presented to show that the rolling-contact testing machine leads to improved loading configurations, and thus a more accurate description of plate performance. A machine for evaluation of maxillofacial bone plates has been designed, manufactured, and used to accurately simulate in vivo loading conditions to more effectively evaluate the performance of both new and existing bone plates. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of ejection safety for the joint helmet-mounted cueing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, James M.; Kirk, William K.

    1999-07-01

    Aircrew safety is paramount in the design of a helmet-mounted display (HMD). For the tactical aircrew, ensuring a successful ejection presents significant design challenges. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) Integrated Product Team (IPT) has been evaluating Vision Systems International's HMD design for aircrew protection in this environment. The JHMCS IPT has developed a set of test objectives in concert with acquisition reform to demonstrate ejection compatibility of the JHMCS. This testing series will be discussed, and will include windblast, ejection tower, and sled and in-flight ejection testing, findings and design impacts. JHMCS performance parameters evaluated include structural integrity, facial and head protection, neck tensile loads, ejection seat and crew equipment compatibility, and mechanical functionality. The design environment for the JHMCS currently is both small and large, male and female aircrew withstanding a successful 450-knot ejection in any of four current USAF & USN tactical aircraft platforms.

  18. Evaluation of MRI protocols for the assessment of lumbar facet joints after MR-guided focused ultrasound treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Roland; Do, Loi; Rieke, Viola; Wilson, Mark W.; Saeed, Maythem

    2016-01-01

    Background MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) might be a very safe and effective minimally invasive technique to treat facet joint pain caused by arthritis and other degenerative changes. However, there are still safety concerns for this treatment and challenges regarding MR imaging and temperature mapping due to susceptibility effects between the bone and soft tissue near the joint, which has resulted in poor MR image quality. The goal of this research was to evaluate multiple magnetic re...

  19. Evaluation and management of adult shoulder pain: a focus on rotator cuff disorders, acromioclavicular joint arthritis, and glenohumeral arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April

    2014-07-01

    Shoulder pain is a common reason for a patient to see their primary care physician. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of 3 common shoulder disorders; rotator cuff disorders, acromioclavicular joint arthritis, and glenohumeral joint arthritis. The typical history and physical examination findings for each of these entities are highlighted, in addition to treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MRI EVALUATION OF PAINFUL KNEE JOINT- THE CORRELATION OF MULTIPLE COEXISTING PATHOLOGIES, AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukheswar Pame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 1. To evaluate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies causing painful knee and their correlation to age and sex. 2. To evaluate the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features in various knee pathologies and to identify the common lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was performed using the clinical data of patients presenting with painful knee joint which were evaluated with MRI. Data from 200 patients examined between September 2015 and August 2016 were included into this study. The data was analysed statistically to evaluate the correlation between the MR pathological findings to age and sex of the patients. RESULTS The patient’s age ranged between 8 and 75 years (mean: 36 years. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear was the commonest finding (60% followed by bursitis (55%, meniscal degeneration (54.6% and meniscal tear (52%. Primary signs of ACL tear were hyperintensity, discontinuity and nonvisualisation. Secondary signs like Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL buckling, PCL index of greater than 0.5, uncovered Lateral meniscus (LM and bone contusion assisted in diagnosis in indeterminate cases. Mid substance was the commonest site of ACL tear (64%. PCL tear accounted for only a small percentage (7%. Medial Meniscus (MM tear (35% was commoner than LM tear (17%. The posterior horn of meniscus was the commonest site of injury (86.5%. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tear, Medial collateral ligament (MCL degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. A significant correlation between male gender and ACL injury was noted. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well with MCL injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with ACL injury, MCL injury and Lateral collateral ligament (LCL injury. CONCLUSIONS MRI findings of certain pathologies in a painful knee can coexist and significantly correlate with each other, age and sex of

  1. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  2. Request-Centric Wireless Bus Information Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This invention relates to a wireless bus information management system, which includes bus stop and vehicle management subsystems. The management signals are transmittable between bus stops and the vehicle. Based on vehicle management signals, the bus stop management subsystem can obtain information about the bus route identification, the number of unoccupied seats, the intention to stop or not, etc. Similarly, with the bus stop management signals, the vehicle management subsystem can make the decision of stopping. Accordingly, when a passenger wants to get off the vehicle or there are unoccupied seats, the vehicle management subsystem will inform the bus stop management subsystem such that the passengers waiting at the bus stop may flexibly schedule their travel plan. The proposed distributed wireless system is detailed by a prototype implementation and a simulation analysis, which is shown to be feasible and scalable.

  3. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of the joint damage in asymptomatic alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varoğlui, Erhan; Yildirim, Mustafa; Gürsoy, Recep; Seven, Bedri; Uslus, Hatice; Çoğalgil, Şirzat; Kiyici, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scintigraphy on the detection of joint damage in asymptomatic alpine ski racers. This study included 20 male asymptomatic alpine ski racers (age range: 18-21 years). None of the skiers had a history of ski crashes. Bone scan findings of the racers were examined with Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy during the active racing season and the inactive training season. Planar anterior and posterior images of hip, knee, and ankle joints were obtained 4 h after intravenous injection of 20 mCi Tc-99m MDP. All images were interpreted visually by 2 experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Free regions of interest were drawn on hip, knee, and ankle joints, as well as background regions. Joint-to-background ratios were calculated for each joint, and the uptake ratios of both right and left joints during active ski season were compared to those during the inactive training period. Uptake ratios of the right and left hip, knee, and ankle joints were significantly higher during the active racing period than those calculated during the inactive period (P alpine ski racers and can be used successfully when MRI is unavailable.

  4. Evaluation of occlusal splint therapy in temporomandibular joint disorder patients using real-time ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telkar, Swaroop; Khan, Mubeen K; Shukla, Anil Kumar; Dodamani, Arun; Yalsangi, Shilpa; Telkar, Deepti

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of occlusal splint therapy by determining the cross-sectional dimension of masseter muscle using ultrasound in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement with reduction. Twenty-seven patients aged between 20 and 40 years were included in the study. A detailed history was obtained, and a comprehensive clinical examination was carried out. Subjective assessment with structured pro forma was performed pre-occlusal and post-occlusal splint therapy. The objective measurement of the bilateral masseter muscle thickness was recorded using real-time ultrasonography before and after splint therapy. The mean ultrasound thickness of the masseter muscle in the pre-clenching state before splint therapy was 9.45 mm (SD 1.39), and the post-clenching state was 13.15 mm (SD 2.23). After splint therapy, the mean thickness in the pre-clenching state was 9.14 mm (SD 1.31), and the post-clenching state was 12.78 mm (SD 2.23; P<0.001). Ultrasonographic measurements of the masseter muscle in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement with reduction can be a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of occlusal splint therapy. Such conservative measures can significantly reduce masticatory muscle tenderness, especially of the temporalis and masseter. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of debonding strength of single lap joint by the intensity of singular stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tatsujiro; Noda, Nao-Aki

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the similarity of the singular stress field of the single lap joint (SLJ) is discussed to evaluate the debonding fracture by the intensity of the singular stress field (ISSF). The practical method is proposed for analyzing the ISSF for the SLJ. The analysis method focuses on the FEM stress at the interface end by applying the same mesh pattern to the unknown and reference models. It is found that the independent technique useful for the bonded plate and butt joint cannot be applied to the SLJ because the singular stress field of the SLJ consists of two singular stress terms. The FEM stress is divided to two FEM stresses by applying the unknown and reference models to different minimum element sizes. Then, the practicality of the present method is examined by applying to the previous tensile test results of the SLJ composed of the aluminum alloy and the epoxy resin. The ISSFs for the SLJ were calculated by changing the adhesive thickness t 2 and the overlap length l 2. In the case of the SLJ with 225 mm in total length and 7 mm in adherend thickness, it was found that the similar singular stress fields are formed in the range of 0.15 mm ≤ t 2 ≤ 0.9mm and 15 mm ≤ l 2 ≤ 50 mm. It is shown that the critical ISSFs at the fracture are constant in the range.

  6. A preliminary evaluation of limb salvage surgery for osteosarcoma around knee joint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and drawbacks of diversified procedures of limb salvage surgery (LSS, providing a reference of rational surgical criterion of LSS. METHODS: Fifty eight patients with stage IIB extremity osteosarcoma around knee joint area between 1992 and 2002 were studied retrospectively. Among them, 43 patients were treated by LSS followed by reconstruction. Reconstruction approaches included re-implantation of irradiation-devitalized tumor bone (n = 12, autoclaving-devitalized tumor bone (n = 8, prosthetic replacement (n = 11, allograft transplantation (n = 8 and vascularized fibula autograft implantation (n = 4. Amputations were performed in 15 patients. Patients were followed up for 6-16 years. RESULTS: There were no significant difference between LSS and amputation groups regarding disease free survival and local recurrence rates. The actuarial 5-year continuous disease free survival and local recurrence rate were 30.0% and 25.0% in patients of devitalized LSS group, whereas those were 56.5% and 8.7% in patients of non-devitalized reconstruction group. The complication rate was significantly higher in LSS group compared to amputation group (P = 0.003. CONCLUSION: LSS with non-devitalized procedures is the optimal treatment for osteosarcoma around knee joint area. Prosthesis implantation is the preferred option for bone reconstruction following LSS. Prevention and treatment of post-operative complications should be paid more attention to get good long-term outcomes of surgery.

  7. Evaluating joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis: is it necessary to radiograph both hands and feet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knevel, R; Kwok, K Y; de Rooy, D P C; Posthumus, M D; Huizinga, T W J; Brouwer, E; van der Helm-van Mil, A H M

    2013-03-01

    Radiological damage is an important outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), both for research and clinical purposes. Depending on the setting, both hands and feet are radiographed, or only a part of these. It is unknown whether radiographing part of the four extremities gives comparable information to radiographing both hands and feet. This study therefore aimed to compare the radiological information obtained both when evaluating single time point radiographs and progression over time, in early and advanced RA. 6261 sets of hands and feet x-rays of 2193 RA patients from Leiden, Groningen (both from The Netherlands) and North America were studied. Correlations between joint damage at different regions were compared (unilateral vs bilateral and hands vs feet). Analyses were done at single time points (cross-sectional) and for progression over time (longitudinal), both for continuous severity measures (Sharp/van der Heijde score; SHS) and binomial measures of erosiveness. When studying single time points, the severity of joint damage (SHS) is highly correlated between left and right, but weakly correlated between hands and feet. Correlation coefficients were higher in advanced than early RA. These findings were comparable in the three datasets. When evaluating erosiveness using only unilateral x-rays or hands without feet, 19.3% and 24.0-40.4% are incorrectly classified as non-erosiveness. Similarly, when evaluating disease progression by imaging only unilateral x-rays or only hand x-rays, progression would have been missed in 11.6-16.2% and 21.2-31.0% of patients. Performing x-rays of both hands and feet yields additive information compared with imaging only a part of these.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Evaluation for Anterior Disc Displacement of the Temporomandibular Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongjun; Wang, Mingguo; Ma, Yingwei; Lai, Qingguo; Tong, Dongdong; Zhang, Fenghe; Dong, Lili

    2017-02-08

    BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the criterion standard imaging technique for visualization of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region, and is currently considered the optimum modality for comprehensive evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). This study was aimed at finding the value of MRI in pre-clinical diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients primarily diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement by clinical symptoms and X-ray were selected in the present study. MRI was used to evaluate surrounding anatomical structures and position, as well as morphological and signal intensity change between patients and normal controls. RESULTS Posterior band position was significantly different between the patient group and control group. At the maximum opened-mouth position, the location of disc intermediate zone returned to normal. At closed-mouth position, the thickness of anterior and middle, but not posterior, band increased. The motion range of the condyle in the anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDWR) patient group was significantly less than the value in the anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) patient group and the control group. Whether at closed-mouth position or maximum opened-mouth position, the exudate volume in the patient group was greater than in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS MRI can be successfully used to evaluate multiple morphological changes at different mouth positions of normal volunteers and patients. The disc-condyle relationship can serve as an important indicator in assessing anterior disc displacement, and can be used to distinguish disc displacement with or without reduction.

  9. The challenges of joint working: lessons from the Supporting People Health Pilot evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa Cameron

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper reports the findings of the evaluation of the Supporting People Health Pilots programme which was established to demonstrate the policy links between housing support services and health and social care services by encouraging the development of integrated services. The paper highlights the challenges of working across housing, health and social care boundaries. Method: The evaluation of the 6 health pilots rested on two main sources of data collection: Quarterly Project Evaluation Reports collected process data as well as reporting progress against aims and objectives. Semi-structured interviews - conducted across all key professional stakeholder groups and agencies and with people who used services - explored their experiences of these new services. Results: The ability of pilots to work across organisational boundaries to achieve their aims and objectives was associated not only with agencies sharing an understanding of the purpose of the joint venture, a history of joint working and clear and efficient governance arrangements but on two other characteristics: the extent and nature of statutory sector participation and, whether or not the service is defined by a history of voluntary sector involvement. In particular the pilots demonstrated how voluntary sector agencies appeared to be less constrained by organisational priorities and professional agenda and more able to respond flexibly to meet the complex needs of individuals. Conclusion and discussion: The pilots demonstrate that integrating services to support people with complex needs works best when the service is determined by the characteristics of those who use the service rather than pre-existing organisational structures.

  10. A Simulation to Evaluate Joint Military Logistics in a Humanitarian Assistance Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    insight on the world of computer simulation. Furthermore, I thank the Center for Operational Analysis support team, for assisting me in getting over...Joint Assesment Team JDDOC Joint Deployment and Distribution Operations Center JFAST Joint Flow and Analysis System for Transportation JP Joint...step in the author’s research effort. Simulation Simulation is the process of designing and creating a computerized model of a real or proposed

  11. Low back pain among professional bus drivers: ergonomic and occupational-psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Santo, Yoav; Masharawi, Youssef; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Ushvaev, Diana; Kalichman, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Professional drivers have been found to be at high risk for developing low back pain. However, the exact reasons are poorly understood. To assess the prevalence of LBP among Israeli professional urban bus drivers, and evaluate the association between LBP in drivers and work-related psychosocial and ergonomic risk factors. A total of 384 male full-time urban bus drivers were consecutively enrolled to this cross-sectional study. Information on regular physical activity and work-related ergonomic and psychosocial stressing factors was collected during face-to-face interviews. The prevalence of LBP was assessed using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire. From the total cohort, 164 bus drivers (45.4%) reported experiencing LBP in the previous 12 months. Ergonomic factors associated with LBP were uncomfortable seat (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.0) and an uncomfortable back support (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5). In the group of drivers with LBP, 48.5% reported participation in regular physical activities vs. 67.3% in the group without LBP (Prelated ergonomic and psychosocial factors showed a significant association with LBP in Israeli professional urban bus drivers. Prevention of work-related stress, organizational changes targeted to reduce stressful situations, improvement in seat comfort, and encouraging regular sports activity need to be evaluated as prevention strategies for LBP in professional bus drivers.

  12. Evaluation of remission of temporomandibular joints pain as a result of treatment of dysfunction using intraarticular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihut, Małgorzata; Górecka, Małgorzata; Ceranowicz, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint pain, which occurs in the course of temporomandibular joint dysfunction, is one of the main clinical problems in the treatment of joint disc displacement. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in temporomandibular joints pain in treatment supporting disc displacement without reduction using intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma. The study consisted of a group of 60 patients, aged 35-49, who reported for treatment, because of pain in the preauricural area. The functional examination stated disk dicplacement without reduction, along with the accompanying pain of temporomandibular joints. Patients were treated between January 2015 and February 2017. They were divided into two groups of 30 persons. The intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid was administered in the I-test group, and the injection of platelet-rich plasma in the control group. This treatment was carried out parallel to the use of repositioning splits. Analysis of regression of symptoms other than intensity of pain during the treatment, evaluated in this study shows a decrease of individual symptoms, but the results of the regression of pain between two groups did not differ statistically significantly, because "p" is bigger than 0.05. The results of the research show the clinical benefits of application of hyaluronic acid and plate rich plasma in the treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

  13. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.17 Driver and bus monitor... performance; and (2) before bus monitors assigned to vehicles used to provide such services begin their duties...

  14. 77 FR 43646 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities and Section 5312...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus... AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA Veterans Transportation and Community...

  15. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  16. Evidence-based nursing leadership: Evaluation of a Joint Academic-Service Journal Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne R; Thompson, Diane; Hobbs, Terry; Niemeyer-Hackett, Nancy Lee; Elpers, Susan

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the importance of evidence-based nursing leadership in the development and evaluation of a joint academic-service nursing leadership journal club. The use of scientific evidence and the embracing of an environment of continuous learning are essential to quality practice; however, nursing leadership has been slow to apply evidence-based practice to their own work. A noontime monthly meeting schedule, incentivized by lunch, was organized as a nursing leadership journal club. Articles were selected and reviewed monthly, and the process was formally evaluated using a written evaluation at the end of year 1. Eighteen articles were appraised by the group with 6 topics identified. Positive results included increased knowledge, competence of the leader, and attainment of goals. Recommendations include revision of goals, plans to share leadership of the group, development of a rigorous evaluation of outcomes, and dissemination of findings. The journal club was valuable in increasing awareness of nursing leadership research, promoting leadership development, and improving competence in the performance of research appraisals. Process improvement and further study are needed to increase understanding regarding the benefits of leadership journal clubs.

  17. The joint use of LCA and emergy evaluation for the analysis of two Italian wine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzigallo, A C I; Granai, C; Borsa, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate two agroindustrial productive processes in their entirety (one organic and one semi-industrial), focusing on the comparison of impacts derived from the inputs and outputs of the system (life cycle assessment, LCA), integrated with a physical evaluation of the resources and natural services, on a common basis (emergy). Methods based on the joint use of LCA and emergy evaluation are useful, as they measure the contribution of environmental services and products to the productive process thus focusing primarily on the environmental impact of emissions and non-renewable energy inputs. The complementarity of the methods used in this paper contributes important elements and information useful for the comprehension of the organization of agriculture within Siena's territory. The results show important elements and useful information: (1) for the comprehension of the two agroecosystems' organization; (2) for the use of the energy flows that determine their development. Moreover, the combined use of emergy and LCA gives a comparative thermodynamic performance evaluation between organic and semi-industrial farming.

  18. Cooperative joint precoding in a downlink cellular system with shared relay: Design and performance evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kwon, JaeWoo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate a relay enhanced cellular system, where a relay station is located in the overlap area served by two base stations. We propose cooperative joint precoding schemes for the downlink transmission of such relay enhanced cellular system to maximize the system capacity while minimizing the interference at both the relay station and the mobile stations. We formulate the optimization problems to maximize the system capacity and design the multiuser precoding vectors at each base station and the relay station. We quantify the ergodic rate performance of the proposed multiuser precoding schemes through statistical analysis. The extensively derived ergodic expressions will facilitate the accurate performance evaluation of the proposed transmission schemes. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can effectively cancel the interference and improve the sum rate and the outage performance for cell edge users. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  19. Evaluation of Patient-Oriented Standards of Joint Commission International in Gilan and Mazandaran Teaching Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaseminejhad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Medical tourism, a multi-million-dollar industry, has had a significant effect in economic flourishing, creating jobs, and preventing the outflow of currency. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate teaching hospitals affiliated to Gilan and Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, according to joint commission international (JCI standards. Methods This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among teaching hospitals affiliated to Gilan and Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences during year 2015. To collect data and evaluate the hospitals, patient-oriented standards of JCI was applied. Results Amongst the eight standards, international patient safety goals (IPSG (with a score of 87.5% had the highest, and patient and family education (PFE (with a score of 53.75% had the lowest score. Hospital “4” with a score of 90.41%, had the highest, and hospital “7” with 58.90%, had the lowest rate of compliance to the standards. According to the Mann-Whitney test, the observed statistics considering a P value of ≤ 0.05 level, was not significant, therefore on a 95% certainty level, there was no significant difference between hospitals in Gilan and Mazandaran, regarding compliance with standards. Overall, the hospitals under study were relatively prepared for attracting medical tourists. Conclusions According to the results, it seems that more planning and implementation of projects is required to strengthen the axes of the joint commission regarding accreditation of hospitals and attraction of medical tourists to these centers, especially foreign tourists. Researchers are recommended to pay special attention to the university of medical sciences of two provinces for the establishment of standards and utilization of professional consultants.

  20. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  1. Rolling horizon predictions of bus trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshyani, M.F.; Cats, O.

    2014-01-01

    Bus travel times are subject to inherent and recurrent uncertainties. A real-time prediction scheme regarding how the transit system evolves will potentially facilitate more adaptive operations as well as more adaptive passengers’ decisions. This scheme should be tractable, sufficiently fast and

  2. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model untuk Optimalisasi Jumlah Bus Transjakarta Koridor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly. 

  3. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  4. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  5. Colour Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of vascularization in the wrist and finger joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carotti, M. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Salaffi, F., E-mail: fsalaff@tin.it [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Morbiducci, J. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Ciapetti, A., E-mail: ciapetti.a@libero.it [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Bartolucci, L. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Gasparini, S. [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Ferraccioli, G. [Division of Rheumatology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Giuseppetti, G.M. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Grassi, W. [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the presence of blood flow by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) in the wrist and finger joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy subjects and to define a cut-off value of CDUS resistive index (RI). Methods: Forty-three patients with RA and 43 healthy controls were examined by CDUS. The wrists, second and third metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints were evaluated in each patient and healthy subject. Spectral Doppler analysis was performed in order to characterize the type of flow and a mean RI was measured to define a cut-off level. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the screening method's performance. Results: Flow was detected in 219 of the 430 total joints (50.9%) of RA patients (111 in the wrists, 49 in the MCP and 30 in the PIP joints). Healthy subjects had a quantifiable flow in 45 of the 430 joints (10.5%) and, in particular, 39 (86.4%) in the wrist, 5 (11.14%) in the MCP and 1 (2.2%) in the PIP joints. The intra- and inter-reader agreements for the detection of Doppler signal were very good (kappa 0.82 and 0.89, respectively). Mean RI values were 0.72 {+-} 0.06 in RA patients and 0.86 {+-} 0.06 in healthy subjects (p < 0.01). At cut-off point of RI < 0.79 the sensitivity was 89.6% and the specificity was 78.8% (positive likelihood ratio 4.22). Conclusion: DUS is a useful tool for the detection of abnormal blood flow in inflammatory joints of RA patients.

  6. Molten-Shape Prediction and Fracture-Life Evaluation of Micro-Solder Joint in Semiconductor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanie, Hisashi

    The reliability of a micro-solder joint in a semiconductor structure depends on its solder shape. Therefore, many methods of predicting the molten-solder shape have been proposed. However, conventional methods cannot be used to accurately predict the shape of a miniaturized solder. In a miniaturized solder joint, molten solder greatly changes its shape during the reflow process, and even topology changes (e.g., merging with another solder in a neighboring joint or splitting into several pieces) might occur. Conventional methods cannot be used for expressing these phenomena. To predict a miniaturized solder shape, we developed a new shape-prediction method based on the moving-particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. In the MPS method, a continuum is expressed as an assembly of particles. In contrast to finite element analysis (FEA), our new method can easily express large deformation and topology changes because the continuum does not need to be divided into elements. Moreover, we evaluated the fracture life of a solder joint with the predicted solder shape by coupling our shape-prediction method with a crack-propagation analysis method that we also developed. The crack-propagation is used for automatically calculating a crack-initiation point and crack-propagation paths, and the fracture life is evaluated quantitatively. We applied this coupling method to evaluate fracture lives of various solder joints and found that a difference in solder shape caused a difference in crack-initiation points, crack-propagation paths, and fracture lives.

  7. Numerical evaluation of multipass welding temperature field in API 5L X80 steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nóbrega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many are the metallurgical changes suffered by materials when subjected to welding thermal cycle, promoting a considerable influence on the welded structures thermo mechanical properties. In project phase, one alternative for evaluating the welding cycle variable, would be the employment of computational methods through simulation. So, this paper presents an evaluation of the temperature field in a multipass welding of API 5L X80 steel used for oil and gas transportation, using the ABAQUS ® software, based on Finite Elements Method (FEM. During the simulation complex phenomena are considerable including: Variation in physical and mechanical properties of materials as a function of temperature, welding speed and the different mechanisms of heat exchange with the environment (convection and radiation were used. These considerations allow a more robust mathematical modeling for the welding process. An analytical heat source proposed by Goldak, to model the heat input in order to characterize the multipass welding through the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process on root and the SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding process for the filling passes were used. So, it was possible to evaluate the effect of each welding pass on the welded joint temperature field, through the temperature peaks and cooling rates values during the welding process.

  8. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  9. The Challenges of Data Quality Evaluation in a Joint Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Charles J; Griffith, Sandra; Fan, Youran; Dunphy, Cheryl; Thompson, Nicolas; Urchek, John; Parchman, Alandra; Katzan, Irene L

    2015-01-01

    The use of clinically derived data from electronic health records (EHRs) and other electronic clinical systems can greatly facilitate clinical research as well as operational and quality initiatives. One approach for making these data available is to incorporate data from different sources into a joint data warehouse. When using such a data warehouse, it is important to understand the quality of the data. The primary objective of this study was to determine the completeness and concordance of common types of clinical data available in the Knowledge Program (KP) joint data warehouse, which contains feeds from several electronic systems including the EHR. A manual review was performed of specific data elements for 250 patients from an EHR, and these were compared with corresponding elements in the KP data warehouse. Completeness and concordance were calculated for five categories of data including demographics, vital signs, laboratory results, diagnoses, and medications. In general, data elements for demographics, vital signs, diagnoses, and laboratory results were present in more cases in the source EHR compared to the KP. When data elements were available in both sources, there was a high concordance. In contrast, the KP data warehouse documented a higher prevalence of deaths and medications compared to the EHR. Several factors contributed to the discrepancies between data in the KP and the EHR-including the start date and frequency of data feeds updates into the KP, inability to transfer data located in nonstructured formats (e.g., free text or scanned documents), as well as incomplete and missing data variables in the source EHR. When evaluating the quality of a data warehouse with multiple data sources, assessing completeness and concordance between data set and source data may be better than designating one to be a gold standard. This will allow the user to optimize the method and timing of data transfer in order to capture data with better accuracy.

  10. A numerical approach for evaluating the stiffness of steel tube–R.C. beam composite joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem M.F. Elbakry

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical approach has been developed for the analysis of composite joints of steel tubes embedded in reinforced concrete. This kind of joint is typically found at the foundation of composite columns and in open pile supported wharves. The performance of such joints is thought to have a considerable effect on the overall behaviour and ductility of the structures containing them as indicated by previous experimental and analytical work. The developed approach was based on a two-stage two dimensional analysis to account for the three dimensional nature of the joint behaviour. The validity of the new approach was proven by applying it to previously experimentally tested composite joints. Good agreement was observed between the joint behaviour as produced by the numerical analysis using the new approach and the experimental measurements. Considerable saving in computer run time was also achieved compared to the case of using three dimensional analysis.

  11. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  12. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... light. Occurrence of injury to bus passengers is positively related to (i) the involvement of heavy vehicles, (ii) crossing intersections in yellow or red light, (iii) open areas, (iv) high speed limits, and (v) slippery road surface. Conclusions The findings of the current study provide a comprehensive......Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...

  13. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF A NEW BUS ASSIGNMENT ALGORITHM FOR AN ATM SWITCH FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation, through analytical and simulation models, of a HighSpeed Packet Switch with a New Bus Assignment Algorithm, designed and developed at the Research andAdvanced Studies Center of National Polytechnic Institute in Guadalajara, México (CINVESTAV-GDL. The analyticalmodel is tested under two different arrival processes: Binomial and Poisson distributions. The simulation model istested with two bus assignment algorithms: Fixed Start and Rotated Start . The performance parameters consideredare: Cell Loss Rate, Delay and Throughput.

