WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus and high occupancy vehicle facilities

  1. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  2. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks o

  3. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b), as amended by Section 3011 of the Safe, Affordable, Flexible, Efficient... Livability Initiatives (77 FR 6178). The NOFA explained the requirements and procedures for eligible... facilities, bus-related equipment, and transit asset management systems. The FY 2012 Bus...

  4. INJURY EVENTS AMONG BUS AND COACH OCCUPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf BJÖRNSTIG

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: The aerodynamic cross-wind factor merits more studies. Injury reducing measures against alighting injuries, addressing especially step height and slippery conditions, may have a great potential to reduce these injuries. Rear-end collisions by other heavy vehicles in urban areas, causing a high number of “whip-lash” injuries, also need to be further addressed. The newly introduced law on compulsory seat belt use in long distance coaches may have a potential to reduce single vehicle crash and some collision injuries.

  5. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... communities and to environmental and energy sustainability. However, given recent limitations in State and... West Adams Street, Suite 320, Jackson Federal Building, 915 Chicago, IL 60606, Tel. 312-353-...

  6. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ..., Hawaii, North Carolina, Puerto Rico, South Nevada, and the Northern Mariana Carolina, Tennessee, and Virgin Islands. Islands Los Angeles Metropolitan Office, Region 9-Los Angeles, 888 S. Figueroa...

  7. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Rico, Nevada, and the Northern Mariana South Carolina, Tennessee, and Islands. Virgin Islands. Los Angeles Metropolitan Office, Region 9-Los Angeles, 888 S. Figueroa Street, Suite 1850, Los Angeles,...

  8. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  9. A new vehicle data bus architecture and IVIS evaluation platform for ITS modulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kirson, A.M. [Motorola, Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An increasing number of ITS-related after-market systems present a set of in-vehicle installation and use problems relatively unique in the history of automobile use. Many automobile manufacturers would like to offer these new state of the art devices to customers, but are hampered by the current design cycle of new cars. While auto manufacturers are indeed using multiplex buses (the automotive equivalent of a computer local area network), problems remain because manufacturers are not converging on a single bus standard. This paper presents a new dual-bus architecture to address these problems, with an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) research platform on which the principles embodied in the ITS Data Bus architecture can be evaluated. The dual-bus architecture has been embodied in a proposed SAE standard, with a ratification vote in December, 1996. The architecture and a reference model for the interfaces and protocols of the new bus are presented and described. The goals of the ITS Data Bus are to be inexpensive and easy to install, and to provide for safe and secure functioning. These high-level goals are embodied in the proposed standard. The IVIS Development Platform comprises a number of personal computers linked via ethernet LAN, with a high-end PC serving as the IVIS computer. In this LAN, actual devices can be inserted in place of the original PC which emulated them. This platform will serve as the development and test bed for an ITS Data Bus Conformity Test, the SAE standard for which has also been developed.

  10. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  11. Vulnerability of bus and truck drivers affected from vehicle engine noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the vulnerability of bus and truck drivers due to constant exposure of vehicle-engine noise inside the vehicle cabin. Comparative results revealed that noise levels inside the cabin of buses and trucks were in the range of 88.6–102.4 dB and 87.95–103.4 dB, respectively. The health status of bus and truck drivers was assessed by measuring their systolic and diastolic pressure, pulse rate, BMI, digestion problem, hearing loss, vision problem, back pain and irritation. Paired t-test of the results revealed non-significant (p < 0.05 relation between systolic and diastolic pressure of both bus and truck drivers. The pulse rate of truck driver was significantly (p < 0.01 related with noise level inside the cabin of truck. The humidity level inside the cabin showed a positive relation with vehicle age (p < 0.01 and driving period (p < 0.01. This study clearly suggests that vehicle engine noise adversely affects the cardiovascular health of both bus and truck drivers.

  12. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  13. 75 FR 5847 - Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative and Urban Circulator Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ..., North Carolina, Puerto Rico, South Nevada, and the Northern Mariana Carolina, Tennessee, and Virgin Islands. Islands. Los Angeles Metropolitan Office, Region 9--Los Angeles, 888 S. Figueroa Street,...

  14. 77 FR 6172 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... place to connect veterans, service members, military families, persons with disabilities and other transportation-disadvantaged populations, such as older adults, low-income families or disadvantaged youth, to... of military families a top policy priority. In a January 2011 report, ``Strengthening Our...

  15. 76 FR 78732 - FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ..., Nevada, and the Northern Mariana South Carolina, Tennessee, and Islands. Virgin Islands. Los Angeles Metropolitan Office, Region 9--Los Angeles, 888 S. Figueroa Street, Suite 1850, Los Angeles, CA 90017-1850,...

  16. 76 FR 68813 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Carolina, Puerto Rico, South Nevada, and the Northern Mariana Carolina, Tennessee, and Virgin Islands. Islands Los Angeles Metropolitan Office, Region 9-Los Angeles, 888 S. Figueroa Street, Suite 1850,...

  17. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Nevada, and the Northern Mariana Carolina, Tennessee, and Virgin Islands. Islands. Los Angeles Metropolitan Office, Region 9--Los Angeles, 888 S. Figueroa Street, Suite 1850, Los Angeles, CA 90017-1850,...

  18. 76 FR 44979 - Section 5309 Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... to transportation for the public by connecting customers in one place to rides and transportation... selected grantees in order to actively engage veterans, military service personnel and families as well as... veterans and military service families. This announcement is available on the FTA's Web site, on...

  19. 75 FR 74134 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Tennessee, and Virgin Islands. Northern Mariana Islands. Los Angeles Metropolitan Office, Region 9--Los Angeles, 888 S. Figueroa Street, Suite 1850, Los Angeles, CA 90017- 1850, Tel. 213-202-3952. Marisol...

  20. 76 FR 37393 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... as transit-oriented, mixed-use development and land recycling--to increase community revitalization... the mandatory SF 424 Form that must be downloaded from GRANTS.GOV, FTA requires applicants to complete... mandatory SF-424 Form that will be downloaded from GRANTS.GOV, FTA requires applicants to complete...

  1. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  2. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  3. High strength steels, stiffness of vehicle front-end structure, and risk of injury to rear seat occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer; Roddis, Kim

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has shown that rear seat occupant protection has decreased over model years, and front-end stiffness is a possible factor causing this trend. In this research, the effects of a change in stiffness on protection of rear seat occupants in frontal crashes were investigated. The stiffness was adjusted by using higher strength steels (DP and TRIP), or thicker metal sheets. Finite element simulations were performed, using an LS Dyna vehicle model coupled with a MADYMO dummy. Simulation results showed that an increase in stiffness, to the extent it happened in recent model years, can increase the risk of AIS3+ head injuries from 4.8% in the original model (with a stiffness of 1,000 N/mm) to 24.2% in a modified model (with a stiffness of 2,356 N/mm). The simulations also showed an increased risk of chest injury from 9.1% in the original model to 11.8% in the modified model. Distribution of injuries from real world accident data confirms the findings of the simulations.

  4. High-Speed Ring Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  5. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHING TET LEONG; PREECHA LAORTANAKUL

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups( 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure.During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 + 3.88 μg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 + 0.03 μg/m3 and decreased to C6 H6: 33.5 ± 1.35 μg/m3 , Pb: O. 13 + 0.01 μg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations ( P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions.The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission.

  6. Design and VHDL simulation of a special high speed spaceborne bus controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The application of high speed data bus on the satellites having several remote sensors could not only satisfy the demand of high speed data transfer,but also could reuse the equipment at both the com-ponent and subsystem levels for other space missions,thus reducing the costs of on-board processing system integration.In this article,a special high speed data bus with simple interfaces is chosen for transferring the data produced by remote sensors and other instrumentations.First,the function and the structure of the data bus are discussed carefully.And then,the bus controller,which is a key mod-ule of the data bus,is designed.At last,the function and performance of the bus controller are verified by VHDL simulation.

  7. Bus Yards and Repair Facilities, Local Buildings - Bus shop is included in local buildings layer, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Yards and Repair Facilities dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is...

  8. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  9. Relationship between Quality of Building Maintenance Management Services for Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Satisfaction: Case Study of Bus Terminal Buildings in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Chong Choon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance is often defined as the series of activities undertaken to take care of the building structure and services to ensure the intended functions and optimal performance of a building life cycle. The management department of a building is usually responsible for the enhancement of the indoor environment quality by service delivery and for boosting occupant productivity and satisfaction. Thus, a salient point of this study is to determine the current level of the building’s maintenance management service for indoor environmental quality in Penang bus terminals, along with its occupant satisfaction with regards to the services provided in the building. The assessment of the indoor environmental quality includes the evaluation of thermal comfort, lighting condition, air quality and cleanliness. Apart from that, qualitative and quantitative methodologies were applied during the process of data collection and analysis. A questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 of the targeted population for each bus terminal, including passengers and the staff. In this study, the conclusion was drawn in which the maintenance management service level of the bus terminal was directly proportional to occupant satisfaction. However, the current quality of maintenance management services in the bus terminals are still not up to the level of the occupants’ satisfaction.

  10. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.

  11. Road traffic fatalities among pedestrians, bicyclists and mo-tor vehicle occupants in Sirjan, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the crash and injury data in forensic medicine for years of 2004-2007. Methods: A sample of over 567 accident cases (9 pedestrians, 116 bicyclists, and 442 motor vehicle occupants) was considered from the Department of Foren-sic Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, in-volving drivers of all ages and covering a four-year period.Results: The male fatality rates were significantly higher than female ones. The groups at 15-30 years old and at 30-55 years old had the first and second highest numbers of deaths (40% and 34%, respectively). There were sub-stantial differences in distribution of injuries in motor ve-hicle occupants and pedestrians and bicyclists. Among motor vehicle occupants, there were more head injuries, such as skull fracture, brain contusion, subdural haemorrhage, and epidural haemorrhage. Nearly 77% of fatalities occurred during 08:00-22:00 in Sirjan. Internal bleeding was also higher in motor vehicle occupants. Pedestrians and bicyclists also had head injuries frequently.Conclusions: In spite of reduction of road traffic fatali-ties in Sirjan in 2007, it is still one of the cities with high road traffic fatality in the world. These results underline the im-portance of preventive strategies in transportation, sug-gesting that different methods are necessary to reduce fa-talities of various traffic participants.

  12. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  13. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  14. 77 FR 43646 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities and Section 5312...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... the FTA Regional Office to ensure eligibility. For any VTCLI II projects that include lease of space, please refer to FTA's guidance on Capital Leases found at http://www.fta.dot.gov/grants/12865.html and in... Funding Availability. Post-award reporting requirements include submission of the Financial Federal...

  15. An approach to the design of a simple, radiation hard, highly integrated and reliable, lightweight satellite bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, K. T.; Salazar, R. P.; Buck, C.; Eisenman, D.

    1988-01-01

    A spacecraft system concept has been developed which uses ion propulsion and a small, simple, lightweight design approach to carry out a focused lunar science mission. The design relies on existing technology to achieve high reliability and the possibility of a near-term launch. Key characteristics of the mission are highly focused objectives, low launch costs, minimization of development risks and design simplicity. The spacecraft for the lunar mission is described with particular emphasis on the design and reliability approaches used. The degree of adaptability of this basic class of spacecraft bus is discussed with particular emphasis on its application as a technology testbed vehicle. Several potential mission applications are reviewed.

  16. Design and Implementation of High Performance AHB Arbiter for on chip Bus Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHUTOSH KUMAR SINGH,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resolution is a big issue in SOC( system On Chip while dealing with number of master trying to sense a single data bus . The ffectiveness of a system to resolve this priority resides in its ability to logical assignment of the chance to transmit data width of the data, response to the interrupts etc. The purpose of this paper is to propose the scheme to implement such a system using the specification of AMBA bus protocol .The scheme involves the typical AMBA features of ‘single clock edge transition ‘, Split transaction ‘,’several bus masters ‘, ‘burst transfer ’.The bus arbiter ensures that only one bus master at a time is allowed to initiate data ransfers. Even though the arbitration protocol is fixed, any arbitration algorithm, such as highest priority or fair access can be implemented depending on the application requirements .The design architecture is written using VHDL(Very High Speed Integrated CircuitsHardware Description Language code using Xilinx ISE Tools .The architecture is modeled and synthesized using RTL(Register Transfer Level abstraction and Implemented on Virtex2 series.

  17. Vehicle occupancy detection camera position optimization using design of experiments and standard image references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Peter; Hoover, Martin; Rabbani, Mojgan

    2013-03-01

    Camera positioning and orientation is important to applications in domains such as transportation since the objects to be imaged vary greatly in shape and size. In a typical transportation application that requires capturing still images, inductive loops buried in the ground or laser trigger sensors are used when a vehicle reaches the image capture zone to trigger the image capture system. The camera in such a system is in a fixed position pointed at the roadway and at a fixed orientation. Thus the problem is to determine the optimal location and orientation of the camera when capturing images from a wide variety of vehicles. Methods from Design for Six Sigma, including identifying important parameters and noise sources and performing systematically designed experiments (DOE) can be used to determine an effective set of parameter settings for the camera position and orientation under these conditions. In the transportation application of high occupancy vehicle lane enforcement, the number of passengers in the vehicle is to be counted. Past work has described front seat vehicle occupant counting using a camera mounted on an overhead gantry looking through the front windshield in order to capture images of vehicle occupants. However, viewing rear seat passengers is more problematic due to obstructions including the vehicle body frame structures and seats. One approach is to view the rear seats through the side window. In this situation the problem of optimally positioning and orienting the camera to adequately capture the rear seats through the side window can be addressed through a designed experiment. In any automated traffic enforcement system it is necessary for humans to be able to review any automatically captured digital imagery in order to verify detected infractions. Thus for defining an output to be optimized for the designed experiment, a human defined standard image reference (SIR) was used to quantify the quality of the line-of-sight to the rear seats of

  18. Highly efficient optical filter based on vertically coupled photonic crystal cavity and bus waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Kapil; Welna, Karl; Ferrera, Marcello; Deasy, Kieran; Lidzey, David G.; O'Faolain, Liam

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a new optical filter design based on a vertically coupled photonic crystal cavity and a bus waveguide monolithically integrated on the silicon on insulator platform. The use of a vertically coupled waveguide gives flexibility in the choice of the waveguide material and dimensions, dramatically lowering the insertion loss while achieving very high coupling efficiencies to wavelength scale resonators

  19. Highly efficient optical filter based on vertically coupled Photonic crystal cavity and bus waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Kapil; Ferrera, Marcello; Deasy, Kieran; Lidzey, David G; O'Faolain, Liam

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a new optical filter design based on a vertically coupled photonic crystal cavity and a bus waveguide monolithically integrated on the silicon on insulator platform. The use of a vertically coupled waveguide gives flexibility in the choice of the waveguide material and dimensions, dramatically lowering the insertion loss while achieving very high coupling efficiencies to wavelength scale resonators

  20. Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility - Design and operating characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiner, Robert J.; Sullivan, Barry T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the full-mission flight simulation facility at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility (MVSRF) supports aeronautical human factors research and consists of two full-mission flight simulators and an air-traffic-control simulator. The facility is used for a broad range of human factors research in both conventional and advanced aviation systems. The objectives of the research are to improve the understanding of the causes and effects of human errors in aviation operations, and to limit their occurrence. The facility is used to: (1) develop fundamental analytical expressions of the functional performance characteristics of aircraft flight crews; (2) formulate principles and design criteria for aviation environments; (3) evaluate the integration of subsystems in contemporary flight and air traffic control scenarios; and (4) develop training and simulation technologies.

  1. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  2. Research and Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles CAN-Bus Data Monitor and Diagnostic System through OBD-II and Android-Based Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the smartphone market, future cars seem to have more connections with intelligent cell phone and Internet. Intelligent transportation system (ITS and telematics system have become research focus in recent years. There is an increasing demand for remote monitoring and diagnostic system as the further research of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV goes on. In this paper, a remote controller area network bus (CAN-Bus data monitor and diagnostic system for HEV is presented using on board diagnostic version-II (OBD-II and Android-based smartphone. It is low-cost, convenient, and extensible with smartphone used in the system to realize communication with ELM327 and remote monitoring center wirelessly. The prototype of client and server is developed in Java language, and it is proved by the test that the system works stably and the collected data have practical values.

  3. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  4. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaqing Wu; Rui Song; Youan Wang; Feng Chen; Shubin Li

    2015-01-01

    The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT) and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the ...

  5. Bus rapid transit (BRT) and transitoriented development (TOD) : How to transform and adjust the Swedish cities for attractive bus systems like BRT? What demands BRT?

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovski, Todor

    2013-01-01

    Bus rapid transit (BRT) is an innovative bus system with sophisticated vehicles and inflexible busways integrated in the cities, high capacity and high quality, high speed and frequency, distinctive image and comfort. Many in Sweden believe that is impossible to introduce BRT, even though the Swedish towns and cities can benefit from the image, speed and frequency that BRT symbolizes. The archipelago-like urbanization, urban sprawl and the uncompetitive journey times of public transportation ...

  6. Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) Methodologies for School Facilities: A Case Study of the V. Sue Cleveland High School Post Occupancy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Marcel; Larroque, Andre; Maniktala, Nate

    2012-01-01

    The New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority (NMPSFA) is the agency responsible for administering state-funded capital projects for schools statewide. Post occupancy evaluation (POE) is the tool selected by NMPSFA for measuring project outcomes. The basic POE process for V. Sue Cleveland High School (VSCHS) consisted of a series of field…

  7. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  8. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  9. Assessment on the occupational exposure of urban public bus drivers to bioaccessible trace metals through resuspended fraction of settled bus dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Liu, Sa [Environmental Health Sciences Division, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-7360 (United States); Ye, Wenyuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Lin, Nan; Meng, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Lu, Binyu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Xing, Baoshan [Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limited information is available on the bioaccessible fraction of trace metals in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust in order to estimate bus drivers ' occupational exposure. In this study, 45 resuspended fraction of settled dust samples were collected from gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered buses and analyzed for trace metals and their fraction concentrations using a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Experimental results showed that zinc (Zn) had the greatest bioaccessible fraction, recorded as an average of 608.53 mg/kg, followed in order of decreasing concentration by 129.80 mg/kg lead (Pb), 56.77 mg/kg copper (Cu), 34.03 mg/kg chromium (Cr), 22.05 mg/kg nickel (Ni), 13.17 mg/kg arsenic (As) and 2.77 mg/kg cadmium (Cd). Among the three settled bus dust exposure pathways, ingestion was the main route. Total exposure hazard index (HIt) for non-carcinogenic effect trace metals was lower than the safety level of 1. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for drivers was estimated for trace metal exposure. Pb and Ni presented relatively high potential risks in the non-carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic health assessment for all drivers. ILCR was in the range of 1.84E − 05 to 7.37E − 05 and 1.74E − 05 to 6.95E − 05 for gasoline and CNG buses, respectively. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Ni had relatively higher bioaccessibility and mobility in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust. • Bioaccessible metal concentrations were higher in gasoline-fueled buses than those in CNG-fueled buses. • The carcinogenic risk probabilities to drivers were around the acceptable level.

  10. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... passenger weight estimations then underway by the Federal Aviation Administration and the United States... Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) (Pub. L. 112-141). Section 20014 of...

  11. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... weight and 195 lb. winter weight passenger weight averages (See, Advisory Circular 120-27E, ``Aircraft... action is not expected to adversely affect any sector of the economy. In addition, these changes will...

  12. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  13. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP.

  14. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  15. Using Consultants in the Design, Construction, and Occupancy of New Healthcare Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2015-11-01

    Nurse leaders are critical players in the design, construction, and occupancy of new healthcare facilities or renovation projects. While most hospitals and healthcare systems have internal resources needed to manage large projects, there is often a recognized need for expertise of external consultants during various phases of design and construction. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of types of external consultants that can be contracted to ensure the success of the project from concept through initial occupancy.

  16. Occupant injury in rollover crashes - Contribution of planar impacts with objects and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Johan; Poplin, Gerald; McMurry, Tim; Crandall, Jeff; Kerrigan, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Planar impacts with objects and other vehicles may increase the risk and severity of injury in rollover crashes. The current study compares the frequency of injury measures (MAIS 2+, 3+, and 4+; fatal; AIS 2+ head and cervical spine; and AIS 3+ head and thorax) as well as vehicle type distribution (passenger car, SUV, van, and light truck), crash kinematics, and occupant demographics between single vehicle single event rollovers (SV Pure) and multiple event rollovers to determine which types of multiple event rollovers can be pooled with SV Pure to study rollover induced occupant injury. Four different types of multiple event rollovers were defined: single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is the most severe event (SV Prim and MV Prim) and single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is not the most severe event (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim). Information from real world crashes was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the period from 1995 through 2011. Belted, contained or partially ejected, adult occupants in vehicles that completed 1-16 lateral quarter turns were assigned to one of the five rollover categories. The results showed that the frequency of injury in non-primary rollovers (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim) involving no more than one roof inversion is substantially greater than in SV Pure, but that this disparity diminishes for crashes involving multiple inversions. It can further be concluded that for a given number of roof inversions, the distribution of injuries and crash characteristics in SV Pure and SV Prim crashes are sufficiently similar for these categories to be considered collectively for purposes of understanding etiologies and developing strategies for prevention.

  17. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the outcome of the NESC assessment. NASA/TM-2013-217380, "Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events." supercedes this document.

  18. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Kale; S V Veeravalli; H D Punekar; M M Yelmule

    2007-08-01

    Open window buses without air-conditioning are a major mode of urban and inter-city transport in most countries. High occupancy combined with hot and humid conditions makes travel in these buses quite uncomfortable. In this study air flow through a bus has been studied that could be the basis for low cost and ecofriendly methods of increasing passenger comfort and possibly reduce drag. The aerodynamics of such a road vehicle has not been studied as previous investigations have been confined to vehicles with closed windows that present a smooth exterior to air flow. Using a 1:25 scaled Perspex model of an urban bus in Delhi, flow visualization was performed in a water channel. The Reynolds numbers were onetenth of a real bus moving at $10 m/s$. Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and exits from the front windows. Inside air velocity relative to the bus is about one-tenth of the free-stream velocity. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady.

  19. Occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Peter H; Stave, Gregg M

    2003-01-01

    Occupational medicine is a key component of a comprehensive occupational health and safety program in support of laboratory animal research and production facilities. The mission of the department is to maximize employee health and productivity utilizing a population health management approach, which includes measurement and analysis of health benefits utilization. The department works in close cooperation with other institutional health and safety professionals to identify potential risks from exposure to physical, chemical, and biological hazards in the workplace. As soon as exposures are identified, the department is responsible for formulating and providing appropriate medical surveillance programs. Occupational medicine is also responsible for targeted delivery of preventive and wellness services; management of injury, disease, and disability; maintenance of medical information; and other clinic services required by the institution. Recommendations are provided for the organization and content of occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities.

  20. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Venugopal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective: The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT, sweat rate (SwR, and urine specific gravity (USG were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results: Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192, inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444, and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7 reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions: The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the

  1. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to

  2. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  3. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  4. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  5. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, HHS Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  6. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  7. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  8. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  9. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  10. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  11. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  12. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  13. The influence of occupational stress on lipid status of road traffic professional vehicle drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Violeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Professional stress can damage all organs and systems of exposed workers. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of occupational stress on lipid state of exposed professional drivers in road traffic. Material and methods. The atherogenic risk in vehicle drivers professionally exposed to stress was assessed by measuring total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The examination included a group of 200 vehicle drivers professionally exposed to stress. The occupational stress index was calculated using the standardized questionnaire authorized by Karen Belkic. Serum lipid parameters were examined by standard methods. Results All lipid parameters increased with the occupational stress index values. Atherogenic risk increased with the values of occupational stress index too. Workers exposed to occupational stress index over the 90 were at the highest atherogenic risk. Conclusion. The highest occupational stress index and the highest values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were recorded in professional bus drivers at inter urban traffic.

  14. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

  15. Public Transport System Ticketing system using RFID and ARM processor Perspective Mumbai bus facility B.E.S.T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chatterjee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on ticketing and identification of the passenger in the public transport. In the metropolitan city like Mumbai, Kolkata we have a severe malfunction of public transport and various security problems. Firstly, there is a lot of confusion between the passengers regarding fares which lead to corruption, Secondly due to mismanagement of public transport the passengers faces the problem of traffic jam, thirdly nowadays we have severe security problems in public transport due anti social elements. This paper suggest a user friendly automated ticketing system which will automatically deduct the passenger’s fare according to the distance travelled as well as detect the passenger’s identification. This could be only possible by use of RFID tickets and GPS can be used to make the transaction and travelling very precise. This paper basically deals with the identification and ticketing of the passengers sitting in the bus.

  16. Metabolic syndrome among professional bus and truck drivers in Kashan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Saberi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature data and our own studies show that in drivers of transport vehicles, work-related risk factors for arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and metabolic syndrome are largely intensified. These involve occupational risk factors as well as classic ones, such as obesity, limited physical activity, shift work, or tobacco smoking. However, studies published over the past two decades on the health of bus and truck drivers have received relatively less attention in developing countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 429 Kashan City male bus and truck drivers that enter the occupational health service for health examination were enrolled. The study focused on the presence of the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP ATP III and statistical tests such as t-test, chi-square test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to ATP-III was 35.9% mostly at age range 30-39 years. The prevalence of overweight was 41% Obesity, 23.1% hypertension, 42.9% Diabetes, 7% hypertriglyceridemia, 53.4% and low HDL cholesterol, 48.7%. In addition, between diabetes and hypertension and between hypertension and smoking meaningful relation was seen (p=0.006. Conclusion: We observed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these groups to be significantly higher than other groups in Iran. So, Occupation must be considered as a risk factor for impaired health status, leading to temporary or permanent disability to work.

  17. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  18. Subjective and objective evaluation of sense of space for vehicle occupants based on anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiamtoe, Pitarn; Steinhardt, Florian; Köhler, Uwe; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At present, the number of the vehicle requirements has been continuously increasing. These requirements can be related to the customer as well as the technical requirements. Among these, the "feeling of space" of the occupants inside the vehicles can be regarded as one of the most important factors. In this respect, the driver and passengers should be able to experience positive feeling of space inside the vehicle. There are numerous factors that can influence the sense of space inside the vehicle. These include geometry (vehicle dimensions), light exposure, ambient lights, colors, material selection and material surface. Depending on the selection, the sense of space can be dramatically influenced by these factors. In general, human feeling is subjective and cannot be measured by any instrument. The measure can nevertheless be carried out by utilizing the method of subjective evaluation. Throughout the experiments, the method of evaluation is developed and the factors which can influence the interior feeling are analyzed. In this process, psychological perception, architectural aspects and anthropometry are considered and knowledge from the other domains is transferred in the form of a multidisciplinary approach. The experiments with an aim to evaluate the overall sense of space in the vehicle are carried out based on the physical mock up of BMW 1 series (E87). The space perception with different interior dimensions and anthropometric data of test persons are also analyzed. The use of Computer Aided Technology was shown by CATIA V5, PCMAN and RAMSIS. The results show a good correlation between the subjective evaluation and the geometric values.

  19. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  20. Highly efficient coupling between a monolithically integrated photonic crystal cavity and a bus waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Kapil; Welna, Karl; Ferrera, Marcello; Deasy, Kieran; Lidzey, David; Krauss, Thomas F.; O'Faolain, Liam

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a new optical filter design comprising of a photonic crystal cavity and a low index bus waveguide which are monolithically integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. We have fabricated oxide clad PhC cavities with a silicon nitride waveguide positioned directly above, such that there is an overlap between the evanescent tails of the two modes. We have realised an extinction ratio of 7.5dB for cavities with total Q of 50,000.

  1. Analyses in support of risk-informed natural gas vehicle maintenance facility codes and standards :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Horne, Douglas B.

    2014-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed gas fueled large-scale vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operation envelopes. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase I work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest. Finally, scenario analyses were performed using detailed simulations and modeling to estimate the overpressure hazards from HAZOP defined scenarios. The results from Phase I will be used to identify significant risk contributors at NGV maintenance facilities, and are expected to form the basis for follow-on quantitative risk analysis work to address specific code requirements and identify effective accident prevention and mitigation strategies.

  2. Self-assessed job satisfaction and ischaemic heart disease mortality: a 10-year follow-up of urban bus drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, B; Suadicani, P

    1993-01-01

    working in a high traffic intensity area, RR = 1.6. In contrast to what was expected, men who reported a high degree of job satisfaction had increased risk of IHD. Those who did not look for another job had a highly significant sixfold increased risk of future death from IHD. Also those who reported never......Several studies have shown that bus driving is a high-risk occupation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). In order to study contributing factors in the job, all male full-time bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed for 10 years. It was hypothesized that bus drivers who...... reported job strain and job dissatisfaction would have an excess risk of subsequent death due to IHD. Of 2465 bus drivers, 2045 (83%) responded to a questionnaire distributed in 1978 on psychosocial well-being and work conditions. The men had their mortality recorded during the years 1978-1988. Information...

  3. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  4. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  5. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  6. Analysis of the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixing traffic flow in a two-lane system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yong-Sheng; Shi Pei-Ji; Zeng Qiong; Ma Chang-Xi; Lin Fang; Sun Peng; Yin Xiao-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Based on the existing classical cellular automaton model of traffic flow,a cellular automaton traffic model with different-maximum-speed vehicles mixed on a single lane is proposed,in which public transit and harbour-shaped bus stops are taken into consideration. Parameters such as length of cellular automaton,operation speed and random slow mechanism are re-demarcated. A harbour-shaped bus stop is set up and the vehicle changing lane regulation is changed.Through computer simulation,the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixed traffic flow and traffic capacity is analysed. The results show that a public transport system can ease urban traffic congestion hut creates new jams at the same time,and that the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on traffic capacity is considerable. To develop urban traffic,attention should be paid to the occupation rate of public transit vehicles and traffic development in a haphazard way should be strictly avoided.

  7. Optimal vehicle control strategy of a fuel cell/battery hybrid city bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Hua, Jianfeng; Li, Xiangjun; Ouyang, Minggao [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    In this article, an optimal vehicle control strategy based on a time-triggered controller area network (TTCAN) system for a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell/nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery powered city bus is presented. Aiming at improving the fuel economy of the city bus, the control strategy comprises an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) and a braking energy regeneration strategy (BERS). On the basis of the introduction of a battery equivalent hydrogen consumption model incorporating a charge-sustaining coefficient, an analytical solution to the equivalent consumption minimization problem is given. The proposed strategy has been applied in several city buses for the Beijing Olympic Games of 2008. Results of the ''China city bus typical cycle'' testing show that, the ECMS and the BERS lowered hydrogen consumption by 2.5% and 15.3% respectively, compared with a rule-based strategy. The BERS contributes much more than the ECMS to the fuel economy, because the fuel cell system does not leave much room for the optimal algorithm in improving the efficiency. (author)

  8. Occupant safety in vehicle mine protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, T.A.; Leerdam, P.J.; Horst, M.J. van der

    2002-01-01

    Personnel safety is crucial in operations where mines pose a threat, in peacekeeping and peace-enforcing operations occupant safety has a high priority. In the past five years, the TNO Defence Research Organisation participated in projects for the improvement of the mine protection of several milita

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Job Stress and Unsafe Acts with Occupational Accidents in a Vehicle Manufacturing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mohammadfam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays the vehicle manufacturing industries in Iran are critical sites as far as occupational accidents are concerned. At the same time, occupational stress and unsafe acts have also been recognized as effective factors in increasing the risk of mental and physical health problems and occupational accidents. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between job stress and unsafe acts with occupational accidents.Materials & Methods: Data were collected using of “safety behaviors sampling technique”, standardized job stress questionnaire and analytical accident indices were calculated. The selection method of all samples was on a random basis. The information was then analyzed using Excel, SPSS and appropriate statistical tests.Results: The results of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between job stress and unsafe acts, the level of stress and unsafe acts with the number of occurred accidents (p-value<0.05. The study of the relationship between job stress, unsafe acts and occupational accidents via regression logistic test showed that increasing one percent in unsafe acts have more effect on accidents than increasing one grade in job stress. So, the rate or probability accidents can be predicted in organization by changes in the two mentioned variables.Conclusion: Reducing or eliminating identified effective stress factors and decreasing unsafe acts require the investment and implementation of an occupational stress management program.

  10. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  11. Integration of Vehicle Navigation and Security System Based on CAN Bus%基于CAN总线的车载导航与安全一体化系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟海涛; 王哲

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, and improvement of people's living standards, more and more people owned a car, which result in the pressure of traffic increase year by year, also, for many impact of factors, such as road conditions, weather, vehicle performance, and so on, the traffic accidents rose quickly. In order to make drivers driven more con-venient and safer, vehicle navigation system and security research and application was very necessary. Through the integration of Micro Inertial Measurement Unit (MIMU), magnetometer and GPS navigation, Integration of Vehicle Navigation and Secur-ity System Based on CAN Bus measured real-time vehicle position and attitude information, and realized the purposes of integ-rated of vehicle navigation and security by vehicle CAN bus.%随着道路上车流量的加大以及路况、天气、车辆性能等多方面因素的影响,使交通事故概率急剧攀升,将驾驶、导航与安全保护一体化集成显得非常必要。车载导航系统通过微惯性测量组合(MIMU)、磁强计、GPS组合导航,测量车辆实时的位置和姿态信息,并通过CAN总线与车辆安全保护系统相连,从而可以实现导航与安全一体化集成的目的。

  12. Defeating the Active Shooter: Applying Facility Upgrades in Order to Mitigate the Effects of Active Shooters in High Occupancy Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    infrastructure, at our borders, ports, and airports, and to enhance overall air, maritime, transportation, and space and cyber security.53...Climates which addresses this problem and makes useful suggestions for preventing school violence. First, a culture of safety in which bullying and...from Cho, who had previously stabbed the carpet in her room with a knife and was currently sending harassing instant messages and Facebook posts to

  13. Interface of the transport systems research vehicle monochrome display system to the digital autonomous terminal access communication data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, W. C.; Tanguy, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An upgrade of the transport systems research vehicle (TSRV) experimental flight system retained the original monochrome display system. The original host computer was replaced with a Norden 11/70, a new digital autonomous terminal access communication (DATAC) data bus was installed for data transfer between display system and host, while a new data interface method was required. The new display data interface uses four split phase bipolar (SPBP) serial busses. The DATAC bus uses a shared interface ram (SIR) for intermediate storage of its data transfer. A display interface unit (DIU) was designed and configured to read from and write to the SIR to properly convert the data from parallel to SPBP serial and vice versa. It is found that separation of data for use by each SPBP bus and synchronization of data tranfer throughout the entire experimental flight system are major problems which require solution in DIU design. The techniques used to accomplish these new data interface requirements are described.

  14. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward F. Kiczek

    2007-08-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

  15. Driving Motor Parameters Matching and Vehicle Performance Research of Pure Electric Medium Bus%纯电动中型客车驱动电机参数匹配及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建宏; 苏庆列; 曹红; 刘强

    2014-01-01

    Based on LS6600C1 medium bus, the vehicle parameters and performance requirements were analyzed, and the parameters of driving motor were designed and matched. The driving motor model was built based on the ADVISOR software. The simulation results indicate that the cruising range, maximum speed, acceleration ability and climbing ability can satisfy the requirement of the operation and the ser-vice condition for the common medium-sized bus, and the bus has a good application significance and development prospect.%以“LS6600C1”型普通中型客车改装的纯电动试验车为研究对象,分析了整车参数及性能要求,对驱动电机进行参数匹配设计和选型,并利用ADVISOR仿真软件建立纯电动中型客车驱动电机仿真模型,仿真结果表明,纯电动试验车续驶里程、最高车速、加速性能和爬坡性能等均满足普通中型客车的运行要求和使用条件,具有良好的普及意义和发展前景。

  16. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  17. High-performance work systems and occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharatos, Anthea; Barling, Julian; Iverson, Roderick D

    2005-01-01

    Two studies were conducted investigating the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and occupational safety. In Study 1, data were obtained from company human resource and safety directors across 138 organizations. LISREL VIII results showed that an HPWS was positively related to occupational safety at the organizational level. Study 2 used data from 189 front-line employees in 2 organizations. Trust in management and perceived safety climate were found to mediate the relationship between an HPWS and safety performance measured in terms of personal-safety orientation (i.e., safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance, and safety initiative) and safety incidents (i.e., injuries requiring first aid and near misses). These 2 studies provide confirmation of the important role organizational factors play in ensuring worker safety.

  18. Designing and modelling Havana’s future bus rapid transit

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Ortegon-Sanchez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    A single bus route in Havana’s bus system is modelled from the current position to a modernised bus rapid transit (BRT). The system is based on an expert-led visioning process and Cuba’s official planning documents, which define the high-level design criteria and their objectives. Building on the experiences of BRT systems that operate in other Latin American cities, a conceptual design for Havana’s BRT system is defined in terms of the key institutional, technical and financial frameworks, a...

  19. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  20. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection. Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the appendices to the NESC assessment report. NASA/TM-2013-217380, Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events supersedes this document.

  1. Implementation of an AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus protocol IP block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Vucha Sandeep Magarde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of an AMBA advanced high performance bus (AHB protocol IP block is presented in this paper. The AHB (Advanced High-performance Bus is a high-performance bus in AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture family. This AHB can be used in high clock frequency system modules. The AHB acts as the high-performance system backbone bus. AHB supports the efficient connection of processors, on-chip memories and off-chip external memory interfaces with low-power peripheral macro cell functions. In this work, the design of the Advanced High-Performance Bus Protocol is developed which has the basic blocks such as Master and Slave. The arbitration mechanism is used to ensure that only one master has access to the bus at any one time and the AHB decoder is used to decode the address of each transfer and provide a select signal for the slave that is involved in the transfer. This AMBA-AHB protocol can be adopted in all the application provided the design should be an AHB compliant.

  2. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  3. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS. Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BRT is the best way to overcome it. If a country gets richer the development will be seen in different aspects like education, industry, science and technology etc., except transport which will get worse. There are many ways to get rid of these traffic issues and transport problems. What attracted the countries to install BRT is the bus way concept as that it can cover whole city and is cheaper than the rail. BRT is a high speed rapid transit system using high capacity vehicles, physically separated bus ways, modern station with electronic fare collection, rapid boarding and high service frequency which result more passengers and less congestion. This paper presents an overview of BRTS and corridor selection & assessment for it in Hyderabad through surveys etc.

  4. 29 CFR 570.52 - Occupations of motor-vehicle driver and outside helper (Order 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and the vehicle is equipped with a seat belt or similar restraining device for the driver and for any passengers and the employer has instructed the employee that such belts or other devices must be used; (2... equipment, and payload. (5) The term occasional and incidental means no more than one-third of an...

  5. Occupant Protection during Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jones, J. A.; Granderson, B. K.; Somers, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    The constellation program is evaluating current vehicle design capabilities for nominal water landings and contingency land landings of the Orion Crew Exploration vehicle. The Orion Landing Strategy tiger team was formed to lead the technical effort for which associated activities include the current vehicle design, susceptibility to roll control and tip over, reviewing methods for assessing occupant injury during ascent / aborts /landings, developing an alternate seat/attenuation design solution which improves occupant protection and operability, and testing the seat/attenuation system designs to ensure valid results. The EVA physiology, systems and Performance (EPSP) project is leading the effort under the authority of the Tiger Team Steering committee to develop, verify, validate and accredit biodynamics models using a variety of crash and injury databases including NASCAR, Indy Car and military aircraft. The validated biodynamics models will be used by the Constellation program to evaluate a variety of vehicle, seat and restraint designs in the context of multiple nominal and off-nominal landing scenarios. The models will be used in conjunction with Acceptable Injury Risk definitions to provide new occupant protection requirements for the Constellation Program.

  6. Occupational disease surveillance of an aircraft rework facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, F; Bundy, M; Kennon, R

    1990-11-01

    Analysis of the 1987-1988 morbidity data of an aircraft rework facility's 6,672 employees identified 118 patients with occupational diseases. In our study, 61 cases (52%) involved eye and skin conditions. This was comparable to the State of California occupational diseases report. However, systemic conditions appeared to be higher (24% vs. 7%) in the study group, and this finding may need further investigation to clarify its significance. Patients employed as craftworkers accounted for nearly half of all reported occupational diseases. Federal workers in this facility appeared to have a higher percentage (70%) of "no time lost" when compared with that of the State of California report (54%). The utility of morbidity data in the prevention of occupational diseases is discussed.

  7. Prestige Ratings of Contemporary Occupations: Perceptions of High School Students and Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Harry J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study in which 97 high school seniors from urban and suburban settings commented on 100 occupations and their perceived prestige. Supports the idea that counselors should consider integrating prestige and social status information with traditional occupational data. Discusses occupational statuses and prestige values in regard to…

  8. Capacity models on expressway near a bus bay stop with an access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪宾; 孙小端; 贺玉龙; 宇仁德

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the expressway capacity near a bus bay stop with an access, capacity models on the expressway near a bus stop with an access were developed on the basis of gap acceptance theory and queuing theory. Depending on a bus stop position to an entrance or an exit ramp, the capacity models were developed for four cases. Bus bay stops with overflow and bus bay stops without overflow were considered. A comparison of simulation experiment and model calculation was carried out. Results show that the suggested models have high accuracy and reliability, at bus arrival rate below 60 vehicles per hour (veh/h) or vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit below 200 passenger cars units per hour (pcu/h), and there are no significant difference in the capacities for four cases. When bus arrival rate is above 240 veh/h, the capacities of all four cases will decline rapidly. With berth number increasing, the increasing of the capacities is no obvious for four cases. As the bus arrival rate and vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit increase, bus stops located downstream of an entrance and upstream of an exit have a remarkably effect on the capacities. The latter case is much heavier than the former. Those results can be used to traffic design and optimization on urban expressway near a bus stop with an access.

  9. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  10. Criteria and test methodologies for injury assessment of vehicle occupants threatened by landmines and/or IED; an approach by HFM-148/RTG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today STANAG 4569 is working towards a new volume of the AEP-55 including the Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) threat to vehicles and their occupants. Therefore, a follow-up of the HFM-090/TG-25 was required to establish common NATO test procedures and injury criteria for both the Anti-Vehicular (

  11. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  12. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  13. Exposures and health outcomes in relation to bioaerosol emissions from composting facilities: a systematic review of occupational and community studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Clare; Littlewood, Emma; Douglas, Philippa; Robertson, Sarah; Gant, Timothy W; Hansell, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    The number of composting sites in Europe is rapidly increasing, due to efforts to reduce the fraction of waste destined for landfill, but evidence on possible health impacts is limited. This article systematically reviews studies related to bioaerosol exposures within and near composting facilities and associated health effects in both community and occupational health settings. Six electronic databases and bibliographies from January 1960 to July 2014 were searched for studies reporting on health outcomes and/or bioaerosol emissions related to composting sites. Risk of bias was assessed using a customized score. Five hundred and thirty-six papers were identified and reviewed, and 66 articles met the inclusion criteria (48 exposure studies, 9 health studies, 9 health and exposure studies). Exposure information was limited, with most measurements taken in occupational settings and for limited time periods. Bioaerosol concentrations were highest on-site during agitation activities (turning, shredding, and screening). Six studies detected concentrations of either Aspergillus fumigatus or total bacteria above the English Environment Agency's recommended threshold levels beyond 250 m from the site. Occupational studies of compost workers suggested elevated risks of respiratory illnesses with higher bioaerosol exposures. Elevated airway irritation was reported in residents near composting sites, but this may have been affected by reporting bias. The evidence base on health effects of bioaerosol emissions from composting facilities is still limited, although there is sufficient evidence to support a precautionary approach for regulatory purposes. While data to date are suggestive of possible respiratory effects, further study is needed to confirm this and to explore other health outcomes.

  14. High-Current Bus Splice Resistances and Implications for the Operating Energy of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, M; Charifoulline, Z; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Flora, R H; Pfeffer, H; Scheuerlein, C; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Strait, J; Verweij, A

    2010-01-01

    At each interconnection between LHC main magnets a low-resistance solder joint must be made between superconducting cables in order to provide a continuous current path through the superconductor and also to the surrounding copper stabilizer in case the cable quenches [1]. About 10,000 such joints exist in the LHC. An extensive campaign has been undertaken to characterize and map the resistances of these joints. All of the superconducting cable splices were measured at 1.9 K and no splices were found with a resistance larger than 3 nW. Non-invasive measurements of the stabilizer joints were made at 300 K in 5 of the 8 sectors, and at 80 K in 3 sectors. More precise local measurements were made on suspect interconnects that were opened up, and poor joints were repaired. However, it is likely that additional imperfect stabilizer joints still exist in the LHC. A statistical analysis is used to place bounds on the remaining worst-case resistances. This sets limits on the maximum operating energy of the LHC, prior...

  15. Mass, surface area and number metrics in diesel occupational exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Paulsen, Dwane; Watts, Winthrop; Kittelson, David

    2005-07-01

    While diesel aerosol exposure assessment has traditionally been based on the mass concentration metric, recent studies have suggested that particle number and surface area concentrations may be more health-relevant. In this study, we evaluated the exposures of three occupational groups-bus drivers, parking garage attendants, and bus mechanics-using the mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) as well as surface area and number concentrations. These occupational groups are exposed to mixtures of diesel and gasoline exhaust on a regular basis in various ratios. The three groups had significantly different exposures to workshift TWA EC with the highest levels observed in the bus garage mechanics and the lowest levels in the parking ramp booth attendants. In terms of surface area, parking ramp attendants had significantly greater exposures than bus garage mechanics, who in turn had significantly greater exposures than bus drivers. In terms of number concentrations, the exposures of garage mechanics exceeded those of ramp booth attendants by a factor of 5-6. Depending on the exposure metric chosen, the three occupational groups had quite different exposure rankings. This illustrates the importance of the choice of exposure metric in epidemiological studies. If these three occupational groups were part of an epidemiological study, depending on the metric used, they may or may not be part of the same similarly exposed group (SEG). The exposure rankings (e.g., low, medium, or high) of the three groups also changes with the metric used. If the incorrect metric is used, significant misclassification errors may occur.

  16. Occupational and environmental lung disease: occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenton, S C

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposures cause 10-15% of new-onset asthma in adults, and that represents a considerable health and economic burden. Exposure to many causative agents is now well controlled but workplace practices are constantly evolving and new hazards being introduced. Overall, there is no good evidence that the incidence of occupational asthma is decreasing. Evidence-based guidelines such as those published by the British Occupational Health research Foundation and Standards of Care documents should help raise awareness of the problem and improve management. Key targets include the control of occupational exposures, a high index of suspicion in any adult with new onset asthma, and early detailed investigation.

  17. Key Human Factors of Vehicle Interior Occupant Packaging in SAE Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; HU Ping; JIN Chun-ning; WU Xiao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen SAE standards related to accommodation and occupant packaging for vehicle interior are studied.The influencing factors,key reference accommodation points and major design dimensions and their relationships of occupant packaging and ergonomics during the vehicle interior layout design and development are analyzed.Prototypes are presented to verify the results and how to achieve the packaging is shown.Automobile designers can achieve significant practical guidance for human safety,efficiency accommodation and occupant packaging of all passengers during the vehicle design process.

  18. Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark A.; Yin, Yafeng; Balvanyos, Tunde; Ceder, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of its investigation into deployment planning for bus rapid transit systems. In this study, we conducted a macro-scale examination of bus rapid transit systems from technical, operational, institutional, and planning perspectives. We then developed the theoretical foundation for a deployment planning framework for bus rapid transit systems that specifically takes into account the unique features of bus rapid transit that differ from other transit alternatives....

  19. Inrush-Current Limiter And Bus Isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, Carlisle R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic circuit protects electrical power bus and source of power against excessive current demands. Circuit intended for use with power-consuming electronic system drawing pulsed currents and including capacitor bank as low-impedance secondary source from which pulsed currents drawn.

  20. Occupational dose estimates for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F

    1999-08-20

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). During peak operation, the NIF will attain D-T fusion yields of 20 MJ in a single experiment and 1200 MJ/y. With such high yields, neutron activation will be important within the NIF Target Bay. The total dose equivalent (dose) will be maintained {<=} 10 person-rem/y with individual doses {<=} 500 mrem/y, and all doses will be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This work outlines planned maintenance activities, expected dose rates, and the resulting worker dose. Methods for the reduction of this dose are discussed, and a tool for the rapid calculation of the occupational dose is presented.

  1. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  2. The Relationship between Career Variables and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Australian High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study surveyed 925 Australian high school students enrolled in grades 8 through 12 on measures of occupational aspirations, occupational expectations, career status aspirations, and career status expectations; it tested the association between these variables and career maturity, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy, and…

  3. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda; Maddali Sai Satya Goutham

    2014-01-01

    Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BR...

  4. Analysis and control of high-speed wheeled vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenis, Efstathios

    In this work we reproduce driving techniques to mimic expert race drivers and obtain the open-loop control signals that may be used by auto-pilot agents driving autonomous ground wheeled vehicles. Race drivers operate their vehicles at the limits of the acceleration envelope. An accurate characterization of the acceleration capacity of the vehicle is required. Understanding and reproduction of such complex maneuvers also require a physics-based mathematical description of the vehicle dynamics. While most of the modeling issues of ground-vehicles/automobiles are already well established in the literature, lack of understanding of the physics associated with friction generation results in ad-hoc approaches to tire friction modeling. In this work we revisit this aspect of the overall vehicle modeling and develop a tire friction model that provides physical interpretation of the tire forces. The new model is free of those singularities at low vehicle speed and wheel angular rate that are inherent in the widely used empirical static models. In addition, the dynamic nature of the tire model proposed herein allows the study of dynamic effects such as transients and hysteresis. The trajectory-planning problem for an autonomous ground wheeled vehicle is formulated in an optimal control framework aiming to minimize the time of travel and maximize the use of the available acceleration capacity. The first approach to solve the optimal control problem is using numerical techniques. Numerical optimization allows incorporation of a vehicle model of high fidelity and generates realistic solutions. Such an optimization scheme provides an ideal platform to study the limit operation of the vehicle, which would not be possible via straightforward simulation. In this work we emphasize the importance of online applicability of the proposed methodologies. This underlines the need for optimal solutions that require little computational cost and are able to incorporate real, unpredictable

  5. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 survey. R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu clean energy jidosha no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an automobile which keeps low pollution using petroleum substituting clean energy, decreases the running energy consumption to a half at least, and reduces the CO2 emission to less than a half of the conventional one at the same time, the R and D started in fiscal 1997. As to the study of a high efficiency hybrid power system, conducted were the prediction of fuel consumption performance of the system proposed, evaluation of element technology using hybrid simulator, evaluation experiment on a new hybrid vehicle, and grasp of overseas trends. In relation to the development of hybrid vehicles, the following were studied: methanol fuel cell loading hybrid vehicle, CNG engine loading hybrid vehicle, CNG ceramic engine loading hybrid truck, CNG lean burn engine loading hybrid truck, LNG engine loading hybrid bus, and DME engine loading hybrid bus. Besides, a survey on synthetic fuel and the related survey were carried out. 17 refs., 185 figs., 101 tabs.

  6. The association between price of regular-grade gasoline and injury and mortality rates among occupants involved in motorcycle- and automobile-related motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Eddie; Griffin, Russell; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    Motorcyclists have been reported to be more likely to die in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) than automobile occupants. With the recent increase in the pump price of gasoline, it has been reported that people are switching to motorcycles as main modes of transportation. This study evaluated the association between motor vehicle collision-related injury and mortality rates and increases in gasoline prices for occupants of automobiles and riders of motorcycles. There were an estimated 1,270,512 motorcycle MVC and 238,390,853 automobile MVC involved occupants in the U.S. from 1992 to 2007. Higher gasoline prices were associated with increased motorcycle-related injuries and deaths; however, this association no longer remained after accounting for changes in the number of registered vehicles. The current study observed that, while the number of injuries and fatalities in motorcycle-related MVCs increase with increasing gasoline price, rates remained largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed increase in motorcycle-related injuries and fatalities with increasing gasoline price is more a factor of the number of motorcycles on the road rather than operator characteristics.