  15. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  16. Computed tomography evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in Class I malocclusion patients: condylar symmetry and condyle-fossa relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the condyle-fossa relationship, the concentric position of the condyles, and the dimensional and positional symmetries between the right and left condyles in subjects with Class I malocclusion. Thirty subjects from 13 to 30 years of age with Class I malocclusion had computed tomography imaging of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from axial slices were evaluated for possible asymmetries in size and position between the condylar processes associated with this malocclusion. The images obtained from sagittal slices were used to assess the depth of the mandibular fossa, the condyle-fossa relationship, and the concentric position of the condyles of this malocclusion. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations were determined after measurements on both sides were obtained. We found no statistically significant asymmetries between the condylar processes in this sample. No statistically significant asymmetries were found in the mandibular fossa depth, the anterior joint space, and the superior joint space. The posterior joint space showed statistically significant asymmetry (P temporomandibular joint. Evaluation of the concentric position of the condyles in their mandibular fossae showed nonconcentric positioning for the 2 sides.

  17. The role of three-dimensional computed tomography in the evaluation of temporomandibular joint ankylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Kavin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT in the assessment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ ankylosis and its importance in treatment planning. The objectives of study were to measure and assess the mediolateral extent of ankylosis mass in 3D-CT and to compare the extent with intraoperative assessment. The study was also aimed to measure the coronoid process elongation in 3D-CT and its significance in treatment planning. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 3D-CT evaluation of 11 patients with TMJ ankylosis during the period of February 2006-October 2007. Results: The 3D-CT assessment provided the length of the coronoid process and the relation of vital structures including maxillary artery to the ankylosed mass. Measurement of ankylosed mass also aids in preoperative measurement of the graft required to reconstruct the defect following removal of the ankylosed mass. Conclusion: Our study concludes that 3D-CT is a useful tool in the diagnosis and treatment planning of TMJ ankylosis.

  18. Evaluation of the bone mineral density of the subjects with avascular necrosis of hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Nodoshan, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2016-01-01

    The head of femur is deformed in subjects with Leg Calve Perthes Disease (LCPD). It may be due to an increase in loads applied on the hip, decrease in hip joint containment and decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of femur. Unfortunately there is not enough evidence regarding BMD of femur in subjects with LCPD. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate BMD in subjects with Perthes disease. Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study. The BMD and Young modulus of elasticity (E) of different parts of femur of both Perthes and sound sides were evaluated by use of Mimics software. The difference between BMD of femur in both sides of each subject was compared by use of two sample t test. There was no difference between the BMD and E modulus of femur in Perthes and sound sides in both subjects (p-value>0.05). As there is no difference between the BMD of femur in Perthes side, it can be concluded that the deformation of femur in these subjects may not be due to a change in BMD.

  19. Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Paper Prepared by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…

  20. Good validity and reliability of the forgotten joint score in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten G; Latifi, Roshan; Kallemose, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - When evaluating the outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), increasing emphasis has been put on patient satisfaction and ability to perform activities of daily living. To address this, the forgotten joint score (FJS) for assessment of knee awareness has been developed...

  1. Research on elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for activities implemented jointly; Kyodo jisshi katsudo hyoka guide line sakutei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) was researched to prevent the earth from warming. AIJ is the means to globally promote countermeasures against global warming cost-effectively by optimally combining every country`s technology, know-how and fund. AIJ was established in the 1st Conference of the Parties (COPI) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in March, 1995. The pilot phase of AIJ is first carried out by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries under the agreement of the parties. The current situation of activities is reported in COPI as materials for evaluation of AIJ. To promote AIJ, elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for AIJ Japan program is also necessary for Japan. This research arranged the contents of the evaluation guidelines and the method of classifying projects for AIJ Japan program, and carried out some case studies of promising projects to reduce greenhouse gas emission for future proposal. 3 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. The Measurement of Rigidity in Elbow Joint: An Objective Method for the Evaluation of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sepehri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common syndromes in Parkinson's disease (PD is rigidity. Currently, an index is used to evaluate the level of PD by the clinical measurement of rigidity in the upper extremity. The index uses a subjective method called Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating System (UPDRS. The subjective nature of this method makes the influence of physician in the measurement of rigidity possible. Hence, the development of a new standard method based on objective indices is needed. Materials and Methods: In this research, a new device was fabricated and used to measure the viscous and elastic indices and the range of motion during passive movement of elbow joint. The relation between each index and the level of illness was analyzed. The parameters were measured on 41 patients and 11 controls. The indices were extracted using Matlab-R14 software and the statistical analysis was performed using Spss-13. Results: Although there were significant differences in both the viscous and elastic indices between the pair groups and also among the UPDRS groups, but better correlations of the viscous ones and UPDRS were found.  The range of motion by itself has no good correlation with the level of the disease. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, it can be inferred that using viscous indices of rigidity may have an advantage over the elastic ones for the evaluation of Parkinson’s disease. Upon conducting more trials and also considering the sub indices in different parts of the range of motion, the method used here may become a standard objective method for the evaluation of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation (LITE). Post-Test Grease Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Martinez, James E.; Devivar, Rodrigo V.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a mechanism of the International Space Station (ISS) that orients the solar power generating arrays toward the sun as the ISS orbits our planet. The orientation with the sun must be maintained to fully charge the ISS batteries and maintain all the other ISS electrical systems operating properly. In 2007, just a few months after full deployment, the starboard SARJ developed anomalies that warranted a full investigation including ISS Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The EVA uncovered unexpected debris that was due to degradation of a nitride layer on the SARJ bearing race. ISS personnel identified the failure root-cause and applied an aerospace grease to lubricate the area associated with the anomaly. The corrective action allowed the starboard SARJ to continue operating within the specified engineering parameters. The SARJ LITE (Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation) program was initiated by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing to simulate the operation of the ISS SARJ for an extended time. The hardware was designed to test and evaluate the exact material components used aboard the ISS SARJ, but in a controlled area where engineers could continuously monitor the performance. After running the SARJ LITE test for an equivalent of 36+ years of continuous use, the test was opened to evaluate the metallography and lubrication. We have sampled the SARJ LITE rollers and plate to fully assess the grease used for lubrication. Chemical and thermal analysis of these samples has generated information that has allowed us to assess the location, migration, and current condition of the grease. The collective information will be key toward understanding and circumventing any performance deviations involving the ISS SARJ in the years to come.

  4. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  5. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  6. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  7. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  8. Exemplification of Tomographic Method to Evaluate the Quality of Welded Joints Made from EN 5754-H22 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błachnio Józef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of welded joints depends on many factors. The relevant standards stipulate technical conditions of welds quality assessment, which provides the basis for stating whether the given joint is compatible with the requirements or whether it is defective. In practice, making welded joints that are totally devoid of defects is extremely difficult. To conduct the control of inner structure of the given joint a non-destructive method with the application of industrial CT scanner might be applied. This modern diagnosing method combines the x-ray examination with advanced computer technology. The basic advantage of computer-assisted tomography consists in examining objects in three dimensions and the possibility to carry out three-dimensional reconstructions. The aim of this article is to discuss the use of this method to evaluate the quality of welded joints made of aluminium alloys. Capabilities of computer-assisted tomography were depicted by the case of weld probes constructed with TIG (ang. Tungsten Inert Gas welding by different process variables. One has made the analysis of the quality of probes showing the smallest and the biggest internal and external welding defects.

  9. Operational efficiency of the lighting system of bus salons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytkovskyi V.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of safety of people is studied primarily in aspects of natural and man-made disasters, fire, health and safety in the workplace. A problem connected with the way of life of the people, in particular with the use of bus transport remains almost out of sight. In addition to the foregoing, there is another side to the issue: modern development of industry and transport is characterized by large-scale introduction of technical measures aimed at saving energy In the specified aspect theoretical dependences for evaluation of technological economic efficiency of light sources in indoor lighting system buses are grounded. This theoretical dependency will make analytical framework justification applying the respective sources of light, taking into account the hygiene requirements to illumination. The methodology of calculation of economic efficiency of lighting of bus salons is offered. Estimating parameter is justified relative objective function value costs per unit of time or distance. The greatest costs are typical for lamps with incandescent bulbs. The least is common to lamps with fluorescent lamps. Led bulbs have no significant advantage even over incandescent lamps. The reason for this is the relatively high color temperature radiation of LED lamps that requires more light levels and, consequently, the high cost of energy, as well as relatively large initial cost of these lamps.

  10. Performance Evaluation of New Joint EDF-RM Scheduling Algorithm for Real Time Distributed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Real Time System, the achievement of deadline is the main target of every scheduling algorithm. Earliest Deadline First (EDF, Rate Monotonic (RM, and least Laxity First are some renowned algorithms that work well in their own context. As we know, there is a very common problem Domino's effect in EDF that is generated due to overloading condition (EDF is not working well in overloading situation. Similarly, performance of RM is degraded in underloading condition. We can say that both algorithms are complements of each other. Deadline missing in both events happens because of their utilization bounding strategy. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a new scheduling algorithm that carries through the drawback of both existing algorithms. Joint EDF-RM scheduling algorithm is implemented in global scheduler that permits task migration mechanism in between processors in the system. In order to check the improved behavior of proposed algorithm we perform simulation. Results are achieved and evaluated in terms of Success Ratio (SR, Average CPU Utilization (ECU, Failure Ratio (FR, and Maximum Tardiness parameters. In the end, the results are compared with the existing (EDF, RM, and D_R_EDF algorithms. It has been shown that the proposed algorithm performs better during overloading condition as well in underloading condition.

  11. In vitro evaluation of thermomechanic coupling in conical implant-to-abutment joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Tonino; Di Iorio, Donato; Caputi, Sergio; Degidi, Marco; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates the use of thermomechanic abutment-to-implant coupling. Ten 3.5 x 1 mm commercially pure titanium Ankylos implants (Dentsply Friadent, Mannheim, Germany) and 10 standard abutment of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V were used in the present study. All fixtures were mounted on hold specimen provided of a 10-ohm electrical resistance to maintain the fixture at 37 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C during the entire test and to evaluate the influence of the coefficient of thermal expansion on joined conical abutment. The threading part of all abutments was cut off using a diamond disc. All abutment implants were coupled at 35 N using a universal testing machine (Lloyd 30K, Lloyd Instruments Ltd. Segensworth, UK). Five abutments were heated at 37 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C, whereas the reaming were cooled at 0 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C before connection. To measure the difference a pull-out test was performed. The results were statistically analyzed using unpaired t test at P < 0.05. The cooled specimens showed a result (mean +/- SD) of 421.6 +/- 55.20 N, whereas for heated specimens the result was 238.4 +/- 42.27 N. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The thermomechanic coupling significantly increases the performance of the conical joint.

  12. Evaluation on joint toxicity of chlorinated anilines and cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Wang, Chao; Shi, Jiaqi; Chen, Lei

    2014-08-30

    The individual IC50 (the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15min exposure) of cadmium ion (Cd) and nine chlorinated anilines to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) were determined. In order to evaluate the combined effects of the nine chlorinated anilines and Cd, the toxicities of chlorinated anilines combined with different concentrations of Cd were determined, respectively. The results showed that the number of chlorinated anilines manifesting synergy with Cd decreased with the increasing Cd concentration, and the number manifesting antagonism decreased firstly and then increased. The joint toxicity of mixtures at low Cd concentration was weaker than that of most binary mixtures when combined with Cd at medium and high concentrations as indicated by TUTotal. QSAR analysis showed that the single toxicity of chlorinated anilines was related to the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO). When combined with different concentrations of Cd, the toxicity was related to the energy difference (EHOMO-ELUMO) with different coefficients. Van der Waals' force or the complexation between chlorinated anilines and Cd had an impact on the toxicity of combined systems, which could account for QSAR models with different physico-chemical descriptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and pre-feasibility evaluation of potential joint implementation demonstration projects in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, A.; Dudek, D.J.

    1994-12-30

    The report identifies and evaluates (primarily on grounds of environmental feasibility or integrity of carbon offsets produced) five potential demonstration joint implementation projects in Costa Rica. The five projects reviewed are a biomass conversion project at a large cement factory (NCSA); two watershed restoration and management projects, one with a large preservation component (JASEC and San Lorenzo); a tropical forest preservation effort (Esquinas); and the creation of a biological corridor through land management and ecotourism (Monteverde). Projects were ranked relative to the criteria as either satisfactory or uncertain, depending on whether or not there were uncertainties related to meeting the criteria. All five projects appear to be satisfactory in terms of other values, such as Costa Rican development priorities, local environmental and economic benefits, replaceability and local support. In terms of environmental feasibility, or the ability to produce real, measurable and valid CO{sub 2} offsets in the context of the FCCC, all project but Esquinas are satisfactory in terms of baseline assumptions and monitoring, or could become so with easily implemented adjustments to the project design. In terms of durability or security of the offset, all projects except JASEC were judged to be satisfactory or capable of becoming so with a feasible modification to the project design. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Sonographic evaluation of hip joint effusion in osteoarthritis with correlation to radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Jeff; Pruente, Ryan; Avram, Raluca; Eyler, William; Mahan, Meredith; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    2014-05-01

    Hip joint effusion is expected in rapidly destructive osteoarthritis, a diagnosis often only made retrospectively at the end stage of the disease. This study assesses whether the presence of an effusion identified during routine ultrasound-guided hip injection may suggest a more aggressive process such as rapidly destructive osteoarthritis. After the observation of 10 index cases of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis in patients who presented with a joint effusion on ultrasound, we retrospectively reviewed 94 hips from 89 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided hip injection for pain. Preinjection longitudinal ultrasound images of the anterior capsule adjacent to the femoral neck and inferior to the femoral head were reviewed to determine if a joint effusion was present and the size of the effusion if one was there. Comparison of effusion size was then made between those hips that had a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of osteoarthritis and those who had rapidly destructive osteoarthritis by comparing the severity of joint effusion, if one was present. Patients with rapidly destructive osteoarthritis were more likely to have a large joint effusion 60% (3/5) than were those with osteoarthritis 6.7% (6/89) (p = 0.013). Large joint effusions identified sonographically correlate well with radiographic findings of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis. Given rapid onset and severity of the disease, when a large joint effusion is identified on routine hip intervention, patients should be forewarned of the potential for this disease process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Clinical evaluation of hip joint rotation range of motion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, P; Coulomb, R; Sanchez, T; Asencio, G

    2012-02-01

    Data on hip joint rotation range of motion (ROM) are rare; the methods of measurement vary and reproducibility has not been evaluated, in particular in relation to the subject's position (prone or supine, seated). Hip joint rotation ROM is symmetrical, and ROM is not modified by the patient's position when data is obtained. This series included 120 adults between 20 and 60 years old (71 women, 49 men), who had no hip, spine or lower extremity disorders. External (ER) and internal (IR) rotation ROM was obtained using a photographic method by two observers. Measurements were obtained with the patient in three positions: the dorsal decubitus (supine) (P1), and ventral decubitus (prone) (P2) with the hip in extension and seated with the hip in flexion (P3). Hip rotation ROM was P1: 68.1° (ER=38.5°; IR=29.6°); P2: 77.1°(ER=41.8°; IR=35.2°); P3: 78.5° (ER=78.5°; IR=37.9°) with no significant difference among the three positions. Interobserver reproducibility was satisfactory (concordance correlation coefficient (ccc) 0.7) and was comparable in the three positions with a ccc of 0.7072 (P1), 0.7426 (P2) and 0.7332 (P3), respectively. Hip rotation ROM balance was ER predominant in 47.5%, neutral in 39.5% and IR predominant in 13%. Hip rotation ROM balance was symmetric in both hips in 73 subjects (61%). Hip rotation ROM was reduced with age (P<0.0001), and was 4.7° less in men (P=0.0078), and in overweight subjects (P<0.0006). Our values are probably lower than those in the literature because of the difference in study population. In our series, age, BMI and gender seemed to be determining factors. Hip rotation ROM balance is usually ER predominant or neutral. Hip rotation ROM can be measured in the three positions with no significant difference, with satisfactory interobserver reproducibility for each. Diagnostic prospective study: level III. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety evaluation of joint and conventional lane merge configurations for freeway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Sherif; Qi, Yan; Rayaprolu, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Inefficient operation of traffic in work zone areas not only leads to an increase in travel time delays, queue length, and fuel consumption but also increases the number of forced merges and roadway accidents. This study evaluated the safety performance of work zones with a conventional lane merge (CLM) configuration in Louisiana. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the crash rates for accidents involving fatalities, injuries, and property damage only (PDO) in each of the following 4 areas: (1) advance warning area, (2) transition area, (3) work area, and (4) termination area. The analysis showed that the advance warning area had higher fatality, injury, and PDO crash rates when compared to the transition area, work area, and termination area. This finding confirmed the need to make improvements in the advance warning area where merging maneuvers take place. Therefore, a new lane merge configuration, called joint lane merge (JLM), was proposed and its safety performance was examined and compared to the conventional lane merge configuration using a microscopic simulation model (VISSIM), which was calibrated with real-world data from an existing work zone on I-55 and used to simulate a total of 25 different scenarios with different levels of demand and traffic composition. Safety performance was evaluated using 2 surrogate measures: uncomfortable decelerations and speed variance. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine whether the differences in safety performance between both configurations were significant. The safety analysis indicated that JLM outperformed CLM in most cases with low to moderate flow rates and that the percentage of trucks did not have a significant impact on the safety performance of either configuration. Though the safety analysis did not clearly indicate which lane merge configuration is safer for the overall work zone area, it was able to identify the possibly associated safety changes within the work zone area under

  17. Bond strength evaluation in adhesive joints using NDE and DIC methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Anish

    Adhesive bonding of graphite epoxy composite laminates to itself or traditional metal alloys in modern aerospace and aircraft structural applications offers an excellent opportunity to use the most efficient and intelligent combination of materials available thus providing an attractive package for efficient structural designs. However, one of the major issues of adhesive bonding is the occasional formation of interfacial defects such as kissing or weak bonds in the bondline interface. Also, there are shortcomings of existing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to non-destructively detect/characterize these interfacial defects and reliably predicting the bond shear strength. As a result, adhesive bonding technology is still not solely implemented in primary structures of an aircraft. Therefore, there is a greater demand for a novel NDE tool that can meet the existing aerospace requirement for adhesive bondline characterization. This research implemented a novel Acoustography ultrasonic imaging and digital image correlation (DIC) technique to detect and characterize interfacial defects in the bondline and determine bond shear strength in adhesively bonded composite-metal joints. Adhesively bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate and 2024-T3 Aluminum single lap shear panels subjected to various implanted kissing/weak bond defects were the primary focus of this study. Kissing/weak bonds were prepared by controlled surface contamination in the composite bonding surface and also by improperly mixing the adhesive constituent. SEM analyses were also conducted to understand the surface morphology of substrates and their interaction with the contaminants. Morphological changes were observed in the microscopic scale and the chemical analysis confirmed the stability of the contaminant at or very close to the interface. In addition, it was also demonstrated that contaminants migrated during the curing of the adhesive from CFRP substrate which caused a

  18. Facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain: an evaluation of prevalence and false-positive rate of diagnostic blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchukonda, Rajeev; Manchikanti, Kavita N; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2007-10-01

    A retrospective review. Evaluation of the prevalence of facet or zygapophysial joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar origin by using controlled, comparative local anesthetic blocks and evaluation of false-positive rates of single blocks in the diagnosis of chronic spinal pain of facet joint origin. Facet or zygapophysial joints are clinically important sources of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The previous studies have demonstrated the value and validity of controlled, comparative local anesthetic blocks in the diagnosis of facet joint pain, with a prevalence of 15% to 67% variable in lumbar, thoracic, and cervical regions. False-positive rates of single diagnostic blocks also varied from 17% to 63%. Five hundred consecutive patients receiving controlled, comparative local anesthetic blocks of medial branches for the diagnosis of facet or zygapophysial joint pain were included. Patients were investigated with diagnostic blocks using 0.5 mL of 1% lidocaine per nerve. Patients with lidocaine-positive results were further studied using 0.5 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine per nerve on a separate occasion. Medial branch blocks were performed with intermittent fluoroscopic visualization, at 2 levels to block a single joint. A positive response was considered as one with at least 80% pain relief from a block of at least 2 hours duration when lidocaine was used, and at least 3 hours or longer than the duration of relief with lidocaine when bupivacaine was used, and also the ability to perform prior painful movements. A total of 438 patients met inclusion criteria. The prevalence of facet joint pain was 39% in the cervical spine [95% confidence interval (CI), 32%-45%]; 34% (95% CI, 22%-47%) in the thoracic pain; and 27% (95% CI, 22%-33%) in the lumbar spine. The false-positive rate with a single block in the cervical region was 45%, in the thoracic region was 42%, and in the lumbar region 45%. This retrospective review once again

  19. Optimum conductive fabric sensor sites for evaluating the status of knee joint movements using bio-impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jinkwon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many studies that utilize the bio-impedance measurement method to analyze the movements of the upper and lower limbs. A fixed electrical current flows into the limbs through four standard disposable electrodes in this method. The current flows in the muscles and blood vessels, which have relatively low resistivity levels in the human body. This method is used to measure bio-impedance changes following volume changes of muscles and blood vessels around a knee joint. The result of the bio-impedance changes is used to evaluate the movements. However, the method using the standard disposable electrodes has a restriction related to its low bio-impedance changes: the standard disposable electrodes are only able to measure bio-impedance from a limited part of a muscle. Moreover, it is impossible to use continuously, as the electrodes are designed to be disposable. This paper describes a conductive fabric sensor (CFS using a bio-impedance measurement method and determines the optimum configuration of the sensor for estimating knee joint movements. Methods The upper side of subjects' lower limbs was divided into two areas and the lower side of subjects' lower limbs was divided into three areas. The spots were matched and 6 pairs were selected. Subjects were composed of 15 males (age: 30.7 ± 5.3, weight: 69.8 ± 4.2 kg, and height: 173.5 ± 2.8 cm with no known problems with their knee joints. Bio-impedance changes according to knee joint flexion/extension assessments were calculated and compared with bio-impedance changes by an ankle joint flexion/extension test (SNR I and a hip joint flexion/extension test (SNR II. Results The bio-impedance changes of the knee joint flexion/extension assessment were 35.4 ± 20.0 Ω on the (1, 5 pair. SNR I was 3.8 ± 8.4 and SNR II was 6.6 ± 7.9 on the (1, 5 pair. Conclusions The optimum conductive fabric sensor configuration for evaluating knee joint movements were represented by

  20. Magnetic resonance evaluation of temporomandibular joint components in successfully treated cases of closed lock with a stuck disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Takayoshi; Fukuda, Masayuki; Seki, Hiroshi; Iino, Mitsuyoshi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Funaki, Katsuyuki; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphological changes in temporomandibular joint components by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5 Tesla) before and after treatment for closed lock with a stuck disc. A total of 25 joints (25 patients) that were successfully treated and showed marked improvement in range of motion and articular pain after treatment were studied. Each joint was evaluated on the basis of pretreatment and posttreatment MRI findings, including disc mobility, condylar translation, disc reduction, disc shape, degree of disc displacement, bone changes of the condyle, and signal intensity of the posterior disc attachment. Posttreatment MRI revealed that all joints had mobile discs, and the range of the condylar translation had increased. Deformity of the disc and condyle had progressed remarkably. The posterior disc attachment showed low signal intensity. These results suggest that improved disc mobility is indispensable for successful treatment. The results also reveal that the disc, condyle, and posterior attachment showed various changes caused by remodeling. (author)

  1. Accuracy of in vivo palpation-guided acromioclavicular joint injection assessed with contrast material and fluoroscopic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scillia, Anthony; Issa, Kimona; McInerney, Vincent K; Milman, Edward; Baltazar, Romulo; Dasti, Umer; Festa, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of in vivo acromioclavicular (AC) joint injections without fluoroscopic guidance and assess whether patient demographics affected the accuracy of injections. A consecutive cohort of patients who presented with painful acromioclavicular joints was prospectively evaluated. All patients had clinical and radiographic evidence of AC arthritis, had failed conservative measures, and thus had received intraarticular corticosteroid injections. All injections were performed by experienced fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists and by blinded digital palpation technique. Accuracy of injections was assessed with biplanar fluoroscopic views. Forty-one AC injections in 22 males and 16 females with a mean age of 51 years (range 18 to 78) were identified. Twenty-three injections were in the right shoulder and 18 in the left. Only 15 injections were confirmed to be in the intraarticular AC joint, yielding an accuracy of 36.5%. There were no significant differences in the mean age (54 vs. 52 years; p = 0.58), male-to-female ratio (p = 0.73), and side of the injection between the accurate and inaccurate injections, respectively. Based on the findings of the present study, the authors encourage the use of image guidance for corticosteroid treatment of the AC joint. Level IV Therapeutic Case Series.

  2. A pendulum test as a tool to evaluate viscous friction parameters in the equine fetlock joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Prisca; Lumay, Geoffroy; Coninx, Marc; Collin, Bernard; Magnée, Adrien; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Denoix, Jean M; Serteyn, Didier

    2011-05-01

    An equine fetlock joint pendulum test was studied and the influence of post mortem time and intra-articular lipid solvent on the viscous frictional response examined. Fresh equine digits (group 1, n=6 controls; group 2, n=6 lipid solvent) were mounted on a pendulum tribometer. Assuming that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a harmonic oscillator fluid damping (HOFD), damping time (τ), viscous damping coefficient (c) and friction coefficient (μ) were monitored for 5h under experimental conditions (400N; 20°C). In all experiments, pendular joint damping was found to follow an exponential decay function (R(2)=0.99714), which confirmed that joint damping was fluid. The evolution of τ, c and μ was found to be significantly (Plubricating ability was compromised. This equine pendulum test could be used to test the efficacy of various bio-lubricant treatments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Damage state evaluation of adhesive composite joints using chaotic ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-03-01

    Ultrasonic chaotic excitations combined with sensor prediction algorithms have shown the ability to identify incipient damage (loss of preload) in a bolted joint. In this study we examine the capability of this damage detection scheme to identify disbonds and poorly cured bonds in a composite-to-composite adhesive joint. The test structure consists of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate that has been bonded to a CFRP rectangular tube/spar with several sizes of disbond as well as a poorly cured section. Each excitation signal is imparted to the CFRP plate through a macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch on one side of the adhesive joint and sensed using an equivalent MFC patch on the opposite side of the joint. A novel statistical classification feature is developed from information theory concepts of cross-prediction and interdependence. Temperature dependence of this newly developed feature will also be examined.

  4. A pendulum test as a tool to evaluate viscous friction parameters in the equine fetlock joint

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Prisca; Lumay, Geoffroy; Coninx, Marc; Collin, Bernard; Magnée, Adrien; LECOMTE-BECKERS, Jacqueline; Denoix; Serteyn, Didier

    2011-01-01

    An equine fetlock joint pendulum test was studied and the influence of post mortem time and intra-articular lipid solvent on the viscous frictional response examined. Fresh equine digits (group 1, n=6 controls; group 2, n=6 lipid solvent) were mounted on a pendulum tribometer. Assuming that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a harmonic oscillator fluid damping (HOFD), damping time (τ), viscous damping coefficient (c) and friction coefficient (μ) were monitored for 5h under experiment...

  5. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanhong; Zhang Quanzhu; Zhang Wenshan

    2017-01-01

    Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service lif...

  6. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service life of the electric locomotive.