  7. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  8. Multifunction Vehicle Bus Arbitration Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm%多功能车辆总线事件仲裁实时调度算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏志; 徐进权; 胡黄水

    2015-01-01

    针对列车通信采用多功能车辆总线(multifunction vehicle bus,MVB)网络传输数据的实时性要求,提出一种动态优先级时间片轮询算法。该算法根据非周期数据的优先级进行仲裁调度,通过优化算法复杂度、减小数据等待延时和阻塞延时,解决了 MVB 网络实时性的问题。并对 MVB 总线非周期数据的实时性、公平性等进行仿真分析,结果表明,该算法能提高 MVB 总线非周期数据传输的实时性与公平性,可满足列车通信网络标准 ICE61375-1对实时性的要求。%According to the train communication network and multifunction vehicle bus network real-time transport protocols, the authors presented a dynamic priority round-Robin algorithm. Multifunction vehicle bus (MVB ) is used widely in train communication networks to realize interconnection among different devices.It must meet the real-time performance while multifunction vehicle bus is used to transmit data according to the ICE61375-1.In the multifunction vehicle bus network,the delay among transmission equipments mainly includes waiting to be sent delay and transmitting the data packet delay and so on.Based on the priority of non-periodic data to achieve arbitration scheduling,the algorithm can improve the real-time performance of multifunction vehicle bus network to transmit the non-periodic data by means of optimizing the complexity of algorithm and reducing waiting delay and blocking delay.The simulation analysis shows that the algorithm can improve the real-time performance and fairness performance of MVB transmission.At the same time, the algorithm also meets the requirements of the ICE61375-1.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  10. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  11. Intelligent Energy Management in a Two Power-Bus Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    Dirty Bus Branch 28V Battery Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator Load Clean Bus Branch 28V Battery Bus Bus 19 DISTRIBUTION...Motor Field Controlled DC generator DC Power Supply Electronic Load DC Power Supply (125V, 3A) Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator...Battery Lithium Battery Load Electronic Load Clean Bus Branch Original System Demo System Hydraulic System Permanent DC Motor Alternator Field

  12. Analysis of the Typical Application of Mil-1394b Bus in Vehicle Management System%Mil-1394b总线在飞行器管理系统中的典型应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程俊强; 林坚

    2014-01-01

    Mil-1394b是在COTS技术IEEE 1394b的基础上进行相应的扩展和约束来进行增强,以达到满足安全关键/任务关键系统所需的鲁棒性和确定性。Mil-1394b总线采用SAE AS5643标准,其全称为用于军事和飞行器应用的1394b总线接口需求,目的是标准化Mil-1394b在军事和飞行器中的安全关键/任务关键应用中的方法途径。提高了总线的可靠性和确定性,使Mil-1394b总线相比IEEE 1394b总线更适合作为安全关键的航空总线等高可靠场合的应用。Mil-1394b总线在美F-35战机、X-45、X-47无人机等飞行器管理系统已经相继得到使用,而在我国Mil-1394b总线作为飞行器管理系统总线的应用仍处于起步阶段,该文拟就Mil-1394b总线在飞行器管理系统中的典型应用进行分析。%Mil-1394b is a corresponding expansion and constraint based on COTS technology IEEE 1394b to enhance the ro-bustness and uncertainty, to meet the safety critical/mission critical system required. The Mil-1394b bus with SAE AS5643 stan-dard, whose full name is used for 1394b bus interface and application requirements of military aircraft, the purpose is for safety critical/standardization of Mil-1394b in military and aircraft method for mission critical applications in the way. To improve the reliability and certainty of the bus, the Mil-1394b bus IEEE compared with 1394b bus is more suitable for the application as a safety critical avionics bus high reliability occasions. Mil-1394b bus in F-35, X-45, X-47 beauty aircraft unmanned aerial vehi-cle management system has been used, while in China the Mil-1394b bus as the application of vehicle management system bus is still at the starting stage, this paper intends to analyze the typical application of Mil-1394b bus in vehicle management system.

  13. Simulation approach to define sustainable balance between automobile traffic and bus rapid transit (BRT) in urban corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, A.J.; Khan, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    One of the key challenges facing Central Business Districts (CBD) of medium size urban areas in North America is how to minimize the dependence on automobiles while providing efficient transit service. Underground facilities, exclusive bus/rail corridor or elevated roadways may not be practical due to high cost, aesthetics, noise and adverse land use effects. Because of its compatibility with land use and infrastructure, bus rapid transit (BRT) is receiving more attention. Existing roadway infrastructure, when used as a shared facility, may support rapid transit service besides providing a sustainable level of automobile traffic. A microscopic simulation approach is required in order to assess design changes and throughput levels of shared corridors. The purpose of this paper was to advance the concept of a sustainable balance between public transit and automobile traffic in the CBD, and demonstrate the role of microsimulation as a tool to analyze policies and designs. Limitations of the existing planning methodology were explained and a description of how microscopic simulation approach could be used to overcome methodological gaps was presented. In addition, selected results of a research study conducted using microscopic simulation approach for BRT corridors in Ottawa were shown. It was concluded that BRT operations under favourable conditions in downtown corridors can potentially serve over 28,000 passengers per hour and that removing on-street parking from bus transit corridor expedites bus movement. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., inspection, and repair. It also should include the removal and reinstallation of the engine and drive train...) or for other purposes. 7. Noise The noise test should measure interior noise and vibration while the... transmission of exterior noise to the interior while the bus is not running. The exterior noise should...

  15. Vibration reduction in electric bus during acceleration and gear shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have replaced many gasoline vehicles in urban environments. The magnitude of vibrations and emissions from electric vehicles are less than those from conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. However, electric vehicles still have mechanical vibrations, such as those created by the power system. During vehicle acceleration, driveline vibration is very prominent. This work focuses on vehicle vibration caused by the electric powertrain in electric vehicles under rapid acceleration/deceleration and gear shifting. Since the dynamic response of an electric motor is rapid, driving torsional vibration arising from acceleration/deceleration and gear shifting is typically transmitted from driveline to vehicle’s body, adversely affecting a driver’s comfort. This work presents a novel effective control logic that reduces vibrations from an electric driveline system. This system controls the electric motor to suppress driveline torsional vibration transmitted to the driver’s seat, effectively reducing vertical vibrations and enhancing driver comfort. This work conducts simulations and hardware tests. In the development of the driveline and motor control logic, Adaptive Modeling Environment for Simulation analytical software is applied to create the driveline system model. To model structural vibrations, HyperMesh is used, and LS DYNA is applied to simulate free vibration and forced vibration. The analytical results for free vibration are compared with empirical data. The analytical results for driveline dynamics are applied as input for the finite element model to analyze forced vibration. Vibrations from the electric driveline move through the motor mount and frame to the driver’s seat track. The simulation results demonstrate this control logic strategy applied to an electric bus motor controller effectively reduces fluctuation in driveline torque during acceleration by up to 84.19% and during gear shifting by up to 44.96%. The

  16. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  17. Particles exposure while sitting at bus stops of hot and humid Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Erik; Tan, Sok Huang

    2016-10-01

    Transport microenvironments represent hotspots of personal exposure to airborne toxics, particularly of ultrafine particles. Thus, a large exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips. Amongst these microenvironments, bus stops are critical because of the commuters' close proximity to fresh fumes rich in particles emitted by passing, idling and accelerating buses and motor vehicles, in general. Standing at a bus stop may represent a period of disproportionately high exposure and it is, therefore, essential to know the number, chemical composition and physical characteristics of such particles for a proper public health assessment and design of mobility strategies. On this account, a set of portable and battery operated sensors were used to evaluate a number of properties of the traffic particles to which thousands of citizens are daily exposed at bus stops of Singapore. In terms of fine particles, the exposure concentration was on average 1.5-3 times higher than the mean concentration at ambient level reported by the local authorities. On average 60% of those particles corresponded to black carbon. An important presence of particle-bound polycyclic aromatics was observed. The particle number concentration and active surface area were effective metrics to quantify ultrafine particles, as expected both showed strong correlations. The number of particles at bus stops was on average 3.5 times higher than at ambient level. The most alarming issue was probably the size of the particles. Assuming spherical particles, a median of 27 nm was estimated based on the active surface area and particle number data. Particles of this size form the nucleation mode, which is related to harmful health effects.

  18. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  19. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rulemaking submitted by Public Citizen and Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety, to amend the Federal motor... systems that are regulated by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, ``Occupant...

  20. Assessment of occupational exposure to BTEX compounds at a bus diesel-refueling bay: A case study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-12-15

    Of increasing concern is pollution by volatile organic compounds, with particular reference to five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and two isomeric xylenes; BTEX). These pollutants are classified as hazardous air pollutants. Due to the potential health risks associated with these pollutants, BTEX concentrations were monitored at a bus diesel-refueling bay, in Johannesburg, South Africa, using gas chromatography, coupled with a photo-ionization detector. Results indicate that o-xylene (29-50%) and benzene (13-33%) were found to be the most abundant species of total BTEX at the site. Benzene was within South African occupational limits, but above international occupational exposure limits. On the other hand, occupational concentrations of toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes were within national and international occupational limits throughout the monitoring period, based on 8-hour workday weighted averages. Ethyl-benzene and p-xylene concentrations, during winter, correspond to activity at the site, and thus idling of buses during refueling may elevate results. Overall, occupational air quality at the refueling bay is a matter of health concern, especially with regards to benzene exposure, and future reduction strategies are crucial. Discrepancies between national and international limit values merit further investigation to determine whether South African guidelines for benzene are sufficiently precautionary.

  1. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities; Hochrisikoanlagen. Notfallschutz bei Kernkraft-, Chemie- und Sondermuellanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, Michael (ed.) [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  2. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  3. Study on Ultracapacitors Parameter Design and Control Strategy of Electric Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of ultracapacitors efficiency and vehicle driving character, three conditions restricting the ultracapacitors charge/discharge time are derived. The study focuses on ultracapacitors specific design rules decided by charge/discharge time and how to integrate with battery packs and converter through ultracapacitors' voltage and current double regulators. Through BFC6100-EV electric bus test, it is shown that the proposed method and control strategy are feasible and the system can effectively improve the bus dynamic performance and ability to receive braking energy effectively.

  4. A study of the effects of current and proposed restraint concepts on the child occupants of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This research evaluates the performance of automotive child restraint systems (CRS) that conform to international proposals for a universal restraint concept to be adopted by both restraint and vehicle manufacturers. The concept is known as Isofix (International Standards Organisation FIXing), and is intended to ensure optimum compatibility and coupling between vehicle and CRS. In order to quantify the benefits of the proposed Isofix concept it has been necessary to establish the performan...

  5. Laboratory Astrophysics on High Power Lasers and Pulsed Power Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A

    2002-02-05

    Over the past decade a new genre of laboratory astrophysics has emerged, made possible by the new high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as large lasers, z-pinch generators, and high current particle accelerators. (Remington, 1999; 2000; Drake, 1998; Takabe, 2001) On these facilities, macroscopic collections of matter can be created in astrophysically relevant conditions, and its collective properties measured. Examples of processes and issues that can be experimentally addressed include compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiative shocks, radiation flow, high Mach-number jets, complex opacities, photoionized plasmas, equations of state of highly compressed matter, and relativistic plasmas. These processes are relevant to a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as supernovae and supernova remnants, astrophysical jets, radiatively driven molecular clouds, accreting black holes, planetary interiors, and gamma-ray bursts. These phenomena will be discussed in the context of laboratory astrophysics experiments possible on existing and future HED facilities.

  6. Logistics of emergency response vehicles : facility location, routing, and shift scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L. van den Berg (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis discusses different aspects of the logistics of emergency response vehicles. In most parts, we consider providers of ambulance care in the Netherlands. However, also firefighters and air ambulance providers in both Canada and Norway are considered. Even though significant dif

  7. Occupational Exposure of Diesel Station Workers to BTEX Compounds at a Bus Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeesa Moolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX, which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency’s chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10−4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10−3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees.

  8. Occupational exposure of diesel station workers to BTEX compounds at a bus depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-04-13

    Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10-4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10-3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees.

  9. High-frequency modelling of a three-phase pulse width modulation inverter towards the dc bus considering line and controller harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Haghbin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form analytical formulas are provided to calculate the dc bus harmonics of a three-phase sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM inverter. The harmonic analysis is performed by using a double Fourier series approach to determine the dc bus current frequency spectrum. For an arbitrary modulation index and load power factor, the full harmonic components of the inverter dc side current are calculated. Based on the developed analytical model, an equivalent circuit is proposed for the inverter harmonic analysis towards the dc bus. Moreover, the impacts of line harmonics and zero sequence injection in controller towards the dc bus are presented. The results show that the 5th and 7th ac line harmonics on the dc side current is appearance of the 6th harmonic in the dc side. The impact of zero sequence injection to the controller on the dc side is negligible. In addition to analytical formulation, different simulations and extensive measurements performed which the results verified the presented analytical framework.

  10. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  11. CAN and FPGA communication engineering implementation of a CAN bus based measurement system on an FPGA development kit

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The Controller Area Network (CAN), invented by Bosch in 1983, is a serial field bus protocol which was originally used in road vehicles and now is widely applied in other industrial fields. Since its birth automotive electronic engineers have been use Microcontrollers (MCU) to control the CAN bus. Today, as the Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has become very advance, this book introduces a new method which uses an FPGA and a MCU jointly instead of a single MCU is to design a CAN bus measurement system. Furthermore the designed system should be able to work at the fastest

  12. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  13. Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of El Paso High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Moises

    The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive survey of the educational and occupational aspirations and expectations of high school sophomores and seniors in the El Paso and Ysleta school districts (El Paso, Texas). Group-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the information from the 590 randomly sampled students (5% of the…

  14. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  15. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  16. Measurement of Parasitic Inductances in the Bus-Bar Assembly of a High Power Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Aniket; Narayanan, G.

    2016-12-01

    Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based voltage source converters use copper plates with insulating sheets in between them (sandwich bus-bar arrangement) for connecting the different device terminals in the power circuit. In such converters, the parasitic inductances in the power circuit are crucial as they cause overvoltage spikes across the device. Also, the parasitics affect the current sharing between IGBTs when they are connected in parallel in high power converters. The conduction path through plates and fasteners in the bus-bar assembly is three-dimensional and quite complex, making analytical evaluation of the stray inductance quite challenging. The first objective here is to present a simple experimental setup and experimental procedure, which are convenient for power electronic engineers, to measure the bus-bar inductance. The next objective is to carry out experimental studies on the inductances offered by different components and sub-assemblies in a bus-bar assembly. This includes evaluation of inductances of the different conduction paths in typical bus-bar plates. The third objective is to experimentally evaluate the parasitic inductances in the bus-bar assembly of a commercial 250 kVA high power converter. Each leg of this converter consists of two 300 A/1200 V IGBTs connected in parallel. The effective inductance seen by the individual device modules are determined experimentally.

  17. Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk.

  18. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  19. Distributed Data Acquisition and Control by Software Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecil Bruce-Boye; Dmitry A. Kazakov

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition forces manufacturers of products from all technical fields to guarantee a high product quality for a long period of time. At the same time it is necessary to minimize production costs. In order to meet all these requirements, on-line data acquisition and processing are of increasing importance in distributed automation systems. A software bus operating on industrial Ethernet has an ability to minimize operating costs by offering easy installation, scalability,high degree of reliability and remote monitoring and control.

  20. Evaluation and Control of Occupational Exposure to Ethylene Oxide in Health Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    as corneal and organ transplants, cardiac catheterization, and prosthesis implantation would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to perform...of empirical and semiempirical equations. In a study of nine such equations, it was concluded that the Hirschfelder, Bird , and Spotz equation agreed

  1. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion.

  2. Farm Tractors, Occupational Therapy, and Four-Wheel Drive: Transforming a Military Vehicle into a Cultural Icon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarocci, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The armed forces of World War II employed unprecedented numbers of mechanical transport vehicles, precipitating a spike in demand for automotive manufactures. Eager to capture a share of the less certain postwar automobile marketplace, defense contractors such as Willys-Overland pursued a diverse range of product development and advertising…

  3. Lung cancer and occupation in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Lubin, Jay H; Wacholder, Sholom; Tucker, Margaret; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Caporaso, Neil E; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-02-01

    The authors examined the relation between occupation and lung cancer in the large, population-based Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) case-control study. In 2002-2005 in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, 2,100 incident lung cancer cases and 2,120 randomly selected population controls were enrolled. Lifetime occupational histories (industry and job title) were coded by using standard international classifications and were translated into occupations known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with logistic regression. For men, an increased risk was found for list A (177 exposed cases and 100 controls; odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.38) and most occupations therein. No overall excess was found for list B with the exception of filling station attendants and bus and truck drivers (men) and launderers and dry cleaners (women). The authors estimated that 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.8) of lung cancers in men were attributable to occupation. Among those in other occupations, risk excesses were found for metal workers, barbers and hairdressers, and other motor vehicle drivers. These results indicate that past exposure to occupational carcinogens remains an important determinant of lung cancer occurrence.

  4. Study of Occupational Safety and Health Audit on Facilities at Ungku Omar College, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM): A Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Kadir; Ahmad, Shaharuddin; Aiyub, Kadaruddin; Awang, Azhan; Aziz, Azmi; Mohamad, Lukman Z.; Mamat, Samsu Adabi

    2010-01-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) is being considered as an important program to measure employee and student welfare and well-being. During academic session, apart from attending lectures, laboratory works, tutorial and library search, majority of students spend most of their time in residential…

  5. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  6. Very-low-frequency and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields associated with electric shuttle bus wireless charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Kavet, Robert; Bailey, J R; Halliwell, John

    2014-01-01

    Tests conducted to date at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) indicate that wireless charging of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's (CARTA) downtown shuttle bus, currently operating with off-board battery charging technology, offers significant improvements in performance and cost. The system operates at a frequency of 20 kHz and a peak power of 60 kW. Because the system's wireless charging is expected to occur during a nominal 3-min charging period with passengers on-board, the magnetic and electric fields associated with charging were characterised at UTC's Advanced Vehicle Test Facility and compared with established human exposure limits. The two most prominent exposure limits are those published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Both organisations include limits for groups who are trained (workers in specific industries) to be aware of electromagnetic environments and their potential hazards, as well as a lower set of limits for the general public, who are assumed to lack such awareness. None of the magnetic or electric fields measured either within or outside the bus during charging exceeded either the ICNIRP or the IEEE exposure limits for the general public.

  7. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  8. Motor Control of Two Flywheels Enabling Combined Attitude Control and Bus Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discussed the flywheel technology development work that is ongoing at NASA GRC with a particular emphasis on the flywheel system control. The "field orientation" motor/generator control algorithm was discussed and explained. The position-sensorless angle and speed estimation algorithm was presented. The motor current response to a step change in command at low (10 kRPM) and high (60 kRPM) was discussed. The flywheel DC bus regulation control was explained and experimental results presented. Finally, the combined attitude control and energy storage algorithm that controls two flywheels simultaneously was presented. Experimental results were shown that verified the operational capability of the algorithm. shows high speed flywheel energy storage (60,000 RPM) and the successful implementation of an algorithm to simultaneously control both energy storage and a single axis of attitude with two flywheels. Overall, the presentation demonstrated that GRC has an operational facility that

  9. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  10. The Association between risk factors and low back pain among commercial vehicle drivers in peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Jalaludin, Juliana; Aziz, Nasaruddin Abdul; Jemoin, Nizam; Nordin, Rusli; Li Naing, Ayub; Abdullah, Yunus; Abdullah, Mazlan

    2007-04-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with complain of low back pain. A cross sectional study was done from June 2004 until August 2005. Seven hundred and sixty commercial vehicle drivers from 11 bus companies in central, northern and eastern regions in Malaysia participated in this study. Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain; Maestro human vibration meter was used to measure the personal R.M.S values of lateral, anterior-posterior and vertical axes. Modified Owas was used to assess the awkward posture of the driver torso namely, bending forward movement, leaning, sitting straight and twisting. Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used to evaluate the mood states of bus drivers with complain of low back pain. A high prevalence of low back pain (60.4%) among Malaysian commercial vehicle drivers was found. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, income, education level and non occupational activities revealed that the following factors were related to low back pain: Tension-anxiety [1.080, 95% CI 1.041-1.121], depression dejection [1.047, 95% CI 1.023-1.072], anger-hostility [1.053, 95% CI 1.027-1.081], fatigue [1.132, 95% CI 1.089-1.177] and confusion [1.114, 95% CI 1.061-1.169] of POMS, length of employment [1.001, 95% CI 1.0-1.003], steering wheel adjustment [1.521, 95% CI 1.101-2.101], perception of exposing to vibration [1.943, 95% CI 1.389-2.719]. In conclusion, combinations of risks lead to high increase of low back pain complain among Malaysian bus drivers.

  11. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.M.; Wallin, H.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage. Aims: The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene co...

  12. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Wallin, Håkan; Binderup, Mona Lise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage.AIMS: The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene con...

  13. 78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...: Denial of petition for rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document denies a rulemaking petition submitted by BMW Group, BMW of North America, LLC, to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on occupant crash... passenger cars and September 1, 1998, for light trucks and vans. II. Petition On October 23, 2012, BMW...

  14. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...... to be conducted in a rapidly developing country using high-quality panel data and appropriate dynamic methods, and as such makes an important contribution in confirming that increased supply of highly skilled workers enhances occupational attainment in this context....

  15. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  16. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  17. Bus drivers' mental conditions and their relation to bus passengers' accidents with a focus on the psychological stress concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Sugiura, Miyuki; Tanaka, Sumio; Mizuno, Yuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological factors of bus drivers' instability that were related to bus passengers' accidents according to the hypothesis model based on the stress concept of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). This research was carried out in 2006. Participants of the study were 39 Japanese male bus drivers. Their average age was 40.2 (SD: 11.1). The average duration of employment was 4.5 (SD:6.1) years. A questionnaire was used that was composed of items concerning the frequency of bus passengers' accidents, performance of safe driving, job stressors, stress reaction and recognition from others. Based on the results, a model assuming that stress reaction caused by job stressors disturbed the bus driver's safe driving and was associated with passengers' accidents in the bus was verified to some degree. Especially, melancholy and tired feeling toward passengers showed a strong relation to the passengers' accidents in the bus. This suggested much room for intervention. Moreover, the recognition from others of their job was confirmed to act as a control factor of the stress reaction.

  18. [Hodgkin's disease and occupation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G; Fonte, R

    1984-01-01

    In order to discuss the hypothesized existence of occupational risk factors in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease (HD), the available literature data are reviewed. The occupations most often considered to be at increased risk of the disease are woodworking, school teaching, hospital occupations and occupations entailing exposure to chemicals. The association between HD and employment in wood industry suggest that exposure to unknown occupational factors may play a role as etiologic agent in this disease. A number of chemical substances that are regularly used may be suspected as causative factors. There are many discrepancies among the results of the studies on the association between school teaching and HD. To date no certain conclusion may be drawn from the presented data. However it has been suggested that the reported excess risk for HD among teachers may be explicable by social class gradient for the disease. The existence of risk factors other than viral may explain the excess risk among physicians and nurses. Because of the characteristics of some highly reactive chemicals their etiologic role may not be underestimated. An association between HD and occupations entailing exposure to various chemicals (organic solvents, benzene, phenoxy acids, chlorophenols) was shown; however no definitive conclusion may be drawn. There are increasing findings that point out the importance of the association between some occupations and development of HD. In spite of the evidence of a link between exposure to various chemicals and HD, there is a clear need to evaluate dose-response relationship between specific type and amount of chemicals and the disease, in order to provide some of the answer we need about the etiology of HD.

  19. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1995: Twenty-eighth annual report. Volume 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1995 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. In 1995, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 199 person-cSv (person-rem). This is the same value that was reported for 1994. The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 256 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 170 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 17,153 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1995, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.26 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.32 cSv (rem).

  20. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuri...

  1. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  2. Asphyxia: a rare cause of death for motor vehicle crash occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Carol; Stanley, Christina; Eastman, A Brent; Vaughan, Teresa; Vilke, Gary M; Hoyt, David B; Pacyna, Sharon; Smith, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicle related trauma is one of the leading causes of traumatic death. Although most of these deaths are because of severe blunt force trauma, there are people without severe injury who die of asphyxia related to the motor vehicle collision. There were 37 deaths because of motor vehicle related asphyxia in San Diego County during 1995-2004. Almost half (48.6%) of these deaths were because of compression asphyxia, 29.7% were positional asphyxia deaths, and 16.2% died of a combination of compression and positional asphyxia. We were unable to classify the mechanism of asphyxia for the remaining 5.4% of asphyxia deaths. Almost all occupants dying from asphyxia were involved in rollover crashes and may have been incapacitated by obesity, drug or alcohol intoxication, or blunt force trauma. Compression asphyxia deaths occurred both from vehicle crush with intrusion into the passenger compartment and from ejection of the occupant and subsequent crushing by the vehicle. Positional asphyxia occurred in positions interfering with normal respiration, including inversion. None of the occupants had injury severe enough to result in death at the scene if they had not first died of asphyxia. This study suggests classifying the mechanism of asphyxia for these fatalities may be a challenge to forensic pathologists who seldom see these rare deaths.

  3. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle Training Facility visual system concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keith

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) Training Facility (OTF) is to provide effective training for OMV pilots. A critical part of the training environment is the Visual System, which will simulate the video scenes produced by the OMV Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) system. The simulation will include camera models, dynamic target models, moving appendages, and scene degradation due to the compression/decompression of video signal. Video system malfunctions will also be provided to ensure that the pilot is ready to meet all challenges the real-world might provide. One possible visual system configuration for the training facility that will meet existing requirements is described.