  7. Evaluation of a subject-specific finite-element model of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint under physiological load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-01-03

    The equine metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is frequently injured, especially by racehorses in training. Most injuries result from repetitive loading of the subchondral bone and articular cartilage rather than from acute events. The likelihood of injury is multi-factorial but the magnitude of mechanical loading and the number of loading cycles are believed to play an important role. Therefore, an important step in understanding injury is to determine the distribution of load across the articular surface during normal locomotion. A subject-specific finite-element model of the MCP joint was developed (including deformable cartilage, elastic ligaments, muscle forces and rigid representations of bone), evaluated against measurements obtained from cadaver experiments, and then loaded using data from gait experiments. The sensitivity of the model to force inputs, cartilage stiffness, and cartilage geometry was studied. The FE model predicted MCP joint torque and sesamoid bone flexion angles within 5% of experimental measurements. Muscle-tendon forces, joint loads and cartilage stresses all increased as locomotion speed increased from walking to trotting and finally cantering. Perturbations to muscle-tendon forces resulted in small changes in articular cartilage stresses, whereas variations in joint torque, cartilage geometry and stiffness produced much larger effects. Non-subject-specific cartilage geometry changed the magnitude and distribution of pressure and the von Mises stress markedly. The mean and peak cartilage stresses generally increased with an increase in cartilage stiffness. Areas of peak stress correlated qualitatively with sites of common injury, suggesting that further modelling work may elucidate the types of loading that precede joint injury and may assist in the development of techniques for injury mitigation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods. PMID:24883374

  9. An optimal control strategy for DC bus voltage regulation in photovoltaic system with battery energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  10. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Zalani Daud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system with battery energy storage (BES. The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC. For the grid side VSC (G-VSC, two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  11. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF THE BUS PRIORITY IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hidayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bus is expected to play an important role in providing a reliable travel in congested conditions. Therefore, it has been widely studied to minimize the travel time and the delay of the bus by proposing bus priority scheme to increase the attractiveness of public transport against private vehicles. Signal timing optimization combined with the bus priority scheme are discussed in this research as the alternatives to improve the intersection performances. Further, identifying the effects of these alternatives towards the general vehicles and public transport system performances were the aims of this research as well. As the result of this research, bus advance area with pre-signal method is able to reduce the travel time and delay of the bus for routes 2A and 3A by 11%, 23% and 14% , 0% respectively and able to reduce travel time, delay, and queue of vehicles by 25%, 26%, 7% consecutively. Thus bus advance area with pre-signal method is proposed as the best alternative due to its impact to reduce the bus travel times and delay without degrading the other vehicles performance. Keywords: bus priority, optimizing signal timing, Aimsun simulation, travel time-delay-queue.

  12. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  13. Hinged distraction of the hip joint in the treatment of Perthes disease: evaluation at skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laklouk, Mohamed Abdel-Rehim; Hosny, Gamal Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the effect of this type of treatment on the shape of the femoral head, the range of motion (ROM), radiological changes in the femoral head, and the prognosis of Perthes disease at skeletal maturity. From 1998 to 2007, 53 patients with Perthes disease were treated with a combination of soft tissue release and joint distraction with a hinged monolateral external fixator in 32 patients and by Ilizarov external fixator in 21 patients. Nineteen of our 53 patients attained skeletal maturity and were evaluated in our study. This study included 15 boys and four girls, mean age at surgery 9.3 years (range 7.2-13.1), and mean age at the last follow-up 17.4 years (range 14.9-21.3). The duration of symptoms varied from a period of 6 to 60 months before the operation. Radiographs taken during the fragmentation stage of the disease were classified by the lateral pillar classification of Herring; 19 of our patients attained skeletal maturity and were evaluated. Clinical assessment included the Harris hip score, hip ROM, and limb length discrepancy. Radiographic assessment included sharp transverse acetabular inclination, the uncoverage percentage, the epiphyseal index before surgery (modified Eyre-Brook), at frame removal, and at the last follow-up, the epiphyseal quotient (of Sjovall), and the Stulberg classification. The mean follow-up was 7.2 years (range 4.1-11.3). The mean Harris hip score was 87.1/100 (range 49.2-94.8). An improvement in hip (ROM) of 83.3% of the normal range was restored. There was a marked improvement in the degree of pain and limp postoperatively. The hip ROM was slightly limited in most patients, and seven patients had limb shortening of between 1 and 3 cm. The mean sharp transverse acetabular inclination of the affected side was 44° (range 35-51) compared with 37° for the unaffected side (P=0.042). The mean uncoverage percentage was 36% (range 24-45) compared with 21% for the unaffected side (P=0.027). The mean

  14. In Vivo Osteoinduction: Evaluating 2-Beta Coxatene as an Immunoinductive Compound and Novel Ingredient for Joint Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Katherine; Scaffidi, James J

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive loss of articular cartilage. Many treatments lack the ability to stimulate the growth of native cartilage tissue while they simultaneously increase joint comfort. For the past few decades, dietary supplements have been investigated for the ability to both address joint inflammation and stimulate cartilage tissue. The present study intended to examine the supplement's in vivo osteoinductive capabilities and clinical efficacy for overall joint health. The research team designed a randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical trial. The study took place via telephone interviews. Participants had self-reported OA of a weight-bearing joint (ie, of the knee, hip, spine, or ankle). Patients were recruited using the Health Science Institute, a consumer supplement newsletter. Participants in the intervention group were blindly given 135 mg of 2-Beta Coxatene (2BCT) orally, which contained (1) a custom blend of low-dose Cyplexinol, an osteoinductive protein complex derived from bovine bone tissue, and (2) Boswellia serrata resin enriched to 65% 3- O -Acetyl-11-keto-β-Boswellic acid. A positive control group was blindly given 1500 mg of glucosamine hydrogen chloride and 1200 mg of chondroitin sulfate. Participants took the supplements for 3 mo. A histological evaluation was performed on an athymic rat to test the supplement's in vivo osteoinductive capabilities. A negative control, commercially purchased, unhydrolyzed type 2 collagen was used for that test. Participants were evaluated for parameters of pain and joint function at baseline (day 0) and at days 7, 30, and 90 using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) OA index and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The histological evaluation of the athymic rat confirmed that the Cyplexinol component of the 2BCT was positive for de novo bone tissue and collagen synthesis, corroborating osteoinduction. In the clinical trial, the

  15. Evaluation of chondrocalcinosis and associated knee joint degeneration using MR imaging: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Heilmeier, Ursula; Joseph, Gabby B.; Facchetti, Luca; Kretzschmar, Martin; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lynch, John A.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Nevitt, Michael C. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the ability of different MRI sequences to detect chondrocalcinosis within knee cartilage and menisci, and to analyze the association with joint degeneration. Subjects with radiographic knee chondrocalcinosis (n = 90, age 67.7 ± 7.3 years, 50 women) were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative and matched to controls without radiographic chondrocalcinosis (n = 90). Visualization of calcium-containing crystals (CaC) was compared between 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo (T1GE), 3D dual echo steady-state (DESS), 2D intermediate-weighted (IW), and proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences obtained with 3T MRI and correlated with a semiquantitative CaC score obtained from radiographs. Structural abnormalities were assessed using Whole-Organ MRI Score (WORMS) and logistic regression models were used to compare cartilage compartments with and without CaC. Correlations between CaC counts of MRI sequences and degree of radiographic calcifications were highest for GE (r{sub T1GE} = 0.73, P < 0.001; r{sub DESS} = 0.68, P < 0.001) compared to other sequences (P > 0.05). Meniscus WORMS was significantly higher in subjects with chondrocalcinosis compared to controls (P = 0.005). Cartilage defects were significantly more frequent in compartments with CaC than without (patella: P = 0.006; lateral tibia: P < 0.001; lateral femur condyle: P = 0.017). Gradient-echo sequences were most useful for the detection of chondrocalcinosis and presence of CaC was associated with higher prevalence of cartilage and meniscal damage. (orig.)

  16. Joint Evaluation of EM Signals Detected Around the Time of Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Ciraolo, L.; Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.; Parrot, M.; Taylor, P.

    2007-12-01

    We present results from our studies of atmospheric and ionospheric electromagnetic (EM) signals preceding major earthquakes. This study examines possible associations relating anomalous changes of thermal and ionospheric parameters observed around the time of several strong earthquakes (M8.0 in Peru and 1999-2005 in California). Our approach requires an integrated analysis of several physical and environmental parameters (thermal infrared electromagnetic fields, latent heat flux, ionospheric parameters, specifically GPS/TEC, DEMETER and electron density, air temperature and humidity of the boundary layer, and seismicity) that have been found to be associated with impending earthquakes. The ionospheric and atmospheric observational methodology we present is based on a joint analysis of: (1) satellite long-wavelength radiation data form NOAA; (2) surface latent heat flux (SLHF); (3) GPS/TEC and DEMETER; and (4) thermal infrared data from (NASA EOS/MODIS) together with ground air temperature and humidity measurements. Our latest understanding from several post-earthquake independent analyses takes into account the problem of proper evaluation of such alarm techniques for upcoming major (M>5.5, depthPeru (08/15/2007) and EM signals found before the major events in California, using the same methodology. We found evidence of the systematic appearance of both atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies preceding most of these major events. Nighttime TIR signals, approximately a week before the earthquakes, corresponded with an increase of SLHF and air temperature; these were followed by significant variations in the ionospheric TEC measurements above the epicenters. Our findings are consistent with the most recent theoretical model of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling between the crust and the atmosphere/ionosphere proposed by Pulinets et al, (2004, 2006)

  17. Sonographic assessment of healthy peripheral joints: evaluation according to demographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Flavia S; Natour, Jamil; Takahashi, Rogerio D; de Buosi, Ana Leticia P; Furtado, Rita N V

    2014-12-01

    To describe quantitative and semiquantitative sonographic joint measurements in healthy adults and compare them with demographic parameters. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Bilateral sonographic measurements of small, medium, and large joints were performed in 130 healthy volunteers, stratified into 5 age groups (A, 18-29; B, 30-39; C, 40-49; D, 50-59; and E, 60-80 years). Quantitative synovial hypertrophy measurements and semiquantitative synovial hypertrophy, power Doppler, bone erosion (score 0-3), and articular cartilage (score 0-4) measurements were performed by a blinded radiologist using a 6-18-MHz linear array transducer. The sonographic measurements were correlated with demographic parameters. The significant P value was set at .05. A total of 6500 joint recesses were studied; the mean age ± SD of the participants was 44.8 ± 14.6 years, and 76.9% were women. The highest quantitative synovial hypertrophy values were found in the hip (6.4 mm) and talonavicular joint (2.6 mm). The joint recesses with a greater frequency of hypothetical pathologic semiquantitative scores were second metatarsophalangeal (78.8%) and first metatarsophalangeal (69.3%) for synovial hypertrophy, radiocarpal (17.7%) and first metatarsophalangeal (15.8%) for power Doppler, and posterior glenohumeral (23.1%) and ulnocarpal (4.2%) for bone erosion. The highest quantitative synovial hypertrophy values and the lowest semiquantitative synovial hypertrophy, power Doppler, bone erosion, and articular cartilage scores were observed in age group E (P joint recesses studied. Sonographic changes in healthy peripheral joints were observed predominantly in the oldest group. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Kinematic evaluation of movement smoothness in golf: relationship between the normalized jerk cost of body joints and the clubhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Joo, Su-Bin; Oh, Euichaul; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2014-02-26

    When the human body is introduced to a new motion or movement, it learns the placement of different body parts, sequential muscle control, and coordination between muscles to achieve necessary positions, and it hones this new skill over time and repetition. Previous studies have demonstrated definite differences in the smoothness of body movements with different levels of training, i.e., amateurs compared with professionals. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that skilled golfers swing a driver with a smoother motion than do unskilled golfers. In addition, the relationship between the smoothness of body joints and that of the clubhead was evaluated to provide further insight into the mechanism of smooth golf swing. Two subject groups (skilled and unskilled) participated in the experiment. The skilled group comprised 20 male professional golfers registered with the Korea Professional Golf Association, and the unskilled group comprised 19 amateur golfers who enjoy golf as a hobby. Six infrared cameras (VICON460 system) were used to record the 3D trajectories of markers attached to the clubhead and body segments, and the resulting data was evaluated with kinematic analysis. A physical quantity called jerk was calculated to investigate differences in smoothness during downswing between the two study groups. The hypothesis that skilled golfers swing a driver with a smoother motion than do unskilled golfers was supported. The normalized jerk of the clubhead of skilled golfers was lower than that of unskilled golfers in the anterior/posterior, medial/lateral, and proximal/distal directions. Most human joints, especially in the lower body, had statistically significant lower normalized jerk values in the skilled group. In addition, the normalized jerk of the skilled group's lower body joints had a distinct positive correlation with the normalized jerk of the clubhead with r = 0.657 (p joints than that of the upper body joints. These findings can be used to

  19. Long-term evaluation of single-puncture temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis in patients with unilateral temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürk, M F; Yıldırım, D; Bilgir, E; Fındık, Y; Baykul, T

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of the single-puncture arthrocentesis (SPA) technique. Forty-two patients with unilateral temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) were treated by SPA. Thirty-eight of these patients completed 1-24 months of follow-up (short-term group) and 21 completed 11 months or longer of follow-up (long-term group). The two groups were evaluated statistically for pain (visual analogue scale), maximum mouth opening, lateral excursion, and protrusion. Both follow-up duration groups showed significant improvements when compared to baseline levels for almost all of the outcome variables (P<0.05). Single puncture temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis is an effective treatment method over both the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GeoBus: bringing Earth science learning to secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruth; Roper, Kathryn; Pike, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have no or little expertise of teaching Earth science, to share the outcomes of new science research and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Almost 35,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities by April 2015, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The challenge with secondary school experiential learning as outreach is that activities need to be completed in either 50 or 80 minutes to fit within the school timetables in the UK, and this can limit the amount of hands-on activities that pupils undertake in one session. However, it is possible to dedicate a whole or half day of linked activities to Earth science learning within the Scotland Curriculum for Excellence, and this provides a long enough period to undertake field work, conduct group projects, or complete more complicated experiments. GeoBus has developed a suite of workshops that all involve experiential learning and are targeted for shorter and longer time slots, and the lessons learned in developing and refining these workshops to maximise the learning achieved will be presented. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate research outcomes directly into workshops, and to involve early career researchers in project development. One example that is currently in progress is a set of hydrology workshops that focus on the water

  1. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... transportation, environmental protection, and housing investments. Bus Livability will invest in projects that... characteristics of all communities by investing in healthy, safe and walkable neighborhoods--rural, urban or... guidelines. The project improves energy efficiency or reduces energy consumption/green house gas emissions...

  2. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...--New York, Administrator, Region 7--Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust Street... transportation bus fleet, infrastructure, and equipment in a state of good repair. Project Implementation..., Region 6--Ft. Kendall Square, 55 Broadway, Suite Worth, 819 Taylor Street, Room 920, Cambridge, MA 02142...

  3. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  4. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  5. EVALUATION OF URBAN ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION MODELS USING DATA FROM THE JOINT URBAN 2003 FIELD EXPERIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    T. Urban, Jeffry; Warner, Steve; Platt, Nathan; F. Heagy, James

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: We have evaluated the performance of several urban atmospheric transport and dispersion models by comparing model predictions to tracer gas concentrations measured during the Joint Urban 2003 field experiment in Oklahoma City, USA. These models include the Urban Canopy, Urban Dispersion Model (UDM), and Micro-SWIFT/SPRAY (MSS) modes within the HPAC modelling suite, QUIC-URB/QUIC-PLUME models, and the MESO/RUSTIC models. We discuss some of the results of these comparisons...

  6. The Transmission of Lamb Waves Across Adhesively Bonded lap Joints to Evaluate Interfacial Adhesive Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryabe, Emmanuel; Renier, Mathieu; Meziane, Anissa; Castaings, Michel

    The present work attempts to infer mechanical interfacial properties for lap joint like structures, using Lamb wave modes. A pair of air-coupled, ultrasonic transducers is used to generate and detect a desired Lamb mode. The Lamb waves are launched from one plate and propagate towards the other plate, via the joint. Signals are picked up by the receiving transducer, before and past the joint, and post-processed to obtain the experimental transmission coefficient versus frequency. In addition, a two-dimensional Finite Element-based model is developed and used to compare predicted transmission coefficients with experimental results. The FE model simulates the excitation produced by the transmittertakes into account the viscoelastic properties of the adhesive layer and distributions of longitudinal (kL) and shear (kT) springs at both interfaces between the adhesive and the substrates. Temporal responses of the receiving transducer are predicted before and past the joints, as well as the transmission coefficient versus frequency. This paper discusses preliminary results for aluminium substrates. Values for both kLand kTare optimized so that best fit is obtained between numerical and experimental transmission coefficients. These results demonstrate the potential of Lamb waves to infer mechanical properties at interfaces in adhesively bonded joints.

  7. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  8. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  9. Design and evaluation of a quasi-passive knee exoskeleton for investigation of motor adaptation in lower extremity joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaei, Kamran; Cenciarini, Massimo; Adams, Albert A; Gregorczyk, Karen N; Schiffman, Jeffrey M; Dollar, Aaron M

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we describe the mechanical design and control scheme of a quasi-passive knee exoskeleton intended to investigate the biomechanical behavior of the knee joint during interaction with externally applied impedances. As the human knee behaves much like a linear spring during the stance phase of normal walking gait, the exoskeleton implements a spring across the knee in the weight acceptance (WA) phase of the gait while allowing free motion throughout the rest of the gait cycle, accomplished via an electromechanical clutch. The stiffness of the device is able to be varied by swapping springs, and the timing of engagement/disengagement changed to accommodate different loading profiles. After describing the design and control, we validate the mechanical performance and reliability of the exoskeleton through cyclic testing on a mechanical knee simulator. We then describe a preliminary experiment on three healthy adults to evaluate the functionality of the device on both left and right legs. The kinetic and kinematic analyses of these subjects show that the exoskeleton assistance can partially/fully replace the function of the knee joint and obtain nearly invariant moment and angle profiles for the hip and ankle joints, and the overall knee joint and exoskeleton complex under the applied moments of the exoskeleton versus the control condition, implying that the subjects undergo a considerable amount of motor adaptation in their lower extremities to the exoskeletal impedances, and encouraging more in-depth future experiments with the device.

  10. Internal derangement of temporomandibular joint: an evaluation of effect of corticosteroid injection compared with injection of sodium hyaluronate after arthrocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraddi, Girish B; Siddaraju, A; Kumar, Bimleshwar; Singh, Chandravir

    2012-09-01

    Internal derangements are the commonest disorders of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Different treatment modalities including conservative and surgical methods have been proposed to treat the same. Arthrocentesis is gaining popularity in the treatment of internal derangement of TMJ. Being minimally invasive it does not have the demerits of surgical approaches and at the same time is producing better results than conservative approaches. This study evaluates and compares corticosteroid and sodium hyaluronate after arthrocentesis in the treatment of internal derangement of TMJ. Sixteen patients with internal derangement were randomly selected and divided into 2 groups (8 in each group). Arthrocentesis of the upper joint space was then performed using Ringer lactate under local anaesthesia followed by injection of either betamethasone or sodium hyaluronate into the joint. Clinical data was collected in the form of pain (visual analog scale), maximum mouth opening, joint sound and deviation before and after treatment up to 6 months. Both groups of patients were benefited from the treatment at the 6 month follow up and there was slightly less intensity of pain in sodium hyaluronate group compared with corticosteroid group. Maximum mouth opening was also increased in both groups. A decrease in clicking and deviation were seen in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between betamethasone and sodium hyaluronate. Intra articular injection of corticosteroid or sodium hyaluronate after arthrocentesis had considerable effect on the TMJ. Both betamethasone and sodium hyaluronate can be used after arthrocentesis with similar results.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE INTERMETATARSAL ANGLE AFTER THE ARTHRODESIS OF THE FIRST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT FOR TREATMENT OF THE HALLUX VALGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marco Túlio; Neto, Douglas Lobato Lopes; Kojima, Fábio Henrique; Ferreira, Ricardo Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correction of the intermetatarsal angle after arthrodesis of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux. We believe that varus deformity of the first metatarsal can be corrected after arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, without the need for proximal osteotomy. Methods: Forty-three feet of patients who had undergone arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint between May 1997 and October 2009 were retrospectively analyzed by means of radiographs. The mean length of follow-up was 58 months. Measurements on the metatarsophalangeal angle, intermetatarsal angle and sesamoid dislocation were made using radiographs made before, immediately after and later on after the operation. Results: The mean metatarsophalangeal angle was 37.6 degrees preoperatively, 12.8 degrees immediately after the operation and 16.4 degrees later on after the operation. The mean intermetatarsal angle was 16 degrees preoperatively, 10 degrees immediately after the operation and 10.2 degrees later on after the operation. Regarding sesamoid dislocation, preoperative radiographs showed most feet to be classified as G3; immediately after the operation, most were classified as G2; and later on after the operation, most were G1. Conclusion: The intermetatarsal angle and sesamoid dislocation improved with arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, without the need for osteotomy at the base of the first metatarsal. PMID:27042648

  12. A method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for joint repair applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehne Tilo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue adhesives are useful means for various medical procedures. Since varying requirements cause that a single adhesive cannot meet all needs, bond strength testing remains one of the key applications used to screen for new products and study the influence of experimental variables. This study was conducted to develop an easy to use method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for tissue engineering applications. Method Tissue grips were designed to facilitate the reproducible production of substrate tissue and adhesive strength measurements in universal testing machines. Porcine femoral condyles were used to generate osteochondral test tissue cylinders (substrates of different shapes. Viability of substrates was tested using PI/FDA staining. Self-bonding properties were determined to examine reusability of substrates (n = 3. Serial measurements (n = 5 in different operation modes (OM were performed to analyze the bonding strength of tissue adhesives in bone (OM-1 and cartilage tissue either in isolation (OM-2 or under specific requirements in joint repair such as filling cartilage defects with clinical applied fibrin/PLGA-cell-transplants (OM-3 or tissues (OM-4. The efficiency of the method was determined on the basis of adhesive properties of fibrin glue for different assembly times (30 s, 60 s. Seven randomly generated collagen formulations were analyzed to examine the potential of method to identify new tissue adhesives. Results Viability analysis of test tissue cylinders revealed vital cells (>80% in cartilage components even 48 h post preparation. Reuse (n = 10 of test substrate did not significantly change adhesive characteristics. Adhesive strength of fibrin varied in different test settings (OM-1: 7.1 kPa, OM-2: 2.6 kPa, OM-3: 32.7 kPa, OM-4: 30.1 kPa and was increasing with assembly time on average (2.4-fold. The screening of the different collagen formulations revealed a substance with significant

  13. A method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for joint repair applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Tissue adhesives are useful means for various medical procedures. Since varying requirements cause that a single adhesive cannot meet all needs, bond strength testing remains one of the key applications used to screen for new products and study the influence of experimental variables. This study was conducted to develop an easy to use method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for tissue engineering applications. Method Tissue grips were designed to facilitate the reproducible production of substrate tissue and adhesive strength measurements in universal testing machines. Porcine femoral condyles were used to generate osteochondral test tissue cylinders (substrates) of different shapes. Viability of substrates was tested using PI/FDA staining. Self-bonding properties were determined to examine reusability of substrates (n = 3). Serial measurements (n = 5) in different operation modes (OM) were performed to analyze the bonding strength of tissue adhesives in bone (OM-1) and cartilage tissue either in isolation (OM-2) or under specific requirements in joint repair such as filling cartilage defects with clinical applied fibrin/PLGA-cell-transplants (OM-3) or tissues (OM-4). The efficiency of the method was determined on the basis of adhesive properties of fibrin glue for different assembly times (30 s, 60 s). Seven randomly generated collagen formulations were analyzed to examine the potential of method to identify new tissue adhesives. Results Viability analysis of test tissue cylinders revealed vital cells (>80%) in cartilage components even 48 h post preparation. Reuse (n = 10) of test substrate did not significantly change adhesive characteristics. Adhesive strength of fibrin varied in different test settings (OM-1: 7.1 kPa, OM-2: 2.6 kPa, OM-3: 32.7 kPa, OM-4: 30.1 kPa) and was increasing with assembly time on average (2.4-fold). The screening of the different collagen formulations revealed a substance with significant higher adhesive

  14. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  15. Detailed investigation of the analysis conditions in the evaluation of bonded joints by cohesive zone models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, R. J. B.; Campilho, R. D. S. G.

    2017-05-01

    Cohesive Zone Models (CZM) are widely used for the strength prediction of adhesive joints. This work studies the influence of different conditions used in CZM simulations to model a thin adhesive layer in single-lap joints (SLJ) under a tensile loading, for an estimation of their influence on the strength prediction under diverse geometrical and material conditions. Adhesives ranging from brittle to highly ductile and overlap lengths (LO) between 12.5 and 50 mm were considered. Several damage initiation and growth criteria were tested. The analysis carried out in this work allowed to conclude that CZM is a powerful technique for strength prediction of bonded joints, provided that the modelling conditions are properly defined.

  16. Experimental and numerical evaluation of the fatigue behaviour in a welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, P.; Estrada, R.

    2014-07-01

    Welded joints are an important part in structures. For this reason, it is always necessary to know the behaviour of them under cyclic loads. In this paper a S - N curve of a butt welded joint of the AISI 1015 steel and Cuban manufacturing E6013 electrode is showed. Fatigue tests were made in an universal testing machine MTS810. The stress ratio used in the test was 0,1. Flaws in the fatigue specimens were characterized by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy. SolidWorks 2013 software was used to modeling the specimens geometry, while to simulate the fatigue behaviour Simulation was used. The joint fatigue limit is 178 MPa, and a cut point at 2 039 093 cycles. Some points of the simulations are inside of the 95% confidence band.

  17. Study on the calculation models of bus delay at bays using queueing theory and Markov chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-Wei; Wang, Dian-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  18. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  19. Effects of self stretching on pain and musculoskeletal symptom of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed on a scale of numeric rating scale (NRS) which is divided by 10. Ergonomic posture assessment was conducted using the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). Self-stretching exercise was performed for 4 weeks by the bus drivers who suffered from neck and shoulder pain. [Results] Musculoskeletal symptoms were present in the order of shoulder, neck, lower back and lower extremities. Compared with other jobs, the final score, and the action level of bus drivers were very high, showing 57.6% of action levels 3 and 4. A statistically significant decrease of pain was shown after the self-stretching intervention. There was also a significant decrease of musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders after the self-stretching exercise. [Conclusion] Performing stretching for musculoskeletal symptoms had a positive influence on the symptoms and reduced pain.

  20. The Effect of Working Conditions to the Health Status in Taxi and Bus Drivers in Canakkale, Turkey; Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Uludag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.

  1. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  2. Towards formal verification of ToolBus scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, W.; Klint, P.; Lisser, B.; Usenko, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    ToolBus allows one to connect tools via a software bus. Programming is done using the scripting language Tscript, which is based on the process algebra ACP. Tscript was originally designed to enable formal verification, but this option has so far not been explored in any detail. We present a method

  3. Solar Telescope Control with the CAN-Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettauer, T. V.

    The real time behavior, error handling and its simplicity makes CAN a preferable bus protocol to interconnect the various modules of a tower telescope. A schematic description of the control bus for the Kanzelhöhe Vakuum Telescope is given.

  4. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  5. Connecticut nutmeg fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administra-tion (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP). A team led by the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium a...

  6. Bus-based best-practice and urban transport emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Marcus Paul

    In Britain over recent years, transport has risen to the very top of the political agenda, partly because it is the fastest growing source of urban emissions. One politically attractive solution to this rapidly worsening problem, is 'improving public transport'. This thesis examines how the bus-the most widespread form of public transport-could be improved, and at how much these improvements would contribute to solving the emissions problem. The project was studied in two inter-related parts. The first part aimed to determine the factors necessary in forming the 'best possible' bus-based transport system by identifying and analysing a number of 'best-practice' bus systems in Europe and North America, using a case study approach. The second part then sought to quantify the effect on travel patterns and emissions that implementing this best possible bus-based transport system would have. This was done by modelling a series of possible scenarios with the START strategic transport model, and a modified version of the JET emissions inventory model. The City of Leicester was used as a modelling base. The study found that bus systems contributed most to reducing urban emissions where the needs of the bus passenger were made paramount, and where bus operators worked together with local government, local businesses etc. Even where these factors existed however, the effect of bus-based transport policies on levels of pollutants was found to be significant only when applied together with strong car restraint measures.

  7. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  8. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  9. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  10. Application of optical coherence tomography enhances reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemelä, Tytti; Virén, Tuomas; Liukkonen, Jukka; te Moller, Nikae; Puhakka, Pia H.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Tulamo, R.M.; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopy is widely used in various equine joints for diagnostic and surgical purposes. However, accuracy of defining the extent of cartilage lesions and reproducibility in grading of lesions are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for new, more quantitative arthroscopic methods.

  11. Evaluation of skin dose in tomographic radiographs of temporomandibular joint; Avaliacao da dose pele em radiografias tomograficas da articulacao tempromandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.B.; Chaves, F.C.; Rocha, F.E.F.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Khoury, H.J. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: khoury@elogica.com.br

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin entrance dose, in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctions submitted to computerized tomography. For this purpose, in a private medical establishment, in the city of Recife-Pe/Br, 40 patients were evaluated, in according to radiation doses received in eyes, thyroid and TMJ regions. The value found for eye region range from 0.004 to 0.125 mGy, for thyroid range from 0.002 to 0.113 mGy and for TMJ range from 0.112 to 0.541 mGy.

  12. Digital goniometric measurement of knee joint motion. Evaluation of usefulness for research settings and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleffken, Berry; van Breukelen, Gerard; Brink, Peter; van Mameren, Henk; Olde Damink, Steven

    2007-10-01

    An accurate and reproducible measurement method for joint motion is essential for classification of success or failure in therapeutic intervention. Digital goniometry is increasingly used as a method of classification for knee joint excursion. The reliability of goniometry however remains debatable. Aim of the study was to determine both intra- and inter-rater reproducibility in degrees, with an electronic digital inclinometer (EDI 320) for active and passive maximum flexion and active maximum extension of the knee joint and to determine the reproducibility of active and passive range of motion. A classical crossover design, with strict measurement protocol was used. Two raters measured 72 knee motions each, in 42 healthy subjects in four sessions. The smallest detectable difference (SDD) was calculated by using adjusted Bland and Altman plots for each knee excursion. No differences in joint excursions between the sexes were found. Passive maximum flexion showed larger excursions than active maximum flexion with additional higher levels of reproducibility. SDDs for inter-rater comparisons yielded: 0+/-3.9 degrees for active maximum extension, 0+/-7.4 degrees for active maximum flexion, 0+/-6.4 degrees for passive maximum flexion, 0+/-7.6 degrees for AROM and 0+/-5.4 degrees for PROM. Intra-rater SDDs showed increased reproducibility by 0.4-1.9 degrees. We conclude that interpretation of knee joint excursions in clinical settings is with these SDDs. Clinical and statistical differences in research settings within these SDDs are not a true difference but should be attributed to measurement error.

  13. A series of small scientific satellite with flexible standard bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Sawai, Syujiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Fukuda, Seisuke; Kitade, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has a plan to develop the small satellite standard bus for various scientific missions and disaster monitoring missions. The satellite bus is a class of 250-400 kg mass with three-axis control capability of 0.02∘ accuracy. The science missions include X-ray astronomy missions, planetary telescope missions, and magnetosphere atmosphere missions. In order to adapt the wide range of mission requirements, the satellite bus has to be provided with flexibility. The concepts of modularization, reusability, and product line are applied to the standard bus system. This paper describes the characteristics of the small satellite standard bus which will be firstly launched in 2011.

  14. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  15. Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on Urban Arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  16. Deadhead Trip Minimization in City Bus Transportation: A Real Life Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendi Nasibov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of public transportation services is one of the most important performance indicators of modern urban policies for both planning and implementation aspects. Therefore, along with the size of the city, the significance of appropriate cost evaluation and optimization of all related transportation activities increases as well. One of the most important cost factors for the public transport agencies is naturally the fuel consumption of the vehicles. In this study, the attention is focused on the metropolitan bus transport service. The specific aim is to minimize a significant portion of total fuel utilization that occurs due to the so called deadhead trip or dead mileage, which is defined as the idle distance covered by the vehicle between the garage and the route terminal stops without carrying any passengers. In this study, the results of four mathematical models for minimizing the total deadhead trip distance covered in city bus services of Izmir are presented. The models vary due to the inclusion of garage capacity restrictions or operator distinction for supporting both operational and strategical decisions. All models are applied to the recent bus schedule data, which consist of 293 routes, 1,424 buses and 10 garages, for obtaining the optimal route bus-garage allocations and garage capacities. The results of the Decentralized-Capacitated model, which is appropriate for quick implementation, promise a 7.8% reduction in total dead mileage. While on the other hand, if all garage capacities can be expanded and the bus service is maintained only by one operator as modelled in the Centralized-Uncapacitated case, even a 31.4% improvement is possible in the long term. The environmental gains as well as the financial benefits to be achieved when the solutions are actually implemented, justify the practical contribution of the study.

  17. Recommendations for yield-to-bus traffic control devices and bus pullout bays design characteristics : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Bus pullout bays are being installed increasingly : on Floridas roads as a safety factor and so that : stopped buses do not impede traffic. In Florida, : state law requires car drivers to yield to buses : when a bus needs to reenter the roadway af...

  18. Three-Point Dixon Chemical-Shift Imaging for Evaluating Articular Cartilage Defects in the Knee Joint on a Low-Field-Strength Open Magnet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bredella, M. A; Losasso, C; Moelleken, S. C; Huegli, R. W; Genant, H. K; Tirman, P. F. J

    2001-01-01

    .... OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to assess the value of a modified three-point Dixon MR technique for evaluating articular cartilage defects in the knee joint on a low-field-strength open magnet...

  19. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  20. How to Find a Comfortable Bus Route - Towards Personalized Information Recommendation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhuai Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the generation of massive data from bus IC cards, how to effectively and efficiently recommend comfortable bus routes to bus passengers is a challenging and complex task. In this paper, waiting time, crowded time, and driving time between different bus stations on different bus routes at different times of the day are calculated from bus IC cards data history. Then, a multi-objective program with various constraints is suggested to recommend comfortable bus routes for bus passengers, and a genetic algorithm is developed to search for expected solutions. The proposed method is implemented using bus IC cards data from Chongqing, China and will be a promising tool for bus passengers when choosing comfortable bus routes.

  1. A Self-Adjusting Method to Resist Bus Bunching Based on Boarding Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus bunching is one of the most serious problems of urban bus systems. Bus bunching increases waiting and travel time of passengers. Many bus systems use schedules to reach equal headways. Compared to the idea of schedules and the target headway introduced later, we propose a new method to improve the efficiency of a bus system and avoid bus bunching by boarding limits. Our solution can be effectively implemented when buses cannot travel as planned because of bad road conditions and dynamic demands at bus stops. Besides, using our method, bus headways reach the state with equal headways dynamically and spontaneously without drivers’ explicit intervention. Moreover, the method can improve the level of the bus service and reduce total travel time of passengers. We verify our method using an ideal bus route and a real bus route, both showing the success of the proposed method.

  2. Variability and similarity of gait as evaluated by joint angles: implications for forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle. Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can assess gait data from an actual case.

  3. Evaluation of Facet Joint Arthrosis in Stenotic and Normal Lumbar Spines with MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Ozan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To reveal the prevalence of lumbar facet joint arthrosis in normal and stenotic lumbar spines with magnetic resonance imaging. Material and Method: Study group consisted of 30 patients with complaints and findings of lower back pain, neurologic claudicatio and lumbar spinal stenosis detected at L3-4, L4-5 and/or L5-S1 with magnetic resonance imaging (cross section area of the dural sac

  4. Evaluation of Facet Joint Arthrosis in Stenotic and Normal Lumbar Spines with MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Ozan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To reveal the prevalence of lumbar facet joint arthrosis in normal and stenotic lumbar spines with magnetic resonance imaging. Material and Method: Study group consisted of 30 patients with complaints and findings of lower back pain, neurologic claudicatio and lumbar spinal stenosis detected at L3-4, L4-5 and/or L5-S1 with magnetic resonance imaging (cross section area of the dural sac

  5. Evaluating the Relationship between Team Performance and Joint Attention with Longitudinal Multivariate Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    2014), who reported a negative relationship between physio-behavioral coupling and task performance in teams playing a cooperative video game ...Annual Meeting, 19-23 September 2016. 14. Previous research indicates that measures of joint attention provide unique insight into team cognition ...linearly over time, starting out comparatively high and decreasing as a function of time on task. Additionally, we found evidence of negative

  6. Development and Evaluation of Wide Clearance Braze Joints in Gamma Prime Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    improve their resistance to the hot corrosive gases of the engine. When such parts suffer service damage, it is necessary to clean them prior to braze...sinter metal is mixed with the braze filler metal and that mixture is placed in and on the cra (ck to be repaired. The repair then takes place in a sinele...joints ire likely to be advantageous on surfaces of three types. The; are: newly cast and buffed, surfaces havinc Sttmospheric corrosion product, and

  7. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  8. Evaluation method of adhesive joint strength based on the normal–shear stress of adhesive interface and its application in engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Jingxin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional material-joining techniques are facing enormous challenges due to the wide use of new materials in engineering. Therefore, the application of bonding technique in engineering becomes more and more important. In order to facilitate designers evaluating the joint strength of bonding structure, a fast and simple strength evaluation method which can be easily used for adhesive joints under complex working conditions was proposed in this article. The normal and shear stresses of the adhesive interface were selected as the main research objects in the method considering the complex working conditions that many bonding structures may face in engineering. Butt joint, single lap joint, and several groups of scarf joint specimens with different adhesive angles were fabricated. Numerous repetitive tensile tests were conducted to obtain the adhesive failure stresses under different conditions. The adhesive failure stress envelope was fitted based on the experimental data, and the evaluation method of adhesive joint strength was developed in detail. Finally, verification experiments were designed. The results indicate that the evaluation method of adhesive joint strength based on the normal–shear stress of the adhesive interface is simple and effective in engineering application.

  9. Raising heels of hind hooves changes the equine coffin, fetlock and hock joint angle: a kinematic evaluation on the treadmill at walk and trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peham, C; Girtler, D; Kicker, C; Licka, T

    2006-08-01

    Raised heels are commonly recommended for various equine orthopaedic conditions. However, the simultaneous effect of raised heels on the different joint angles of the equine hindlimb throughout the motion cycle has not been previously evaluated. To document the simultaneous effect of raised heels on the joint angles of the equine hindlimb coffin, fetlock and hock joints. Eight sound, adult, Warmblood horses were evaluated barefoot and with a heel wedge of 8 or 16 degrees, walking and trotting on a horizontal treadmill. Markers placed on the dorsal and cranial aspect of the hindlimb were traced using a 3D high speed video system and joint angles calculated. The effects of raising the hindlimb heels by 8 or 16 degrees on the angles of the hindlimb during the stance phase are a reduction of the plantar combined coffin joint and pastern joint angle, a reduction of maximum extension in the fetlock joint, and an increase in maximum hock flexion. The relation between angles did not change significantly during the course of the stance phase in the three measurement situations, with only small differences in time of occurrence of each joint angle maxima and minima. Raising the heels of hind hooves increases flexion of the coffin and hock joints during the stance phases of walk and trot, and a doubling of the angle of the raised heels also doubles the effect on the joint angles investigated. Raised heels reduce the maximum extension of the fetlock joint during the the stance phase at walk and trot. This study provides evidence for the therapeutic use of raised shoes with heels in horses with pain on maximum hock extension, e.g. spavin.

  10. Destructive and non-destructive evaluation methods of interface on F82H HIPed joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Hirotatsu, E-mail: hkishi@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Muramatsu, Yusuke [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Asakura, Yuki [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Endo, Tetsuo [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The first wall of F82H steel will be fabricated by the HIP method. • Inspection techniques need to be developed for the HIPed interface. • Both destructive and non-destructive inspection techniques are introduced. - Abstract: The first walls of F82H steel with built-in cooling channels will be assembled thin plates and rectangular pipes by a HIP method. Silicon oxides form on an interface of HIPed joints during HIPing and result in the lowering of toughness of the HIPed joints. A large issue is investigation method of HIPed interface. The flexibility of specimen size for the investigation will be necessary because of the thin wall of cooling channels. A small specimen destructive test technique which is able to distinguish a base metal and an excellent HIPed joint has been desired, and recent researches find out a torsion test method to solve the issue. Non-destructive test technique is another issue for the inspection of the first wall. An ultrasonic inspection method is a candidate but silicon oxides are too small to produce good flaw echo from oxides, some solutions will be necessary. Present research introduces the current status of development of small specimen destructive test technique and the ultrasonic method for the first wall inspection.

  11. Detection of early osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of Icelandic horses: Evaluation of radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, C J; Björnsdóttir, S; Ekman, S; Boyde, A; Hansson, K

    2016-01-01

    Validated noninvasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies. To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard. Prospective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints. Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27-29 months were radiographed. Horses were subjected to euthanasia approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared with microscopy. Forty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (Pradiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories, but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared. Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Student perspectives on the development and evaluation of a joint international education to promote employability in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Claire; Piškur, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a student evaluation of a joint international education developed as part of a European project which sought to equip health care practitioners with the skills to support employability of individuals furthest removed from the labour market, disadvantaged on account of age, gender, migration or ethnicity. Thirty eight students out of the forty one students that participated in the pilot of four modules (NL, UK, SE, DE) returned completed digital questionnaires (92.6% response rate). The study is descriptive by nature. A questionnaire was used to collect the data from students. Additionally students attending the module in the UK also took part in a series of qualitative interviews which sought to explore their experiences in more detail. These were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. Students reported that joint education facilitates competence development. The competencies they identified (Information Communications Technology) were recognised as being key to enhancing employability of disadvantaged groups. The joint international education exemplified by EEE4all offers one model of how to build a responsive international curriculum to ensure that the workforce of the future is well placed to meet the needs of this changing world.

  13. Organizing a bus depot – selected aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy PAWLICKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transportation problems are particularly noticeable within cities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. In these cities buses are a primary means of transport, but lack of low-floor and poor interior design does not encourage passengers to use them. However, the qualities that give the most negative feedback on the public transpiration are the technical condition of buses, excessive noise and exhaust emission. Technical backsides of the bus depots that constantly maintain the technical readiness of the required number of vehicles play an important role to ensure high quality standards. New European Union legislation is very helpful in such. New laws and regulations deal with the safety issues and environmental protection matters, to which the urban transportation depots must be strictly adjusted. This article refers to these documents and presents depot technical stations, which equipment needs to be upgraded in the first place.

  14. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  15. Radiographic Evaluation of Intermetatarsal Angle Correction Following First MTP Joint Arthrodesis for Severe Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, R Matthew; Bergin, Patrick F; Watson, Geoffrey; Mehta, Siddhant K; Tarquinio, Thom A

    2016-11-01

    Arthrodesis is a standard operative treatment for symptomatic arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD), severe hallux valgus, and metatarsus primus varus may also require fusion of the first MTP joint. An important question in the latter group of patients is whether a proximal first metatarsal osteotomy is required, in addition to the first MTP joint fusion. Our hypothesis was that patients with severe hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus, treated with first MTP joint arthrodesis alone, would have correction of the first-to-second intermetatarsal angle (1-2 IMA) and hallux valgus angle (HVA) to near population norms, without the addition of a proximal first metatarsal osteotomy. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 19 feet, in 17 patients, with preoperative IMA greater than 15 were analyzed. Weight-bearing radiographs were divided into pre- and postoperative cohorts. Three independent reviewers measured these radiographs and mean 1-2 IMA and HVA were calculated. Mean follow-up was 10 months. The mean preoperative 1-2 IMA was 19.2 degrees (15.6-24.3). The mean preoperative HVA was 48.5 (36-56.6). The mean postoperative values for 1-2 IMA and HVA were 10.8 and 12.3 degrees, respectively. The mean change in IMA was 8.3 degrees and in the hallux valgus angle was 36.4 degrees. The differences between pre- and postoperative measurement for both angles were statistically significant (P < .001). Seven of 19 (37%) feet were corrected to an IMA of less than 9 degrees (normal), whereas in 15/19 feet the postoperative IMA was 12.3 degrees or less. The postoperative HVA was less than 15 degrees in 15/19 (79%) feet. This pre- and postoperative radiographic analysis of patients with severe bunion deformity demonstrated that HVA and 1-2 IMA were acceptably corrected without the addition of a proximal first metatarsal osteotomy. Level III, retrospective comparative series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. MR diagnosis of temporomandibular joint. A study of joint effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Takashi; Yamashiro, Mitsuaki; Ozawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu [Nihon Univ., Matsudo, Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1998-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between correlation of MR joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint and disk position, to evaluate the relationship between joint effusion and aging, and to assess the frequency of MR joint effusion of bilateral temporomandibular joints. The temporomandibular joints of 192 patients with clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were imaged bilaterally using high field, surface-coil MR imaging. Oblique sagittal and coronal proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. Imaging findings of joint effusion were correlated with disk position, aging, and bilateral temporomandibular joints. MR showed effusion in 4% of the joints with normal superior disk position, 36% of the joints with disk displacement with reduction, and 45% of the joints with disk displacement without reduction. There were significant differences in the incidence of joint effusion between normal disk position and anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Younger patients less than 40 years were significant higher the incidence of joint effusion than those of older patients. A significant association was seen between joint effusion and aging. MR showed effusion in 17% of the unilateral temporomandibular joint, 24% of the bilateral temporomandibular joints. There was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral case. These results indicated that joint effusion using MR imaging was associated with varied temporomandibular joint pathologic states. (author)

  17. Research of WLAN CAN Bus Data Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weibin; Zhu, Yuqing; Hong, Tiansheng; Ye, Cheng; Ye, Zhijie; He, Guangbin; Li, Haobiao

    Both controller area network (CAN) and wireless local area network (WLAN) bus technologies are developing rapidly nowadays. But the study on WLAN technology with CAN bus data is relative to be less researched. So a WLAN CAN bus data test system was present in this paper. The system hardware consists of two control modules, each of which consistently allows link test to the CAN bus network. Each hardware of the module is composed by a microcontroller STC12C5410AD, a CAN bus control unit MCP2515, a CAN bus transceiver MCP2551 and a RF wireless module RF903. During the test process, the CAN bus analyzer, Kvaser USBCAN II, receives and dispatches the CAN messages. Test results showed that the system's error score was approximately zero when messages are transmitted and the system can message transmission from one side of CAN panel point to the other side. The communication of the system is suitable for the CAN treaty standard and it can allow wireless message transmission to other suitable networks meeting the CAN treaty standard as well. Finally the system has been applied to the project for hill citrus leaf area index (LAI) acquisition.

  18. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  19. Comparison of whole-body vibration exposures in buses: effects and interactions of bus and seat design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Per M G; Rynell, Patrik W; Hagberg, Mats; Johnson, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Bus and seat design may be important for the drivers' whole-body vibration (WBV). WBV exposures in buses during actual operation were assessed. WBV attenuation performance between an air-suspension seat and a static pedestal seat in low-floor buses was compared; there were no differences in WBV attenuation between the seats. Air-suspension seat performance in a high-floor and low-floor bus was compared. Relative to the pedestal seat with its relatively static, limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its dynamic, longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Relative to the measurement collected at the bus floor, the air-suspension seat amplified the WBV exposures in the high-floor bus. All WBV exposures were below European Union (EU) daily exposure action values. The EU Vibration Directive only allows the predominant axis of vibration exposure to be evaluated but a tri-axial vector sum exposure may be more representative of the actual health risks. Low back pain is common in bus drivers and studies have shown a relationship with whole body vibration. Relative to a pedestal seat with its limited travel seat suspension, the air-suspension seat with its longer travel suspension provided little additional benefit. Exposures were below European Union daily exposure action values.

  20. Evaluation of RSA set-up from a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for 3D joint kinematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Signorelli, Cecilia; Bontempi, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcacci, Maurilio; Bragonzoni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    dinamic roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), a technique currently based only on customized radiographic equipment, has been shown to be a very accurate method for detecting three-dimensional (3D) joint motion. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of an innovative RSA set-up for in vivo knee kinematic analysis, using a biplane fluoroscopic image system. To this end, the Authors describe the set-up as well as a possible protocol for clinical knee joint evaluation. The accuracy of the kinematic measurements is assessed. the Authors evaluated the accuracy of 3D kinematic analysis of the knee in a new RSA set-up, based on a commercial biplane fluoroscopy system integrated into the clinical environment. The study was organized in three main phases: an in vitro test under static conditions, an in vitro test under dynamic conditions reproducing a flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), and an in vivo analysis of the flexion-extension ROM. For each test, the following were calculated, as an indication of the tracking accuracy: mean, minimum, maximum values and standard deviation of the error of rigid body fitting. in terms of rigid body fitting, in vivo test errors were found to be 0.10±0.05 mm. Phantom tests in static and kinematic conditions showed precision levels, for translations and rotations, of below 0.1 mm/0.2° and below 0.5 mm/0.3° respectively for all directions. the results of this study suggest that kinematic RSA can be successfully performed using a standard clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for the acquisition of slow movements of the lower limb. a kinematic RSA set-up using a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system is potentially applicable and provides a useful method for obtaining better characterization of joint biomechanics.

  1. Learning through policy tourism: circulating bus rapid transit from South America to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Wood

    2014-01-01

    Study tours, a form of ‘policy tourism’ in which local actors travel elsewhere to see best practice and meet with those in the exporting locality who implemented it, have become a basic tenet for policy exchange. In the pursuit of these lessons, hundreds of South African public transport enthusiasts visited South America, particularly Bogota, to learn of its thriving bus rapid transit (BRT) network. This paper evaluates the influence of these exchanges on BRT circulation and adoption—what tak...

  2. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  3. Design and Research on Automotive Controller Area Network Bus Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei CUI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection method of automotive controller area network bus is researched in this paper. Failure identifying of CAN bus under different working conditions has been realized. In order to realizing intelligent failure diagnosis, data fusion means has been put forward in this paper. The composition of analysis and detection system is introduced. By analyzing and processing the data of CAN bus and sensors, work condition of automotive is achieved. Multi-pattern data fusion model and algorithm for failure diagnosis are researched. The analyzer and detection system designed in this paper can be applied to automotive fault analysis, troubleshooting and maintenance.

  4. Solving of school bus routing problem by ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Rojas, Juan S.; Jiménez-Gordillo, J. F. (José Fernando); Montoya-Torres, J. R. (Jairo Rafael)

    2011-01-01

    The school bus routing problem (SBRP) seeks to plan an efficient schedule of a fleet of school buses that must pick up students from various bus stops and deliver them by satisfying various constraints: maximum capacity of the bus, maximum riding time of students, time window to arrive to school. In this paper, we consider a case study of SBRP for a school in Bogotá, Colombia. The problem is solved using ant colony optimization (ACO). Computational experiments are performed using real data. R...

  5. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  6. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  7. Research on Optimization for Motion Control Bus Based on Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field bus system has been successfully introduced into industrial automation. Nowadays, most of the motion control bus is based on the Ethernet physical layer, and all of the new standards are based on the Ethernet physical layer. This paper introduces a new optimized technology based on motion control bus of the Ethernet physical layer, which includes the prediction mechanism in the arrival of the frames, the retransmission mechanism in advance, and a new mechanism of independent verification of data segment. Tests show that using the mechanisms in this paper can enhance efficiency and reliability in communication process.

  8. Evaluation of the magnitude of hip joint deformation in subjects with avascular necrosis of the hip joint during walking with and without Scottish Rite orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; McGarry, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    The femoral head in subjects with leg calve perthes disease (LCPD) is generally considerably deformed. It is debatable whether this deformation is due to an increase in applied loads, a decrease in bone mineral density or a change in containment of articular surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of these factors on deformation of the femoral head. Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study. Subject motion and the forces applied on the affected leg were recorded using a motion analysis system (QualsisTM) and a Kistler force plate. OpenSim software was used to determine joint contact force of the hip joint whilst walking with and without a Scottish Rite orthosis. 3D Models of hip joints of both subjects were produced by Mimics software. The deformation of femoral bone was determined by Abaqus. Mean values of the force applied on the leg increased while walking with the orthosis. There was no difference between bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral bone of normal and LCPD sides (p-value>0.05) and no difference between hip joint contact force of normal and LCPD sides. Hip joint containment appeared to decrease follow the use of the orthosis. It can be concluded that the deformation of femoral head in LCPD may not be due to change in BMD or applied load. Although the Scottish Rite orthosis is used mostly to increase hip joint containment, it appears to reduce hip joint contact area. It is recommended that a similar study is conducted using a higher number of subjects. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  9. Overweight as hypertension risk prediction in bus drivers - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.9084

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Camargo Smolarek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP has been currently associated with several risk markers in cardiovascular diseases and excess body weight although there is only slight evidence on the association of Body Mass Index (BMI with BP in bus drivers. Current analysis verified the association of BMI with BP in bus drivers and the risk of individuals with excess weight within the context of high blood pressure. The sample consisted of 75 bus drivers who had their BMI and BP evaluated. Statistical analysis was descriptive and Pearson correlation and odds-ratio were p < 0.05. A significant relationship between BMI and blood pressure, namely, r = 0.438 (p < 0.05 was evident. Individuals with weight excess weight were 4.04 times more likely to have high blood pressure (p < 0.05. Results showed individuals with excess weight were more likely to develop high blood pressure conditions.

  10. Evaluation of the novel ultrasound score for large joints in psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: six month experience in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Valentin S; Fleck, Martin; Kellner, Herbert; Strunk, Johannes; Sattler, Horst; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Ehrenstein, Boris; Backhaus, Marina; Hartung, Wolfgang

    2013-12-19

    To evaluate the utility of the recently introduced SOLAR score (sonography of large joints in Rheumatology), which has been validated in RA patients, in a cohort of patients with Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) and Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) presenting with involvement of large peripheral joints. The recently established SOLAR score has been designed to determine the degree of inflammation in the shoulder, the elbow, the hip and the knee joint in patients suffering from RA. Since large joints are frequently involved in PsA and AS, synovitis and synovial vascularity were scored semiquantitatively (grade 0-3) by grey scale (GSUS) and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) utilizing the validated scoring system. Each joint was scanned from different angles, the knee joint for example was divided into four areas to score for synovitis: the suprapatellar longitudinal, the medial longitudinal, the lateral longitudinal, and the posterior region. Each area was scored from 0-3, so a maximum score of 12 could be achieved. PsA and AS patients presenting with peripheral joint disease involving large joints were examined at baseline, 3 and 6 months after initiation of local or systemic therapy (DMARDs/Biologics). For evaluation of the inflammatory status, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was determined. A cohort of 126 patients were enclosed, and 83 of these were followed for 6 months. At baseline before modification of the therapy, patients received DMARDs (n = 83), DMARDs plus biologics (n = 30), or biologic monotherapy (n = 29). Following intervention, all US scores demonstrated a marked improvement. The GSUS and the PDUS scores for all joint areas, except the PDUS score of the hip, exhibited a significant improvement (p joint involvement in PsA and AS patients and allows for treatment monitoring.

  11. Common Airborne Instrumentation System: CAIS Bus Interface Standard, A00.00-C001. Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    .... This interface control document (ICD) was written to provide a single document that designers of CAIS bus controllers and data acquisition units could reference to ensure interoperability on the CAIS bus. This ICD establishes the requirements for digital command/response, time division multiplexing techniques for a single CAIS bus. It encompasses the physical, electrical, and protocol aspects of the CAIS bus.

  12. [Clinical and radiographic evaluation of open reduction and internal fixation with headless compression screws in treatment of lisfranc joint injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Min, Li; Wang, Guanglin; Liu, Lei; Fang, Yue; Tu, Chongqi

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of headless compression screws for Lisfranc joint injuries. A retrospective analysis was made on clinical data of 34 patients (36 feet) with Lisfranc joint injuries who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with headless compression screws between January 2006 and January 2012. There were 22 males (24 feet) and 12 females (12 feet), aged 21-73 years (mean, 38.9 years). The causes of injury included traffic accident in 16 cases (17 feet), falling from height in 11 cases (12 feet), crushing in 5 cases (5 feet), and sports in 2 cases (2 feet). Of them, there were 19 cases (20 feet) of closed injury and 15 cases (16 feet) of open injury; there were 7 cases (8 feet) of pure dislocations of tarsometatarsal joints and ligamentous Lisfranc injuries (LD), 22 cases (23 feet) of Lisfranc joint fracture dislocations (LFD), 5 cases (5 feet) of combined Chopart-LFD (CLFD). According to Myerson classification, 5 cases (5 feet) were rated as type A, 7 cases (8 feet) as type B1, 14 cases (15 feet) as type B2, 5 cases (5 feet) as type C1, and 3 cases (3 feet) as type C2. Associated fractures included 12 cases (13 feet) of metatarsal shaft fracture, 4 cases (4 feet) of cuboid fracture, 4 cases (4 feet) of navicular bone fracture, 6 cases (7 feet) of coneiform bone fracture/dislocation, 8 cases (10 feet) of ipsilateral lower limb multiple fracture, and 4 cases (4 feet) of contralateral lower limb multiple fracture. The clinical outcomes were evaluated according to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Postoperative X-ray films were taken to assess the reduction, internal fixation, and the foot arch height. All patients were followed up 1 year to 5 years and 2 months (mean, 3.5 years). X-ray films showed anatomical reduction in 31 cases (33 feet, 91.7%). At last follow-up, AOFAS score and VAS score averaged 80.6 (range, 60-100) and 2.3 (range, 0-6), respectively; the

  13. A radiographic stress technique for evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flückiger, M A; Friedrich, G A; Binder, H

    1999-01-01

    To develop a radiographic stress technique to quantify hip joint laxity in dogs. Prospective study on client-owned dogs presented for hip dysplasia screening. 302 nonselected dogs (63 breeds). Dogs were sedated and placed in dorsal recumbency. During pelvic radiography, the femoral heads were displaced manually in a craniodorsal direction. On these stress radiographs, the degree of lateral displacement of the femoral heads was assessed in terms of a subluxation index (SI) and compared with the degree of femoral head subluxation and the severity of hip dysplasia found on conventional extended hindlimb radiographs. The degree of subluxation on stress radiographs was significantly greater than on conventional radiographs. Correlation between the severity of canine hip dysplasia (CHD), graded according to conventional techniques, and the degree of subluxation, induced by radiographic stress technique, was positive (r = .57; Pjoints. Hip joint laxity cannot be quantified precisely on standard position radiographs. The proposed stress technique yields significantly higher degrees of femoral head subluxation than the standard position.