  4. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of other on board equipment. The OPC and high voltage Energy Storage system operate in concert with the Motor-Generator and Controller to form...the Vehicle DC Bus. When operating in PHEV mode from external power, the OPC provides power to the Vehicle DC Bus if either the Energy Storage System...commercial electric and hybrid buses. He has designed several motor drives including a 500 HP drive for sonar pulse power using a flywheel for energy

  5. High-Strength and High-Plasticity TWIP Steel for Modern Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenli MI; Di TANG; Ling YAN; Jin GUO

    2005-01-01

    In this paper new high-strength and high-plasticity twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel for modern automobile body was investigated. Some basic experimental results were given. The results indicate the TWlP steel has excellent properties. It exhibits high ultimate tensile strength (600~1100 MPa) and extremely large elongation of 60% to 90%. In the future it would be capable of satisfying the requirements of new generation of vehicle.

  6. Arc Heating Facility and Test Technique for Planetary Entry Missions

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A 1-MW segmented-type arc heater has been designed and installed in the ISAS high enthalpy flow facility for the purpose of basic study of aerothermophysics and the development of thermal protection materials for the atmospheric hypersonic vehicles. The aerothermophysical flight environment for the vehicles, generally speaking, can not be duplicated in the ground facility. In most cases of vehicles reentering with super-orbital velocity, the flow enthalpy of the ground facility submits to be ...

  7. Reduced Protection for Belted Occupants in Rear Seats Relative to Front Seats of New Model Year Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer

    2010-01-01

    Effectiveness of the rear seat in protecting occupants of different age groups in frontal crashes for 2000–2009 model years (MY) of vehicles was estimated and compared to 1990–1999 model years of vehicles. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the front seat for various age groups in newer model year vehicles. The double paired comparison method was used to estimate relative effectiveness. For belted adults of the 25–49 age group, the fatality reduction effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the right front seat was 25 % (CI 11% to 36%), in the 1990–1999 model year vehicles. The relative effectiveness was −31% (CI −63% to −5%) for the same population, in the 2000–2009 model year vehicles. For restrained children 0–8 years old, the relative effectiveness was 55% (CI 48% to 61%) when the vehicles were of the 1990–1999 period. The level of effectiveness for this age group was reduced to 25% (CI −4% to 46%) in the 2000–2009 MYs of vehicles. Results for other age groups of belted occupants have followed a similar trend. All belted adult occupants of 25+ years old were significantly less protected in rear seats as compared to right front seats in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. For unbelted occupants however, rear seats were still a safer position than front seats, even in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. PMID:21050599

  8. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  9. 差分进化MVB总线周期扫描表%Periodic polling table in multifunction vehicle bus based on the differential evolution algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进权; 王宏志; 胡黄水

    2016-01-01

    To optimize the periodic polling table in Multifunction Vehicle Bus (M VB) ,a new design based on differential evolution algorithm is proposed .According to the relevant provisions of international standard IEC61375 ,we set the periodic polling table generation rules and constraints , and establish the mathematical model .With the evenness degree as objective function ,periodic polling table is built and optimized .The differential evolution algorithm is compared with the step fill method in the IEC61375‐1 to show that the former is with better performance .%针对多功能车辆总线(Multifunction Vehicle Bus ,MVB)周期扫描表提出了一种利用差分进化算法的优化设计方法。根据 IEC61375国际标准相关规定,明确了周期扫描表生成规则和约束条件,建立了相应的数学模型,以均匀度为目标函数,对周期扫描表进行建立和优化。最后,通过与国际标准中的逐步填空法进行均匀度对比,显示出差分进化算法的优势。

  10. Analysis of touch used by occupational therapy practitioners in skilled nursing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas; Henegar, J; Khanin, S; Oberle, G; Thacker, S

    2014-09-01

    Instrumental touch is identified as having purposeful physical contact in order to complete a task. Expressive touch is identified as warm, friendly physical contact and is not solely for performing a task. Expressive touch has been associated with improved client status, increased rapport and greater gains made during therapy. The purpose of the study was to observe the frequency of expressive and instrumental touch utilized by an occupational therapist during an occupational therapy session. Thirty-three occupational therapy professionals, including occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants, employed at skilled nursing facilities in southwest Florida were observed. Data were collected on the Occupational Therapy Interaction Assessment. The results of the data analysis showed a positive relationship between the gender of the therapist and the frequency of expressive touch. The data also showed that a large majority of touches were instrumental touch and pertained to functional mobility. The results of the study can contribute to a better understanding of the holistic aspects of occupational therapy. By the use of more expressive touch, occupational therapy practitioners may have a positive, beneficial effect on both the client and the therapy process as a whole. Further research is needed to determine the effect an occupational therapy setting has on the frequency of instrumental and expressive touch. A larger sample size and a distinction between evaluation and treatment sessions would benefit future studies.

  11. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational ...

  12. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies.

  13. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  14. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1996: Twenty-ninth annual report. Volume 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1996 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. Annual reports for 1996 were received from a total of 300 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 300 licensees indicated that 138,310 individuals were monitored, 75,139 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 21,755 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 13% decrease from the 1995 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem) for 1996. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 22,348 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1996, the average measurable dose calculated from reported was 0.24 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem).

  15. High Performance Piezoelectric Actuators and Wings for Nano Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-26

    beam bending actuators[88] cite Ballas’s book too. Unimorph. bimorph, and multilayer beam bending actuators have been studied extensively. Models of the...Scalable Design of Flapping Micro-Air Vehicles Inspired by Insect Flight, Springer - Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540...RSJ International Conference on, IEEE, pp. 1107–1114. [39] Dudley, R. (2002) The biomechanics of insect flight: form, function, evo- lution

  16. Diagnostic assessment to estimate and minimize neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals at cyclotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, L.C. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: reina@ien.gov.br; Silva, A.X. [PEN/COPPE-DNC/Escola Politecnica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Suita, J.C.; Souza, M.I.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Facure, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear Rua General Severiano, 90-Botafogo, CEP: 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, J.C.P.; Furlanetto, J.A.D. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebello, W. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Ministerio da Defesa Praca General Tiburcio, 80-Praia Vermelha, CEP: 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Since 2003, radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnostic purposes have been produced at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, in Brazil, using two cyclotron accelerators - CV-28 and RDS111. As a result of the ever increasing production, a diagnostic assessment to reduce neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals during irradiation processes has been developed. The purpose of this work is to present this assessment, which is currently being applied to both the Fluorine and Iodine targets of CV-28 and RDS111 cyclotron accelerators.

  17. High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) longitudinal controller: Design, analyses, and simulation resultss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.; Rivers, Robert A.; Messina, Michael D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Bacon, Barton J.; Foster, John F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design, analysis, and nonlinear simulation results (batch and piloted) for a longitudinal controller which is scheduled to be flight-tested on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is an F-18 airplane modified for and equipped with multi-axis thrust vectoring. The paper includes a description of the facilities, a detailed review of the feedback controller design, linear analysis results of the feedback controller, a description of the feed-forward controller design, nonlinear batch simulation results, and piloted simulation results. Batch simulation results include maximum pitch stick agility responses, angle of attack alpha captures, and alpha regulation for full lateral stick rolls at several alpha's. Piloted simulation results include task descriptions for several types of maneuvers, task guidelines, the corresponding Cooper-Harper ratings from three test pilots, and some pilot comments. The ratings show that desirable criteria are achieved for almost all of the piloted simulation tasks.

  18. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  19. Relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and methylphenidate induced high in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY-Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by cocaine has been shown to be indispensable for its reinforcing properties. The development of drugs that inibit the DAT has become a major target to prevent cocaine`s effects. However prevention of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by DAT inhibitors has never been demonstrated. This study evaluates the ability to block methylphenidate (MP), a DAT inhibitor drug with similar reinforcing properties to cocaine, induced {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by prior DAT inhibition. It uses PET and [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate to measure the relationship between DAT occupancy prior to administration of MP and the intensity of the subjective perception of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} in 8 controls. MP (0.375 mg/kg iv) which was administered as a single injection and also as two sequential doses given 60 minutes apart significantly reduced the ratio of the distribution volume for [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate in striatum to that in cerebellum from a baseline of 2.83 {plus_minus} 0.2 to 1.29 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes and to 1.37 {plus_minus} 0.2 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and to 1.14 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes after the second of two sequential MP doses. This corresponds to a DAT occupancy by MP of 84% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 minutes and of 77% {plus_minus} 6 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and of 93% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 after the second of two sequential MP doses. The subjective perception of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} experienced after the second injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection, in spite of the very different starting DAT occupancies (0 and 77%, respectively). DAT occupancy was not correlated with the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}; and one subject with 100% DAT occupancy did not perceive the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

  20. Cardiac injuries in car occupants in fatal motor vehicle collisions--an autopsy-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Elisabeth E; Tsang, Yee-Wah; Champaneri, Anisha; Pueschel, Klaus; Byard, Roger W

    2010-08-01

    Motor vehicle accidents contribute widely to population morbidity and mortality around the world, and cardiac injuries are a major factor determining outcome. Autopsy reports from 380 motor vehicle occupants who died in motor vehicle crashes in Adelaide, Australia, and Hamburg, Germany, over a 6-year period were reviewed, analysing the presence and type of cardiac injuries and their correlation with factors such as crash type, presence of seatbelt/airbag and vehicle speed as well as with the presence of other injuries which might predict the presence of cardiac injuries in a clinical setting. 21.1% had cardiac injuries identified macroscopically autopsy or histology. Cardiac injuries were the only cause of death or contributed to a fatal outcome in 76% of these cases. Sternal fractures and left-sided serial rib fractures were predictive of cardiac injury.

  1. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACTS OF SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION FACILITIES FOR NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROWE,M.D.; KLEIN,R.C.; JONES,K.W.

    1999-07-31

    Sediment is accumulating in New York/New Jersey Harbor, and shipping channels are rapidly becoming too shallow for large ships. The Port Authority of New York/New Jersey has determined that dredging of the ship channels is essential to keep them navigable. About five million cubic yards of sediment must be removed per year to keep the channels open. Without dredging, the channels will soon become unusable, and the shoreside shipping and warehousing businesses that depend on them will fade away. The economic loss to the area would be devastating. But the deeper layers of sediment in the Harbor contain a broad range of pollutants that are hazardous to humans and the environment-a legacy of past discharges that are no longer permitted. These include heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins. As a result, there are several million cubic yards of sediments to be dredged per year that do not meet applicable criteria for ocean disposal and must be dealt with in some other way. A possible solution to the problem is to treat the dredged material to immobilize or destroy the contaminants and make the treated sediments suitable for disposal in the ocean or on land at acceptable cost. A variety of technologies can be used to achieve this goal. The simplest approach is to make manufactured soil from untreated sediment. The most complex approaches involve high-temperature destruction of organic contaminants and immobilization of inorganic contaminants. When any of these technologies are used, there is potential for risks to human health from process wastes and from the treated materials themselves. Also, disposal or beneficial use of treated materials may generate other risks to human health or the environment. A description of some of the technologies considered is given in Table 1. Success in removing or immobilizing the contaminants, which varies significantly among technologies, is reported

  2. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  3. Design and Analysis of Bus Front Panel Usin G FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like E-glass, S-glass, Carbon fiber, Kevlar are not yet confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Because of its attaining high intricacy in designing factors and as well as cheaper mould design and also less cost in production of few numbers. The applications of FRPs are spirally increasing. The aim of this project is to develop a BUS FRONT PANEL with a help of FRPs in order to sustain all the mechanical properties which are equivalent to the metals with the help of advanced computer aided software designs like ANSYS. In computer aided engineering to make the product proven in the realistic market.

  4. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  5. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on Evidence-Based Medicine courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores the facilities in the knowledge infrastructure being used by OPs in different countries, and their perceived importance for EBM practice. Methods Thirty-six OPs from ten countries, planning to attend an EBM course and to a large extent recruited via the European Association of Schools of Occupational Medicine (EASOM, participated in a cross-sectional study. Results Research and development institutes, and knowledge products and tools are used by respectively more than 72% and more than 80% of the OPs and they are rated as being important for EBM practice (more than 65 points (range 0–100. Conventional knowledge access facilities, like traditional libraries, are used often (69% but are rated as less important (46.8 points (range 0–100 compared to the use of more novel facilities, like question-and-answer facilities (25% that are rated as more important (48.9 points (range 0–100. To solve cases, OPs mostly use non evidence-based sources. However, they regard the evidence-based sources that are not often used, e.g. the Cochrane library, as important enablers for practising EBM. The main barriers are lack of time, payment for full-text articles, language barrier (most texts are in English, and lack of skills and support. Conclusion This first exploratory study shows that OPs use many knowledge infrastructure facilities and rate them as being important for their EBM practice. However, they are not used to use evidence-based sources in their practice and face many barriers that are comparable to the barriers physicians face in primary health care.

  6. High Penetration of Electrical Vehicles in Microgrids: Threats and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khederzadeh, Mojtaba; Khalili, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    Given that the microgrid concept is the building block of future electric distribution systems and electrical vehicles (EVs) are the future of transportation market, in this paper, the impact of EVs on the performance of microgrids is investigated. Demand-side participation is used to cope with increasing demand for EV charging. The problem of coordination of EV charging and discharging (with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) functionality) and demand response is formulated as a market-clearing mechanism that accepts bids from the demand and supply sides and takes into account the constraints put forward by different parts. Therefore, a day-ahead market with detailed bids and offers within the microgrid is designed whose objective is to maximize the social welfare which is the difference between the value that consumers attach to the electrical energy they buy plus the benefit of the EV owners participating in the V2G functionality and the cost of producing/purchasing this energy. As the optimization problem is a mixed integer nonlinear programming one, it is decomposed into one master problem for energy scheduling and one subproblem for power flow computation. The two problems are solved iteratively by interfacing MATLAB with GAMS. Simulation results on a sample microgrid with different residential, commercial and industrial consumers with associated demand-side biddings and different penetration level of EVs support the proposed formulation of the problem and the applied methods.

  7. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections.

  8. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars...

  9. Navigation and Hazard Avoidance for High-Speed Unmanned Ground Vehicles in Rough Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-07

    Potential Field Navigation of High Speed Vehicles on Rough Terrain,” Robotica , Vol. 25, No. 4, pp 409-424, July 2007 Udengaard, M., and Iagnemma, K...Navigation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles on Uneven Terrain using Potential Fields," to appear in Robotica , 2007 [16] Spenko, M., Kuroda, Y., Dubowsky, S

  10. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  11. BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

      BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-100-introduction-to-business-entire-course/   BUS 100 Assignment 1 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace BUS 100 Assignment 2 Ethical and Socially Responsive Business BUS 100 Introduction To Business Week 1-11 Discussions BUS 100 week 1 discussions BUS 100 week 2 Discussions BUS 100 week 3 Discussions BUS 100 week 4 Discussions ...

  12. Work fatigue and physiological symptoms in different occupations of high-elevation construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lin; Sun, Yih-Min; Chuang, Kao-Hsing; Hsu, Der-Jen

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether work fatigue and physiological symptoms that high-elevation construction workers experience would be affected by the occupations. Questionnaires of demographic data and subjective fatigue symptoms as well as some physiological measurements were carried out, pre- and post-shift, on scaffolders, steel fixers, formworkers, electrician-plumbers, concreters and miscellaneous workers at a high-rise building construction site. This study found that some subjective fatigue symptoms coincide with the life style of some workers and that the extent of fatigue symptoms and physiological strains varies among different occupations of construction workers. Scaffolders, steel fixers and formworkers are categorized as physically demanding fatigue type of workers, while concreters, electrician-plumbers and miscellaneous workers as general type. The prevalence and occurrence of subjective fatigue symptoms indicate high-elevation workers have more complaints of "projection of physical impairment" than "drowsiness and dullness" and "difficulty in concentration". Some unexpected changes (i.e., post-shift measurements are greater than pre-shift ones) in some strength tests in scaffolders and concreters were consistent with the observations of how they exercised their bodies during work shift. Considerable variation of average heart rate among occupations was found, with scaffolders the highest and concreters the lowest. This study concludes that questionnaires of subjective fatigue symptoms and some physiological measurements can be used as indicators to predict the extent of strains or hazards which construction workers encounter. In terms of management program of safety and health, more attention should be paid to those physically demanding workers, such as scaffolders, workers with lower sense of safety and health, such as miscellaneous workers, and workers with older age, such as concreters.

  13. Design of high-speed high-performance, serial bus data transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saravanan K.; Hasan, S. M. Rezaul

    2000-10-01

    Recent developments in digital data transport shows that the general trend is moving towards high-speed, low-cost serial networks. Standards such as USB and the relatively new IEEE1394, provide inexpensive, scalable and truly universal I/O connection for virtually any form of digital hardware. Bandwidth requirements for multimedia applications such as real-time digital audio and video, digital broadcasting, wide-band ethernet and the emergence of consumer products such as digital camcorders and VCRs makes data rates of up to 400Mbit/s and beyond, a necessity. In this work we have developed a high-speed high-performance serial bus transceiver, which conforms to the IEEE1394 standards. The HP 0.5micrometers scalable CMOS process available through MOSIS was used for the hardware design. Data rates of up to 800Mbit/s are achieve din comparison to previous similar works that only achieves 300Mbit/s using a BiCMOS process.

  14. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  15. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-15

    This guide provides federal facility managers with an overview of the energy savings potential of wireless lighting occupancy sensors for various room types, cost considerations, key steps to successful installation of wireless sensors, pros and cons of various technology options, light source considerations, and codes and standards.

  16. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  17. Design and Analysis of Virtual Bus Transport Using Synchronous Digital Hierarchy/Synchronous Optical Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a new data link layer design for the virtual bus architecture. The virtual bus is a hierarchical access network offered a broadcast capability for data and signaling. The proposed of the study is to support Quality of Service (QoS in network. During study, the most promising technology capable of delivering full service access at high data rates is Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH/Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET. For that reason, we develop SDH/SONET as a physical layer for the virtual bus network. The main goal of this investigation was to study the performance of transmission medium and the overall performance of the network. We exemplify a Multiple Access Protocol (MAP with Generic Frame Procedure (GFP for transmitting IP network protocol datagram over SDH/SONET. This is a novel method for transmitting MAP with GFP. The protocol adds multi-terminal access capability to an inherently point-to-point link. It enabled the design of seamless networking environments using SDH/SONET as the transmission medium for Metropolitan Area Network (MAN. The new frame mapping protocol is known as Virtual Bus Transport (VBT. The performance of multiple traffic generators in a virtual bus network is of major interest for mobile network provider. We used OMNeT simulation tool to evaluate the result. Through the simulation it proved that the VBT scheduling technique offers better treatment mainly to the higher Qos requirement traffic.

  18. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  19. Steering Stability of a Bus Powered by Natural Gas While Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural gas as bus propellant presupposes the application of a driving unit adjusted to the use of natural gas in addition to the application of a corresponding gas facility. The first part of the paper describes the distinguishing features related to the storage of compressed natural gas tanks as the main carriers of additional mass due to the use of this energy substance for the propulsion of buses, as well as their effect on the structural features of vehicles. The second part of the paper covers the formulation and analysis of differential equations in terms of the steering system’s stability, and the equations depict the motion of the natural gas bus with its structural features, according to the defined models for instances of bus braking with locked front, rear and all wheels.

  20. High Levels Of Bed Occupancy Associated With Increased Inpatient And Thirty-Day Hospital Mortality In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Flemming; Ladelund, Steen; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    High bed occupancy rates have been considered a matter of reduced patient comfort and privacy and an indicator of high productivity for hospitals. Hospitals with bed occupancy rates of above 85 percent are generally considered to have bed shortages. Little attention has been paid to the impact...... of these shortages on patients' outcomes. We analyzed all 2.65 million admissions to Danish hospitals' departments of medicine in the period 1995-2012. We found that high bed occupancy rates were associated with a significant 9 percent increase in rates of in-hospital mortality and thirty-day mortality, compared...... to low bed occupancy rates. Being admitted to a hospital outside of normal working hours or on a weekend or holiday was also significantly associated with increased mortality. The health risks of bed shortages, including mortality, could be better documented as a priority health issue. Resources should...

  1. Occupational burnout and health

    OpenAIRE

    Ahola, Kirsi

    2007-01-01

    Occupational burnout and heath Occupational burnout is assumed to be a negative consequence of chronic work stress. In this study, it was explored in the framework of occupational health psychology, which focusses on psychologically mediated processes between work and health. The objectives were to examine the overlap between burnout and ill health in relation to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases, which are the three commonest disease groups causing...

  2. An assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor dust of e-waste recycling facilities in South Africa: implications for occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafe, Ovokeroye A; Martincigh, Bice S

    2015-09-01

    Workplace exposure to persistent organic pollutants is a concern for human health. This study examined the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the indoor dust from two major e-waste recycling sites and a university electronic equipment repair workshop in Durban, South Africa, in order to evaluate the implication of dust for occupational exposure. The mean ∑(n = 8)PBDEs and ∑(n = 3)PCBs were 20,094 and 235 ng g(-1), respectively. The levels of PBDEs and PCBs obtained in one of the recycling sites (123-27,530 and 161-593 ng g(-1)) were significantly higher than the levels obtained (91-7686 and e-waste facilities are cleaned thoroughly regularly.

  3. NASA's Involvement in Technology Development and Transfer: The Ohio Hybrid Bus Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government and industry cooperative is using advanced power technology in a city transit bus that will offer double the fuel economy, and reduce emissions to one tenth of government standards. The heart of the vehicle's power system is a natural gas fueled generator unit. Power from both the generator and an advanced energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. A unique aspect of the vehicle's design is its use of "super" capacitors for recovery of energy during braking. This is the largest vehicle ever built using this advanced energy recovery technology. This paper describes the project goals and approach, results of its system performance modeling, and the status of the development team's effort.

  4. High-resolution CT in the evaluation of occupational and environmental disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira, M. [National Kinki Central Hospital for Chest Diseases, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-01-01

    CT has an increasing role in the radiologic evaluation of occupational/environmental lung disease. The high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of silicosis, mixed dust pneumoconiosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, graphite pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, talcosis, welder's lung, berylliosis, aluminum lung, and hard metal pneumoconiosis are described. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and lung damage caused by exposure to toxic fumes also are described. HRCT pathologic correlation with each type of pneumoconiosis is focused on. HRCT is useful in achieving an accurate categorization of the parenchymal changes in each type of pneumoconiosis.

  5. High-Average Power Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, David H.; /SLAC; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  6. Analysis of bus width and delay on a fully digital signum nonlinearity chaotic oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-07-29

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of a 3rd order ODE-based chaotic oscillator with signum nonlinearity. A threshold bus width of 12-bits for reliable chaotic behavior is observed, below which the system output becomes periodic. Beyond this threshold, the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is shown to improve up to a peak value at 16-bits and subsequently decrease with increasing bus width. The MLE is also shown to gradually increase with number of introduced internal delay cycles until a peak value at 14 cycles, after which the system loses chaotic properties. Introduced external delay cycles are shown to rotate the attractors in 3-D phase space. Bus width and delay elements can be independently modulated to optimize the system to suit specifications. The experimental results of the system show low area and high performance on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with throughput of 13.35 Gbits/s for a 32-bit implementation.

  7. 荩于ARM的车载CAN总线智能终端设计%Design of Intelligent Terminal of Vehicle-mounted CAN Bus Based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保和

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种以基于ARM9内核的S3C2440微处理器为硬件核心的嵌入式Linux车载CAN总线智能节点的设计方法,详细描述了CAN总线控制器MCP2510的特点以及接口电路,同时给出了嵌入式Linux下的底层驱动程序,最后给出了利用Qt开发的图形用户界面。%An embedded Linux vehicle-mounted CAN bus intelligent node was designed, which took ARM9-based S3C2440 microprocessor as hardware core. The features of CAN bus controller MCP2510 and its interface circuit are in- troduced, an embedded Linux low-level drivers is proposed, and the graphical user interface developed by Qt is put forward.

  8. PCI express bus design of large format array IRFPA high-speed acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zewu; Zheng, Xing; Zeng, Xingxin; Liu, Ziji

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel solution of PCI Express Bus was designed to improve the data transfer rate for large format array infrared imaging acquisition system. In this structure, an embedded PCI Express hard intellectual property (IP) block of Stratix IV GX FPGA was used, and the protocol stack module is totally compliant with PCI Express base specification Gen 2.0 which includes PHY-MAC, Data Link, and transaction layers. In order to communicate with CPU through computer PCIe root port, a pipeline structure was established with two SSRAMs to carry out the function of real-time data process. The DMA mode was adopted for the high-speed data transmission on the PCI Express Bus. Some other control logic parts such as detector drive signal generator - display controller and PCIe configuration module were also designed and introduced in this paper. According to the evaluation, the data transmission speed was up to 5.6Gbps, which means that this system could meet the qualifications of infrared imaging data acquisition. Compared with traditional infrared imaging data acquisition systems, this solution is more integrated and faster, so it is suitable for larger format and higher frame rate of infrared focal plane image acquisition in nowadays and future.

  9. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  10. Concurrent Computational and Dimensional Analyses of Design of Vehicle Floor-Plates for Landmine-Blast Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of military vehicles capable of surviving landmine blast is seldom done using full-scale prototype testing because of the associated prohibitively-high cost, the destructive nature of testing, and the requirements for major large-scale experimental-test facilities and a large crew of engineers committed to the task. Instead, tests of small-scale models are generally employed and the model-based results are scaled up to the full-size vehicle. In these scale-up efforts, various dimensional analyses are used whose establishment and validation requires major experimental testing efforts and different-scale models. In the present work, an approach is proposed within which concurrent and interactive applications of the computational analyses (of landmine detonation and the interaction of detonation products and soil ejecta with the vehicle hull-floor) and the corresponding dimensional analysis are utilized. It is argued that this approach can guide the design of military-vehicle hull-floors which provide the required level of protection to the vehicle occupants under landmine blast attack without introducing unnecessarily high weight to the vehicle. To validate this approach, a combined Eulerian/Lagrangian formulation for landmine detonation and the interaction of detonation products and soil ejecta with the vehicle hull-floor (developed in our previous work) has been utilized along with the experimental results pertaining to small-scale model and full-scale vehicle testing.