  14. A non-conventional technique for evaluating welded joints based on the electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.G.; Sorger, G., E-mail: telmo.santos@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: lgs18243@campus.fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Vilaca, P., E-mail: pedro.vilaca@aalto.fi [Aalto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Design and Production, School of Engineering, Aalto (Finland); Miranda, R., E-mail: rmiranda@fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Recent studies showed that electrical conductivity is a valuable technique to identify the different zones of solid-state welded joints with a good correlation with the microstructure and hardness. This is a relevant result since this technique is fast and, in some cases, non destructive, The concept was applied to other welding processes such as the ones involving fusion to a wide range of materials, For this, a comprehensive study was performed using friction stir welding, tungsten inert gas (TlG) and gas metal arc (MAG) welding processes in either bead on plate or butt joints in: carbon steel, magnesium and titanium, Eddy current nondestructive testing (NDT) was used to measure the electrical conductivity at different depths in transverse sections of the processed materials. The profiles were compared to the hardness profiles in the same sections. As a result, a correlation was observed in most materials welded by solid state and by fusion processes. The variation of the electrical conductivity closely follows that measured in the hardness. Another interesting conclusion is that, even for fusion welding of carbon steels, the technique has potential to complement the hardness measurements and microstructural observations, allowing the identification of the distinct zones of welds in materials commonly used in industry. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the relationship between Orthopedic Foundation for Animals' hip joint scores and PennHIP distraction index values in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michelle Y; Karbe, Georga T; Gregor, Thomas P; McKelvie, Pamela; Culp, William T N; Fordyce, Hilary H; Smith, Gail K

    2010-09-01

    To compare 2 screening methods for detecting evidence of hip dysplasia (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals [OFA] and PennHIP) in dogs. Diagnostic test evaluation study. Animals-439 dogs >or= 24 months of age that received routine hip joint screening from June 1987 through July 2008. Dogs were sedated, and PennHIP radiography was performed (hip joint- extended [HE], compression, and distraction radiographic views). The HE radiographic view was submitted for OFA evaluation. A copy of the HE radiographic view plus the compression and distraction radiographic views were submitted for routine PennHIP evaluation, including quantification of hip joint laxity via the distraction index (DI). 14% (60/439) of dogs had hip joints scored as excellent by OFA standards; however, 52% (31/60) of those had a DI >or= 0.30 (range, 0.14 to 0.61). Eighty-two percent of (183/223) dogs with OFA-rated good hip joints had a DI >or= 0.30 (range, 0.10 to 0.77), and 94% (79/84) of dogs with OFA-rated fair hip joints had a DI >or= 0.30 (range, 0.14 to 0.77). Of all dogs with fair to excellent hip joints by OFA standards, 80% (293/367) had a DI >or= 0.30. All dogs with OFA-rated borderline hip joints or mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia had a DI >or= 0.30 (range, 0.30 to 0.83). Dogs judged as phenotypically normal by the OFA harbored clinically important passive hip joint laxity as determined via distraction radiography. Results suggested that OFA scoring of HE radiographs underestimated susceptibility to osteoarthritis in dogs, which may impede progress in reducing or eliminating hip dysplasia through breeding.

  16. Evaluation of osteochondral sample collection guided by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for early detection of osteoarthritis in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Charles J; Ekman, Stina; Dahlberg, Leif E; Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Hansson, Kerstin

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the use of CT and MRI for guidance of osteochondral sample collection for histologic detection of early osteoarthritic lesions in centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of horses. Right tarsal joints from the cadavers of 24 Icelandic horses aged 29 to 31 months. CT and MRI were used to evaluate the extent of suspected osteoarthritic changes in centrodistal joints, which were graded with a semiquantitative system. The anatomic regions with the highest grade of change were identified, and osteochondral samples were obtained from these regions. Samples were also obtained from the same centrodistal joints at predetermined sites. Histologic examination of all samples was performed, with samples classified as negative or positive for osteoarthritis, and results were compared between sample collection methods. Histologic examination revealed osteoarthritic lesions in 29% (7/24) of centrodistal joints with the predetermined method and in 63% (15/24) with the image-guided method. Significant associations were identified between histologic osteoarthritis detection and the summed image-guided sample collection site image grades, central osteophytes, articular cartilage thickness abnormalities, grade 2 articular mineralization front defects, and grade 2 marginal osteophytes. CT and MRI aided the detection of focal changes suggestive of early-stage osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of equine cadavers and may be useful for detection of similar disease in live horses. The first morphological changes of centrodistal joint osteoarthritis were suspected to be in the articular cartilage and the articular mineralization front regions.

  17. The GeoBus project: a mobile Earth science outreach project for secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. A.; Roper, K. A.; Macfarlane, D.; Pike, C.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBus is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews. It is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (high) schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. These linkages are important for introducing career opportunities in Earth sciences. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 140 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Over 20,000 pupils will have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities by December 2013, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run workshops, field excursions and Enterprise Challenges. GeoBus provides 16 workshops which can be adapted for different learning levels. Workshops are 50 to 80 minute sessions for up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. The Enterprise Challenges are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Current topics are Drilling for Oil, Renewable Energy, a Journey to Mars and Scotland

  18. Bioleach: a mathematical model for the joint evaluation of leachate and biogas production in urban solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2017-04-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems in modern societies is the management and disposal of urban solid waste (MSW). Despite the efforts of the administration to promote recycling and reuse policies and energy recovery technologies, nowadays the majority of MSW still is disposed in sanitary landfills. During the phases of operation and post-closure maintenance of any solid waste disposal site, two of the most relevant problems are the production of leachate and the generation of biogas. The leachate and biogas production formation processes occur simultaneously over time and are coupled together through the consumption and/or production of water. However, no mathematical models have been easily identified that allow to the evaluation of the joint production of leachate and biogas, during the operational and the post-closure phase of an urban waste landfill. This paper introduces BIOLEACH, a new mathematical model programmed on a monthly scale, that evaluates the joint production of leachate and biogas applying water balance techniques and considers the management of the landfill as a bioreactor. The application of such a model on real landfills allows to perform an environmentally sustainable management that minimizes the environmental impacts produced being also economically more profitable.

  19. [Clinical evaluation of the hip joint after implantation of cementless Mittelmeier type and Parhofer-Mönch type hip prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, A; Synder, M; Witoński, D

    2000-01-01

    Total hip replacement is the most common procedure in the treatment of severe degenerative changes in the hip joint. The authors present clinical evaluation of 129 patients (151 hips) who underwent total hip replacement using either the Mittelmeier type or the Parhofer-Mönch type hip prothesis. The age of the patients ranged at the time of the operation between 17 and 74 years (average 44.9). The follow-up ranged from 24 to 143 months (average 61.2 months). The P-M prothesis was implanted in 53 hips, the P-M "Plasmapore" prothesis in 42 patients, Mittelmeier Autophor 900 prothesis in 49 patients and the Mittelmeier Autophor 900S prothesis in 7 patients. Clinical evaluation was performed according to the d'Aubigne-Postel method with the Charnley modification. The results were graded as very good in 17 cases, good in 64 cases, satisfactory in 53 cases and poor in 17 cases. Very good and good results were mainly observed after implantation of the P-M type prothesis and P-M "Plasmapore" type prothesis. Worse results were observed in patients, who at the time of the operation were aged 45 years or less and who had congenital hip dysplasia. P-M type prothesis gives better clinical results in the treatment of degenerative changes of the hip joint.

  20. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  1. Fixed Route Accessible Bus Service in Connecticut : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    U.S. Department of Transportation regulations implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, require transit agencies to provide wheelchair accessibility on fixed-route bus service. The study is part of the series which included studies ...

  2. A research framework for studying transit bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The increase in transit bus ridership nationally during the past ten years, along with the : proliferation of personal electronic control and communication gadgets is causing more : distractions for the drivers. Earlier research studies have found dr...

  3. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and upgrade...

  4. FTA fuel cell bus program : research accomplishments through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 20...

  5. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  6. Analysis of feeder bus network design and scheduling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews.

  7. Application Layer Definition and Analyses of Controller Area Network Bus for Wire Harness Assembly Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    With the feature of multi-master bus access, nondestructive contention-based arbitration and flexible configuration, Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is applied into the control system of Wire Harness Assembly Machine (WHAM). To accomplish desired goal, the specific features of the CAN bus is analyzed by compared with other field buses and the functional performances in the CAN bus system of WHAM is discussed. Then the application layer planning of CAN bus for dynamic priority is presented. ...

  8. Developing Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluating Joint Management Effectiveness in Protected Areas in the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Izurieta

    2011-09-01

    We consider the effectiveness of a participatory process within the context of the relationships, capacities, skills, communication, and cross-cultural information sharing. We found that at the early stages of joint management, the partners mostly identify process indicators related to human and social capital assets. Cross-cultural engagement in the early stages of the monitoring and evaluation cycle is challenged by issues relating to communication, institutional and community capacities, representation, and flexibility in ways of working together while learning by doing. We conclude, however, that a participatory monitoring and evaluation approach in which partners agree equally on the identification of criteria and indicators to measure agreed management outcomes has the potential of improving equitable participation, decision making and working relationships, which in turn will lead to improved park management effectiveness and community outcomes.

  9. Clinical evaluation of double-contrast computed tomography of the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Eiji; Ohtuki, Kayoko

    1989-01-01

    Soft tissue pathology should be appreciated in diagnosing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease. For this purpose, contrast arthrography is useful and we also have introduced double-contrast arthrotomography of the TMJ. X-ray computed tomography (CT), on the other hand, is well suited to the diagnosis of TMJ disease, because it can clearly delineate both hard and soft tissues. We thus introduce direct sagittal CT of the head with the enhancement of the articular space of the TMJ using negative and positivse contrast media and confirmed that this method is very useful for the diagnosis of TMJ disease. In this paper we principally investigate the suitability of this double-contrast computed tomography of the TMJ. We conclude that double-contrast CT technique is equally or more useful in some cases than single-contrast CT technique in the diagnosis of TMJ disease.

  10. Creep properties and microstructure evaluation of weld joint of the pipe made of P92 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasl, Josef; Jandova, Dagmar; Chvostova, Eva [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic); Folkova, Eva [SKODA POWER a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    One-side weld joint of W type was prepared from P92 type steel using GTAW and SMAW method. Creep test to the rupture of smooth cross-weld samples has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 575 to 650 C and at stresses from 70 to 240 MPa. Fractographic analysis, hardness measurement and detailed study of submicrostructure have been performed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Changes of microstructure were correlated with the creep strength. Increase in size of secondary phases and cavities formation were evident after creep tests at temperatures above 575 C. Voids were concentrated in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones, where fracture occurred. In addition, a sporadic occurrence of individual cavities was found out in the base material and the weld metal after tests at 625 and 650 C. During creep exposures at temperatures above 600 C Laves phase precipitated. (orig.)

  11. Accessibility analysis to public services by bus transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Košir, Uroš

    2009-01-01

    Graduation thesis focuses on ESRI GIS tools, Model Builder and Network analyst. It is shown how automated process with geoprocesing models simplify procedures, with prepared data, for further analyses. Data, established with analyses, were used for accessability analysis to public services by bus transportation. Analyses were made for territory of Slovenia and their statistical regions. For better understanding of choice between a car and a bus accessibility to public services, thesis was sup...

  12. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  13. Thermal Fatigue Evaluation of Pb-Free Solder Joints: Results, Lessons Learned, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Richard J.; Sweatman, Keith; Arfaei, Babak

    2015-09-01

    Thermal fatigue is a major source of failure of solder joints in surface mount electronic components and it is critically important in high reliability applications such as telecommunication, military, and aeronautics. The electronic packaging industry has seen an increase in the number of Pb-free solder alloy choices beyond the common near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu alloys first established as replacements for eutectic SnPb. This paper discusses the results from Pb-free solder joint reliability programs sponsored by two industry consortia. The characteristic life in accelerated thermal cycling is reported for 12 different Pb-free solder alloys and a SnPb control in 9 different accelerated thermal cycling test profiles in terms of the effects of component type, accelerated thermal cycling profile and dwell time. Microstructural analysis on assembled and failed samples was performed to investigate the effect of initial microstructure and its evolution during accelerated thermal cycling test. A significant finding from the study is that the beneficial effect of Ag on accelerated thermal cycling reliability (measured by characteristic lifetime) diminishes as the severity of the accelerated thermal cycling, defined by greater ΔT, higher peak temperature, and longer dwell time increases. The results also indicate that all the Pb-free solders are more reliable in accelerated thermal cycling than the SnPb alloy they have replaced. Suggestions are made for future work, particularly with respect to the continued evolution of alloy development for emerging application requirements and the value of using advanced analytical methods to provide a better understanding of the effect of microstructure and its evolution on accelerated thermal cycling performance.

  14. MRF-based Stochastic Joint Inversion of Hydrological and Geophysical Datasets to Evaluate Aquifer Heterogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oware, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical assessment of aquifer parameters typically involve sparse noisy measurements coupled with incomplete understanding of the underlying physical process. Thus, recovering a single deterministic solution in light of the largely uncertain inputs is unrealistic. Stochastic imaging (SI) allows the retrieval of multiple equiprobable outcomes that facilitate probabilistic assessment of aquifer properties in a realistic fashion. Representation of prior models is a key aspect of the formulation of SI frameworks. However, higher-order (HO) statistics for representing complex priors in SI are usually borrowed from training images (TIs), which may bias outcomes if the prior hypotheses are inaccurate. A data-driven HO simulation alternative based on Markov random field (MRF) modeling is presented. Here, the modeling of spatial features is guided by potential (Gibbs) energy (PE) minimization. The estimation of the PE encompasses local neighborhood configuration (LNC) and prior statistical constraints. The lower the estimated PE the higher the likelihood of that particular local structure and vice versa. Hence, the LNC component of the PE estimation is designed to promote the recovery of some desired structures while penalizing the retrieval of patterns that are inconsistent with prior expectation. The statistical structure is adaptively inferred from the joint conditional datasets. The reconstruction proceeds in two-steps with the estimation of the lithological structure of the aquifer followed by the simulation of attributes within the identified lithologies. This two-step approach permits the delineation of physically realistic crisp lithological boundaries. The algorithm is demonstrated with a joint inversion of time-lapse concentration and electrical resistivity measurements, in a hypothetical trinary hydrofacies aquifer characterization problem.

  15. Evaluation of the relationship between the occlusion parameters and symptoms of the temporomandibular joint disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzingutė, Agnė; Pileičikienė, Gaivilė; Baltrušaitytė, Aušra; Skirbutis, Gediminas

    2017-01-01

    The aetiology of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) is multifactorial, whereas occlusal disharmony is one of the predisposing factors. Researchers still discuss the relation between occlusion and TMD. The study aims to investigate the relation between static occlusal parameters and TMD clinical symptoms using T-Scan II analysis system. The sample consisted of 44 persons divided into the treatment group of 20 TMD patients and the control group of 24 subjects without TMD. The main task of T-Scan II computerized occlusal analysis system was to record every patient's occlusion and estimate static occlusal parameters: centre of occlusal force, asymmetry index of maximum occlusal force and occlusion time. These results were compared between groups, data related to patients' complaints and clinical symptoms. The analysis was carried out using Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. Averages of the centre of occlusal force in TMD subjects were 6.55 ± 0.99 mm, in the control group - 5.88 ± 0.69 mm; the asymmetry index of maximum occlusal force averages: 15.90 ± 2.71 and 12.93 ± 1.88; occlusion time: 0.281 ± 0.036 s and 0.236 ± 0.022 s, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups but they were found in the centre of occlusal force and the asymmetry index in the two groups (p occlusion parameters. Values of the centre of the occlusal force distance and the asymmetry index of occlusal force in TMD patients with pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were significantly higher than in the control group.

  16. Effect of Surgery First Orthognathic Approach on the Temporomandibular Joint: A Clinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelo, Sandro; Saponaro, Gianmarco; De Angelis, Paolo; Gasparini, Giulio; Garagiola, Umberto; Moro, Alessandro

    2018-01-05

    Correction of severe malocclusions with skeletal discrepancies requires orthodontic treatment in combination with orthognathic surgery. Even though conventional orthognathic surgery (COS) is a common and well-accepted approach its influence on the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) is still debated. Recently with the introduction of surgery first approach, a different timing for the management of dentoskeletal imbalances has been proposed. The present study is aimed at assessing the relationship between surgery first approach and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. The study sample consisted of 24 patients who were selected to be treated with surgery first approach. Clinical follow-ups after surgery were performed every week for the first month, at 3 months, 6 months, and at 1 year. A radiological follow-up was performed at 1 week and at 1 year after the operation with a panorex and a latero-lateral teleradiograph. To assess the effect of surgery first approach on the TMDs signs and symptoms, a clinical assessment was performed 4 days before surgery (T1), 6 months after surgery (T2), and 1 year postoperatively (T3). The results of the authors' study show that pain assessment revealed a general improvement of this symptom in correspondence to TMJ and masticatory muscles except in the masseter and neck region. Also joint noises, TMJ functioning, migraine, and headache underwent a considerable improvement. Surgery first approach is an innovative orthognathic procedure and, by undergoing surgery first approach, patients with pre-existing TMJ dysfunction may experience a significant improvement or even resolution of the TMDs signs and symptoms.

  17. Bus-stop Based Real Time Passenger Information System – Case Study Maribor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelan, Marko; Klemenčič, Mitja; Mrgole, Anamarija L.; Lep, Marjan

    2017-10-01

    Real time passenger information system is one of the key element of promoting public transport. For the successful implementation of real time passenger information systems, various components should be considered, such as: passenger needs and requirements, stakeholder involvement, technological solution for tracking, data transfer, etc. This article carrying out designing and evaluation of real time passenger information (RTPI) in the city of Maribor. The design phase included development of methodology for selection of appropriate macro and micro location of the real-time panel, development of a real-time passenger algorithm, definition of a technical specification, financial issues and time frame. The evaluation shows that different people have different requirements; therefore, the system should be adaptable to be used by various types of people, according to the age, the purpose of journey, experience of using public transport, etc. The average difference between perceived waiting time for a bus is 35% higher than the actual waiting time and grow with the headway increase. Experiences from Maribor have shown that the reliability of real time passenger system (from technical point of view) must be close to 100%, otherwise the system may have negative impact on passengers and may discourage the use of public transport. Among considered events of arrivals during the test period, 92% of all prediction were accurate. The cost benefit analysis has focused only on potential benefits from reduced perceived users waiting time and foreseen costs of real time information system in Maribor for 10 years’ period. Analysis shows that the optimal number for implementing real time passenger information system at the bus stops in Maribor is set on 83 bus stops (approx. 20 %) with the highest number of passenger. If we consider all entries at the chosen bus stops, the total perceived waiting time on yearly level could be decreased by about 60,000 hours.

  18. School bus crash rates on routine and nonroutine routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-09-01

    Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus crash incidence and characteristics by these route types. School bus crashes were identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation Crash Database from mid-2005 through mid-2010. Crash reports did not identify whether the bus was on a routine or nonroutine route, so a protocol to assign these based on day and time was developed. Bus mileage was provided by the Iowa Department of Education. The school bus crash rate was 2.1 times higher on nonroutine routes than on routine routes (95% CI = 1.8-2.3). Most crashes involved an improper action by the driver of another vehicle. In crashes attributed to improper actions of school buses, failure to yield the right-of-way and disregarding traffic signs were more common on routine routes, while losing control, speeding, reckless, or aggressive driving were more common on nonroutine routes. School bus crashes are more likely to occur on nonroutine routes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, K H; French, S A

    2012-03-01

    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  20. Joint evaluation of communication quality and user experience in an audio-visual virtual reality meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Carrozzino, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-the-art speech intelligibility tests are created with the purpose of evaluating acoustic communication devices and not for evaluating audio-visual virtual reality systems. This paper present a novel method to evaluate a communication situation based on both the speech intelligibility...

  1. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  2. Exploring the relationship between costs and quality. Does the joint evaluation of costs and quality alter the rankings of Danish hospital departments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvenegaard, Anne; Nielsen Arendt, Jacob; Street, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to evaluate the relationship between costs and quality and to assess whether the joint evaluation of costs and quality affects the ranking of hospital departments relative to comparison based on costs alone. METHODS: Using patient level data for 3,754 patients in six...... vascular departments, we estimate fixed effect models for costs (linear) and quality (logistic). We consider two quality measures; mortality and wound complications. To assess whether the joint evaluation of costs and quality affects the ranking of departments, we construct joint confidence regions...... for each pair of departmental effects for costs and quality using a bootstrap method and rank departments according to their cost-effectiveness ratio. The findings are used to evaluate a theory of a U-shaped cost/quality relationship. RESULTS: The association between cost and quality differs depending...

  3. A preliminary case series evaluating the safety and immediate to short-term clinical benefits of joint mobilization in hemophilic arthritis of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaddan, Emma; Rowell, John; O'Leary, Shaun

    2017-09-01

    Arthritis resulting from recurrent intra-articular bleeding in individuals with hemophilia can be severely debilitating due to joint pain and stiffness with subsequent loss of mobility and function. Very limited studies have investigated the potential benefits of joint mobilization for this condition. This case series is a preliminary investigation of safety, as well as immediate and short-term clinical benefits, associated with gentle knee and ankle joint mobilization in people with hemophilic arthropathy. A single intervention of joint mobilization was applied to the affected knees and/or ankles of 16 individuals with severe or moderate hemophilia within a public hospital setting. Adverse events, as well as immediate (pain-free passive joint range, Timed Up and Go Test with maximum pain numerical rating scale) and short-term (Lower Extremity Functional Scale) effects of the intervention were evaluated with a repeated measures ANOVA. There were no adverse events. An immediate significant increase was observed in pain-free passive ankle joint range of motion ( p  mobilization intervention. The findings of this case series suggest that gentle joint mobilization techniques may be safely considered as part of a multimodal management approach for hemophilic arthropathy.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Waterproofing Membrane Systems Subject to the Concrete Joint Load Behavior of Below-Grade Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Below-grade structures such as parking lots, underground subway tunnels, and basements are growing in scale and reaching deeper below-ground levels. In this type of environment, they become subject to higher water pressure. The concrete material of the structures is exposed to wet conditions for longer periods of time, which makes the proper adhesion of waterproofing membranes difficult. Joint movements from increased structural settlement, thermal expansion/shrinkage, and physical loads from external sources (e.g., vehicles make securing durable waterproofing challenging. While ASTM Guides, Korean Codes, and BS Practice Codes on below-grade waterproofing stress the importance of manufacturer specification for quality control, ensuring high quality waterproofing for the ever-changing scale of construction remains a challenge. This study proposes a new evaluation method and criteria which allow for the selection of waterproofing membranes based on specific performance attributes and workmanship. It subjects six different waterproofing membrane systems (installed on dry and wet surface conditioned mortar slab specimens with an artificial joint to different cyclic movement widths to 300 cycles in water to demonstrate that inadequate material properties and workmanship are key causes for leakages.

  5. Evaluating the introduction of joint crisis plans into routine clinical practice in four community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Theresa M; Smith, Geoffrey P; Lumbus, Anita M

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the implementation of joint crisis planning into routine clinical practice in community mental health services in Western Australia. Four community mental health services, two metropolitan and two country based, were invited to participate in a 1-year pilot program to field test a crisis planning tool and the implementation process with a view to then rolling it out across Western Australia. Training and extensive support was offered to staff at the four sites. Consumers experienced the process as both empowering and therapeutic. Despite acknowledgement of the value of interagency collaboration in the planning process, almost all plans were completed by consumers with their case managers. The most conspicuous finding was the marked difference in the number of completed plans at each site. This study supports previous research findings that joint crisis planning enhances the therapeutic relationship and empowers consumers. Organisational readiness was a major factor in the differential uptake of crisis plans between sites. Our study highlights the critical importance of addressing the context and culture of each individual service in which a new intervention is being introduced as part of the implementation process. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  6. Evaluation of Kinesiophobia and Its Correlations with Pain and Fatigue in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Celletti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type a. k. a. joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT is a hereditary musculoskeletal disorder associating generalized joint hypermobility with chronic pain. Anecdotal reports suggest a prominent role for kinesiophobia in disease manifestations, but no study has systematically addressed this point. Objective. To investigate the impact of kinesiophobia and its relationship with pain, fatigue, and quality of life in JHS/EDS-HT. Design. Cross-sectional study. Subjects/Patients. 42 patients (40 female and 2 male with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosis following standardized diagnostic criteria were selected. Methods. Disease features were analyzed by means of specific questionnaires and scales evaluating kinesiophobia, pain, fatigue, and quality of life. The relationships among variables were investigated using the Spearman bivariate analysis. Results. Kinesiophobia resulted predominantly in the patients’ sample. The values of kinesiophobia did not correlate with intensity of pain, quality of life, and (or the single component of fatigue. A strong correlation was discovered between kinesiophobia and general severity of fatigue. Conclusions. In JHS/EDS-HT, the onset of pain-avoiding strategies is related to the presence of pain but not to its intensity. The clear-cut correlation between kinesiophobia and severity of fatigue suggests a direct link between musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. In JHS/EDS-HT, the underlying mechanism is likely to be facilitated by primary disease characteristics, including hypotonia.

  7. Ultrasound evaluation of effect of different degree of wrist extension on radial artery dimension at the wrist joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Venkatesh; Buhari, Faiza Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Successful arterial cannulation requires wide and patent arterial lumen. A recent study has shown that success rate of radial arterial cannulation at first attempt is more at 45° angle of wrist extension in both young and elderly patients. No study has reasoned whether these high success rates at 45° is because of less compression of the radial artery at this particular angle of wrist extension. Hence, we attempted to study whether the radial artery dimensions changes with increasing angles of wrist extension in young, healthy female volunteers using ultrasound examination. To investigate the effect of increasing angle of wrist extension of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75° on radial artery dimensions at the level of the wrist joint using ultrasound examination. A prospective single blinded study in volunteers. Sonographic measurements of radial artery dimension at the wrist level were performed in 48 young, healthy female subjects. Height (anteroposterior in mm), width (mediolateral in mm) and depth (skin to artery) were measured at wrist extension of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75°. The dimensions at each angle are compared with 0° as the control and statistical analysis done. One-way analysis of variance test. No statistically significant change in dimension of the radial artery is observed with increasing angle of wrist extension. Ultrasound evaluation showed that increasing angle of wrist extension does not significantly change the dimensions of radial artery at the wrist joint level in young healthy female volunteers.