  11. Osmotic regulation of transcription in Lactococcus lactis: ionic strength-dependent binding of the BusR repressor to the busA promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Yves; Bouvier, Jean; Gutierrez, Claude

    2007-07-24

    The busA locus of Lactococcus lactis encodes a glycine betaine uptake system. At low osmolarity, the transcription of busA is repressed by the BusR protein, which is responsible for the osmotic inducibility of the busA promoter (busAp). In this work, we investigated the mechanism of the osmo-dependent repression by BusR. We found that BusR binding to the busA promoter is dependent on the ionic strength in vitro. Using a BusR derivative carrying a phosphorylation site and the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme, we showed that these proteins are able to form a stable ternary complex by both binding to the same busAp fragment. The association/dissociation of BusR to the RNA polymerase-busAp complex is strictly correlated to the surrounding ionic strength. Together, these results suggest that during growth at low osmolarity BusR represses transcription from busAp at a step further the recruitment of the RNA polymerase. At high osmolarity, an elevated cytoplasmic ionic strength would dissociate BusR from busAp, resulting in the osmotic induction of the busA operon.

  12. The Effect of Working Conditions to the Health Status in Taxi and Bus Drivers in Canakkale, Turkey; Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Uludag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.

  13. Reduced Order Modeling for Rapid Simulation of Blast Events of a Military Ground Vehicle and Its Occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-12

    event, 0-100ms (blastoff), 800-1000ms (slam-down) Prescribed accelerative vertical motion / PSM Prescribed structural motion was used to model the...motion ( PSM ) file to be input to MADYMO. The deformation of the hull floor in MADYMO is shown in Figure 19. PSM captures the deformation of the...structure in the model, but it does not allow the deformed parts of the model to move with the rest of the vehicle. In other words, the PSM method when

  14. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  15. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  16. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  17. The tzero electric sports car : how electric vehicles can achieve both high performance and high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.N.; Gage, T.B. [AC Propulsion, San Dimas, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The development of a high-performance electric sports car by AC Propulsion was described along with a status report on the progress in developing the product-certified version. The development of the tzero car began in 1996. In-use testing and safety certification of prototypes is currently underway. The tzero is powered by a high-performance induction motor operated at 37 per cent higher peak current than allowed in a standard system since periods of peak power are limited to only a few seconds. The car, which can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 4.1 seconds, is considered to be one of the most energy-efficient cars on the road. Since the tzero will likely be sold without subsidy and since the market size for the tzero is expected to be small, in the order of 1000 units per year, it will have to be sold at a high enough price to cover the costs of small-volume production. AC Propulsion is hopeful that it may even be the first electric vehicle to be sold at a profit. Its technology and image are expected to present examples for other electric vehicles. The paper also included a comprehensive technical description of the car and its systems, such as the power electronics unit, traction converter, charger, auxiliary power supply, 12V battery, recharge interface, battery pack, battery modules and powertrain control. 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  18. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  19. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed.

  20. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  1. Lessons learned in high frequency data transmission design: ATLAS strips bus tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopke, J.; Fadeyev, V.; Grillo, A. A.; Lin, B.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Nielsen, J.; Phillips, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sullivan, S.; Volk, J.; Wastie, R.; Weidberg, T.

    2017-01-01

    Requirements of HEP experiments lead to highly integrated systems with many electrical, mechanical and thermal constraints. A complex performance optimisation is therefore required. High-speed data transmission lines are designed using copper-polyimide flexible bus tapes rather than cable harnesses to minimise radiation length. Methods to improve the signal integrity of point-to-point links and multi-drop configurations in an ultra-low-mass system are described. FEA calculations are an essential guide to the optimisation of a tape design which supports data rates of 640 Mbps for point-to-point links over a length of up to 1.4 m, as well as 160 Mbps for multi-drop configuration. The designs were validated using laboratory measurements of S-parameters and direct bit error ratio tests.

  2. Lessons Learned in High Frequency Data Transmission Design: ATLAS Strips Bus Tape

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, Jens; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Requirements of HEP experiments lead to highly integrated systems with many electrical, mechanical and thermal constraints. A complex performance optimisation is therefore required. High speed data transmission lines are designed using copper-polyimide flexible bus tapes rather than cable harnesses to minimize radiation length. Methods to improve the signal integrity of point-to-point links and multi-drop configurations in an ultra-low-mass system are described. FEA calculations are an essential guide to the optimisation which allow data rates of 640 Mbps for point-to-point links over a length of up to 1.4m, as well as 160 Mbps for multi-drop configuration. The designs were validated using laboratory measurements of S-parameters and direct BER tests.

  3. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1994. Twenty-seventh annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). Annual reports for 1994 were received from a total of 303 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 303 licensees indicated that 152,028 individuals were monitored, 79,780 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 24,740 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 15% decrease from the 1993 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem) for 1994. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. In 1994, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 198 person-cSv (person-rem). This represents a 18% decrease from the 1993 value of 242 person-cSv (person-rem). The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 327 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 131 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 18,178 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1994, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.28 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem).

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Construction and Operation of New Vehicle Maintenance Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Buchloe dactyloides). Other common grasses include tumble grass (Schedonnardus paniculatus) and three-awn (Aristida fendleriana and A. longiseta...prairie are scarlet globe mallow (Spaeralcea coccinea), prickly pear (Opuntia macrorhiza), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), and snakeweed...tridecemlineatus), fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochragaster). Common lagomorphs

  5. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  6. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  7. How would increasing seat belt use affect the number of killed or seriously injured light vehicle occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Alena

    2016-03-01

    The expected effects of increasing seat belt use on the number of killed or seriously injured (KSI) light vehicle occupants have been estimated for three scenarios of increased seat belt use in Norway, taking into account current seat belt use, the effects of seat belts and differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers. The effects of seat belts on fatality and injury risk were investigated in a meta-analysis that is based on 24 studies from 2000 or later. The results indicate that seat belts reduce both fatal and non-fatal injuries by 60% among front seat occupants and by 44% among rear seat occupants. Both results are statistically significant. Seat belt use among rear seat occupants was additionally found to about halve fatality risk among belted front seat occupants in a meta-analysis that is based on six studies. Based on an analysis of seat belt wearing rates among crash involved and non-crash involved drivers in Norway it is estimated that unbelted drivers have 8.3 times the fatal crash risk and 5.2 times the serious injury crash risk of belted drivers. The large differences in crash risk are likely to be due to other risk factors that are common among unbelted drivers such as drunk driving and speeding. Without taking into account differences in crash risk between belted and unbelted drivers, the estimated effects of increasing seat belt use are likely to be biased. When differences in crash risk are taken into account, it is estimated that the annual numbers of KSI front seat occupants in light vehicles in Norway could be reduced by 11.3% if all vehicles had seat belt reminders (assumed seat belt wearing rate 98.9%), by 17.5% if all light vehicles had seat belt interlocks (assumed seat belt wearing rate 99.7%) and by 19.9% if all front seat occupants of light vehicles were belted. Currently 96.6% of all (non-crash involved) front seat occupants are belted. The effect on KSI per percentage increase of seat belt use increases with increasing

  8. The high current bus-bars of the LHC from conception to manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Belova, L; Perinet-Marquet, J-L; Urpin, C

    2006-01-01

    The main magnets of the LHC are series-connected electrically in different excitation circuits by means of superconducting bus-bars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting bus-bars consist of a superconducting cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper section all along length. The function of the copper section is essentially to provide an alternative path for the magnet current in case the superconducting cable loses its superconductivity and returns to normal state because of a transient system disturbance or normal zone propagation coming from the neighboring magnets. When a superconducting bus-bar quenches to normal state its temperature must always stay below a safe values of about 100 ° C while the copper is conducting. With regard to that, a quench signal is initiated, which in turn triggers the ramping down of the current from 13000 A to 0....

  9. Design of intelligent bus scheduling based on internet of things and passenger flow estimation%基于物联网与客流估计的智能公交调度设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓莉

    2013-01-01

    For the sake of bus service efficiency, the intelligent bus scheduling system based on internet of things is proposed. The bus vehicles' positioning and monitoring are implemented by RFID, and every route bus waiting passengers' number gathering by platform subsystem. The bus vehicles' information and waiting passengers' number for every route bus are transmit to bus monitoring and scheduling center by wireless sensor network. The center processes and analyzes the gathering data, and releases the bus information to the display system of the platform for passengers view, and intelligently schedule bus vehicles according to the station's passenger data. The intelligent bus scheduling system may adapt to passenger flow, and make bus service efficiency and intelligence.%为了提高公交服务效率,提出了基于物联网的智能公交调度系统.系统采用RFID技术实现公交车辆的定位与监控,并通过站台子系统采集站点各路公交车候车乘客数,无线传感网将采集到的车辆信息和站点各路次候车乘客数传输到公交监控调度中心,公交监控调度中心进行数据处理和分析,将公交车辆信息发布到站点显示系统供乘客浏览,并根据各路次各站点乘客的实时数据智能地在调度公交车辆.公交智能调度系统可以适应客流变化,实现公交运营的高效化、智能化.

  10. Study on the Injury Criterion of Occupants in the Event of a Frontal Collision of Bus%营运大客车正面碰撞乘员伤害的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福军; 王青春; 代伟良; 谢熠萌

    2015-01-01

    客车发生正面碰撞事故约占客车碰撞事故的50%~60%。利用LS-DYNA软件,建立了包括假人、安全带和安全气囊在内的大客车车体有限元模型,对不同速度下营运大客车的正面碰撞特性进行了模拟仿真计算,分析了无任何保护措施、佩戴安全带及佩戴安全带且安全气囊起爆三种事故形态下乘员头部HPC值、胸部压缩量和大腿骨轴向接触力等伤害值。研究结果表明,安全带对于驾驶员的保护意义重大,为营运大客车乘员保护设计以及合理制定营运大客车正面碰撞法规提供数据参考。%Passenger car head-on collision accident accounts for about 50~60% of all passenger car acci-dent. Firstly, the finite element model of bus body with the dummy, seat belt and airbag was created, and non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA was used to carry out the simulation, then the injury criteri-ons of occupants were calculated and compared for the bus, bus with seat belt and bus with seat belt and airbag, related to the head performance criterion (HPC), the thorax compression criterion (ThCC) and the femur force criterion (FFC). The results show that the driver's seat belt for the protection of driver is signifi-cant. The study was useful for the occupants’ protection design of bus and the introduction of legislation for frontal collision of bus.

  11. The research of road and vehicle information extraction algorithm based on high resolution remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Cao, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution and temporal resolution of satellite imagery also have a huge increase. Meanwhile, High-spatial-resolution images are becoming increasingly popular for commercial applications. The remote sensing image technology has broad application prospects in intelligent traffic. Compared with traditional traffic information collection methods, vehicle information extraction using high-resolution remote sensing image has the advantages of high resolution and wide coverage. This has great guiding significance to urban planning, transportation management, travel route choice and so on. Firstly, this paper preprocessed the acquired high-resolution multi-spectral and panchromatic remote sensing images. After that, on the one hand, in order to get the optimal thresholding for image segmentation, histogram equalization and linear enhancement technologies were applied into the preprocessing results. On the other hand, considering distribution characteristics of road, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) were used to suppress water and vegetation information of preprocessing results. Then, the above two processing result were combined. Finally, the geometric characteristics were used to completed road information extraction. The road vector extracted was used to limit the target vehicle area. Target vehicle extraction was divided into bright vehicles extraction and dark vehicles extraction. Eventually, the extraction results of the two kinds of vehicles were combined to get the final results. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has a high precision for the vehicle information extraction for different high resolution remote sensing images. Among these results, the average fault detection rate was about 5.36%, the average residual rate was about 13.60% and the average accuracy was approximately 91.26%.

  12. Bus coordination holding control for transit hubs under APTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jing; ZHAO Ming

    2009-01-01

    To increase the passenger transferring efficiency, the bus coordination holding control for transit hubs,hich is as an important dynamic dispatching method for improving the service level of transit hubs, was studied in the framework of bus coordination dispatching mode. Firstly, the bus coordination holding control flow was studied based on Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) environment. Then a control model was presented to optimize the bus vehicle holding time, and a genetic algorithm was designed as the solving method. In the end, an example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and the algorithm.

  13. Manicurists and pedicurists – Occupation group at high risk of work-related dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years occupational skin and respiratory diseases have been more and more frequently diagnosed in small production and service enterprises. The awareness of occupational exposure and its possible health effects among their workers and employers is not sufficient. Beauty salons, in addition to hairdressers and beauticians, frequently employ manicurists and pedicurists. The workers often happen to perform various activities interchangeably. The health status of beauty salons workers has rarely been assessed. The most numerous reports concern hairdressers. In this occupational group, the occurrence of skin lesions induced by wet work and frequent allergy to metals, hair dyes and bleaches and perm solutions has been emphasized, while information about health hazards for being a manicurist or pedicurist in beauty salons is seldom reported. The aim of this paper is to present professional activities (manicure and pedicure, methods of nail stylization, occupational exposure and literature data on work-related adverse health effects in manicurists and pedicurists. Wet work and exposure to solvents, fragrances, resins, metals, gum, detergents may cause skin disorders (contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, photodermatoses, conjunctivitis, anaphylaxis, respiratory tract diseases, including asthma. The discussed occupations are also associated with the increased incidence of bacterial (particularly purulent, viral and fungal infections and cancer. Med Pr 2013;64(4:579–591

  14. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  15. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  16. Chronic intermittent high altitude exposure, occupation, and body mass index in workers of mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenamanova, Marina K; Kochkorova, Firuza A; Tsivinskaya, Tatyana A; Vinnikov, Denis; Aikimbaev, Kairgeldy

    2014-09-01

    The obesity and overweight rates in population exposed to chronic intermittent exposure to high altitudes are not well studied. The aim of the retrospective study was to evaluate whether there are differences in body mass index in different occupation groups working in intermittent shifts at mining industry at high altitude: 3800-4500 meters above sea level. Our study demonstrated that obesity and overweight are common in workers of high altitude mining industry exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. The obesity rate was lowest among miners as compared to blue- and white-collar employees (9.5% vs. 15.6% and 14.7%, p=0.013). Obesity and overweight were associated with older age, higher rates of increased blood pressure (8.79% and 5.72% vs. 1.92%), cholesterol (45.8% and 45.6% vs. 32.8%) and glucose (4.3% and 1.26% vs. 0.57%) levels as compared to normal body mass index category (pmining industry exposed to intermittent high-altitude hypoxia. Therefore, assessment and monitoring of body mass index seems to be essential in those who live and work at high altitudes to supply the correct nutrition, modify risk factors, and prevent related disorders.

  17. Occupational status moderates the association between current perceived stress and high blood pressure: evidence from the IPC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernik, Emmanuel; Pannier, Bruno; Czernichow, Sébastien; Nabi, Hermann; Hanon, Olivier; Simon, Tabassome; Simon, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Frédérique; Bean, Kathy; Consoli, Silla M; Danchin, Nicolas; Lemogne, Cédric

    2013-03-01

    Although lay beliefs commonly relate high blood pressure (BP) to psychological stress exposure, research findings are conflicting. This study examined the association between current perceived stress and high BP, and explored the potential impact of occupational status on this association. Resting BP was measured in 122 816 adults (84 994 men), aged ≥30 years (mean age±standard deviation: 46.8±9.9 years), without history of cardiovascular and renal disease and not on either psychotropic or antihypertensive drugs. High BP was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg. Perceived stress in the past month was measured with the 4-item perceived stress scale. A total of 33 154 participants (27.0%) had high BP (151±14/90±9 mm Hg). After adjustment for all variables except occupational status, perceived stress was associated with high BP (odds ratio [OR] for a 5-point increase: 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.09). This association was no longer significant after additional adjustment for occupational status (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.99-1.04). There was a significant interaction (P<0.001) between perceived stress and occupational status in relation to BP: perceived stress was negatively associated with high BP among individuals of high occupational status (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87-0.96), but positively associated among those of low status (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.17) or unemployed (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.03-1.24). Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. The association between current perceived stress and BP depends on occupational status. This interaction may account for previous conflicting results and warrants further studies to explore its underlying mechanisms.

  18. Effects of self stretching on pain and musculoskeletal symptom of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed on a scale of numeric rating scale (NRS) which is divided by 10. Ergonomic posture assessment was conducted using the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). Self-stretching exercise was performed for 4 weeks by the bus drivers who suffered from neck and shoulder pain. [Results] Musculoskeletal symptoms were present in the order of shoulder, neck, lower back and lower extremities. Compared with other jobs, the final score, and the action level of bus drivers were very high, showing 57.6% of action levels 3 and 4. A statistically significant decrease of pain was shown after the self-stretching intervention. There was also a significant decrease of musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders after the self-stretching exercise. [Conclusion] Performing stretching for musculoskeletal symptoms had a positive influence on the symptoms and reduced pain.

  19. The Application of CAN bus for communications between the Electric vehicle's BMS manage system and charge picket%CAN总线在电动汽车BMS系统与充电桩之间通信的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建敏; 高云飞

    2012-01-01

    Electric vehicle is one of our China strategy focus,the State Grid Corporation launched this active constrction of electric vehicle charging station.State Grid will follow the main plug charging,giving the concentration of charge,the uniform distribution as the basic business model for electric vehicle charging station to speed up the layout and construction.Way or whether it is insertet fully concentrated charge,without charging intelligent,the popularity of electric vehicles will not be implemented,and BMS and charging pile,or other charging device to achieve seamless connectivity is a necessary condition for charging intelligent.In this paper,a design scheme of communication between BMS and charging pile is proposed.BMS using CANBUS achieve the communication with the charging pile.Introduced CAN communications hardware and software design.After repeated testing,the communication between BMS and charging pile was implemented.%电动汽车是我国新能源战略重点之一,国家电网公司为此积极展开电动汽车充电站的建设。国家电网将按照换电为主、插充为辅,集中充电、统一配送为基本商业模式,加快电动汽车充换电站的布局和建设。不论是插充方式还是集中充电,电动汽车的普及都离不开充电智能化,而BMS与充电桩或其他充电设备的无缝连接正是实现充电智能化的必要条件。文章提出了BMS管理系统与充电桩之间的通信设计方案,利用CANBUS实现BMS管理系统与充电桩的通讯,介绍了CAN通讯的硬件设计和软件设计,并经过与充电桩的反复测试,实现了BMS管理系统与充电桩的通信。

  20. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  1. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  2. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  3. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  4. Computer-aided human factors analysis of the industrial vehicle driver cabin to improve occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushik Balaji, K; Alphin, M S

    2016-09-01

    Industrial vehicle operator's solace and safety have gained significant consideration because of the increment in occupational health issues and accidents. The purpose of this work was to amend the design of the excavator driver cabin through human factor analysis. Thirty operators of excavators who were serving as subjects, were interviewed and identified that their wrist, upper arm and trunk were at a higher risk level while operating. Photograph of the operators was taken and the work environment was simulated. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) and REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) scoring was made on different simulated work posture of operators using CATIA V5 and UEAT1.8 softwares. Based on overall RULA and REBA scoring, it was found nearly 46% of the operators were operating at a high hazard level and needed investigation immediately, whereas 35% of operators were at a medium risk level and only 19% of operators were operating safely. The individual RULA and REBA scoring proved prevalence of discomfort in wrist, upper arm and trunk while operating. Identifying the optimized conditions to hold the control levers will help to reduce the operator strain. From the design optimization in excavators, the optimal conditions to hold the control lever is found to be 40cm for popliteal height, 60.51 cm for distance from elbow to ground and 15.07º for reach angle from the seat reference point.

  5. Attitude and Translation Control of a Solar Sail Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the ability to control the attitude and translation degrees-of-freedom of a solar sail vehicle by changing its center of gravity. A movement of the spacecraft s center of mass causes solar-pressure force to apply a torque to the vehicle. At the compact core of the solar-sail vehicle lies the spacecraft bus which is a large fraction of the total vehicle mass. In this concept, the bus is attached to the spacecraft by two single degree-of-freedom linear tracks. This allows relative movement of the bus in the sail plane. At the null position, the resulting solar pressure applies no torque to the vehicle. But any deviation of the bus from the null creates an offset between the spacecraft center of mass and center of solar radiation pressure, resulting in a solar-pressure torque on the vehicle which changes the vehicle attitude. Two of the three vehicle degrees of freedom can be actively controlled in this manner. The third, the roll about the sunline, requires a low-authority vane/propulsive subsystem. Translation control of the vehicle is achieved by directing the solar-pressure-induced force in the proper inertial direction. This requires attitude control. Attitude and translation degrees-of-freedom are therefore coupled. A guidance law is proposed, which allows the vehicle to stationkeep at an appropriate point on the inertially-rotating Sun-Earth line. Power requirements for moving the bus are minimal. Extensive software simulations have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept.

  6. Navigation Upgrades to the National Deep Submergence Facility Vehicles D.S.V. Alvin, Jason 2, and the DSL-120A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, L. L.; Kinsey, J. C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Taylor, C. L.; Bowen, A. D.; Walden, B. B.; Fornari, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    We report on recently completed enhancements to the navigation systems employed on the 4500m submersible Alvin and the 6500m ROV Jason 2 and DSL-120A sonar system of the UNOLS National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Over the last two years we have significantly improved the accuracy and update rate of the six degree-of-freedom vehicle position and velocity navigation data available for these vehicles, thus improving the quantitative accuracy of acoustic surveys, optical surveys, and sampling operations. The navigation upgrades have also enabled improvements in the closed-loop dynamic positioning accuracy of the Jason 2 ROV, thus improving the vehicle tracking precision during survey and sampling operations. We have sought to employ more a uniform suite of navigation instruments, navigation data processing software systems, and data logging format standards for NDSF vehicles to improve the utility and ease-of-use of data by science users. Improved navigation instruments deployed on each of these vehicles in 2001 and 2002 include the following: (a) A 1200 KHz Bottom Lock Doppler Sonar (RDInstruments Inc.) providing three dimensional vehicle velocity information with respect to the ocean floor and the water column at an update rate of up to 10 Hz, providing a single-ping beam-velocity error standard deviation of 0.3% for a nominal advance velocity of 1 meter/sec. (b) A north-seeking fiber-optic gyroscope (IXSEA Inc.) providing true-north heading, pitch, and roll with a rated accuracy of 0.1 degree. Improved navigation data processing software systems deployed on these vehicles in 2001 and 2002 includes Dvlnav, an interactive navigation program developed at JHU for precision navigation of underwater vehicles and submersibles. DVLNAV employs a variety of sensors including bottom lock Doppler sonar, long baseline (LBL) acoustic navigation, gyro compasses, magnetic compasses, depth sensors, altimeters, and (when

  7. X-ray Spectroscopy and Diffraction at HPCAT - An Integrated High Pressure Synchrotron Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Hemley, R. J.; Hausermann, D.; Hu, M.; Meng, Y.; Somayazulu, M.

    2002-05-01

    High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) is a new facility dedicated for high-pressure research using the high-energy synchrotron beams at the Advanced Photon Source for in-situ investigations of crystallographic, elastic, rheologic, electronic, and magnetic properties of solids, liquids, and amorphous materials at high P and simultaneous high T or cryogenic T. The HPCAT high-brilliance undulator beamline is optimized for a full range of high-pressure x-ray spectroscopy. For instance, nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measures phonon densities of state of Fe-containing samples that yield valuable information on acoustic wave velocity, elasticity, elastic anisotropy, and thermodynamic quantities (vibrational energy, heat capacity, entropy, Debye temperature, and Gr\\x81neisen parameter) of materials at high pressures. Nuclear resonant x-ray forward scattering measures M”ssbauer spectra in the time domain that yield information on magnetism, site occupancy, oxidation states, and the Lamb-M”ssbauer coefficient of Fe. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measures element-specific electronic transitions. The medium-resolution (10-100 meV) non-resonant x-ray inelastic scattering measures electronic energies and dispersions that yield information on plasmons, excitons, electronic band structures, and chemical bondings, and high-resolution (<10 meV) inelastic scattering measures phonon dispersions that yield information on acoustic wave velocity and elasticity as a function of crystallographic orientation. X-ray emission spectroscopy yields information on valence electrons and spin states of d-electrons. A diamond branch monochromator diverts a full-intensity undulator monochromatic beam at energies up to 35 keV for full-time x-ray diffraction studies of crystallography, phase transitions, and equations of state in a side station without affecting the simultaneous operation of the main undualtor beamline. The HPCAT bending-magnet beamline is divided into two

  8. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    The project proceeded generally according to schedule, with most of the work directed at procurement of materials, initiation of equipment fabrication by contractors, and development of educational materials. The first vehicle retrofit was completed in March 1995, and prepared for delivery to DOE`s Energy Technology Engineering Center.

  9. Simulation and Improvement of Safety Performances of a Certain School Bus%某专用校车顶部安全性能仿真与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良模; 陈东益; 袁刘凯; 张遵智; 张汤赟

    2012-01-01

    为提高专用校车顶部安全性,对某专用校车在翻滚事故中的顶部结构对乘员的保护作用进行了研究.利用Hypermesh与Hypercrash软件建立其车身有限元模型.针对碰撞包含几何非线性、材料非线性和边界非线性的特点,选择并定义了合适的非线性材料和壳单元,进行了焊接及其他连接方式的模拟.利用RADIOSS求解器,进行校车翻滚保护仿真及乘用车顶部抗压强度仿真.结果表明:在翻滚保护仿真中,该车车身结构能承受标准要求的1.5倍整备质量载荷,在顶部抗压强度仿真中,施力板下表面侵入量为46 mm,满足标准要求.参照有关国际标准,对A柱及横梁结构进行改进设计,使单根横梁的最大承载能力达到64700 N,提高了该车的翻滚保护性能.%To improve the roof safety of a certain school bus, the occupant protection performances of a certain school bus roof structure in rollover accidents are studied here. A durability finite element model of the bus is built by using Hypermesh and Hypercrash. As automotive collision contains the characteristics of geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity and boundary nonlinearity, the appropriate nonlinear materials and shell elements are selected and defined,and the spots and other connections are simulated. The rollover protection and roof crush resistance simulation are carried out by RADIOSS. The results show that the body structure is able to withstand 1. 5 times of the gross vehicle weight of the standard in roll-over protection simulation, and the intrusion distance is 46 mm in roof crush resistance simulation. Both simulation results meet the requirements of standards. Referring to related international advanced standards, the design of A-pillar and crossbeam is improved, the maximum bearing capacity of one single beam reaches 64 700 N, and the roll-over protection performances of the school bus are improved.

  10. Road vehicle-induced vibration control of microelectronics facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Anxin; Xu Youlin; Li Hui

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid control platform is investigated in this paper to mitigate microvibrations to a group of vibrationsensitive equipment installed in a microelectronics facility subject to nearby road vehicle-induced horizontal and vertical ground motions. The hybrid control platform, on which microelectronics equipment is installed, is mounted on a building floor through a series of passive mounts and controlled by hydraulic actuators in both horizontal and vertical directions. The control platform is an elastic body with significant bending modes of vibration, and a sub-optimal control algorithm is used to manipulate the hydraulic actuators with actuator dynamics included. The finite element model and the equations of motion of the coupled platform-building system are then established in the absolute coordinate to facilitate the feedback control and performance evaluation of the platform. The horizontal and vertical ground vibrations at the base of the building induced by nearby moving road vehicles are assumed to be stationary random processes. A typical three-story microelectronics building is selected as a case study. The case study shows that the vertical vibration of the microelectronics building is higher than the horizontal. The use of a hybrid control platform can effectively reduce both horizontal and vertical microvibrations of the microelectronics equipment to the level which satisfies the stringent microscale velocity requirement specified in the Bolt Beranek & Newman (BBN) criteria.

  11. Occupational and environmental hazard assessments for the isolation, purification and toxicity testing of cyanobacterial toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Wasantha A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyanobacteria can produce groups of structurally and functionally unrelated but highly potent toxins. Cyanotoxins are used in multiple research endeavours, either for direct investigation of their toxicologic properties, or as functional analogues for various biochemical and physiological processes. This paper presents occupational safety guidelines and recommendations for personnel working in field, laboratory or industrial settings to produce and use purified cyanotoxins and toxic cyanobacteria, from bulk harvesting of bloom material, mass culture of laboratory isolates, through routine extraction, isolation and purification. Oral, inhalational, dermal and parenteral routes are all potential occupational exposure pathways during the various stages of cyanotoxin production and application. Investigation of toxicologic or pharmacologic properties using in vivo models may present specific risks if radiolabelled cyanotoxins are employed, and the potential for occupational exposure via the dermal route is heightened with the use of organic solvents as vehicles. Inter- and intra-national transport of living cyanobacteria for research purposes risks establishing feral microalgal populations, so disinfection of culture equipment and destruction of cells by autoclaving, incineration and/or chlorination is recommended in order to prevent viable cyanobacteria from escaping research or production facilities.

  12. Paternal occupation and anencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

    1990-03-01

    It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

  13. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies ...

  14. Development and Evaluation of an Economic-Driving Assistance Program for Transit Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoxin Han

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on development and evaluation of an economic-driving assistance program for transit vehicles (EDTV which can minimize energy consumption, air pollution emission of buses, and improve the level of service of transit system as well. Taking advantage of the latest advances in information and communication technologies, the EDTV system can provide bus drivers with optimal recommended bus holding times at near-side bus stops and dynamic bus speed to adapt to the real-time traffic control plan at downstream intersections. In order to address the impacts of the stochastic variation of bus dwell time, the total link between adjacent intersections is divided into three parts: upstream of bus stop part; bus stop part; and downstream of bus stop part. The methods for calculating recommended parameters, including bus holding time and bus speed in each of the three parts are proposed based on real-time bus status and signal status at downstream intersections. A VISSIM-based simulation platform was designed and used for simulating and evaluating the proposed EDTV system. Extensive experimental analyses have shown that the proposed EDTV system can improve the performance of a transit system in terms of reducing fuel consumption, air pollution emissions and level of service of the transit system.

  15. High Speed Lunar Navigation for Crewed and Remotely Piloted Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L.; Allan, M.; To, V.; Utz, H.; Wojcikiewicz, W.; Chautems, C.

    2010-01-01

    Increased navigation speed is desirable for lunar rovers, whether autonomous, crewed or remotely operated, but is hampered by the low gravity, high contrast lighting and rough terrain. We describe lidar based navigation system deployed on NASA's K10 autonomous rover and to increase the terrain hazard situational awareness of the Lunar Electric Rover crew.

  16. Excessive sleepiness, sleep hygiene, and coping strategies among night bus drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Uma Maheswari; Chhabria, Mamta S.; Rao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep disruption and excessive sleepiness are the known consequences of shift work. The recent spate of night-time road and air accidents, with some being directly attributed to driver sleepiness prompted us to undertake this study. Aims: To screen for excessive sleepiness, coping practices, and post-shift sleep hygiene in night bus drivers. Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out on night bus drivers of a public transport organization in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Bus drivers driving for ≥8 h at night were screened with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a prevalidated shift work questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the compiled data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: One hundred and eighty bus drivers aged 22–63 years were screened. Excessive Sleepiness: Although only 2 (1.1%) drivers scored above the cutoff on ESS, 10 (5.6%) and 103 (57.2%) drivers admitted to feeling sleepy during daytime and night driving respectively. None of the drivers admitted to causing accidents related to sleepiness. The coping strategies for nocturnal sleepiness included consuming coffee/tea (16.7%), chewing tobacco (12.8%), smoking (6.1%), and walking (3.9%). Post-Shift Sleep Practices: Post-shift sleep duration ranged between 1 h and 10 h. Twenty-six (14.4%) and 16 (8.9%) drivers had difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, respectively, while 9 (5%) reported frequent awakening during daytime sleep. Conclusion and Implications: This study has demonstrated a high incidence of nocturnal sleepiness and daytime sleep disruption among night bus drivers, thus necessitating the need for education about shift work and alertness testing among shift workers in critical professions. PMID:28194081

  17. Occupation and cancer in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, L.; Bagga, S.; Bevan, R.; Brown, T.P.; Cherrie, J.W.; Holmes, P.; Fortunato, L.; Slack, R.; Van Tongeren, M.; Young, C.; Hutchings, S.J. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13, 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).

  18. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  19. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An automated identification and integration method has been developed to investigate in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high time resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013–2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number, black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX; and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg−1 and 7.7 × 1014 kg−1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25% contributed significantly to total fleet emissions; 95, 93, 76, and 75% for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter. However, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutants mixtures may be better developed by

  20. Occupational exposure and urological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Wiese, Andreas; Assennato, Giorgio; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-02-01

    Occupational exposure is definitely a major cause of cancer. In the field of urology, the urinary bladder is the most important target. A classical cause of bladder cancer is exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines, especially benzidine and beta-naphthylamine. Such exposures were related to work places in the chemical industry, implying production and processing of classical aromatic amines, and in the rubber industry. Occupational bladder cancer has also been observed in dyers, painters and hairdressers. Even some occupations with much lower exposures to carcinogenic aromatic amines, like coke oven workers or workers in the rubber industry after the ban on beta-naphthylamine, are at risk. In these occupations, exposure to complex mixtures of substances containing combustion products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) or nitrosamines is common. Renal cell cancer has been observed as an occupational disease in cases of very high exposure to trichloroethylene having led to narcotic or prenarcotic symptoms. Occupationally related cancers of the prostate or the testes appear currently not relevant.

  1. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  2. Springfield Processing Plant* (A Hypothetical Facility) SPP, Entry Control Point and Vehicle Gate Access Control Post Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Gregory A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This hypothetical order provides the requirements and instructions for the Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Vehicle Gate and Entry Control Point (ECP) in the perimeter access building. The purpose of this post is to prevent the theft, sabotage or diversion of nuclear material (NM), control access and exit at the protected area, and to respond to emergencies according the SPP Guard Force (GF) Contingency Plan and as directed by a Guard Force Supervisor.

  3. The U.S. Combat and Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fleets: Issues and Suggestions for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    lim- iting technical risk are threefold. First, vetronics, the ground vehicle equivalent of avionics , provides a data bus and data bus standards that...Anywhere!” Huntsville, Ala ., August 19, 2010b. These generators are integrated into the vehicle transmission. 9 “DRS and Allison Transmission Announce...Activity, Huntsville, Ala ., June 15, 2010; John Matsumura, Ran- dall Steeb, John Gordon IV, Thomas J. Herbert, Russell W. Glenn, and Paul Steinberg

  4. The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Mild positive affect has been shown in the psychological literature to improve cognitive skills of creative problem-solving and systematic thinking. Individual preferred music listening offers opportunity for improved positive affect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preferred music listening on state-mood and cognitive performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Twenty-four professional computer information systems developers (CISD) from a North American IT company participated in a 3-week study with a music/no music/music weekly design. During the music weeks, participants listened to their preferred music "when they wanted, as they wanted." Self-reports of State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect, and Cognitive Performance were measured throughout the 3 weeks. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in both state-mood and cognitive performance scores. "High-cognitive demand" is a relative term given that challenges presented to individuals may occur on a cognitive continuum from need for focus and selective attention to systematic analysis and creative problem-solving. The findings and recommendations have important implications for music therapists in their knowledge of the effect of music on emotion and cognition, and, as well, have important implications for music therapy consultation to organizations.

  5. Occupational Experience, Mobility, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane

    In this paper we present how occupational tenure relates to wage growth and occupational mobility in Danish data. We show that the Danish data produces qualitatively similar results as found in U.S. data with respect to an increase in average wages when experience in an occupation increases....... In a sample of full time private employed, the first five years of experience in an occupation increases average wages with 8% to 15%, conditional on rm and industry tenure. We further show that the probability of switching occupation declines with experience in the occupation and that the declining hazard...... also is true for workers switching occupation and rm. After ve years of experience in an occupation the average probability of switching any type of occupation, including occupation and rm switches, has fallen from 25% to 12%....

  6. Simulation of the Control Strategy for an Electric Bus with Motorized Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liqiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to simulate the running state of the bus as real as possible and verify the correctness of electric bus control system that is developing, which is good for reducing the development cycle and cost for enterprise. The vehicle dynamics model is built and the actual vehicle driving condition is simulated in AMESim and the vehicle control strategy is established in Simulink. The co-simulation platform is used to simulate the actual running state of the bus with the action of the control system, which provides the reference for subsequent real vehicle test.

  7. Simulation of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological seat damper for vehicle occupant blast protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Murugan, Muthuvel; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates a lumped-parameter human body model which includes lower leg in seated posture within a quarter-car model for blast injury assessment simulation. To simulate the shock acceleration of the vehicle, mine blast analysis was conducted on a generic land vehicle crew compartment (sand box) structure. For the purpose of simulating human body dynamics with non-linear parameters, a physical model of a lumped-parameter human body within a quarter car model was implemented using multi-body dynamic simulation software. For implementing the control scheme, a skyhook algorithm was made to work with the multi-body dynamic model by running a co-simulation with the control scheme software plug-in. The injury criteria and tolerance levels for the biomechanical effects are discussed for each of the identified vulnerable body regions, such as the relative head displacement and the neck bending moment. The desired objective of this analytical model development is to study the performance of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological damper that can be used for vehicle-occupant protection technology enhancements to the seat design in a mine-resistant military vehicle.

  8. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  9. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  10. [Somnology and occupational safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B

    2013-01-01

    Somnology has saved up enough great volume of objective knowledge of negative effects of a lack of the sleep, the raised drowsiness and sleep pathologies for health of people and occupational safety to formulate this knowledge in the accessible form for a society and acceptance by the state of acts and the organizational actions preventing these negative effects. The necessity of the salvation of these problems has led to occurrence of a new area of occupational sleep medicine, which problem is the analysis of influence of physiological mechanisms ofa sleep and functioning circadian systems on efficiency of professional activity and health of people. For a designation of the various items causing infringements of professional work use the term fatique. It is believed that fatigue development is connected with three major factors: deficiency of a sleep - defined by duration of previous wakefulness and a sleep, time-of-day and at last, task-related factors. Within the limits of approaches developed the occupational sleep medicine had been formulated the Fatigue Risk Management System. In the Russian literature there is a lack of the information on influence of mechanisms of a sleep on occupational safety, therefore the review will be interesting to a wide range of the experts dealing with the analysis of the human factor, health and an occupational safety

  11. 75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part II Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 213 and 238 Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol....

  12. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor

  13. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and range science

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low fligh...

  14. High Exposure Facility Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Gregory L.; Stithem, Arthur R.; Murphy, Mark K.; Smith, Alex K.

    2008-02-12

    The High Exposure Facility is a collimated high-level gamma irradiator that is located in the basement of the 318 building. It was custom developed by PNNL back in 1982 to meet the needs for high range radiological instrument calibrations and dosimeter irradiations. At the time no commercially available product existed that could create exposure rates up to 20,000 R/h. This document is intended to pass on the design criteria that was employed to create this unique facility, while maintaining compliance with ANSI N543-1974, "General Safety Standard for Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MeV."

  15. Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Improved Vehicle Safety, Fuel Efficiency and CO2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Singhai, Mrigandra; Desai, Rahul; Sam, Srimanta; Patra, Pradip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Global warming and green house gas emissions are the major issues worldwide and their impacts are clearly visible as a record high temperatures, rising sea, and severe `flooding and droughts'. Motor vehicles considered as a major contributor on global warming due to its green house gas emissions. Hence, the automobile industries are under tremendous pressure from government and society to reduce green house gas emission to maximum possible extent. In present work, Dual Phase steel with boron as microalloying is manufactured using thermo-mechanical treatment during hot rolling. Dual phase steel with boron microalloying improved strength by near about 200 MPa than dual phase steel without boron. The boron added dual phase steel can be used for manufacturing stronger and a lighter vehicle which is expected to perform positively on green house gas emissions. The corrosion resistance behavior is also improved with boron addition which would further increase the life cycle of the vehicle even under corrosive atmosphere.

  16. Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Improved Vehicle Safety, Fuel Efficiency and CO2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Singhai, Mrigandra; Desai, Rahul; Sam, Srimanta; Patra, Pradip Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and green house gas emissions are the major issues worldwide and their impacts are clearly visible as a record high temperatures, rising sea, and severe `flooding and droughts'. Motor vehicles considered as a major contributor on global warming due to its green house gas emissions. Hence, the automobile industries are under tremendous pressure from government and society to reduce green house gas emission to maximum possible extent. In present work, Dual Phase steel with boron as microalloying is manufactured using thermo-mechanical treatment during hot rolling. Dual phase steel with boron microalloying improved strength by near about 200 MPa than dual phase steel without boron. The boron added dual phase steel can be used for manufacturing stronger and a lighter vehicle which is expected to perform positively on green house gas emissions. The corrosion resistance behavior is also improved with boron addition which would further increase the life cycle of the vehicle even under corrosive atmosphere.

  17. The speed of change : motor vehicles and people in Africa, 1890-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Luning, Sabine; Walraven, van K.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1900s the motor-vehicle (car, bus, lorry or motorcycle) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. Initially the plaything and symbol of colonial domination, the motor-vehicle transformed the economic and social life of the continent. Indeed, the motor-vehicle is arguably the single most imp

  18. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function.

  19. Miscarriage and occupational activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Bonzini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    . METHODS: A search in Medline and EMBASE 1966-2012 identified 30 primary papers reporting the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage according to ≥1 of 5 occupational activities of interest. Following an assessment of completeness of reporting, confounding, and bias, each risk estimate was characterized as more......, N=10). RR for working hours and standing became smaller when analyses were restricted to higher quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: These largely reassuring findings do not provide a strong case for mandatory restrictions in relation to shift work, long working hours, occupational lifting, standing...

  20. Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N; Hashim, A; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2012-05-21

    A scalable multi-channel optical regenerative bus architecture based on the use of polymer waveguides is presented for the first time. The architecture offers high-speed interconnection between electrical cards allowing regenerative bus extension with multiple segments and therefore connection of an arbitrary number of cards onto the bus. In a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 4-channel 3-card polymeric bus module is designed and fabricated on standard FR4 substrates. Low insertion losses (≤ -15 dB) and low crosstalk values (bus modules using a prototype 3R regenerator.

  1. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinneym, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi’s low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern. PMID:26034383

  2. High nucleosome occupancy is encoded at human regulatory sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Tillo

    Full Text Available Active eukaryotic regulatory sites are characterized by open chromatin, and yeast promoters and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs typically have low intrinsic nucleosome occupancy. Here, we show that in contrast to yeast, DNA at human promoters, enhancers, and TFBSs generally encodes high intrinsic nucleosome occupancy. In most cases we examined, these elements also have high experimentally measured nucleosome occupancy in vivo. These regions typically have high G+C content, which correlates positively with intrinsic nucleosome occupancy, and are depleted for nucleosome-excluding poly-A sequences. We propose that high nucleosome preference is directly encoded at regulatory sequences in the human genome to restrict access to regulatory information that will ultimately be utilized in only a subset of differentiated cells.

  3. UM-BUS and a Plug and Play Architecture%UM-BUS 总线及接入式体系结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟功; 周继芹; 李杰; 王晶; 丁瑞; 邓哲; 王嘉佳; 杜瑞

    2015-01-01

    本文针对航天航空等领域综合电子系统在小型化、一体化设计及信息综合利用等方面的需求,提出一种可动态重构的高速串行通信总线(UM-BUS),采用 N(≤32)通道并发传输,通信速率可达6.4Gbps,采用总线型拓扑结构,最大通信距离40m,支持最多30个节点直接互连,具有远程存储访问能力,采用命令应答式协议提供 QoS 与实时性保证;通过并发通道相互冗余与动态重构,在允许50%性能降低的情况下,能够对 N/2通道故障动态容错.在UM-BUS 总线基础上,本文提出一种新型的“接入式”体系结构模型,在不改变系统逻辑结构的前提下,能够突破机箱结构限制,将逻辑功能分散嵌入到控制测量对象内部,实现功能模块“接入即用”,使得综合电子系统一体化设计成为可能.%According to the demands of miniaturization,integrated design and comprehensive information utilization for inte-grated electronic system in aviation and aerospace field,this paper presents the UM-BUS.It is a high-speed,dynamic reconfigurable serial bus with N(≤ 32)concurrent lanes of mutual redundant structure available,and the maximum communication rate of 6.4Gbps.UM-BUS is formed by general bus-topology structure where up to 30 nodes can be connected directly to provide the capa-bility of remote memory accessing with maximum communication distance of up to 40m.UM-BUS uses command/response protocol to attain QoS and real-time guarantee.In the case of allowing 50% reduced performance,any fault in N/2 lanes can be tolerant by reconfiguring the mutual redundant concurrent lanes automatically.On the basis of UM-BUS,this paper put forward a new architec-ture of embedded systems.This access type architecture is geared to the needs of embedded system control and measurement appli-cations.It does not change the logic architecture of embedded system,but this access architecture can break

  4. Alcohol Use, Depression, and High-Risk Occupations Among Young Adults in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshkova, Svitlana; Chaban, Oleg; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-06-06

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18-25) (N = 192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped on the basis of drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n = 132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n = 60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7% of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1-2 days, 37.9% 3-7 days, 25% 8-21 days, and 12.1% 22-30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems.

  5. An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    An interleaved reduced-component-count dc/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3 kW was built and tested to verify the proposed topology.

  6. Efficient and Robust Data Collection Using Compact Micro Hardware, Distributed Bus Architectures and Optimizing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio; Vatan, Farrokh; Randolph, Vincent; Baroth, Edmund C.

    2006-01-01

    Future In-Space propulsion systems for exploration programs will invariably require data collection from a large number of sensors. Consider the sensors needed for monitoring several vehicle systems states of health, including the collection of structural health data, over a large area. This would include the fuel tanks, habitat structure, and science containment of systems required for Lunar, Mars, or deep space exploration. Such a system would consist of several hundred or even thousands of sensors. Conventional avionics system design will require these sensors to be connected to a few Remote Health Units (RHU), which are connected to robust, micro flight computers through a serial bus. This results in a large mass of cabling and unacceptable weight. This paper first gives a survey of several techniques that may reduce the cabling mass for sensors. These techniques can be categorized into four classes: power line communication, serial sensor buses, compound serial buses, and wireless network. The power line communication approach uses the power line to carry both power and data, so that the conventional data lines can be eliminated. The serial sensor bus approach reduces most of the cabling by connecting all the sensors with a single (or redundant) serial bus. Many standard buses for industrial control and sensor buses can support several hundreds of nodes, however, have not been space qualified. Conventional avionics serial buses such as the Mil-Std-1553B bus and IEEE 1394a are space qualified but can support only a limited number of nodes. The third approach is to combine avionics buses to increase their addressability. The reliability, EMI/EMC, and flight qualification issues of wireless networks have to be addressed. Several wireless networks such as the IEEE 802.11 and Ultra Wide Band are surveyed in this paper. The placement of sensors can also affect cable mass. Excessive sensors increase the number of cables unnecessarily. Insufficient number of sensors

  7. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwall Piyush; O’Brien James E.; Yoon SuJong; Sun Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed includ...

  8. Hydrogen tube vehicle for supersonic transport: 2. Speed and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects Inc and Supersonic Tubevehicle LLC, 200 Violet St, Suite 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The central concept of a new idea in high-speed transport is that operation of a vehicle in a hydrogen atmosphere, because of the low density of hydrogen, would increase sonic speed by a factor of 3.8 and decrease drag by 15 relative to air. A hydrogen atmosphere requires that the vehicle operate within a hydrogen-filled tube or pipeline, which serves as a phase separator. The supersonic tube vehicle (STV) can be supersonic with respect to air outside the tube while remaining subsonic inside. It breathes hydrogen fuel for its propulsion fuel cells from the tube itself. This paper, second in a series on the scientific foundations of the supersonic tube vehicle, tests the hypothesis that the STV will be simultaneously fast and energy efficient by comparing its predicted speed and energy consumption with that of four long-haul passenger transport modes: road, rail, maglev, and air. The study establishes the speed ranking STV >> airplane > maglev > train > coach (intercity bus) and the normalized energy consumption ranking Airplane >> coach > maglev > train > STV. Consistent with the hypothesis, the concept vehicle is both the fastest and lowest energy consuming mode. In theory, the vehicle can cruise at Mach 2.8 while consuming less than half the energy per passenger of a Boeing 747 at a cruise speed of Mach 0.81. (author)

  9. Argonne to open new facility for advanced vehicle testing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory will open it's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility on Friday, Nov. 15. The facility is North America's only public testing facility for engines, fuel cells, electric drives and energy storage. State-of-the-art performance and emissions measurement equipment is available to support model development and technology validation (1 page).

  10. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  11. Multidisciplinary Analysis and Control of High Performance Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-06

    communication and transport of data between different modules. The testbed is used for performing Multidisciplinary Optimization design and analysis of aerospace...over-bar indicates nominal values, is ana- tena inties neto b e clrfed. Tevl and lyze futherand as n eampe, te efect ofSpi the uncertainties need to...be found in.54’ 55,57-o, 83 ,117 ology and the increase of interest of the academic re- search community in it for the last fifteen years, there The

  12. City Electric Vehicle Charging Facilities Layout Planning and Analysis%城市电动汽车充电设施布局规划探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立永

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote the development of urban electric vehicles, accurately identify the factors affecting urban electric vehicle charging facility layout planning, according to the actual needs of the charging station charging, rational planning of urban electric vehicle charging facilities. Detailed analysis of the main factors affecting the urban electric vehicle charging station facility layout planning of the layout of urban electric vehicle charging facilities for reference.%为了推动城市电动汽车的发展,准确找出影响城市电动汽车充电设施布局规划的因素,根据充电站的实际充电需求,合理规划城市电动汽车的充电设施。具体分析了影响城市电动汽车充电站设施布局的主要因素,探析了城市电动汽车充电设施的布局规划,以供参考。

  13. Implementation of Fuzzy Logic with High Security Registration Plate (HSRP for Vehicle Classification and Checking in TollPlaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Automobile Industries, to use of High Security Registration plate (HSRP is still a challenging problem. There are more options to misuse the vehicle and exchange its engine, chassis, gear box, axle etc., In an existing system, the Regional Transport Office (RTO only determine an abstract of the vehicle and its owner. The vehicles are classified using piezo sensor and inductive loop systems. The toll-plaza is used only collected fees from the vehicles for maintain the quality roads. There are no authorized agencies allotted to identify the vehicle checking and no possibilities to control the vehicle overloading. The proposed system, toll-plaza will be act as a multi-plaza. Vehicles are classified with weight and speed. Then it is checking in toll-plaza either passed or checked. In this paper, The system uses illumination (such as Infrared and a camera to take the image of the front or rear of the vehicle, then an extracts the plate information. This data is used for enforcement and it can be used to open a gate if the vehicle is checked with RTO data in toll-plaza. In vehicle checking, we develop new rules using a fuzzy logic to improve the performance. The features of this system are implemented in the upgrading vehicles only. It is used to control the overloading to maintain road safety and to identify the theft vehicle to reduce the crime and terrorism. As Bharat Stage Emission (BSE standard vehicles are implemented in India very aggressively. The emission standard vehicles are serviced only in authorized service centre not for doing and end root machines.