  8. Evaluation of kinesiophobia and its correlations with pain and fatigue in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celletti, Claudia; Castori, Marco; La Torre, Giuseppe; Camerota, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type a. k. a. joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT) is a hereditary musculoskeletal disorder associating generalized joint hypermobility with chronic pain. Anecdotal reports suggest a prominent role for kinesiophobia in disease manifestations, but no study has systematically addressed this point. To investigate the impact of kinesiophobia and its relationship with pain, fatigue, and quality of life in JHS/EDS-HT. Cross-sectional study. 42 patients (40 female and 2 male) with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosis following standardized diagnostic criteria were selected. Disease features were analyzed by means of specific questionnaires and scales evaluating kinesiophobia, pain, fatigue, and quality of life. The relationships among variables were investigated using the Spearman bivariate analysis. Kinesiophobia resulted predominantly in the patients' sample. The values of kinesiophobia did not correlate with intensity of pain, quality of life, and (or) the single component of fatigue. A strong correlation was discovered between kinesiophobia and general severity of fatigue. In JHS/EDS-HT, the onset of pain-avoiding strategies is related to the presence of pain but not to its intensity. The clear-cut correlation between kinesiophobia and severity of fatigue suggests a direct link between musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. In JHS/EDS-HT, the underlying mechanism is likely to be facilitated by primary disease characteristics, including hypotonia.

  9. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  10. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the availability and use of public transportation by taking a case study of the Damri bus which has Ngaliyan-Pucanggading route. The availability of public transport is not comparable to the demand for public transportation services so that the problems of transportation emerge. Additionally, the use of public transport becomes an important factor to develop the transportation. The study is conducted by surveying the Damri passengers of B.04 lane and logistic regression is used for the analysis. The method of determining the needs of transportation is issued by Departemen Perhubungan. It is used to calculate and determine whether the public transportation should be added or reduced. Then, the factors used as the independent variables in the analysis are the Damri’s safety, effectiveness, efficiency, service and reliability. The results show that Perum Damri does not need to add more Damri bus for B.04 because the results’ calculation is 0.6. and the factors that significantly influence the use Damri bus is the variable of safety, effectiveness and efficiency. However, the variables of service and reliability do not significantly influence the use of B.04 Damri bus.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan dan penggunaan angkutan sarana angkutan umum penumpang dengan mengambil studi kasus pada bus Damri jalur dengan trayek Ngaliyan-Pucanggading. Ketersediaan sarana angkutan umum yang tersedia tidak sebanding dengan besarnya permintaan akan jasa angkutan umum oleh masyarakat umum sehingga muncul permasalahan transportasi. Di samping itu, penggunaan angkutan umum yang beroperasi menjadi faktor penting dalam upaya pengembangan sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey terhadap para penumpang bus Damri jalur B.04 dan dianalisis dengan Regresi Logistik. Metode penentuan kebutuhan armada dikeluarkan oleh Departemen Perhubungan yang digunakan untuk menghitung apakah suatu

  11. Evaluation of the degree of knee joint osteoarthritis in patients with early gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Behrooz; Ashraf, Alireza; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Zarei, Fariba; Foruzi, Shima

    2013-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and one of the causes of pain and disability. The hair graying characteristic correlates strictly with chronological aging and take places to varying degrees in all individuals, disregarding gender or race. Comparison of the degrees of clinical and radiologic severity of the knee OA in individuals with early hair graying compared to ordinary individuals. A total of 60 patients with knee OA and similar demographic characteristics were enrolled in this study. All patients were classified in to 3 age subgroups in each of the case and control groups (30-40 year, 41-50 year, 51-60 year). In the case group, the patients must had early hair graying, too. Knee OA were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading scale. Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) was applied to assess clinical severity of the knee OA. The mean ± SD of WOMAC index in the case group was 60.7 ± 15.9 and in the control group was 55.3 ± 15.3 (P = 0.1). The mean rank of KL scale in case group was 35.3 and in the control group was 25.6 (P = 0.02). Even at the same age of OA onset, the rate of progression of radiological findings and the grade of joint destruction in individuals with early hair graying are greater than normal individuals. However, clinical and functional relevant remain unclear.

  12. Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ): a patient-based evaluation tool for hip-joint disease. The Subcommittee on Hip Disease Evaluation of the Clinical Outcome Committee of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadami; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Hiejima, Yoshimitsu; Sugiyama, Hajime; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Atsumi, Takashi; Ishii, Masaji; Izumi, Kiyoko; Ichiseki, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi; Okawa, Takahiro; Ohzono, Kenji; Otsuka, Hiromi; Kishida, Shunji; Kobayashi, Seneki; Sawaguchi, Takeshi; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Nakajima, Ikumasa; Nakamura, Shigeru; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Fukuda, Kanji; Fujii, Genji; Mawatari, Taro; Mori, Satoshi; Yasunaga, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip Score is widely used in Japan, but this tool is designed to reflect the viewpoint of health-care providers rather than that of patients. In gauging the effect of medical therapies in addition to clinical results, it is necessary to assess quality of life (QOL) from the viewpoint of patients. However, there is no tool evaluating QOL for Japanese patients with hip-joint disease. With the aim of more accurately classifying QOL for Japanese patients with hip-joint disease, we prepared a questionnaire with 58 items for the survey derived from 464 opinions obtained from approximately 100 Japanese patients with hip-joint disease and previously devised evaluation criteria. In the survey, we collected information on 501 cases, and 402 were subjected to factor analysis. From this, we formulated three categories-movement, mental, and pain-each comprising 7 items, for a total of 21 items to be used as evaluation criteria for hip-joint function. The Cronbach's α coefficients for the three categories were 0.93, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively, indicating the high reliability of the evaluation criteria. The 21 items included some related to the Asian lifestyle, such as use of a Japanese-style toilet and rising from the floor, which are not included in other evaluation tools. This self-administered questionnaire may become a useful tool in the evaluation of not only Japanese patients, but also of members of other ethnic groups who engage in deep flexion of the hip joint during daily activities.

  13. Iterated Local Search Algorithm with Strategic Oscillation for School Bus Routing Problem with Bus Stop Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Fallah Niasar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available he school bus routing problem (SBRP represents a variant of the well-known vehicle routing problem. The main goal of this study is to pick up students allocated to some bus stops and generate routes, including the selected stops, in order to carry students to school. In this paper, we have proposed a simple but effective metaheuristic approach that employs two features: first, it utilizes large neighborhood structures for a deeper exploration of the search space; second, the proposed heuristic executes an efficient transition between the feasible and infeasible portions of the search space. Exploration of the infeasible area is controlled by a dynamic penalty function to convert the unfeasible solution into a feasible one. Two metaheuristics, called N-ILS (a variant of the Nearest Neighbourhood with Iterated Local Search algorithm and I-ILS (a variant of Insertion with Iterated Local Search algorithm are proposed to solve SBRP. Our experimental procedure is based on the two data sets. The results show that N-ILS is able to obtain better solutions in shorter computing times. Additionally, N-ILS appears to be very competitive in comparison with the best existing metaheuristics suggested for SBRP

  14. Bias of averages in life-cycle footprinting of infrastructure: truck and bus case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-11-18

    The life-cycle output (e.g., level of service) of infrastructure systems heavily influences their normalized environmental footprint. Many studies and tools calculate emission factors based on average productivity; however, the performance of these systems varies over time and space. We evaluate the appropriate use of emission factors based on average levels of service by comparing them to those reflecting a distribution of system outputs. For the provision of truck and bus services where fuel economy is assumed constant over levels of service, emission factor estimation biases, described by Jensen's inequality, always result in larger-than-expected environmental impacts (3%-400%) and depend strongly on the variability and skew of truck payloads and bus ridership. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emission factors for diesel trucks in California range from 87 to 1,500 g of CO2 equivalents per ton-km, depending on the size and type of trucks and the services performed. Along a bus route in San Francisco, well-to-wheel emission factors ranged between 53 and 940 g of CO2 equivalents per passenger-km. The use of biased emission factors can have profound effects on various policy decisions. If average emission rates must be used, reflecting a distribution of productivity can reduce emission factor biases.

  15. Particles exposure while sitting at bus stops of hot and humid Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Erik; Tan, Sok Huang

    2016-10-01

    Transport microenvironments represent hotspots of personal exposure to airborne toxics, particularly of ultrafine particles. Thus, a large exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips. Amongst these microenvironments, bus stops are critical because of the commuters' close proximity to fresh fumes rich in particles emitted by passing, idling and accelerating buses and motor vehicles, in general. Standing at a bus stop may represent a period of disproportionately high exposure and it is, therefore, essential to know the number, chemical composition and physical characteristics of such particles for a proper public health assessment and design of mobility strategies. On this account, a set of portable and battery operated sensors were used to evaluate a number of properties of the traffic particles to which thousands of citizens are daily exposed at bus stops of Singapore. In terms of fine particles, the exposure concentration was on average 1.5-3 times higher than the mean concentration at ambient level reported by the local authorities. On average 60% of those particles corresponded to black carbon. An important presence of particle-bound polycyclic aromatics was observed. The particle number concentration and active surface area were effective metrics to quantify ultrafine particles, as expected both showed strong correlations. The number of particles at bus stops was on average 3.5 times higher than at ambient level. The most alarming issue was probably the size of the particles. Assuming spherical particles, a median of 27 nm was estimated based on the active surface area and particle number data. Particles of this size form the nucleation mode, which is related to harmful health effects.

  16. Comparison of measurements of dorsolateral subluxation of the femoral head and maximal passive laxity for evaluation of the coxofemoral joint in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, J P; Lust, G; Williams, A J; Dykes, N L; Todhunter, R J

    1999-12-01

    To determine whether dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) of the femoral head reflects osseous conformation of the coxofemoral (hip) joint and represents a property distinct from maximum passive laxity of the hip joint in dogs. 14 Labrador Retrievers, 16 Greyhounds, 58 Greyhound-Labrador Retriever mixed-breed dogs, and 1 Rottweiler. DLS of the femoral head (DLS score) and passive laxity of the hip joint (distraction index) were determined radiographically in 3 groups of dogs: not treated (167 joints of 84 dogs); before and after injecting 2 ml of hyaluronan into 25 hip joints of 13 dogs; and before and after unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy in 5 dogs. Results of the 2 methods were compared for each group. In untreated dogs, the correlation coefficient (r) of DLS score versus distraction index was -0.73 and -0.69 for 84 left and 83 right hip joints, respectively. Mean coefficient of determination (r2) for both hips was 0.5. Mean DLS score did not differ before and after intra-articular injection of hyaluronan into either hip joint, whereas mean distraction index increased significantly after intra-articular injection. Unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy resulted in a significant increase in DLS score, compared with values obtained before surgery. However, distraction index before and after surgery did not differ significantly. The DLS test assesses the congruity of the acetabulum and the femoral head in a canine hip joint and thus represents a characteristic distinct from maximum passive laxity. The DLS score and the distraction index evaluate different components of hip joint stability.

  17. Evaluation of Creep Strength of Heterogeneous Welded Joint in HR6W Alloy and Sanicro 25 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieliński A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of investigations on HR6W alloy and Sanicro 25 steel and the dissimilar welded joint made of them. The characteristic images of microstructure of the investigated materials in the as-received condition and following the creep test, observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, are shown. The X-ray analysis of phase composition of the existing precipitates was carried out. The method for evaluation of creep strength based on abridged creep tests carried out at a temperature higher than the design one is presented. The obtained results do not deviate from the values of creep strength determined in long-term creep tests. The maximum difference in creep strength of the investigated materials is ±20%, which is in compliance with the acceptable scatter band. The methodology presented can be used for verification of creep strength (life time of the material of finished components to be operated under creep conditions.

  18. Evaluation of Joint Performance on High Nitrogen Stainless Steel Which is Expected to Have Higher Allergy Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kouichi

    Austenitic stainless steel, which includes nickel for stabilizing austenitic structure, is used for various purposes, for example, for structural material, corrosion-resistant material, biomaterial etc. Nickel is set as one of the rare metals and economizing on nickel as the natural resources is required. On the other hand, nickel is one of the metals that cause metallic allergy frequently. Therefore, high nitrogen stainless steel, where nitrogen stabilizes austenitic structure instead of nickel, has been developed in Japan and some of the foreign countries for the above reason. When high nitrogen stainless steel is fused and bonded, dissolved nitrogen is released to the atmospheric area, and some of the material properties will change. In this study, we bonded high nitrogen stainless steel by stud welding process, which is able to bond at short time, and we evaluate joint performance. We have got some interesting results from the other tests and examinations.

  19. Measurement of the Residual Resistivity Ratio of the Bus Bars Copper Stabilizer of the 13 kA Circuits of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Siemko, A; Claudet, S; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H

    2012-01-01

    After the incident of September 2008, the operational beam energy of the LHC has been set to 3.5 TeV, since not all joints of the superconducting (SC) bus bars between magnets have the required quality for 7 TeV operation. This decision is based on simulations to determine the safe current in the main dipole and quadrupole circuits, reproducing the thermal behaviour of a quenched superconducting joint by taking into account all relevant factors that affect a possible thermal runaway. One important parameter is the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper stabilizer of the bus bar connecting the superconducting magnets. A dedicated campaign to measure the RRR for the main 13 kA circuits of the LHC in all sectors was performed during the Christmas stop in December 2010 and January 2011. The measurement method as well as the data analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  20. Evaluation of the diffusion of corticosteroids between the distal interphalangeal joint and navicular bursa in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Frederik E; Schumacher, James; Castro, Fernando A; Holder, Troy E; Carroll, Roger C; Sega, Gary A; Rogers, Chris W

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether clinically effective concentrations of methylprednisolone or triamcinolone can be achieved in the navicular bursa after injection of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) or triamcinolone acetonide (TA) into the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) and whether clinically effective concentrations of these drugs can be achieved in the DIPJ after injecting the navicular bursa with the same doses of MPA or TA. 32 healthy horses. Horses in groups 1 through 4 received 40 mg of MPA in the DIPJ, 10 mg of TA in the DIPJ, 40 mg of MPA in the navicular bursa, and 10 mg of TA in the navicular bursa, respectively. Concentrations of corticosteroids that diffused into the adjacent synovial structure were determined. For group 1, injection of MPA into the DIPJ yielded a mean +/- SD concentration of 0.24 +/- 0.072 microg of methylprednisolone/mL in the navicular bursa. For group 2, injection of TA into the DIPJ yielded 0.124 +/- 0.075 microg of triamcinolone/mL in the navicular bursa. For group 3, injection of MPA into the navicular bursa yielded 0.05 +/- 0.012 microg of methylprednisolone/mL in the DIPJ. For group 4, injection of TA into the navicular bursa yielded 0.091 +/- 0.026 microg of triamcinolone/mL in the DIPJ. A clinically effective concentration of methylprednisolone or triamcinolone diffused between the DIPJ and navicular bursa after intra-articular or intrabursal injection, which would justify injection of the DIPJ with MPA or TA to ameliorate inflammation of the navicular bursa.

  1. A 5-year Evaluation and Results of Treatment of Chronic Llocked Dislocations of the Shoulder Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syawash Mirsaid Ghazi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Chronic neglected dislocation of the shoulder joint can be defined as a neglected dislocation for more than a 3 week period.However, it has been shown that the negligence could range from a 24 hour period to 6 months1. Depending on age,signs, symptoms,etiology and types of dislocation, conservative treatment or surgical intervention could be considered.Methods: In this study, 16 patients (13 were male and 3 were female were treated with chronic shoulder dislocations, 3 of which had bilateral dislocations. The age of this group ranged from 13-65 years with a mean age of 34 years. These patients were treated by closed or open reduction, either anterior, posterior or both approaches. Of 19 dislocations, 6 were anterior unilateral, 7 posterior unilateral, 1 anterior bilateral and 2 posterior bilateral dislocations. The mean period between dislocations and treatments was 3 months (from 4 weeks to 11 months,And the mean follow up period was 40 months (from 21 months to 5 years.Results: This study has shown that treatment varies according to pathology. In  this study the mean size of head defects was 35% and the extent of severity determined the approach. Findings at the last follow up were assessed according to Rowe and Zarins score and of the 19 shoulders assessed, 9 showed good and 10 showed excellent results. There was no recurrence of the dislocation in any patient.Conclusion:In some selected instances, open reduction of a chronic locked neglected shoulder dislocation of a 6 months period or more in young patients is recommended.This method is, however, contraindicated in elderly patients; in such cases a shoulder prosthesis is indicated.  

  2. Evaluation of the structural changes of the hand joints and the rates of rheumatoid arthritis progression according to ultrasound data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aleksandrovna Osipyants

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the significance of ultrasonography (USG in the diagnosis of early destructive changes in the hand joints and the rates of rheumatoid arthritis (RA progression in patients at different ages of disease onset. Subjects and methods. 100 patients with a valid RA diagnosis (American College of Rheumatology (ACR 1987 criteria were examined. They were divided into 2 groups: 1 11 patients with an early RA history of less than 2 years (ERA; 2 35 patients with a RA history of over 2 years (LRA. Hand USG (Voluson-i GE; a 4-13-MHz linear probe; gray scale mode was carried out at baseline and after 6-month follow-up. A sonographic index (US-Er-10 based on the bilateral evaluation of 5 articular areas, such as wrinkles, second-to-third metacarpophalangeal (MCP and second-to-third proximal interphalangeal (PIP joints, was proposed to evaluate the progression of destruction. According to US-Er-10 changes, the rates of development of the destructive process were arbitrarily separated into three categories: 1 slow progression rate; 2 moderate progression rate; 3 a rapidly progressive course. The X-ray parameters of structural progression were estimated at 12-month follow-up, by employing the Sharp method modified by van der Heide (SHS. Results. The USG versus X-ray detection rate of erosions was significantly higher in both ERA and LRA (p < 0.05. The ERA patients who had fallen ill after 55 years of age were found to have more significant baseline and final destructive changes according to a total SHS score (p < 0.05 and US-Er-10 index (p < 0.005 than those with RA onset at a younger age. In the ERA patients in whom US-Er-10 increased by three points or more at 6-month follow-up, the rates of X-ray progression at 12 months were significantly higher than those with less pronounced negative changes in this index (Δ total SHS score of 13.5 [3-23] and 0 [0-0], respectively; p < 0.05. The LRA group displayed no statistically relationships between

  3. Evaluation of a bisphosphonate enriched ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for enhanced total joint replacement bearing surface functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Walker, Cassandra Jane

    Each year in the United States there is an increasing trend of patients receiving total joint replacement (TJR) procedures. Approximately a half million total knee replacements (TKRs) are performed annually in the United States with increasing prevalence attributed to baby-boomers, obesity, older, and younger patients. This trend is also seen for total hip replacements (THRs) as well. The use of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) inserts in TJRs results in wear particle-induced osteolysis, which is the predominant cause for prosthesis failure and revision surgery. Sub-micron size particle generation is inevitable despite the numerous efforts in improving this bearing material. Work by others has shown that the use of oral and intravenous systemic bisphosphonates (BP) can significantly minimize periprosthetic osteolysis. However, the systemic delivery and the high solubility of BPs results in a predominant portion of the drug being excreted via the kidney without reaching its target, bone. This doctoral research project is focused on the development and evaluation of a novel method to administer BPs locally using the inherent wear of UHMWPE for possible use as an anti-osteolysis treatment. For new materials to be considered, they must be mechanically and tribologically comparable to the current gold standard, UHMWPE. In order to evaluate this material, mechanical, drug elution and tribological experiments were performed to allow assessment of material properties. Tensile tests showed comparable yield stress and pin-on-disk testing showed comparable wear to standard virgin UHMWPE. Further, drug elution tests have shown that BP was released from the enriched material both in static and dynamic conditions. Additionally, an aggressive 2 million cycle total knee simulator experiment has shown statistically similar wear results for the two materials. Overall, this research has provided the groundwork for further characterization and development of a new

  4. Evaluation of new composite rigid joint under cyclic loading and its effect on one-floor composite frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Haghighat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of structure against lateral and gravity loads, new systems known as composite systems consisting of the reinforced concrete columns and steel beams (RCS can be used and thereby the advantages of concrete beside steel are acquired. RCS joints can be implemented as either through-beam-type joint or through-column-type joint. In this paper, a concrete joint as standard reference joint and a proposed composite joint through-column‎ with new details were built and tested under cyclic loading. Then, using numerical analysis by finite element method, the behavior of composite joint under cyclic loading has been studied and the behavior and performance of proposed composite joint has been studied by comparing the results with that of concrete joint. The results showed that the joint composition in this way resulted in decreasing of the compressive and tensile damages of concrete and increasing in loading capacity, ductility, stiffness and energy absorption. General results of application of composite joint at the one floor-one span composite frame indicating that lateral loading capacity of frame was increased and the performance of frame was improved.

  5. Cause-related marketing : consumer evaluation of fit between joint nonprofit-forprofit products

    OpenAIRE

    Ringer, Allison Catharina

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the perception of fit in the context of Cause-related marketing (referred to as CRM). The research seeks to develop an understanding of the perception of fit and investigates the role it plays in the evaluation and support for CRM campaigns. This research aims to address the overarching research problem: How does the congruence of nonprofit-forprofit pairings influence consumers' perceptions of fit and consequently their evaluation and support for CRM c...

  6. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...... of the specimens was recorded. The reproducibility of the instability pattern suggests that this model is suitable for evaluating stabilizing procedures aimed at correction of elbow joint instability before these procedures are introduced into patient care....

  7. A new musculoskeletal ultrasound scoring system (US10) of the hands and wrist joints for evaluation of early rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Karine R; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Petterle, Giovanna S; Dos Santos, Marla F; Fernandes, Artur R C; Natour, Jamil; Furtado, Rita N V

    2016-07-08

    To propose a novel ultrasound scoring system for hand and wrist joints (US10) for evaluation of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to correlate the US10 with clinical, laboratory and functional variables. Forty-eight early RA patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations as well as blinded ultrasound (US) examinations at baseline, three, six and 12 months. The proposed US10 system involved the assessment of the wrist, second and third metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints. The score consisted of inflammation parameters (synovial proliferation [SP], power Doppler [PD] and tenosynovitis [TN]) and joint damage parameters (bone erosion [BE] and cartilage damage [CD]). SP, PD, BE and CD were scored qualitatively (0-1) and semi-quantitatively (grades 0-3). Tenosynovitis was scored as presence/absence. The evaluation also involved the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and C-reactive protein level (CRP). Mean duration of symptoms was 7.58±3.59 months. Significant correlations (psystem proved to be a useful tool for monitoring inflammation and joint damage in early RA patients, demonstrating significant correlations with longitudinal changes in disease activity and functional status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  8. Graz, city bus fleet running on 100% biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablasser, G. [City of Graz (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Graz collects used cooking oil on a large scale. This used cooking oil is converted into biodiesel and along with biodiesel produced from rape seed provides the whole bus fleet (135 buses) with fuel. The bus fleet also got an optimized high quality interior design (information screens, air conditioning, a better acoustic and visual information and ramps for mobility-impaired persons). Attractiveness of the city will increase due to lower pollution levels by the biodiesel driven buses. Public transport became more user-friendly, especially for the disabled and other specific groups. The local public transport company, GBV, carries out a series of technical, ecological and economic trials of 100% biodiesel operation in the meantime also during wintertime. Within the framework of CIVITAS trendsetter, the whole bus fleet was either converted to biodiesel operation or new buses were bought already equipped for biodiesel operations. The 100% switch to alternative fuel for the entire bus fleet of the City of Graz is new; Graz is the only city in the world operating the whole bus fleet on 100% biodiesel.

  9. Shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Shiu, Li-Jie; Li, Yu-Ling; Tung, Kuan-Yeng; Chan, Kwan-Yu; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Professional bus drivers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying causes are unclear. Professional bus drivers often follow shift schedules. Especially, an association between shift work and early manifestations of cardiovascular disease has not been elucidated. Thus we investigated the links between shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers. Questionnaires were administered to 184 bus drivers on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and occupational history from 5 transportation companies in Taiwan. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using a volume-plethysmographic apparatus. Body mass index, waist circumference, biochemical variables, and blood pressure were also measured. Arteriosclerotic risk factors (age, weekly driving hours, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin level) differed in part among different groups of drivers. Long-term shift drivers had higher baPWV compared to regular drivers and short-term shift drivers (1594 cm/s vs. 1497 and 1432, pshift driving. Long-term shift work could increase the risk of arteriosclerosis in professional bus drivers. Larger studies would be necessary to provide further evidence regarding this finding.

  10. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  11. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  12. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  13. The mobile GeoBus outreach project: hands-on Earth and Mars activities for secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruth; Pike, Charlotte; Roper, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Just under 35,000 pupils have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities since the project began in 2012, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run 50 - 80 minute workshops, and half- or whole-day Enterprise Challenges and field excursions. Workshops are aimed at a class of up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are increasingly popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. Enterprise Challenge are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Topics include "Journey to Mars", "Scotland's Rocks", "Drilling for Oil", and "Renewable Energy". Both of the energy Enterprise Challenges were designed to incorporates ideas and

  14. Integration of a platform based in field bus (profibus), for the development of process control systems; Integracion de una plataforma basada en bus de campo PROFIBUS, para el desarrollo de sistemas de control de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Perez, Eduardo; Arroyo Figueroa, Gustavo; Villavicencio Ramirez, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-03-01

    The integration of a computer platform for the process sequential control system development and validation of some processes of thermoelectric generation, which are constituted by operations of the logic-sequential type. The platform is composed of a process simulator, a sequence tester, a logic programmable controller, and an operational computer. All these elements are interconnected through a field bus type PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus) (Standard DIN 19245). This platform has been used for the elaboration and evaluation of the operational sequence and control of demineralization, reverse osmosis, and condensate polishing water treatment plants, which are simulated in a personal computer. [Espanol] Se presenta la integracion de una plataforma de computo para el desarrollo y validacion de sistemas de control secuencial de algunos procesos de generacion termoelectrica, los cuales estan constituidos por operaciones de tipo logico-secuencial. La plataforma esta compuesta por un simulador del proceso, un probador de secuencias, un controlador logico programable y una computadora de operacion. Todos estos elementos estan interconectados a traves de un bus de campo tipo PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus), (Estandar DIN 19245). Esta plataforma se ha utilizado para elaborar y validar la programacion de las secuencias de operacion y control de plantas de tratamiento de agua por desmineralizacion, osmosis inversa y pulidores de condensados, las cuales se tienen simuladas en una computadora personal

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of Somatic Cell Count for Joint Genetic Evaluation of Mastitis and Recovery Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; de Koning, D J; Janss, Luc

    Abstract Text: Better models of genetic evaluation for mastitis can be developed through longitudinal analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) which usually is used as a proxy for mastitis. Mastitis and recovery data with weekly observations of SCC were simulated for daughter groups of 60 and 240 per...

  16. Applying the Joint Committee's Evaluation Standards for the Assessment of Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, David; Shohamy, Elana

    This study is based on three sources: (1) an experimental try-out of four oral proficiency testing methods (oral interview, role play, reporting test, and group discussion); (2) an evaluation of the testing methods by a panel of experts; and (3) an analysis of the same testing methods by policy makers. The findings are reported in terms of the…

  17. Joint Intelligence Operations Center (JIOC) Baseline Business Process Model & Capabilities Evaluation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Targeting Review Board OPLAN Operations Plan OPORD Operations Order OPSIT Operational Situation OSINT Open Source Intelligence OV...Analysis Evaluate FLTREPs MISREPs Unit Assign Assets Feedback Asset Shortfalls Multi-Int Collection Political & Embasy Law Enforcement HUMINT OSINT ...Embassy Information OSINT Manage Theater HUMINT Law Enforcement Collection Sort Requests Platform Information Agency Information M-I Collect

  18. Benefit-cost analysis framework for evaluating inter-city transit investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development and application of a benefit/cost analysis (BCA) model to support the evaluation of investment decisions for intercity bus services. The model recognizes two principle types of intercity bus benefits: benefits th...