  14. Do knowledge infrastructure facilities support Evidence-Based Practice in occupational health? An exploratory study across countries among occupational physicians enrolled on EBM courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.I.R. Hugenholtz; K. Nieuwenhuijsen; J.K. Sluiter; F.J.H. van Dijk

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important method used by occupational physicians (OPs) to deliver high quality health care. The presence and quality of a knowledge infrastructure is thought to influence the practice of EBM in occupational health care. This study explores th

  15. U.S. regional greenhouse gas emissions analysis comparing highly resolved vehicle miles traveled and CO2 emissions: mitigation implications and their effect on atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    for US census regions and individual states. At the national level, rural roads show a 5% higher CO2 relative fraction compared to the VMT relative fraction, mostly due to a 15% higher CO2 fraction on rural interstates as a result of a higher proportion of heavy-duty vehicles such as large trucks. The diesel vehicle fleet has a 62% higher CO2 fraction compared to VMT with the largest contributors being buses and the heaviest truck classes. The differences become larger when analyzed at the state level. For example, Tennessee has 30% higher CO2 fractions compared to VMT on rural interstates and New York has 175% higher CO2 fractions compared to VMT for the bus vehicle class. Using VMT as a proxy for CO2 emissions results in incorrect estimations of CO2 emissions because of the strong space and time variations in fleet composition and road type. At the national scale the differences among the two methods are very small, but the spatial signature of CO2 emitted by onroad traffic is very strong and highly dependent on the region which can be confirmed with atmospheric measurements from aircraft and flux towers.

  16. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  17. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL Presentation to: IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science...Conference C. J. Keane Director, NIF User Office June 21, 2013 1491978-1-4673-5168-3/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  19. Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45-64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20.......6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. RESULTS: During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses...... exposed to strenuous OPA and low influence at work had a 46% increased risk of IHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.09)] compared to the reference group of nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and high influence at work were...

  20. UNIVERSALIZATION OF BUS BODY FACING DETAILS AND PRODUCTION TOOLING FOR THEIR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taranenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The directions concerning bus body production costs reduction based on large-size facing details stamping on electric-hydraulic presses are considered. The engineering of unified large-size facing detail blanks, manufacturing processes and variants of unified technological tooling for bus body facing details production, including simple- or multi-type details are described.

  1. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  2. Perda auditiva induzida por ruído e hipertensão em condutores de ônibus Noise-induced hearing loss and high blood pressure among city bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleno Rodrigues Corrêa Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar as prevalências de perda auditiva induzida por ruído e hipertensão arterial em condutores de ônibus urbanos. MÉTODOS: Executou-se estudo transversal em amostra probabilística de 108 motoristas da cidade de Campinas, SP. Aplicou-se questionário sobre história profissional, jornadas de trabalho e repouso, e realizou-se exame físico e laboratorial incluindo medida da pressão arterial, audiometria tonal limiar, logoaudiometria e dados antropométricos, após a obtenção de consentimento. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de perda auditiva induzida por ruído foi de 32,7% do total examinado. Segundo a classificação de Merluzzi, nos 31 casos classificados em primeiro e segundo graus, observou-se que a freqüência audiométrica com perda auditiva mais acentuada foi a de 6 kHz (61,3%, seguida pela de 4 kHz (38,7%, sem diferenças significantes quanto à lateralidade. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial diastólica (PAD³90 mmHG; PAS³140 mmHG foi de 13,2% dos examinados. CONCLUSÕES: O risco de disacusia induzida por ruído foi maior para os motoristas com mais de seis anos de trabalho, após ajuste para a perda relacionada com a idade, com um odds ratio de 19,25 (1,59OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and arterial hypertension among city bus drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a probability random sample of 108 city bus drivers taken out of a total of 1,529 estimated professionals in the city of Campinas, Brazil, in 1991. Drivers were interviewed using questionnaires on job history, shift work and vacation schedules and underwent clinical and laboratory examinations including measures of blood pressure, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and anthropometric data analysis after an informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was 32.7%. According to Merluzzi's classification, 91.2% (31 cases were classified as

  3. The work of bus drivers and their contribution to excellence in public transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Marcelo Brunoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of a survey aimed at analyzing the work of bus drivers for a collective urban transportation company that is considered a benchmark. The research sought to understand how the company could maintain a policy capable of reconciling the quality of public transportation with working conditions that are compatible with the professional development, comfort and health of the workers. The ergonomic work analysis methodology was adopted as a guide. The results show that one of the pillars of excellence achieved by this company is the quality of the work performed by their drivers, which is guided by the organizational values that permeate the organization. The driver plays a role in regulating the system by serving the population and providing mobility. Their activity is controlled by a series of interdependent variables, such as the demands for conducting the vehicle and the relationship with others.

  4. The application of the SAUNA CFD system to high and low speed vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Nicholas E.; Peace, Andrew J.; Shaw, Jonathon A.

    1994-04-01

    The SAUNA grid generation and flow simulation system is applied to a variety of vehicles flows. The basic features and problems associated with predicting high speed external flows are discussed and contrasted with those associated with typical internal flows. Particular attention is paid in the discussion to turbulence modelling requirements. General descriptions of the grid generation philosophy adopted within the SAUNA system (structured, unstructured, hybrid) and the flow solution methodology are given. It is explained how the compressible flow algorithm may be modified to enable efficient calculation of low speed flows, thus extending the range of application of the SAUNA system to include conventional ground and sea vehicles. The grid generation capabilities of SAUNA are illustrated by showing examples of grids generated around configurations of a complete aircraft, a submarine and an automobile. The flow simulations are evaluated by comparison with experiment for several external high speed flows and a lower speed internal flow.

  5. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  6. High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Teresa M; Pomba, Constança; Lopes, M Fátima Silva

    2013-01-25

    Environmental dust from animal breeding facilities was never screened for the presence of enterococci, nor of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), despite the possibility of being a vehicle of transmission of strains and antibiotic resistance genes between food-producing animals and man. Bio-security measures in pig facilities include disinfection with biocides to avoid the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, namely enterococci and in particular VRE. We thus undertook collection of enterococci and VRE in a representative number of breeding pig facilities in Portugal (n=171) and analyzed their susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A prevalence of 15% of VRE was found, with 6% high-level resistance found, and MIC values for CHX and BC were similar to those commonly found among enterococcal isolates from related environments, 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Among the isolated high-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium carrying the vanA genotype, we found multilocus sequence types closely related to pig and human isolates from European countries and Brazil. These results strongly advise constant surveillance of this environment and its inclusion in future epidemiologic studies on VRE.

  7. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  8. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  9. Research of Application Layer Protocol in Electric Vehicle Based on CAN Bus%应用于电动汽车的CAN网络应用层协议研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁传义; 吴志新; 刘成晔; 黄学勤

    2012-01-01

    介绍了CAN技术规范和OSI参考模型;从通信内容的确定、标识符分配、消息编码方式、消息调度策略、数据格式定义5个方面考虑,制定了一套适用于电动汽车的CAN网络应用层协议.实际应用表明,采用该协议的CAN总线通信系统有很高的可靠性,通信负载率不超过30%,保证了紧急报文的及时发现和处理.%The CAN technical specifications and OS1 reference model were introduced, and an application layer protocol of CAN network was established for electric vehicle considering five aspects including determination of communication contents, identifier assignment, message encoding, message scheduling strategies and data format define. Practical application result showed that CAN bus communication system adopting the protocol has high reliability and the communication load rate is less than 30%, which ensures timely detection and treatment of emergency messages.

  10. 客车密封防尘分析%Sealing and dustproof analysis of bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娇艳; 高悦花

    2012-01-01

    Through expound the current status of bus dust proof standard,put forward the measure of floorboard dustproof, dust proof of circuit and go through place of pipeline,dust proof of side wall skin,improve the sealing performance and quality of vehicle,in order to improve the competitiveness of vechile product in the market.%通过对客车防尘标准及现状的阐述,提出了地板防尘、线路及管道穿过处防尘、侧围蒙皮防尘的措施,提高了整车的密封性及质量,从而提高整车产品在市场中的竞争力。

  11. A STUDY OF THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF THE YOUNG ADULT DEAF OF THE SOUTHWEST AND THEIR NEED FOR SPECIALIZED VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION FACILITIES. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLAKE, GARY D.; KRONENBERG, HENRY H.

    AN INTERVIEW-QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY WAS MADE TO INVESTIGATE THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF YOUNG DEAF ADULTS, AND WHETHER FURTHER VOCATIONAL PREPARATION WOULD ENHANCE THEIR VOCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES. ON-THE-JOB DIFFICULTIES WERE REVIEWED. THE MAJORITY OF THOSE INTERVIEWED SAW A NEED FOR POST-SCHOOL TRAINING. SEVERAL TYPES OF PROGRAMS…

  12. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Standards (telephone: 202-366-0247) (fax: 202-366-4921), NVS-113. For legal issues, Ms. Dorothy Nakama... 305 mm (8.5 in x 12.2 in) rigid plate be used to ``simulate the shape of a single 6-year-old'' child, and that the agency should ballast the plate to ensure an evenly-distributed 22 kg (48.4 lb) mass....

  13. Technology benefits and ground test facilities for high-speed civil transport development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Matthew M.; Shields, Elwood M.; Morris, Shelby J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The advanced technology base necessary for successful twenty-first century High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft will require extensive ground testing in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and other disciplines. This paper analyzes the benefits of advanced technology application to HSCT concepts, addresses the adequacy of existing groundbased test facilities, and explores the need for new facilities required to support HSCT development. A substantial amount of HSCT-related ground testing can be accomplished in existing facilities. The HSCT development effort could also benefit significantly from some new facilities initially conceived for testing in other aeronautical research areas. A new structures testing facility is identified as critically needed to insure timely technology maturation.

  14. Modeling, solving and simulation for combinatorial optimization problem of bus stopping in BRT station-group%BRT车站组停靠线路组合优化问题的建模、求解与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林培群; 徐建闽

    2012-01-01

    针对国内外许多城市的BRT专用道仅有1个车道、车辆进站排队容易造成通道阻塞的情况,首先以最小化排队概率为目标,推导出车站组的停靠线路组合优化模型,然后定义上游交叉口的累积效应系数以使模型适应车辆间歇性批量到站的情况,随后针对模型的求解,给出了一种n进制数编码的新的遗传算法.算例以广州市某典型BRT车站组为例进行停靠线路配置优化,并利用VISSIM软件对原始方案及优化方案进行多次仿真和对比,结果表明所提出的方法能有效地缓解公交车辆的进站排队现象,并降低泊位占有率,减少停车次数和行程时间.%Queuing in the bus station often causes traffic jam owing to the fact that BRT system in many cities contains only one lane. In order to relieve this crunch, firstly, a combinatorial optimization model of bus stop in BRT station group was put forward to minimize the queuing probability, then by defining the intersection vehicle cumulative effect coefficient, the optimization model was improved to adapt to intermittent bus batch arrivals caused by the upstream intersection. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm with n-based number encoding was put forward to solve the optimization model. Finally, several bus stop optimization programs of a typical station group in Guangzhou BRT system were obtained in the example, and the simulated results of the original and the new programs from VISSIM software showed that the proposed method could reduce the queuing situation effectively, and decrease the berth occupation rate, bus stop times and travel time simultaneously.

  15. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, M.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many μm in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  16. High spatial resolution mapping of water quality and bathymetry with an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampalone, Vincenzo; Milici, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The drone Ecomapper AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) is a rare example of highly technological instrument in the environmental coastal monitoring field. The YSI EcoMapper is a one-man deployable, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) designed to collect bathymetry and water quality data. The submarine-like vehicle follows a programmed course and employs sensors mounted in the nose to record pertinent information. Once the vehicle has started its mission, it operates independently of the user and utilizes GPS waypoints navigation to complete its programmed course. Throughout the course, the vehicle constantly steers toward the line drawn in the mission planning software (VectorMap), essentially following a more accurate road of coordinates instead of transversing waypoint-to-waypoint. It has been equipped with a Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) to increase its underwater navigation accuracy. Potential EcoMapper applications include baseline environmental mapping in freshwater, estuarine or near-coastal environments, bathymetric mapping, dissolved oxygen studies, event monitoring (algal blooms, storm impacts, low dissolved oxygen), non-point source studies, point-source dispersion mapping, security, search & rescue, inspection, shallow water mapping, thermal dissipation mapping of cooling outfalls, trace-dye studies. The AUV is used in the coastal area of the Augusta Bay (Italy), located in the eastern part of Sicily. Due to the heavy contamination generated by the several chemical and petrochemical industries active in the zone, the harbour was declared a Contaminated Site of National Interest. The ecomapper allows for a simultaneous data collection of water quality and bathymetric data providing a complete environmental mapping system of the Harbour.

  17. Dynamic and Static High Temperature Resistant Ceramic Seals for X- 38 re-Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrick, Karin E.; Curry, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    In a highly successful partnership, NAS A, ESA, DLR (German Space Agency) and European industry are building the X-38, V201 re-entry spacecraft, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). This vehicle would serve both as an ambulance for medical emergencies and as an evacuation vehicle for the Space Station. The development of essential systems and technologies for a reusable re-entry vehicle is a first for Europe, and sharing the development of an advanced re-entry spacecraft with foreign partners is a first for NASA. NASA, in addition to its subsystem responsibilities, is performing overall X-38 vehicle system engineering and integration, will launch V201 on the Space Shuttle, deliver flight data for post-flight analysis and assessment and is responsible for development and manufacture of structural vehicle components and thermal protection (TPS) tiles. The major European objective for cooperation with NASA on X-38 was to establish a clear path through which key technologies needed for future space transportation systems could be developed and validated at affordable cost and with controlled risk. Europe has taken the responsibility to design and manufacture hot control surfaces like metallic rudders and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) body flaps, thermal protection systems such as CMC leading edges, the CMC nose cap and -skirt, insulation, landing gears and elements of the V201 primary structure. Especially hot control surfaces require extremely high temperature resistant seals to limit hot gas ingestion and transfer of heat to underlying low-temperature structures to prevent overheating of these structures and possible loss of the vehicle. Complex seal interfaces, which have to fulfill various, tight mission- and vehicle-related requirements exist between the moveable ceramic body flaps and the bottom surface of the vehicle, between the rudder and fin structure and the ceramic leading edge panel and TPS tiles. While NASA

  18. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  19. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  20. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection. [Appendices Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    pronounced in the neck flexion, shoulder deflection and chest deflection. Due to the flexibility of the THUMS, the resulting head and chest accelerations tended to lag the Hybrid III acceleration trace and have a lower peak value. The results of the injury metric comparison identified possible injury trends between simulations. Risk of head injury was highest for the lateral simulations. The risk of chest injury was highest for the rear impact. However, neck injury risk was approximately the same for all simulations. The injury metric value for lumbar spine force was highest for the spinal impact. The leg forces were highest for the rear and lateral impacts. The results of this comparison indicate the THUMS model performs in a similar manner as the Hybrid III ATD. The differences in the responses of model and the ATD are primarily due to the flexibility of the THUMS. This flexibility of the THUMS would be a more human like response. Based on the similarity between the two models, the THUMS should be used in further testing to assess risk of injury to the occupant.

  1. The National Ignition Facility and the Golden Age of High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W; Moses, E I; Newton, M

    2007-09-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density (HED) science. When completed, NIF will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light, making it the world's largest and highest-energy laser system. The NIF is poised to become the world's preeminent facility for conducting ICF and fusion energy research and for studying matter at extreme densities and temperatures.

  2. Low-inductance bus lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, A.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated bus strips and bifilar litz cable connectors for high-power rectifiers, thrisistors, and transistors provide low inductance and eliminate electromagnetic interference in high-power circuits. These techniques offer significant cost advantages because of ease of assembly and consistent high quality of product. Effectiveness makes general usage in static power conversion likely.

  3. Field test of radioactive high efficiency filter and filter exchange techniques of fuel cycle examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Chun, Young Bum; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Chu, Yong Sun; Kim, Eun Ka

    1997-12-01

    The development of high efficiency filter was started to protect human beings from the contamination of radioactive particles, toxic gases and bacillus, and its gradual performance increment led to the fabrication of Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) today. The application field of ULPA has been spread not only to the air conditioning of nuclear power facilities, semiconductor industries, life science, optics, medical care and general facilities but also to the core of ultra-precision facilities. Periodic performance test on the filters is essential to extend its life-time through effective maintenance. Especially, the bank test on HEPA filter of nuclear facilities handling radioactive materials is required for environmental safety. Nowadays, the bank test technology has been reached to the utilization of a minimized portable detecting instruments and the evaluation techniques can provide high confidence in the area of particle distribution and leakage test efficiency. (author). 16 refs., 13 tabs., 14 figs.

  4. The high temperature materials laboratory: A research and user facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    HTML is a modern facility for high-temperature ceramic research; it is also a major user facility, providing industry and university communities access to special research equipment for studying microstructure and microchemistry of materials. User research equipment is divided among six User Centers: Materials Analysis, X-ray Diffraction, Physical Properties, Mechanical Properties, Ceramic Specimen Preparation, and Residual Stress. This brochure provides brief descriptions of each of the major research instruments in the User Centers: scanning Auger microprobe, field emission SEMs, electron microprobe, multitechnique surface analyzer, analytical electron microscope, HRTEM, optical microscopy & image analysis, goniometer, scanning calorimetry, simultaneous thermal analysis, thermal properties (expansion, diffusivity, conductivity), high-temperature tensile test facilities, flexure, electromechanical test facilities (flexure, compression creep, environmental), microhardness microprobe, ceramic machining. Hands-on operation by qualified users is encouraged; staff is available. Both proprietary and nonproprietary research may be performed. Proprietary research is one on a full-cost recovery basis.

  5. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  6. Optimum Location and System Engineering of High Power, High Frequency Transmitter-Receiver in Combat Vehicles (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathyamurthy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the procedure adapted after carrying out several iterations for selecting an ideal location to introduce a high power high frequency (HF transmitter-receiver in a tactical combat vehicle from electromagnetic compatibility view. This radio set contributes for very high field strength to neighbouring electronic devices and other very high frequency (VHF Tx-Rx situated in the same vehicular platform. An integrated approach was followed in deciding the optimum solution to locate the HF radio set. Leakage from HF radio set is to be minimised within the vehicle to reduce the field coupling level to neighbouring equipment. Radiation from HF antenna was maximised by careful installation of antenna, outside the vehicle environment to ensure optimum radiation of intended signal. Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR measurement was carried out to verify this. Four different locations experimented have been reported in this paper. The vehicle penetration loss (VPL can reveal the amount of leakage from external field generated by antennas to field inside the turret. The HF, being a congested operating spectrum, due care was taken in electromagnetic interference control of HF-VHF radios and other tank electronic subsystems. High RF power of HF transmitter and very high sensitivity of HF receiver could affect systems either way. Hence, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC measures and optimum location of HF radio set are important from MIL-STD461 C, MIL6051-D/MIL-STD464A point of view.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(3, pp.302-306, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.357

  7. A High-Power Wireless Charging System Development and Integration for a Toyota RAV4 Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL; White, Cliff P [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Several wireless charging methods are underdevelopment or available as an aftermarket option in the light-duty automotive market. However, there are not many studies detailing the vehicle integrations, particularly a complete vehicle integration with higher power levels. This paper presents the development, implementation, and vehicle integration of a high-power (>10 kW) wireless power transfer (WPT)-based electric vehicle (EV) charging system for a Toyota RAV4 vehicle. The power stages of the system are introduced with the design specifications and control systems including the active front-end rectifier with power factor correction (PFC), high frequency power inverter, high frequency isolation transformer, coupling coils, vehicle side full-bridge rectifier and filter, and the vehicle battery. The operating principles of the control, communications, and protection systems are also presented in addition to the alignment and the driver interface system. The physical limitations of the system are also defined that would prevent the system operating at higher levels. The experiments are carried out using the integrated vehicle and the results obtained to demonstrate the system performance including the stage-by-stage efficiencies with matched and interoperable primary and secondary coils.

  8. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  9. Facile synthesis of high surface area molybdenum nitride and carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aaron; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Brosha, Eric L.; Atanassov, Plamen; Ward, Tim L.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of high surface area γ-Mo2N and α-Mo2C is reported (116 and 120 m2/g) without the temperature programmed reduction of MoO3. γ-Mo2N was prepared in an NH3-free synthesis using forming gas (7 at% H2, N2-balance) as the reactive atmosphere. Three precursors were studied ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, (NH4)2 Mg(MoO4)2, and MgMoO4) along with the sacrificial support method (SSM) as a means of reducing the particle size of Mo2N and Mo2C. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to identify reaction intermediates, the temperature at which various intermediates form, and the average domain size of the Mo2N products. Materials were synthesized in bulk and further characterized by XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and BET.

  10. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  11. What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults' occupational performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tove Lise; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home-based occupational therapy for older adults aimed at improving occupational performance by practicing activities and tasks. Aim This review synthesizes and discusses evidence for the effectiveness of occupation......-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy for older adults at home. Material and methods Peer-reviewed quantitative papers were included. Participants: > 60-year-old adults with functional limitations. Intervention: Occupational therapy aiming at improving occupational performance, primarily through the practice...... of activities and tasks. Outcome: Occupational performance. Context: Home. Three reviewers critically appraised 13 of 995 detected papers. Extracted data were presented and summarised descriptively. Results Eight high-quality papers showed that occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy using...

  12. The response of collision speed caused by the large bus to new flexible barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhengbao; Wang Rui

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the response of collision speed caused by the large bus to new flexible barrier,in this paper,with the large bus as the carrier,the full-scale impact tests between flexible barrier and vehicle with the impact velocities of 40 km/h and 60 km/h were carried out separately,following the procedures of the test preparation,test processing,data acquisition, etc,which were based on the test platform of the Large Structure Crash Testing Laboratory of Changsha University of Science and Technology. The important test results which contain the damage of vehicles and barrier,the moving locus of vehicle,the occupant risk index,the maxi-mum dynamic deformation, etc,were obtained through the analysis under the different collision speeds. These provide the necessary reference basis for the further research on the structure topology optimization and im-prove the comprehensive constraint performance to the flexible barrier.

  13. Sistem Informasi Geografis Pencarian Lokasi Agen Bus dan Travel Terdekat di Kota Semarang Berbasis Mobile dengan Metode Dijkstra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizki Kurniawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the mobility of people who travel to a place through road transportation is increasing, either private vehicle or public transportation services. By the high intensity of use the road transportation, especially the road transportation service in Semarang, in this cases are bus and travel, it makes the transportation service users often confused in determining transportation agency to be used, especially if user is in hurry. Therefore, transportation user need a mobile application that can provide bus or travel transportation agency locator services which nearby user location and provide destination route which is expected. The Bus and Travel agency – Based Applications Mobile Locator Using Dijkstra Method is the ultimate solution in the search of bus and travel agency in Semarang. The purpose of development this application is developing a search guidance system of bus and travel agency location which nearby user location that can provide an efficient route and save the time. The Bus and Travel agency – Based Applications Mobile Locator is implemented using ionic framework that runs on Android. Sqlite as the media storage of this, allows user to perform agency data management. In Addition, it is supported by the relevance of agency data which is obtained from Department of Transportation, Communication, and Information Central of Java and transportation magazine site. The use of Google Maps API supports search location using Dijkstra Method in search of bus and travel agency, that expected to facilitate the users find travel or bus agency as expected, and its information that’s already available.

  14. Research and development on transonic compressor of high pressure ratio turbocharger for vehicle internal combustion engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The pressure ratio required for a turbocharger centrifugal compressor increases with internal combustion engine power density. High pressure ratio causes a transonic flow field at the impeller inducer. Transonic flow narrows the stable flow range and de-teriorates stage efficiency. In this work, an advanced high pressure ratio transonic compressor was designed. The experimental results show that the maximum pressure ratio of this turbocharger is about 4.2, the maximum efficiency is above 80% and the stable flow range at the designed rotating speed is up to 34%. A turbocharger with this transonic compressor has been applied to some vehicle research actually, and improved power density by 40%.

  15. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  16. Geometric-Process-Based Battery Management Optimizing Policy for the Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry and promotive policies worldwide, the electric bus (E-bus has been adopted in many major cities around the world. One of the most important factors that restrain the widespread application of the E-bus is the high operating cost due to the deficient battery management. This paper proposes a geometric-process-based (GP-based battery management optimizing policy which aims to minimize the average cost of the operation on the premise of meeting the required sufficient battery availability. Considering the deterioration of the battery after repeated charging and discharging, this paper constructs the model of the operation of the E-bus battery as a geometric process, and the premaintenance time has been considered with the failure repairment time to enhance the GP-based battery operation model considering the battery cannot be as good as new after the two processes. The computer simulation is carried out by adopting the proposed optimizing policy, and the result verifies the effectiveness of the policy, denoting its significant performance on the application of the E-bus battery management.

  17. A Highly Reliable and Cost-Efficient Multi-Sensor System for Land Vehicle Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel positioning solution for land vehicles which is highly reliable and cost-efficient. The proposed positioning system fuses information from the MEMS-based reduced inertial sensor system (RISS which consists of one vertical gyroscope and two horizontal accelerometers, low-cost GPS, and supplementary sensors and sources. First, pitch and roll angle are accurately estimated based on a vehicle kinematic model. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the uncertain nonlinear drift of MEMS inertial sensors is eliminated by an H∞ filter. Further, a distributed-dual-H∞ filtering (DDHF mechanism is adopted to address the uncertain nonlinear drift of the MEMS-RISS and make full use of the supplementary sensors and sources. The DDHF is composed of a main H∞ filter (MHF and an auxiliary H∞ filter (AHF. Finally, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN module with good approximation capability is specially designed for the MEMS-RISS. A hybrid methodology which combines the GRNN module and the AHF is utilized to compensate for RISS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution, road-test experiments with various scenarios were performed. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed system can achieve accurate and reliable positioning for land vehicles.