  19. Greyscale and power Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of normal synovial joints: correlation with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Joanne; Kane, David

    2015-03-01

    US is a promising tool in evaluating RA synovitis, but abnormal US findings have been reported in small subsets of normal joints in healthy subjects. This study aimed to systematically assess greyscale US (GSUS) and power Doppler US (PDUS) findings in 40 peripheral joints-the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) set, ankles and MTP joints-in healthy subjects. A composite score of abnormal US findings in 40 joints was compared with serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. US of 60 standard views in 40 joints was performed in 30 healthy subjects (total 3600 images). GSUS and PDUS were scored semi-quantitatively (0-3). Serum samples were obtained at the time of US and analysed for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, TNF-α and IFN-γ using biochip array technology. GSUS abnormalities were more frequent than PDUS abnormalities [mean total GSUS score = 20.07 (range 6-45; maximum potential score = 180), mean total PDUS score = 4.8 (range 0-13)]. GSUS score increased with increasing age (Spearman's ρ = 0.383, P = 0.037). A PDUS signal >1 was observed only in the wrist (8%) and MTP1 (3%). GSUS scores did not correlate with any pro-inflammatory cytokine level. The total PDUS score correlated significantly with serum VEGF (r = 0.395, P = 0.046). PDUS signals >1 are rarely seen in normal synovial joints. GSUS synovitis, but not PDUS, may reflect age-related joint changes. PDUS correlated with VEGF, providing further evidence of a central role for VEGF in synovial neo-angiogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Evaluation of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tears with contrast-enhanced and fat-suppressed MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinoa, Vanessa; Ranke, Felipe von; Costa, Flavia; Marchiori, Edson [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    To present findings of plantar plate (PP) lesions from MRI with administration of gadolinium and to differentiate PP lesions from others causes of metatarsalgia. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed 249 contrast-enhanced forefoot MRI scans from patients with metatarsalgia between June 2012 and June 2013. Evaluations focused on hyper-vascularized/fibrous tissue and other findings associated with PP tears. Fifty-nine patients had PP tears, 59 % were female. Most of these patients, 48/59 (81.4 %), had a single metatarsophalangeal (MTP) PP lesion in one foot, although 7/59 patients had one lesion in each foot, 3/59 (5.1 %) had two in one foot, and 1/59 (1.7 %) had three lesions in one foot. The second MTP joint was the most common location for PP tears (n = 56), followed by the third (n = 12) and fourth (n = 3) MTP joints. Lateral (n = 33) and full thickness (n = 28) PP lesions were the most frequent, and central (n = 3) and lateral/central (n = 7) tears were less prevalent. Fifty (70.5 %) PP lesions showed pericapsular fibrosis in pre-contrast sequences, and 21 (29.5 %) were visible only after administration of gadolinium. All PP lesions had collateral ligament involvement. Others findings included interosseous tendon lesions (n = 29), interosseous tendon rupture (n = 29), synovitis (n = 49), flexor tenosynovitis (n = 28), crossover toe (n = 2), hammertoe (n = 1), intermetatarsal space (IS) neuromas (n = 11), and third IS neuromas (n = 12). PP tears are a common cause of metatarsalgia, accounting for more than 20 % of cases in our sample. A substantial portion of the lesions (29.5 %) became visible only after the administration of gadolinium. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of the diffusivity and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of API 5L X80 steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Araújo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of API 5L X80 steel welded joints by SMAW and GTAW processes. By varying the consumables used and the use of the same interpass temperature three different welded joints were obtained. Tests of hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility were performed according to ASTM G129-2006 with an aqueous solution (Solution A - TM0177/2005 NACE sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 replacing the bubbling of H2S. From the elongation values was observed that the joint obtained in all welding conditions showed susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement, which was determined by the elongation ratio. The joints that showed higher levels of hardness showed higher susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. The joints obtained with higher welding speeds for the same amount of heat input presented a reduction in the rate of hydrogen embrittlement. All joints tested in solution showed fracture surfaces with quasi cleavage zones.

  2. Tomographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in malocclusion subjects: condylar morphology and position

    OpenAIRE

    MERIGUE,Luciana Fonseca; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Oltramari-Navarro,Paula Vanessa Pedron; Navarro,Ricardo de Lima; Almeida,Marcio Rodrigues de

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate condyle concentricity and morphology, and their association with Class I and II malocclusions (Angle). The sample consisted of 49 individuals of both genders, between 11 and 35 years old, divided into two groups, G1: 26 patients with Class I malocclusion, and G2: 23 patients with Class II malocclusion, selected for orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of the condyle morphology and position was performed by the same previously calibrated examiner ...

  3. The use of pseudo-dynamic magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating the relationship between temporomandibular joint anterior disc displacement and joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W-C; Lo, C-P; Chiang, I-C; Hsu, C-C; Hsu, W-L; Liu, D-W; Juan, Y-H; Liu, G-C

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding of articular disc displacement is debated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between TMJ pain and anterior disc displacement (ADD) using pseudo-dynamic MRI. A retrospective review of MRI studies was carried out on 130 TMJs in 65 patients presenting unilateral TMJ pain. The contralateral asymptomatic joints served as the control group. Bilateral oblique sagittal and coronal MRIs as well as pseudo-dynamic studies in the oblique sagittal plane were obtained. The disc-condyle relationship was divided into three subtypes (normal disc position, ADD with reduction, and ADD without reduction), based on the pseudo-dynamic MRI findings. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether the TMJ pain was linked to ADD. The results showed that TMJ pain was significantly related to ADD (with and without reduction) compared to the group with a normal disc position (P=.0001). A significant correlation was found between TMJ pain and the ADD subtype without reduction, as compared to the ADD subtype with reduction (P=.0156). These data suggest that a displaced disc, particularly in the subtype without reduction, is an important source of pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical Pipelined Multi-bus Interconnection Network Intrinsic Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Joseph d'Auriol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital all-optical parallel computing is an important research direction and spans conventional devices and convergent nano-optics deployments. Optical bus-based interconnects provide interesting aspects such as relative information communication speed-up or slow-down between optical signals. This aspect is harnessed in the newly proposed All-Optical Linear Array with a Reconfigurable Pipelined Bus System (OLARPBS model. However, the physical realization of such communication interconnects needs to be considered. This paper considers spatial layouts of processing elements along with the optical bus light paths that are necessary to realize the corresponding interconnection requirements. A metric in terms of the degree of required physical constraint is developed to characterize the variety of possible solutions. Simple algorithms that determine spatial layouts are given. It is shown that certain communication interconnection structures have associated intrinsic topologies.

  5. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  6. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  7. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  8. An Evaluation of Global and Local Tensile Properties of Friction-Stir Welded DP980 Dual-Phase Steel Joints Using a Digital Image Correlation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungwook Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the microstructure heterogeneity on the tensile plastic deformation characteristic of friction-stir-welded (FSW dual-phase (DP steel was investigated for the potential applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. Friction-stir-welded specimens with a butt joint configuration were prepared, and quasi-static tensile tests were conducted, to evaluate the tensile properties of DP980 dual-phase steels. The friction-stir welding led to the formation of martensite and a significant hardness rise in the stir zone (SZ, but the presence of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone (HAZ was caused by tempering of the pre-existing martensite. Owing to the appearance of severe soft zone, DP980 FSW joint showed almost 93% joint efficiency with the view-point of ultimate tensile strength and relatively low ductility than the base metal (BM. The local tensile deformation characteristic of the FSW joints was also examined using the digital image correlation (DIC methodology by mapping the global and local strain distribution, and was subsequently analyzed by mechanics calculation. It is found that the tensile deformation of the FSW joints is highly heterogeneous, leading to a significant decrease in global ductility. The HAZ of the joints is the weakest region where the strain localizes early, and this localization extends until fracture with a strain near 30%, while the strain in the SZ and BM is only 1% and 4%, respectively. Local constitutive properties in different heterogeneous regions through the friction-stir-welded joint was also briefly evaluated by assuming iso-stress conditions. The local stress-strain curves of individual weld zones provide a clear indication of the heterogeneity of the local mechanical properties.

  9. An Evaluation of Global and Local Tensile Properties of Friction-Stir Welded DP980 Dual-Phase Steel Joints Using a Digital Image Correlation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoungwook; Kim, Cheolhee; Song, Jung Han

    2015-12-04

    The effect of the microstructure heterogeneity on the tensile plastic deformation characteristic of friction-stir-welded (FSW) dual-phase (DP) steel was investigated for the potential applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. Friction-stir-welded specimens with a butt joint configuration were prepared, and quasi-static tensile tests were conducted, to evaluate the tensile properties of DP980 dual-phase steels. The friction-stir welding led to the formation of martensite and a significant hardness rise in the stir zone (SZ), but the presence of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) was caused by tempering of the pre-existing martensite. Owing to the appearance of severe soft zone, DP980 FSW joint showed almost 93% joint efficiency with the view-point of ultimate tensile strength and relatively low ductility than the base metal (BM). The local tensile deformation characteristic of the FSW joints was also examined using the digital image correlation (DIC) methodology by mapping the global and local strain distribution, and was subsequently analyzed by mechanics calculation. It is found that the tensile deformation of the FSW joints is highly heterogeneous, leading to a significant decrease in global ductility. The HAZ of the joints is the weakest region where the strain localizes early, and this localization extends until fracture with a strain near 30%, while the strain in the SZ and BM is only 1% and 4%, respectively. Local constitutive properties in different heterogeneous regions through the friction-stir-welded joint was also briefly evaluated by assuming iso-stress conditions. The local stress-strain curves of individual weld zones provide a clear indication of the heterogeneity of the local mechanical properties.

  10. Tomographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in malocclusion subjects: condylar morphology and position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merigue, Luciana Fonseca; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; Alemida, Marcio Rodrigues [Universidade do Norte do Parana (UNOPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima, E-mail: accfconti@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, P (Brazil). Departamento de Odontologia

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate condyle concentricity and morphology, and their association with Class I and II malocclusions (Angle). The sample consisted of 49 individuals of both genders, between 11 and 35 years old, divided into two groups, G1: 26 patients with Class I malocclusion, and G2: 23 patients with Class II malocclusion, selected for orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of the condyle morphology and position was performed by the same previously calibrated examiner using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the subjects. The CBCT scans were analyzed by means of a 3D program (Dolphin 11.5, Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA), with a 25% level of sensitivity. The images obtained from the coronal slices were employed for the condyle morphology analysis, which classified the condyle form as rounded, as flat or convex, and as triangular or angled. The sagittal slices were used to classify further the condyles as concentric and displaced anteriorly or posteriorly. A clinical examination was also performed, including TMJ and muscle palpation. The kappa test was used to evaluate investigator calibration; the Chi-square and paired t-tests were used for analysis. The convex and anteriorly positioned condyles were found most frequently, regardless of the type of malocclusion. No association was observed between the groups regarding condylar characteristics. (author)

  11. Joint Evaluation of the Wave and Offshore Wind Energy Resources in the Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to assess the global wind and wave resources in the vicinity of some developing countries by evaluating 16-year of data (2001–2016, coming from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF. Until now, not much work has been done to evaluate and use the renewable energy sources from these marine environments. This is because most of the attention was focused on more promising areas, such as the European coasts, which are more advanced in terms of technical and economical aspects. A general perspective of the current energy market from the selected target areas is first presented, indicating at the same time the progresses that have been reported in the field of the renewable energy. Besides the spatial and seasonal variations of the marine resources considered, the results also indicate the energy potential of these coastal environments as well as the performances of some offshore wind turbines, which may operate in these regions.

  12. Tomographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in malocclusion subjects: condylar morphology and position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigue, Luciana Fonseca; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate condyle concentricity and morphology, and their association with Class I and II malocclusions (Angle). The sample consisted of 49 individuals of both genders, between 11 and 35 years old, divided into two groups, G1: 26 patients with Class I malocclusion, and G2: 23 patients with Class II malocclusion, selected for orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of the condyle morphology and position was performed by the same previously calibrated examiner using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the subjects. The CBCT scans were analyzed by means of a 3D program (Dolphin 11.5, Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA), with a 25% level of sensitivity. The images obtained from the coronal slices were employed for the condyle morphology analysis, which classified the condyle form as rounded, as flat or convex, and as triangular or angled. The sagittal slices were used to classify further the condyles as concentric and displaced anteriorly or posteriorly. A clinical examination was also performed, including TMJ and muscle palpation. The kappa test was used to evaluate investigator calibration; the Chi-square and paired t-tests were used for analysis. The convex and anteriorly positioned condyles were found most frequently, regardless of the type of malocclusion. No association was observed between the groups regarding condylar characteristics.

  13. Tomographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in malocclusion subjects: condylar morphology and position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fonseca MERIGUE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate condyle concentricity and morphology, and their association with Class I and II malocclusions (Angle. The sample consisted of 49 individuals of both genders, between 11 and 35 years old, divided into two groups, G1: 26 patients with Class I malocclusion, and G2: 23 patients with Class II malocclusion, selected for orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of the condyle morphology and position was performed by the same previously calibrated examiner using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images of the subjects. The CBCT scans were analyzed by means of a 3D program (Dolphin 11.5, Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA, with a 25% level of sensitivity. The images obtained from the coronal slices were employed for the condyle morphology analysis, which classified the condyle form as rounded, as flat or convex, and as triangular or angled. The sagittal slices were used to classify further the condyles as concentric and displaced anteriorly or posteriorly. A clinical examination was also performed, including TMJ and muscle palpation. The kappa test was used to evaluate investigator calibration; the Chi-square and paired t-tests were used for analysis. The convex and anteriorly positioned condyles were found most frequently, regardless of the type of malocclusion. No association was observed between the groups regarding condylar characteristics.

  14. "Efficiency Space" - A Framework for Evaluating Joint Evaporation and Runoff Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal

    2014-01-01

    At the land surface, higher soil moisture levels generally lead to both increased evaporation for a given amount of incoming radiation (increased evaporation efficiency) and increased runoff for a given amount of precipitation (increased runoff efficiency). Evaporation efficiency and runoff efficiency can thus be said to vary with each other, motivating the development of a unique hydroclimatic analysis framework. Using a simple water balance model fitted, in different experiments, with a wide variety of functional forms for evaporation and runoff efficiency, we transform net radiation and precipitation fields into fields of streamflow that can be directly evaluated against observations. The optimal combination of the functional forms the combination that produces the most skillful stream-flow simulations provides an indication for how evaporation and runoff efficiencies vary with each other in nature, a relationship that can be said to define the overall character of land surface hydrological processes, at least to first order. The inferred optimal relationship is represented herein as a curve in efficiency space and should be valuable for the evaluation and development of GCM-based land surface models, which by this measure are often found to be suboptimal.

  15. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  16. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  17. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  18. Evaluation of the mechanism and principles of management of temporomandibular joint dislocation. Systematic review of literature and a proposed new classification of temporomandibular joint dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Babatunde O

    2011-06-15

    Virtually all the articles in literature addressed only a specific type of dislocation. The aim of this review was to project a comprehensive understanding of the pathologic processes and management of all types of dislodgement of the head of the mandibular condyle from its normal position in the glenoid fossa. In addition, a new classification of temporomandibular joint dislocation was also proposed. A thorough computer literature search was done using the Medline, Cochrane library and Embase database. Key words like temporo-mandibular joint dislocation were used for the search. Additional manual search was done by going through published home-based and foreign articles. Case reports/series, and original articles that documented the type of dislocation, number of cases treated in the series and original articles. Treatment done and outcome of treatment were included in the study. A total of 128 articles were reviewed out which 79 were found relevant. Of these, 26 were case reports, 17 were case series and 36 were original articles. 79 cases were acute dislocations, 35 cases were chronic protracted TMJ dislocations and 311 cases were chronic recurrent TMJ dislocations. Etiology was predominantly trauma in 60% of cases and other causes contributed about 40%. Of all the cases reviewed, only 4 were unilateral dislocation. Various treatment modalities are outlined in this report as indicated for each type of dislocation. The more complex and invasive method of treatment may not necessarily offer the best option and outcome of treatment, therefore conservative approaches should be exhausted and utilized appropriately before adopting the more invasive surgical techniques.

  19. Kajian Keamanan Pengoperasian Public Transport Tinjauan Terhadap Kekuatan Rangka Body Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiro, B. M

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the safety and security of the public transportation, design specification of construction body bus or bus frame structures should have an appropriate structural strength and comply with standard design including the safety factor and selection of material besides static and dynamic testing of the part of body bus. It is also realized that a bus carrying passengers have to give secure to the passengers also driver.The fact that a technology concerning with metal works indus...

  20. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  1. Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ): a patient-based evaluation tool for hip-joint disease. The Subcommittee on Hip Disease Evaluation of the Clinical Outcome Committee of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Tadami; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Ichiseki, Toru; Hiejima, Yoshimitsu; Sugiyama, Hajime; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Atsumi, Takashi; Ishii, Masaji; Izumi, Kiyoko; Ito, Hiroshi; Okawa, Takahiro; Ohzono, Kenji; Otsuka, Hiromi; Kishida, Shunji; Kobayashi, Seneki

    2011-01-01

    Background The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip Score is widely used in Japan, but this tool is designed to reflect the viewpoint of health-care providers rather than that of patients. In gauging the effect of medical therapies in addition to clinical results, it is necessary to assess quality of life (QOL) from the viewpoint of patients. However, there is no tool evaluating QOL for Japanese patients with hip-joint disease. Methods With the aim of more accurately classifying QOL for Japan...

  2. A Joint Evaluation of the Wind and Wave Energy Resources Close to the Greek Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ganea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the wind and wave energy potential in the proximity of the Greek islands. Thus, by evaluating the synergy between wind and waves, a more comprehensive picture of the renewable energy resources in the target area is provided. In this study, two different data sources are considered. The first data set is provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF through the ERA-Interim project and covers an 11-year period, while the second data set is Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO and covers six years of information. Using these data, parameters such as wind speed, significant wave height (SWH and mean wave period (MWP are analyzed. The following marine areas are targeted: Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Sea of Crete, Libyan Sea and Levantine Sea, near the coastal environment of the Greek islands. Initially, 26 reference points were considered. For a more detailed analysis, the number of reference points was narrowed down to 10 that were considered more relevant. Since in the island environments the resources are in general rather limited, the proposed work provides some outcomes concerning the wind and wave energy potential and the synergy between these two natural resources in the vicinity of the Greek islands. From the analysis performed, it can be noticed that the most energetic wind conditions are encountered west of Cios Island, followed by the regions east of Tinos and northeast of Crete. In these locations, the annual average values of the wind power density (Pwind are in the range of 286–298.6 W/m2. Regarding the wave power density (Pwave, the most energetic locations can be found in the vicinity of Crete, north, south and southeast of the island. There, the wave energy potential is in the range of 2.88–2.99 kW/m.

  3. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... result from failure of the school bus body structure to withstand forces encountered in rollover crashes... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection...

  4. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  5. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  6. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and ...

  7. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Langer, M; Gill, E.K.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a

  8. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  9. Work-related stress and role of personality in a sample of Italian bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, Margherita; Modenese, Alberto; Ferretti, Enrica; Ferrari, Angela; Licitra, Giuseppe; Vivoli, Roberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that professional drivers are at risk of developing work-related stress. Stress may be responsible for a variety of adverse effects and may also be associated with an increased number of accidents. Perform an integrated, objective and subjective evaluation of work-related stress in bus drivers, that also considered the role of personality traits. Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were measured in 42 bus drivers. Subjective stress evaluation was performed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Driver Stress Inventory (DSI). To evaluate personality traits, we administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and the Impulsivity Inventory (IVE). Salivary biomarkers showed no associations with PSS-10 and personality traits. Cortisol levels were positively correlated with fatigue (r = 0.44) at the middle of the work-shift and with aggression (r = 0.51) at the end of a day off. At the end of the work-shift, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with hazard monitoring (r = -0.37) and salivary α-amylase was positively correlated with thrill-seeking (r = 0.36). Neuroticism (β= 0.44) and impulsiveness (β= 0.38) were predictors of perceived stress by multiple regression. An integrated method, considering both objective and subjective indicators, seems adequate to evaluate work-related stress in professional drivers. Personality traits are relevant in determining perception of stress.

  10. Joint Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  11. Building model analysis applications with the Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability (JUPITER) API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, E.R.; Hill, M.C.; Poeter, E.; Doherty, J.E.; Babendreier, J.

    2008-01-01

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input and output conventions allow application users to access various applications and the analysis methods they embody with a minimum of time and effort. Process models simulate, for example, physical, chemical, and (or) biological systems of interest using phenomenological, theoretical, or heuristic approaches. The types of model analyses supported by the JUPITER API include, but are not limited to, sensitivity analysis, data needs assessment, calibration, uncertainty analysis, model discrimination, and optimization. The advantages provided by the JUPITER API for users and programmers allow for rapid programming and testing of new ideas. Application-specific coding can be in languages other than the Fortran-90 of the API. This article briefly describes the capabilities and utility of the JUPITER API, lists existing applications, and uses UCODE_2005 as an example.

  12. Evaluation of single and joint toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and zinc to Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri: Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaoqin; Qu, Ruijuan; Yan, Liqing; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-01-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and zinc have been detected in aquatic environment widely. In order to study the combined effects of PFOS and Zn, a series of experiments was conducted to explore the acute mortality, bioaccumulation and antioxidant status of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. The acute toxicity was evaluated by calculating 24h-EC50 values, and it was observed that 24h-EC50 values in single and joint treatments decreased with decreasing pH value or increasing exposure concentration. Toxic unit analysis suggested that the combined effects of the PFOS+Zn binary mixture were mostly simple addition, with 8 groups showing synergism and only one group showing antagonism. The analysis of internal Zn and PFOS concentration showed that the possible interaction between Zn and PFOS can affect the bioaccumulation of the two chemicals in L. hoffmeisteri. In addition, oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring oxidation-related biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde, and the integrated biomarker response index was estimated to rank the toxicity order. Exposures to Zn and PFOS were found to evoke some changes in the antioxidant defense system, and a strong self-adaptive ability was noticed for L. hoffmeisteri after 10 d exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Organizational value in enhancing individual research use capacity: a joint evaluation project led by EXTRA and SEARCH Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Laura; Thornhill, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision-making supports high-quality, efficient healthcare. Programs such as SEARCH Classic (Swift Efficient Application of Research in Community Health) and EXTRA (Executive Training for Research Application) give health system decision-makers the skills and experience required to apply the best evidence to their work. But effectively leading change in how evidence comes to bear on the overall management and delivery of care requires strategies aimed at whole organizations and systems. The Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF, EXTRA's managing organization) and SEARCH Canada (the SEARCH Classic program's managing organization) recently launched a jointly commissioned research study to assess organizational mechanisms and the impacts of these programs. Moving away from a focus on individual trainees and their immediate organizational connections, this evaluation builds on the evidence to date that leads to the hypothesis that a critical mass of highly educated, evidence-savvy decision-makers (senior executives in the case of EXTRA; middle- and front-line managers in the case of SEARCH Canada) enhance organizational capacity to use knowledge and ultimately lead to a more systematic use of evidence at the systems level (Champagne et al. 2008).

  14. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers and University Students in Nigeria. ... Thus, this article gathered comprehensive primary qualitative, quantitative and secondary data on smoking behaviors of two distinct groups in Nigeria for reliable comprehension of smoking trajectories in Nigeria with ...

  15. A Quantitative Economics Of Seasonality In Bus Patronage In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study thus set out to empirically investigate the myth or reality of the thesis that trip generation and trip attraction can be significantly season- determined. Collecting time series data over a ... Apposite recommendations were then made, sequel to highlighting of policy implications of findings. Key words: seasonality, bus ...

  16. Eliminating the empty bus syndrome by understanding dynamic travel behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter interrogates some empirical data to examine some of the contributory causes of EBS in South Africa, and uses the City of Johannesburg as a case study. The daily travel patterns of car users are analysed within the context of how bus...

  17. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  18. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    4.1.4 Kenworth Truck Company (PACCAR Inc.) ................................................................... 72 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo ...76 4.1.7 Nova Bus ( Volvo Group...74 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo Group) Mack Trucks does not yet have any diesel-electric hybrid truck models in series production, although its

  19. Cascaded Amplifying Quantum Optical Taps: A Robust Noiseless Optical Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; Simonneau, C.; Levenson, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Two identical amplifying quantum optical taps, based on noiseless optical parametric amplification and twin beam quantum correlation, have been implemented in a series configuration and experimentally investigated. The result is an optical bus which we have shown to be robust with respect to downstream losses.

  20. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  1. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...

  2. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  3. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  4. Fairness in optimizing bus-crew scheduling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jihui; Song, Cuiying; Ceder, Avishai Avi; Liu, Tao; Guan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a model considering fairness in the problem of crew scheduling for bus drivers (CSP-BD) using a hybrid ant-colony optimization (HACO) algorithm to solve it. The main contributions of this work are the following: (a) a valid approach for cases with a special cost structure and constraints considering the fairness of working time and idle time; (b) an improved algorithm incorporating Gamma heuristic function and selecting rules. The relationships of each cost are examined with ten bus lines collected from the Beijing Public Transport Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd., one of the largest bus transit companies in the world. It shows that unfair cost is indirectly related to common cost, fixed cost and extra cost and also the unfair cost approaches to common and fixed cost when its coefficient is twice of common cost coefficient. Furthermore, the longest time for the tested bus line with 1108 pieces, 74 blocks is less than 30 minutes. The results indicate that the HACO-based algorithm can be a feasible and efficient optimization technique for CSP-BD, especially with large scale problems.

  5. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  6. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...

  7. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  8. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  9. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  10. The Taking Ways of an Old School Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joan Thompson; Watkins, J. Foster

    1969-01-01

    The conversion of an "old school bus" in the late 1960s into a mobile library is discussed. The conversion was an element of educational service developed cooperatively between a regional educational laboratory and a rural school system. The project endeavored to improve the early experiences of future students, many of whom would have…

  11. ADlll:S ABABA BUS TERMINAL DESIGN COMPETITION.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Association of Engineers and Architects. Today at the opening of the First National. Conference of the ... of the Architectural Competition for the New Bus. Terminal of Addis Ababa. Unfortunately, due to another ... A competition enables the client, the future owner of the project, to choose from various solutions.

  12. Resealing concrete pavement joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the relative performance of the selected joint sealant materials. Other objectives were to determine the effect of selected sealant configurations and installation methods, and to identify sealant m...

  13. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  14. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  15. Delivery of integrated diabetes care using logistics and information technology--the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Ozaki, Risa; Luk, Andrea; Kong, Alice P S; Ma, Ronald C W; Chow, Francis C C; Wong, Patrick; Wong, Rebecca; Chung, Harriet; Chiu, Cherry; Wolthers, Troels; Tong, Peter C Y; Ko, Gary T C; So, Wing-Yee; Lyubomirsky, Greg

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic, and many affected individuals are undiagnosed, untreated, or uncontrolled. The silent and multi-system nature of diabetes and its complications, with complex care protocols, are often associated with omission of periodic assessments, clinical inertia, poor treatment compliance, and care fragmentation. These barriers at the system, patient, and care-provider levels have resulted in poor control of risk factors and under-usage of potentially life-saving medications such as statins and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. However, in the clinical trial setting, use of nurses and protocol with frequent contact and regular monitoring have resulted in marked differences in event rates compared to epidemiological data collected in the real-world setting. The phenotypic heterogeneity and cognitive-psychological-behavioral needs of people with diabetes call for regular risk stratification to personalize care. Quality improvement initiatives targeted at patient education, task delegation, case management, and self-care promotion had the largest effect size in improving cardio-metabolic risk factors. The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) program is an innovative care prototype that advocates a change in clinic setting and workflow, coordinated by a doctor-nurse team and augmented by a web-based portal, which incorporates care protocols and a validated risk engine to provide decision support and regular feedback. By using logistics and information technology, supported by a network of health-care professionals to provide integrated, holistic, and evidence-based care, the JADE Program aims to establish a high-quality regional diabetes database to reflect the status of diabetes care in real-world practice, confirm efficacy data, and identify unmet needs. Through collaborative efforts, we shall evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of this "high tech, soft touch" model to make diabetes and chronic disease care more

  16. Accounting for CO2 variability over East Asia with a regional joint inversion system and its preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xingxia; Tian, Xiangjun; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2017-10-01

    A regional surface carbon dioxide (CO2) flux inversion system, the Tan-Tracker-Region, was developed by incorporating an assimilation scheme into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional chemical transport model to resolve fine-scale CO2 variability over East Asia. The proper orthogonal decomposition-based ensemble four-dimensional variational data assimilation approach (POD-4DVar) is the core algorithm for the joint assimilation framework, and simultaneous assimilations of CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 fluxes are applied to help reduce the uncertainty in initial CO2 concentrations. A persistence dynamical model was developed to describe the evolution of the surface CO2 fluxes and help avoid the "signal-to-noise" problem; thus, CO2 fluxes could be estimated as a whole at the model grid scale, with better use of observation information. The performance of the regional inversion system was evaluated through a group of single-observation-based observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). The results of the experiments suggest that a reliable performance of Tan-Tracker-Region is dependent on certain assimilation parameter choices, for example, an optimized window length of approximately 3 h, an ensemble size of approximately 100, and a covariance localization radius of approximately 320 km. This is probably due to the strong diurnal variation and spatial heterogeneity in the fine-scale CMAQ simulation, which could affect the performance of the regional inversion system. In addition, because all observations can be artificially obtained in OSSEs, the performance of Tan-Tracker-Region was further evaluated through different densities of the artificial observation network in different CO2 flux situations. The results indicate that more observation sites would be useful to systematically improve the estimation of CO2 concentration and flux in large areas over the model domain. The work presented here forms a foundation for future research in which a

  17. Joint Injection/Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Treatments Joint Injection / Aspiration Joint Injections (Joint Aspirations) Fast Facts Joint aspiration is used ... is derived from a joint aspiration or joint injection? Joint aspiration usually is done for help with ...

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODE-CHOICE SIMULATOR WITH THE LOG DATA ACCUMULATED IN ON-DEMAND BUS SERVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Kota; Yamato, Hiroyuki; Hiekata, Kazuo

    The new simulator which can estimate the mode-choi ce in the area was developed and evaluated in the field test. The characteristic of the developed simulato r is to be able to estimate the number of demand and demand pattern in high-accuracy with the real operation log data of the On-demand Bus. The simulator is devided into micro-simulator whose passenger agents choose their transpor t mode by the sacrifice model. The developed simulator is evaluated in the real fi eld test in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture. The new transportation like LRT (Light Rail Transit) and On-demand Bus is eval uated by the simulator and the result of simulation is confirmed to be reliable by the local government officers.

  19. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  20. Evaluation of the Long-Term Durability of Joints Cut Using Early Entry Saws on Rigid Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Early-entry sawing is an attractive operation to expedite the construction of jointed concrete pavements; however, : there are some concerns that the early-entry sawing may compromise the pavements long-term performance. The Illinois : Department ...

  1. Gray-scale and color duplex Doppler ultrasound of hand joints in the evaluation of disease activity and treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanac, Gordana; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Brkljačić, Boris

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the role of gray-scale and color duplex-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in diagnosis of changes of hand joints and assessment of treatment efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing qualitative and quantitative US parameters with clinical and laboratory indicators of disease activity. Ulnocarpal (UC), metacarpophalangeal (MCP), and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 30 patients with RA were examined by gray-scale and CDUS before and after six months of treatment. Morphologic and quantitative Doppler findings (synovial thickness, effusion quantity, vascularization degree, resistance index, velocities) were compared with clinical indicators of disease progression: disease activity score (DAS 28), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C reactive protein (CRP). Clinical indicators changed significantly after treatment: ESR from 38.1±22.4 mm/h to 27.8±20.9 mm/h (P=0.013), DAS 28 from 5.47±1.56 to 3.87±1.65 (Pjoints we observed a significant change in at least one US parameter, in 6 out of 12 joints we observed a significant change in ≥2 parameters, and in 2 UC joints we observed significant changes in ≥3 parameters. The new finding was that the cut-off values of resistance index of 0.40 at baseline and of 0.55 after the treatment indicated the presence of active disease and the efficacy of treatment, respectively; also it was noticed that PIP joints can be omitted from examination protocol. Gray scale and CDUS are useful in diagnosis of changes in UC and MCP joints of patients with RA and in monitoring the treatment efficacy.

  2. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of cartilage repair after microfracture treatment for full-thickness cartilage defect models in rabbit knee joints: correlations with histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Hongyue; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuang [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Li, Hong; Hua, Yinghui [Fudan University, Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Chen, Zhongqing [Fudan University, Department of Pathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2014-11-26

    To evaluate repair tissue (RT) after microfracture treatment for full-thickness cartilage defect models using quantitative MRI and investigate the correlations between MRI and histological findings. The animal experiment was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of our college. Thirty-six full-thickness cartilage defect models in rabbit knee joints were assigned to the microfracture or joint debridement group (as control). Each group consisted of 3-week, 5-week, and 7-week subgroups. MR imaging, including a three-dimensional double-echo steady-state sequence (3D-DESS), and T2 mapping were performed at 3, 5, and 7 weeks postoperatively. The thickness and T2 indices of RT were calculated. After MRI scans at each time point, operation sites were removed to make hematoxylin-eosin (H and E)-stained sections. Histological results were evaluated using the modified O'Driscoll score system. Comparisons were made between the two groups with respect to the MRI and histological findings, and correlation analysis was performed within each group. The thickness index and histological O'Driscoll score of RT in the two groups increased over time, while the T2 index decreased. The thickness index and histological O'Driscoll score of the microfracture group were higher than in the joint debridement group at each time point. The T2 index of the microfracture group was lower than in the joint debridement group at 3 weeks (P = 0.006), while it was higher than in the joint debridement group at 5 and 7 weeks (P = 0.025 and 0.025). The thickness index was positively correlated with the histological O'Driscoll score in both groups (microfracture: r{sub s} = 0.745, P < 0.001; joint debridement: r{sub s} = 0.680, P = 0.002). The T2 index was negatively correlated with the histological O'Driscoll score in both groups (microfracture: r{sub s} = -0.715, P = 0.002; joint debridement: r{sub s} = -0.826, P < 0.001). Significant improvement over time after

  3. Evaluating the Joint Effect of Sea Level and Wind Waves to Predict Extreme Coastal Flooding Risks in the Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijala, U.; Bjorkqvist, J. V.; Kahma, K. K.; Pellikka, H.; Johansson, M. M.; Särkkä, J.

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation of coastal flooding risks has a crucial role in supporting secure planning, building and operation of densely populated and vulnerable coastal areas. Global mean sea level rise predictions together with past short-term sea level variability form the basis of the sea level projections and flooding probabilities for the future. However, the coastal effect of the sea level is also affected by the wave conditions. Coastal wave height may vary significantly locally as the wave field is affected by the islands, shape of the shoreline and topography of the seabed. In this study, we present a method to combine sea level events with wind-generated waves by using a method based on location-specific probability distributions. Our outcome gives an estimate for the maximum wave crest elevation at a steep shore during a storm surge. Simply summing the maximum sea level and maximum wave height components together might result in an overestimation of the joint effect, thus a method based on probability distributions is sensible. The wave statistics of our study are constructed of individual wave buoy measurements conducted during 2012-2014 at multiple sites outside Helsinki, the capital of Finland, which is located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. An estimate of short-term sea level variability is based on the last 30 years (1986-2015) of hourly data from the Helsinki tide gauge. Predictions for the future long-term mean sea level changes at Helsinki are based on scenarios including the most recent knowledge of the global mean sea level rise, local land uplift, and changes in the total water amount in the Baltic Sea. The method developed in this study gives a new tool for evaluating utmost coastal flood events by combining sea level with the wave height information. The method can be used to evaluate risk levels of different coastal infrastructure and can be applied to any coastal areas where adequate sea level and wave data are available.

  4. Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging to detect cartilage loss in severe osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: comparison with histological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzherr, Michael S; Coert, J Henk; Selles, Ruud W; van Neck, Johan W; Jaquet, Jean-Bart; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Oei, Edwin H G; Luime, Jolanda J; Muradin, Galied S R

    2017-03-14

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used for research in hand osteoarthritis, but imaging the thin cartilage layers in the hand joints remains challenging. We therefore assessed the accuracy of MRI in detecting cartilage loss in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal (CMC1) joint. Twelve patients scheduled for trapeziectomy to treat severe symptomatic osteoarthritis of the CMC1 joint underwent a preoperative high resolution 3D spoiled gradient (SPGR) MRI scan. Subsequently, the resected trapezium was evaluated histologically. The sections were scored for cartilage damage severity (Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score), and extent of damage (percentage surface area). Each MRI scan was scored for the area of normal cartilage, partial cartilage loss and full cartilage loss. The percentages of the total surface area with any cartilage loss and full-thickness cartilage loss were calculated using MRI and histological evaluation. MRI and histological evaluation both identified large areas of overall cartilage loss. The median (IQR) surface area of any cartilage loss on MRI was 98% (82-100%), and on histological assessment 96% (87-98%). However, MRI underestimated the extent of full-thickness cartilage loss. The median (IQR) surface area of full-thickness cartilage loss on MRI was 43% (22-70%), and on histological evaluation 79% (67-85%). The difference was caused by a thin layer of high signal on the articulating surface, which was interpreted as damaged cartilage on MRI but which was not identified on histological evaluation. Three-dimensional SPGR MRI of the CMC1 joint demonstrates overall cartilage damage, but underestimates full-thickness cartilage loss in patients with advanced osteoarthritis.

  5. Biomechanical evaluation of effect of coracoid tunnel placement on load to failure of fixation during repair of acromioclavicular joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joel V; Chowaniec, David; Obopilwe, Elifho; Nowak, Michael D; Arciero, Robert A; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of entry and exit points of the coracoid tunnel on load to failure and mode of failure, to reduce the incidence of coracoid fractures and acromioclavicular joint repair failures. This study investigates 5 tunnel placements based on different entry and exit points in the coracoid process: center-center orientation represents perfect placement of the bone tunnel and served as perfect tunnel placement in our study. Four common errors in drilling were then tested and acted as the experimental groups in our study (medial-center, center-medial, lateral-center, and center-lateral). Using 35 cadaveric shoulders (mean age, 68.0 ± 13.0 years), we tested these 5 tunnel orientations using a single repair technique (cortical button) loaded to failure on an MTS 858 Servohydraulic test system (MTS Systems, Eden Prairie, MN). A control group of 7 cadaveric shoulders without the presence of a coracoid tunnel was also tested to determine the type of fracture pattern that occurred. The coracoids without tunnel drilling fractured in patterns similar to traumatic coracoid injuries. With regard to the 5 tunnel groups, it was found that the loads to failure with center-center and medial-center tunnel placement were significantly higher than those with center-medial, center-lateral, and lateral-center tunnel placement. The failure modes of the former were primarily within the repair constructs, whereas those of the latter were primarily due to bony failure. Our biomechanical results showed a higher peak load to failure with a center-center or medial-center tunnel orientation, which may lessen the risk of coracoid fracture during drilling with a 6-mm cannulated drill bit. Proper trajectory of the drill during formation of a coracoid bone tunnel can help reduce the risk of coracoid process fracture and repair failure. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ORADEA URBAN BUS SYSTEM ENERGY EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIBOR L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brief description of Public Transport Company and network in Oradea, passenger statistics, analysis of energy consumption, passenger/kilometer parameter evaluation, compare liquid fuel and electricity consumption, cost reduction, optimization.

  7. Cadaveric Evaluation of Dorsal Intermetatarsal Approach for Plantar Plate and Lateral Collateral Ligament Repair of the Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisitkul, Phinit; Hosuru Siddappa, Vinay; Sittapairoj, Tinnart; Goetz, Jessica E; Den Hartog, Bryan D; Femino, John E

    2017-07-01

    Access to the plantar plate has been described using either a plantar approach or an extensive dorsal approach that required complete joint destabilization and often a metatarsal osteotomy. Clinical scenarios related to plantar plate tear vary and the pathologies in early stages are frequently limited to unilateral soft tissue structures; a less invasive operative approach may be possible. A novel approach requiring a release of only the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral half of the plantar plate is presented in this cadaver model; the extent of joint exposure possible is described. The ability to place a secure suture through the lateral collateral ligament and the plantar plate was analyzed. Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were dissected in a randomized fashion across the second to fourth metatarsophalangeal joints through the intermetatarsal space dorsally. Under distraction, soft tissue was sequentially released, including dorsal capsule, lateral collateral ligament, and the lateral half of the plantar plate. Integrity of the extensor tendons, deep transverse intermetatarsal ligament, proximal attachment of the plantar plate, and osseous structures was carefully preserved. The joint exposure was quantified after each step with sizing rods. Using a suture passer, 2-0 nonabsorbable braided sutures were passed into the lateral collateral ligament and the plantar plate, and the construct strength was measured using a tensiometer. Progressive increase in mean joint exposure was noted after each step of soft tissue release with the final exposure of 6 mm after release of the lateral half of the plantar plate. Joint exposures after a capsulotomy and a lateral collateral release were 3 mm and 4 mm, respectively. Under distraction, the unilateral release of soft tissue created a lateral opening of the joint while the proximal phalangeal base adducted and medially deviated. Successful suture passage was noted in all specimens that could sustain a minimum

  8. Computer-based measurements of joint space analysis using metacarpal morphometry in hand radiograph for evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snekhalatha, U; Anburajan, M

    2017-09-01

    The aim and objectives are as follows: (i) to perform an automated segmentation of the hand from radiographs using a dual tree complex wavelet-based watershed algorithm; ii) to compare the measured statistical features of the joint space of the hand using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method with standard diagnostic parameters of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three patients with RA and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, health assessment questionnaire score (HAQ), disease activity score (DAS) and hand radiographs of all the subjects were obtained. Joint space width and cortical thickness were measured in metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) and metacarpal bone semi-automatically using MIMICS software. Dual tree complex wavelet transform-based watershed algorithm was applied for automated segmentation, and feature extraction was performed using the GLCM method in hand radiographs of the total population. In the RA group (n = 53), the joint space width measured in the MCP1, MCP3, MCP5 of the hand were reduced significantly (P measured combined cortical thickness at the second, third and fourth metacarpal bones of the hand were reduced significantly (P measured statistical features at MCP3 hand joint in the total population studied. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Finite element model-based evaluation of tissue stress variations to fabricate corrective orthosis in feet with neutral subtalar joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sathish; Vijayakumar, Rekha; Mathew, Lazar; Sivarasu, Sudesh

    2017-04-01

    The subtalar joint position during static stance is a crucial determinant of the peak plantar pressures and forms ideal reference point for any intervention in foot-related problems for leprosy-affected patients. The study pursued the hypothesis through a three-dimensional model that stress will be minimal in the distal joints of the foot when the subtalar joint is in neutral static stance position. Finite element model. The computed tomography images of the feet for five patients suffering from Hansen's disease having no muscle weakness and joint restriction were acquired. The gray intensities corresponding to the bones of the foot from the computed tomography images were three-dimensionally reconstructed. The three-dimensional model of the human foot, incorporating the realistic geometry, and the material properties of the hard tissues were then analyzed using a finite element solver for the stress distribution on bones of the foot. The results demonstrate that the position of the calcaneum in the static stance position does contribute to the varying stress in the foot. The stresses in the bones of the foot are minimal while the subtalar is in neutral position; this position will be suitable for foot orthotic fabrication. Clinical relevance The clinicians, therapists, and podiatrists having less engineering skills can quickly assess the patient and get optimal results on the stress associated with the joints of the foot.

  10. Evaluation of base material and welded joints designated for membrane wall components made from low-alloy steels in large boilermaker conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, Janusz; Zielinski, Adam [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland); Pasternak, Jerzy [Boiler Engineering Company RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Supercritical operating parameters of lower emission power units require novel creep resisting steels. Therefore, this paper constains selected information, results of collectors made from the new low-alloy bainitic creep-resistant steels as 7CrWVNb9-6(P23) and 7CrMoVTiB10-10(P24) performed in large boilermaker conditions. The research and implementation process includes: - evaluation, comparison of requested properties of base material and welded joints as tensile strength, impact strength and technological properties, - destructive examinations with evaluation of welded joints and HAZ structure and hardness distribution, - evaluation of creep resistance properties and structure stability after heat treatments and again process of base material, HAZ and welded joints, - influence of manufacturing process in large boilermaker conditions and after simulated operation. A new creep-resistant steels to be used, in order to comply with the operational requirements, as to assure the appropriate reliability and safety of the boiler equipment in operation process. (orig.)

  11. Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Christopher C; Cordasco, Frank A

    2008-10-01

    The glenohumeral joint is the most mobile articulation in the body and the most commonly dislocated diarthroidal joint. Anterior dislocation is by far the most common direction and can lead to instability of the glenohumeral joint, which ranges from subtle increased laxity to recurrent dislocation. Overtime, understanding of anterior shoulder dislocations and the resulting instability has improved. Likewise, significant advances in arthroscopic equipment have allowed use of the arthroscope to address anatomically the various lesions that cause instability. This article reviews the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical evaluation, and treatment of anterior shoulder instability.

  12. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Li Du

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies.

  13. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  14. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  15. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes......: Public bus transport in England, exemplified by Greater Manchester. England represents a situation where - compared to continental Europe including Denmark - the NPM reforms have been particularly radical. In no other European country the market forces has achieved a role as dominant as in England...

  16. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  17. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1.2 Master Control Node The master control node was implemented with a USB to universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) bridge chip produced...indicate fragment manipulation via calls to public methods. The black arrows in the main activity indicate the fragments requesting action from the...Unplug the universal serial bus (USB) cable from the tablet. 2. Go to Android back stack via button on bottom right and swipe off STSLEDCntrl. 3

  18. Evaluasi Tingkat Kelelahan Pada Pengemudi Bus Di Kota Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Febrianti, Asterina; Yassierli, Yassierli; Mahachandra, Manik

    2016-01-01

    Kota Bandung saat ini mengalami pertumbuhan penduduk mencapai 3% setiap tahunnya, sehingga kebutuhan akan transportasi umum sangat tinggi serta tingkat kemacetan yang timbul semakin tinggi pula. Kemacetan yang panjang berdampak pada penurunan kewaspadaan dan timbulnya risiko kecelakaan karena waktu berkendara yang relatif lebih beragam. Menyadari akan risiko kecelakaan yang diakibatkan oleh kelelahan maka diperlukan pengukuran kelelahan pada pengemudi bus di kota Bandung yang belum pernah dik...

  19. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  20. Bi-Directional Multi-Station Command/Information Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    signals are presented. The model of the signal flow requirements is presented both schematically and in tabular form From this model, a possible...is presented both in schematic and tabular forms. Finally, a conceptual data bus configura- tion meeting the signal flow requirements has been...A Converter LRI Central Air Dato Computer ’LLI Demultiplexer D/A Converter 0>AI OfA2 Type R Modem Type T Modem A/D Cowerfcr

  1. Optimalisasi Kelembagaan Dan Manajemen Dalam Bus Rapid Transit Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoni, Ahmad; Yuniar, Haptiwi Tri; Riyanto, Bambang; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit Trans Semarang is a means of mass transportation to the transit system that began operating since 2009 as a solution to reduce congestion in the city of Semarang. This research focuses on the optimization and management of institutional BRT Trans Semarang to improve it's performance. The purpose of this study is to optimize the performance of the organization and management of BRT Trans Semarang with variable types of institutional cooperation BRT operations, and leadership...

  2. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity...

  3. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  4. Should bus commuting be subsidized for providing quality transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: geetamt@gmail.com. Abstract. Urban transport has ... (ii) Should bus prices be subsidized in order to provide a quality public transport system? (iii) How large is the modal shift in favour ..... been derived through a speed-flow relationship function, with a car free flow speed of 45 km/h, peak traffic speed of 24 km/h and ...

  5. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Wang

    Full Text Available To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China.We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations.The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60. The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively.Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  6. Replacement model of city bus: A dynamic programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Dadang; Yusuf, Edhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a replacement model of city bus vehicles operated in Bandung City. This study is driven from real cases encountered by the Damri Company in the efforts to improve services to the public. The replacement model propounds two policy alternatives: First, to maintain or keep the vehicles, and second is to replace them with new ones taking into account operating costs, revenue, salvage value, and acquisition cost of a new vehicle. A deterministic dynamic programming approach is used to solve the model. The optimization process was heuristically executed using empirical data of Perum Damri. The output of the model is to determine the replacement schedule and the best policy if the vehicle has passed the economic life. Based on the results, the technical life of the bus is approximately 20 years old, while the economic life is an average of 9 (nine) years. It means that after the bus is operated for 9 (nine) years, managers should consider the policy of rejuvenation.

  7. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  8. A Dimensional Bus model for integrating clinical and research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D; Hum, Richard C; Murphy, James R

    2011-12-01

    Many clinical research data integration platforms rely on the Entity-Attribute-Value model because of its flexibility, even though it presents problems in query formulation and execution time. The authors sought more balance in these traits. Borrowing concepts from Entity-Attribute-Value and from enterprise data warehousing, the authors designed an alternative called the Dimensional Bus model and used it to integrate electronic medical record, sponsored study, and biorepository data. Each type of observational collection has its own table, and the structure of these tables varies to suit the source data. The observational tables are linked to the Bus, which holds provenance information and links to various classificatory dimensions that amplify the meaning of the data or facilitate its query and exposure management. The authors implemented a Bus-based clinical research data repository with a query system that flexibly manages data access and confidentiality, facilitates catalog search, and readily formulates and compiles complex queries. The design provides a workable way to manage and query mixed schemas in a data warehouse.

  9. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  10. Ceramic joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  11. Development and evaluation of a novel ultrasound score for large joints in rheumatoid arthritis: one year of experience in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Wolfgang; Kellner, Herbert; Strunk, Johannes; Sattler, Horst; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Ehrenstein, Boris; Fleck, Martin; Backhaus, Marina

    2012-05-01

    To introduce and evaluate a new standardized ultrasound (US) score developed for large joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A US score was designed to determine the degree of inflammation in the shoulder, the elbow, the hip, and the knee joint in patients with RA (Sonography of Large Joints in Rheumatology [SOLAR] score). Synovitis and synovial vascularity were scored semiquantitatively (grade 0-3) by gray-scale US (GSUS) and power Doppler US (PDUS). Patients with RA were examined at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation of local or systemic therapy (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs [DMARDs]/biologic agents). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, and the clinical Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) were determined. A cohort of 199 patients were analyzed and followed up over 12 months. At baseline, before modification of the therapy, patients received either DMARDs (n = 131), DMARDs plus biologic agents (n = 46), biologic monotherapy (n = 8), or no DMARD therapy (n = 14). At baseline, the mean DAS28 score was 4.6 and decreased to 3.2 after 1 year of therapy (P hip. In detail, the mean synovitis GSUS score for the knee decreased from 5.2 at baseline to 2.2 after 12 months of followup. The mean GSUS score for the shoulder fell from 2.6 to 1.6, for the elbow fell from 5.2 to 2.6, and for the hip fell from 2.2 to 0.4 (P joint involvement in patients with RA using US. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Pricing and Availability Intervention in Vending Machines at Four Bus Garages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter J; Harnack, Lisa J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Toomey, Traci L; Gerlach, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of lowering prices and increasing availability on sales of healthy foods and beverages from 33 vending machines in four bus garages as part of a multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. Methods Availability of healthy items was increased to 50% and prices were lowered at least 10% in the vending machines in two metropolitan bus garages for an 18-month period. Two control garages offered vending choices at usual availability and prices. Sales data were collected monthly from each of the vending machines at the four garages. Results Increases in availability to 50% and price reductions of an average of 31% resulted in 10-42% higher sales of the healthy items. Employees were most price-responsive for snack purchases. Conclusions Greater availability and lower prices on targeted food and beverage items from vending machines was associated with greater purchases of these items over an eighteen-month period. Efforts to promote healthful food purchases in worksite settings should incorporate these two strategies. PMID:20061884

  13. Experimental use of Evazote joint materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, J. O.

    1981-09-01

    The performance of Evazote joint material is discussed. Merits and shortcomings noted in evaluations are listed. This material is designed to be used in expansion joints in roadways, bridges, sidewalks, roofs and walls, as well as other areas requiring a waterproof filler. Evazote material has been placed in joints on one bridge and in a number of highly expansive joints in prestressed concrete pavement.

  14. Joint Airspace Management and Deconfliction (JASMAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    as they traverse in a designated polygonal airspace ( filtered from display...components to be demonstrated at multiple Joint User Group ( JUG ) Warfighter evaluation events and eventually provided to Northrop-Grumman PRB as software...System JASMAD Joint AirSpace Management And Deconfliction JAT Joint Accelerated Targeting JUG Joint Users Group MOD Ministry of Defence MSL Mean

  15. High resolution ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of tendino-ligamentous injuries around ankle joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevien El-Liethy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: US is an excellent tool for imaging soft tissue abnormalities, as it allows rapid, in-expensive detailed examination of the structures of the ankle joint. US and MRI are two complementary tools of investigation with the former being used as primary effective tool of investigation and the latter is done to confirm the diagnosis.

  16. EVALUATION OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT PROSTHESES - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FROM 1946 TO 1994 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE PROSTHESIS DESIGNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLOON, JP; DEBONT, LGM; BOERING, G

    Purpose: This article describes the useful elements of applied temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prostheses and discusses the factors necessary to be addressed in an appropriate TMJ prosthesis design. Materials and Methods: Information about TMJ prostheses was gathered by a literature search, Only

  17. Experimental evaluation of the buckling phenomena in the new joint design for upper deck structure of a bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solazzi L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental mechanical analysis of a new design of a joint for a main components of a upper deck of a road bridge. These components are subject to the compression state stress induced by the weight and the load acting on the road. Each upper deck of a bridge (positioned on each side of the bridge is composed by four tubular structures that must be joint each together. The joint must to take in to account many aspects, for example that the length of each component is not the same (because, obviously, there is a mechanical tolerance. This phenomena induce different compression stress on each component and so is very important non only the critical buckling load but also the post buckling behaviour of the structure. It is very important that if a single tubular structure reaches the critical load of instability, it still has load capacity . This is to avoid that, in the case where a column reaches the instability, the entire load acting on a column increase the load on the remaining three. For this purpose many different geometrical solutions have been designed (elaborated by fem analyses and successively tested experimentally. This work reports the main experimental results on the best joint solution and how this increase the load capacity and the displacement respect to the solution without this flange.

  18. Three-point Dixon chemical-shift imaging for evaluating articular cartilage defects in the knee joint on a low-field-strength open magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, M A; Losasso, C; Moelleken, S C; Huegli, R W; Genant, H K; Tirman, P F

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the value of a modified three-point Dixon MR technique for evaluating articular cartilage defects in the knee joint on a low-field-strength open magnet, correlated with arthroscopy. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent both MR imaging and arthroscopy of the knee joint for suspected internal derangement were examined. A modified three-point Dixon MR sequence with a single radiofrequency echo single-scan method for water and fat separation with correction of the static field inhomogeneities was performed on a 0.35-T open magnet to obtain fat suppression. The MR images were prospectively evaluated for the presence and grade of articular cartilage defects. Uniform fat suppression was obtained in all patients using the modified three-point Dixon technique. Fifty-nine cartilage abnormalities were identified in 19 patients on the basis of arthroscopy. Forty-seven of 59 arthroscopically proven abnormalities were prospectively detected on MR imaging. Compared with arthroscopy, the overall sensitivity of the modified three-point Dixon technique in detecting cartilage lesions was 80% and the specificity was 73%. Sixty-five percent of the cartilage abnormalities were graded identically on MR imaging and arthroscopy. The modified three-point Dixon sequence is a useful technique for achieving fat suppression in the knee joint on a 0.35-T open magnet. It is a sensitive and specific technique for the assessment of cartilage abnormalities in the knee.

  19. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the TqJoint Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Fang, Fan; Hearty, Thomas J.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing long-wave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the "Standard" group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the "TqJoint" group and the "Standard" group. The comparison includes mean differences at different levels globally and over land and ocean. We are also working on examining the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and "Standard" group using MERRA data.

  20. The Influence of Weight Distribution on the Handling Characteristics of Intercity Bus under Steady State Vehicle Cornering Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prompakdee Ekalak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle cornering behavior is an important performance in handling stability especially for the intercity bus. Accordingly, one of the significant parameters concerns the weight distribution which is affected by the center of gravity (CG. In this paper, the effect of weight distribution while varying the turning radius is compared and it should be expressed, and interpreted by understeer gradient which is influenced by the location of CG. The characteristic of intercity bus was modeled and evaluated using the multi-body dynamic analysis software. The analysis has been conducted under steady state cornering based on a total of three configurations, with front/rear axle weight in percent, as 40/60, 45/55, and 50/50.The results stated that the magnitude of weight distribution on front axle of bus in a range of 40% to 50% caused the incremental value of understeer gradient and it was also increased as three times in each turning radius since the difference lateral slip angles between front and rear are expanded.