  18. A Highly Reliable and Cost-Efficient Multi-Sensor System for Land Vehicle Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Xu, Qimin; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui

    2016-05-25

    In this paper, we propose a novel positioning solution for land vehicles which is highly reliable and cost-efficient. The proposed positioning system fuses information from the MEMS-based reduced inertial sensor system (RISS) which consists of one vertical gyroscope and two horizontal accelerometers, low-cost GPS, and supplementary sensors and sources. First, pitch and roll angle are accurately estimated based on a vehicle kinematic model. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the uncertain nonlinear drift of MEMS inertial sensors is eliminated by an H∞ filter. Further, a distributed-dual-H∞ filtering (DDHF) mechanism is adopted to address the uncertain nonlinear drift of the MEMS-RISS and make full use of the supplementary sensors and sources. The DDHF is composed of a main H∞ filter (MHF) and an auxiliary H∞ filter (AHF). Finally, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) module with good approximation capability is specially designed for the MEMS-RISS. A hybrid methodology which combines the GRNN module and the AHF is utilized to compensate for RISS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution, road-test experiments with various scenarios were performed. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed system can achieve accurate and reliable positioning for land vehicles.

  19. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Kuo, Calvin; Jain, Abhi; Grip, Havard; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Overholt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative project between U.S. Army TARDEC and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) simulation model using the ROAMS vehicle modeling framework. Besides modeling the physical suspension of the vehicle, the sensing and navigation of the HMMWV vehicle are simulated. Using models of urban and off-road environments, the HMMWV simulation was tested in several ways, including navigation in an urban environment with obstacle avoidance and the performance of a lane change maneuver.

  20. Practical experience with IEEE 1588 high precision time synchronization in electrical substation based on IEC 61850 process bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.; Goraj, M.J.; McGhee, J. [RuggedCom Inc., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a time synchronization and dynamic multicast filtering procedure conducted on an IEC 61850 process bus. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic (IEEE) 1588 time synchronization and dynamic multicast filtering procedure was conducted at a substation equipped with non-conventional instrument transformers (NCIT) and intelligent circuit breakers. The process bus interconnected IEDs within a bay that included a real time sampled value (SV) measurement system. The system was designed to reduce the use of copper wiring and to eliminate high energy signal processes. Digitized sampled measured values were sent from the electronic instrument transformers to protect and control relays. A merging unit was used to enable the transmission of the digitized current and voltage measurements across an ethernet network. Two sampling rates were supplied for power system monitoring and protection applications. The merging units continuously sent sampling values of current and voltages acquired from primary equipment. Precision time protocol systems were discussed, and issues related to time synchronization were reviewed. A network topology was provided. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  1. High Solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) Wastes Stabilization with Ceramicrete and Super Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-09-14

    High Solids ash and scrubber solution waste streams were generated at the incinerator facility at SRS by burning radioactive diatomaceous filter rolls which contained small amounts of uranium, and listed solvents (F and U). This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) technologies with the High Solids waste streams.

  2. [Traumatic and occupational deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, J L; Kossowski, M; Verdaille, P

    2000-01-15

    The frequency of accidental, traumatic hearing loss is increasing due to a sometimes violently noisy environment and to the development of sports as leisure activities. The diagnosis is based on knowledge of the circumstances of the trauma and on otoscopic examination. Total audiometry localises the damage. Occupational hearing loss forms a special subset of traumatic deafness. This trauma is usually due to intense noise occurring at the work-place. It is of insidious onset, irreversibly progressive and without treatment once under way; Prevention is based on knowledge of the deleterious effects of noise and on the individual factors of the subject at risk.

  3. Design of GPS-based speed-limiting and bus station announcement system for bus%基于GPS公交车限速报站系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁卫

    2012-01-01

    A vehicle-mounted system with C8051F040 MCU as the control core is designed based on GPS and used to realize automatic bus station announcement. Firstly, voice information of each station is recorded by a sound recording interface. The system automatically indentifies next station and reports the station name,while the bus is driving. At the same time, maximum of driving speed is set. Once the bus exceeds the set speed, the system completes the function of voice warning. In addition, the system has the function of accurate positioning and can operate day and night.%为实现公交车的自动报站功能,提出一种以C8051F040单片机和GPS卫星定位系统的设计方案.首先设置通过录音接口预存各站点具体位置的语音信息,当公交车在行驶时,能自动识别站点并完成语音报站功能,同时可设置公交车行驶的上限速度,当超过该速度值时,系统将完成语音报警提示.该系统定位准确,并可实现全天侯工作.

  4. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicles contribute to climate change and petroleum dependence. Improving their fuel economy by making them lighter need not compromise safety. The cars and trucks plying America's roads and highways generate roughly 20 percent of the nation's total emissions of carbon dioxide, a pollutant that is, of course, of increasing concern because of its influence on climate. Motor vehicles also account for most of our country's dependence on imported petroleum, the price of which has recently skyrocketed to near-record levels. So policymakers would welcome the many benefits that would accrue from lessening the amount of fuel consumed in this way. Yet lawmakers have not significantly tightened new vehicle fuel-economy standards since they were first enacted three decades ago. Since then, manufacturers have, for the most part, used advances in automotive technology, ones that could have diminished fuel consumption, to boost performance and increase vehicle weight. In addition, the growth in popularity of pickups, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and minivans--and the large amounts of gas they typically guzzle--has resulted in the average vehicle using the same amount of fuel per mile as it did 20 years ago. One of the historical impediments to imposing tougher fuel-economy standards has been the long-standing worry that reducing the mass of a car or truck to help meet these requirements would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. People often justify this concern in terms of 'simple physics', noting, for example, that, all else being equal, in a head-on collision, the lighter vehicle is the more strongly decelerated, an argument that continues to sway regulators, legislators and many in the general public. We have spent the past several years examining the research underlying this position--and some recent work challenging it. We have also conducted our own analyses and come to the conclusion that the claim that lighter vehicles are

  5. Environmental and occupational allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma.

  6. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  7. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  8. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  9. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  10. The Design of SDX-bus and Wishbone-Bus Interface Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的SDX总线与Wishbone总线接口设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 张智鹏

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirement of reliability, high data management efficiency as well as hardware cost of the airborne information acquisition system, this article mainly introduces the interface conversion of Sdx-bus and Wishbone-bus. The implementation of the design is based on Verilog HDL Language. It is simulated on the Model- Sim software, synthesized on the Quartus platform and tested through FPGA from The Cyclone Ⅲ by Ahera company. The results show that the design is feasible.%针对机栽信息采集系统可靠性、数据管理高效性以及硬件成本的需求,介绍了基于硬件描述语言VerilogHDL设计的SDX总线与Wishbone总线接口转化的设计与实现,并通过Modelsim进行功能仿真,在QuartusⅡ软件平台上综合,最终在A|tera公司的CycloneⅡ系列FPGA上调试。实验证明了设计的可行性。

  11. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  12. High Performance ZVT with Bus Clamping Modulation Technique for Single Phase Full Bridge Inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yinglai; Ayyanar, Raja

    2016-03-20

    This paper proposes a topology based on bus clamping modulation and zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) technique to realize zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) for all the main switches of the full bridge inverters, and inherent ZVS and/or ZCS for the auxiliary switches. The advantages of the strategy include significant reduction in the turn-on loss of the ZVT auxiliary switches which typically account for a major part of the total loss in other ZVT circuits, and reduction in the voltage ratings of auxiliary switches. The modulation scheme and the commutation stages are analyzed in detail. Finally, a 1kW, 500 kHz switching frequency inverter of the proposed topology using SiC MOSFETs has been built to validate the theoretical analysis. The ZVT with bus clamping modulation technique of fixed timing and adaptive timing schemes are implemented in DSP TMS320F28335 resulting in full ZVS for the main switches in the full bridge inverter. The proposed scheme can save up to 33 % of the switching loss compared with no ZVT case.

  13. Enabling occupation: occupation-based and client centred practice in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barcelos Pontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational therapists have always been dedicated to the human occupation study, however the client hasn’t always been seen as an occupational being, with needs, interests and individual goals. The concern for our clients’ engagement in occupation, rather than the acquisition or restoration of performance components, together with the gradual modification of the concept of occupation from work-related activities to purposeful human activity, requires a broadening of our scope of practice. The most current theories related to occupational therapy practice have highlightes the use of client centered and occupational based practices. In occupation-based, client-centred practice the client participates actively in negotiating goals, and client occupational goals are given priority and are placed at the centre of assessment, intervention and outcomes. There are numerous evidences in the literature with significantly positive results supporting these approaches. These approaches are based on the premises that goals and objectives of interventions should be focused in occupation and significant activities to the client and reflect the occupational therapy core values: an occupational-centred perspective that respects client’s choices, goals and values, promoting and supporting the engagement on meaningful activities.

  14. Occupational trajectories and occupational cost among Senegalese immigrants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Obucina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Immigration from Africa to Europe has increased substantially in recent decades. The main goal of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of contemporary international migration processes by analyzing the occupational trajectories and occupational costs of Senegalese immigrants in three major European destination countries (France, Italy, and Spain. OBJECTIVE The first objective is to compare the occupational attainment of the Senegalese immigrants before and after migration to Europe, as well as to establish the determinants of the immigrants' occupational attainment and occupational mobility levels after migration. Another major goal is to estimate the occupational cost of migration from Senegal to Europe. The central question this study intends to answer is how much, in terms of occupational status, Senegalese immigrants renounce by migrating to Europe, in both the short and the long term. METHODS The data stem from the Senegalese sample of the MAFE dataset. The standard OLS techniques are used in the analysis of occupational attainment, while discrete-time multinomial logit is used in the section on occupational mobility. The principal techniques for the estimation of occupational cost of migration are random effects with Mundlak correction and nearest-neighbor matching. RESULTS There is a U-shaped pattern of occupational mobility among Senegalese immigrants in Europe: the average occupational status of this group drops just after arrival in Europe, and then slowly improves with the duration of stay. The multivariate analysis reveals that education acquired in Europe plays an especially important role in the successful participation of this immigrant group in the labor market. The results show that there is a statistically significant occupational cost of migration from Senegal to Europe, but that the cost decreases with the duration of stay in Europe.

  15. Study on Braking Energy Regeneration System for City Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zheng-yao; CHEN Ru-wen; YANG Xue-mei; LIU Gou-bing; JIN Jia-jun

    2011-01-01

    Braking of the urban vehicles of public service wastes a large number of engine energy in the condition of starting and stopping frequently. Aiming at the problem, an electro-mechanical braking energy regeneration system was proposed which adopted a high-speed flywheel and a battery to recover the braking energy and achieve the secondary traction for the auxiliary start function. The system strategy was designed and the braking simulation was processed to validate its feasibility. The experiment results show that the system can effectively recover the braking energy, improve the starting performance of the city bus and it can be applied to the engineering.

  16. High-performance computers for unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, David; Ettinger, Gil J.

    2005-10-01

    The present trend of increasing functionality onboard unmanned vehicles is made possible by rapid advances in high-performance computers (HPCs). An HPC is characterized by very high computational capability (100s of billions of operations per second) contained in lightweight, rugged, low-power packages. HPCs are critical to the processing of sensor data onboard these vehicles. Operations such as radar image formation, target tracking, target recognition, signal intelligence signature collection and analysis, electro-optic image compression, and onboard data exploitation are provided by these machines. The net effect of an HPC is to minimize communication bandwidth requirements and maximize mission flexibility. This paper focuses on new and emerging technologies in the HPC market. Emerging capabilities include new lightweight, low-power computing systems: multi-mission computing (using a common computer to support several sensors); onboard data exploitation; and large image data storage capacities. These new capabilities will enable an entirely new generation of deployed capabilities at reduced cost. New software tools and architectures available to unmanned vehicle developers will enable them to rapidly develop optimum solutions with maximum productivity and return on investment. These new technologies effectively open the trade space for unmanned vehicle designers.

  17. Analysis of System Wide Distortion in an Integrated Power System Utilizing a High Voltage DC Bus and Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    concentrated on the power supplied to a propulsion motor driven by an inverter with simulated silicon carbide switches. Theoretically, silicon ... carbide switches have the advantage of being able to withstand a very large blocking voltage and carry very large forward currents. Silicon carbide switches...are also very efficient due to their quick rise and fall times. Since silicon carbide switches can withstand high voltage differentials and switch

  18. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  19. Successful marriage: American Panel Corporation and LG Philips LCD custom-designed avionic, shipboard, and rugged ground vehicle display modules from a consumer-oriented fabrication facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William; Garrett, Kimberly S.

    2001-09-01

    American panel corporation (APC) believes the use of custom designed (instead of ruggedized commercial) AMLCD cells is the only way to meet the specific environmental and performance requirements of the military/commercial avionic, shipboard and rugged ground vehicle markets. The APC/LG.Philips LCD (LG) custom approach mitigates risk to the end-user in many ways. As a part of the APC/LG long- term agreement LG has committed to provide module level equivalent (form, fit and function equivalent) panels for a period of ten years. No other commercial glass manufacturer has provided such an agreement. With the use of LG's commercial production manufacturing capabilities, APC/LG can provide the opportunity to procure a lifetime buy for any program with delivery of the entire lot within six months of order placement. This ensures that the entire production program will receive identical glass for every unit. The APC/LG relationship works where others have failed due to the number of years spent cultivating the mutual trust and respect necessary for establishing such a partnership, LG's interest in capturing the market share of this niche application, and the magnitude of the initial up-front investment by APC in engineering, tooling, facilities, production equipment, and LCD cell inventory.

  20. Reliability and Characterization of High Voltage Power Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.   System level overview of IPC EVCS (from [3]). ..............................................2   Figure 2...permittivity EVCS electric vehicle charging system GPIB general-purpose interface bus GW giga-watt HVST high voltage stress test IV current voltage...Power Converter (IPC). This converter is being used for the Electric Vehicle Charging Station ( EVCS ), currently being investigated and installed in

  1. Research on Consumers’ Use Willingness and Opinions of Electric Vehicle Sharing: An Empirical Study in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study in Shanghai was performed to explore consumers’ use willingness and opinions on electric vehicle sharing (EVS to help operators effectively operate and expand the new business model. Through the multinomial logistic regression developed for different groups, the results show that the factors of the main trip mode in daily use, monthly transportation expenditure, driving range of electric vehicles, gender, age, marital status and occupation have significant influences on consumers’ use willingness. In short, the population characteristics of people choosing to use EVS are male, aged between 18 and 30 and usually taking the subway and bus as the daily transportation modes. Otherwise, the factors of the acceptable highest price of EVS, occupation and personal monthly income have significant impacts on the use willingness of people who keep a neutral stance. These people pay more attention to convenience and the economy of EVS. These results reveal that a reasonable price, accurate positioning of target groups, convenient site layout and usage are required for operators to successfully launch a new transportation mode of EVS.

  2. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  3. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  5. Driving the Phileas, a new automated public transport vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Fabriek, Eva; Van Wolffelaar, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Phileas is a high quality public transport vehicle combining characteristics of bus, tram, and the underground. Phileas is equipped with pneumatic tyres and complies with the statutory regulations for buses. Accordingly Phileas may drive everywhere on public roads where buses are allowed to drive. O

  6. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  7. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  8. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 1; Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Townsend, J. C.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, V.; Barthelemy, J.-F.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a highspeed civil transport configuration. The paper describes the engineering aspects of formulating the optimization by integrating these analysis codes and associated interface codes into the system. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) compliant software product. A companion paper presents currently available results.

  9. Construction of high magnetic field facilities approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 25 January, the National Development and Reform Commission gave the green light to a proposal to construct high magnetic field facilities for experimental use. The suggestion was jointly submitted by the Ministry of Education and CAS.

  10. Towards cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles: H-Mode and Conduct-by-Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemisch, Frank Ole; Bengler, Klaus; Bubb, Heiner; Winner, Hermann; Bruder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a general ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control for vehicles with an emphasis on the cooperation between a human and a highly automated vehicle. In the twenty-first century, mobility and automation technologies are increasingly fused. In the sky, highly automated aircraft are flying with a high safety record. On the ground, a variety of driver assistance systems are being developed, and highly automated vehicles with increasingly autonomous capabilities are becoming possible. Human-centred automation has paved the way for a better cooperation between automation and humans. How can these highly automated systems be structured so that they can be easily understood, how will they cooperate with the human? The presented research was conducted using the methods of iterative build-up and refinement of framework by triangulation, i.e. by instantiating and testing the framework with at least two derived concepts and prototypes. This article sketches a general, conceptual ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles, two concepts derived from the framework, prototypes and pilot data. Cooperation is exemplified in a list of aspects and related to levels of the driving task. With the concept 'Conduct-by-Wire', cooperation happens mainly on the guidance level, where the driver can delegate manoeuvres to the automation with a specialised manoeuvre interface. With H-Mode, a haptic-multimodal interaction with highly automated vehicles based on the H(orse)-Metaphor, cooperation is mainly done on guidance and control with a haptically active interface. Cooperativeness should be a key aspect for future human-automation systems. Especially for highly automated vehicles, cooperative guidance and control is a research direction with already promising concepts and prototypes that should be further explored. The application of the presented approach is every human-machine system that moves and includes high

  11. Complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.

  12. Power-optimal encoding for low-power address bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a novel bus encoding method to reduce the switching activity on address buses and hence reduce power dissipation. Dynamic-sorting encoding (DSE) method reduces the power dissipation of address bus based on the dynamic reordering of the modified offset address bus lines. This method reorders the ten least significant bits of offset address according to the range of offset address, and the optimal sorting pattern is transmitted through the high bits of address bus without the need for redundant bus lines. The experimental results using an instruction set simulator and SPEC2000 benchmarks show that DSE method can reduce signal transitions on the address bus by 88.2%, and the actual overhead of the encoder circuit is estimated after encoder is designed and synthesized in 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The results show that DSE method outperforms the low-power encoding schemes presented in the past.

  13. Risk Factors for Near Miss Incident among Long Distance Bus Drivers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Ronaidi NIK MAHDI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accident is a worldwide public health issue that has its highest impact on low and middle income countries including Malaysia. Many previous studies concerned on the causality of the actual accidents and little attention were given to near miss incidents. Hence, the current study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 517 long distance bus drivers. Data were collected using interview-guided translated and validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Manchester Driver Behaviour questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant factors for near miss incident among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia.Results: The prevalence of near miss incident among long distance bus drivers was 37.5% (95% CI: 33.5, 41.8. The significant associated factors for near miss incident were younger age group (ORadj : 1.99; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.01, longer distance travelled per day (ORadj : 2.34; 95% CI: 1.52, 3.60, sleep disturbances (ORadj : 1.74; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54 and errors in driving behaviour (ORadj : 1.31; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.39.Conclusion: Self-reported near miss incidents were relatively high among long distance bus drivers in Malaysia. This issue should be taken seriously and preventive action should consider the significant human factors such as younger age group, errors in driving behaviours, sleep disturbances as well as occupational factors like distance travelled per day. Keywords: Road traffic accident, Near miss, Bus drivers, Malaysia 

  14. IEQ and the impact on building occupants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-08-01

    Research into indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and its effects on health, comfort and performance of occupants is becoming increasingly essential. Facility managers are interested in IEQ's close relationship to energy use. Employers hope to enhance employee comfort and productivity, reduce absenteeism and health-care costs, and reduce risk of litigation. The rising interest in this field has placed additional pressure on the research community for practical guidelines on creating a safe, healthy and comfortable indoor environment.

  15. High Performance Monopropellants for Future Planetary Ascent Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to design, develop, and demonstrate, a novel high performance monopropellant for application in future planetary ascent vehicles. Our...

  16. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwall Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX. Research topics to be addressed include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs at prototypical operating conditions. Each loop will also include an interchangeable high-temperature test section that can be customized to address specific research issues associated with each working fluid. This paper also discusses needs and challenges associated with advanced instrumentation for the multi-loop facility, which could be further applied to advanced high-temperature reactors. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST facility. A preliminary design configuration of the ARTIST facility will be presented with the required design and operating characteristics of the various components. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750 °C, high-pressure (7 MPa helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4 flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa, at a temperature of ∼450 °C. The salt loop will be thermally integrated with the steam/water loop operating at PWR conditions. Experiment design challenges include identifying suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. The instrumentation needs to be highly accurate (negligible drift in measuring operational data for extended periods of times, as data collected will be

  17. Evaluation on the Occupational Information Access System as Used at Churchill High School. A Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Bruce; Adams, Daniel

    The Occupational Information Access System (OIAS) improves the accessibility of occupational labor market information for career planning. Its operation at Churchill High School is evaluated from several angels: the likes and dislikes of users; the effect of OIAS on users' knowledge of occupational information and on their career plans; why other…

  18. A High-Throughput Biological Calorimetry Core: Steps to Startup, Run, and Maintain a Multiuser Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennawar, Neela H; Fecko, Julia A; Showalter, Scott A; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    Many labs have conventional calorimeters where denaturation and binding experiments are setup and run one at a time. While these systems are highly informative to biopolymer folding and ligand interaction, they require considerable manual intervention for cleaning and setup. As such, the throughput for such setups is limited typically to a few runs a day. With a large number of experimental parameters to explore including different buffers, macromolecule concentrations, temperatures, ligands, mutants, controls, replicates, and instrument tests, the need for high-throughput automated calorimeters is on the rise. Lower sample volume requirements and reduced user intervention time compared to the manual instruments have improved turnover of calorimetry experiments in a high-throughput format where 25 or more runs can be conducted per day. The cost and efforts to maintain high-throughput equipment typically demands that these instruments be housed in a multiuser core facility. We describe here the steps taken to successfully start and run an automated biological calorimetry facility at Pennsylvania State University. Scientists from various departments at Penn State including Chemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biology, Food Science, and Chemical Engineering are benefiting from this core facility. Samples studied include proteins, nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, synthetic polymers, small molecules, natural products, and virus capsids. This facility has led to higher throughput of data, which has been leveraged into grant support, attracting new faculty hire and has led to some exciting publications.

  19. Occupational accidents among middle and high school students of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Frida M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries and identify their risk factors among students in two municipalities. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public schools of the municipalities of Santo Antonio do Pinhal and Monteiro Lobato, Brazil. A stratified probabilistic sample was drawn from public middle and high schools of the study municipalities. A total of 781 students aged 11 to 19 years participated in the study. Students attending middle and high school answered a comprehensive questionnaire on living and working conditions, as well as aspects of work injuries, and health conditions. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to estimate risk factors of previous and present occupational injuries. RESULTS: Of 781 students, 604 previously had or currently have jobs and 47% reported previous injuries. Among current workers (n=555, 38% reported injuries on their current job. Risk factors for work injuries with statistically significant odds ratio >2.0 included attending evening school, working as a housekeeper, waiter or brickmaker, and with potentially dangerous machines. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the need of restricting adolescent work and support communities to implement social promotion programs.

  20. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Lightweight Design and Analysis on a 10 m-length Pure Electric Bus%10 m纯电动客车轻量化设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐强; 杨彦三; 杨延功; 孙国伟; 刘涛

    2016-01-01

    For a 10 m-length pure electric bus, the authors make it lightweight design through measures of its local parts using low-density materials, its chassis frame using high-strength materials and its partial skeleton structures taking optimization. Then, they use CAE to analyze the strength for the lightweight designed vehicle framework. The lightweight designed structure can not only meet the strength requirement of the vehicle but also increase the contin-uous travel distance of the vehicle.%通过对某10 m纯电动客车局部采用低密度材料,车架采用高强度材料,部分骨架结构采用优化的方法进行轻量化设计,并采用CAE对轻量化设计后的整车骨架进行强度分析。轻量化设计后的结构,不但能够满足整车的强度要求,而且能够增加车辆的续驶里程。

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for High-Throughput Phenotyping and Agronomic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J Alex; Murray, Seth C; Pugh, N Ace; Rooney, William L; Shafian, Sanaz; Rajan, Nithya; Rouze, Gregory; Morgan, Cristine L S; Neely, Haly L; Rana, Aman; Bagavathiannan, Muthu V; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Bishop, Michael P; Sheridan, Ryan; Putman, Eric B; Popescu, Sorin; Burks, Travis; Cope, Dale; Ibrahim, Amir; McCutchen, Billy F; Baltensperger, David D; Avant, Robert V; Vidrine, Misty; Yang, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e.g., site-specific application of water and nutrients. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently gained traction as agricultural data collection systems. Using UAVs for agricultural remote sensing is an innovative technology that differs from traditional remote sensing in more ways than strictly higher-resolution images; it provides many new and unique possibilities, as well as new and unique challenges. Herein we report on processes and lessons learned from year 1-the summer 2015 and winter 2016 growing seasons-of a large multidisciplinary project evaluating UAV images across a range of breeding and agronomic research trials on a large research farm. Included are team and project planning, UAV and sensor selection and integration, and data collection and analysis workflow. The study involved many crops and both breeding plots and agronomic fields. The project's goal was to develop methods for UAVs to collect high-quality, high-volume crop data with fast turnaround time to field scientists. The project included five teams: Administration, Flight Operations, Sensors, Data Management, and Field Research. Four case studies involving multiple crops in breeding and agronomic applications add practical descriptive detail. Lessons learned include critical information on sensors, air vehicles, and configuration parameters for both. As the first and

  4. Plasma facilities measuring equipment and high-voltage systems for basic research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W. [eds.] [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The report presents short description and the main technical data of various devices and systems designed and constructed at the Thermonuclear Research Dept. of the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) in Swierk n. Warsaw, Poland. Different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities of energy ranging from several kJ to 360 kJ, as well as the Ion Implosion Facilities of energy equal to 400 kJ, are shortly described. We present different cameras and analyzers used for studies of ions and X-rays. We also describe e.g. IONOTRONs used for material engineering. High-Voltage Pulse Generators developed for the voltage range from 40 kV to 2.4 MV, various Data Acquisition Systems, and special Vacuum Stands. Some selected technical units used in high-voltage systems are also presented. (author). 32 figs.

  5. 基于CAN总线技术的客车起动与电源系统控制方法%Bus/Coach Starting and Control Method of Power Supply System Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毅

    2015-01-01

    阐述一种基于CAN总线技术的客车起动与电源系统及其控制方法,通过实时采集当前车辆电源状态,在发生电压异常时进行报警,并适时切断电源进行保护,以保证整车电气系统的安全,提高驾驶员的安全意识。%The author elaborates a kind of bus starting and electricity supply system and its control method based on CAN bus technology, that is through collecting the current state of the vehicle power supply in real time, in the case of abnormal voltage, it can give alarms and protections through timely cutting off the power supply so as to en-sure the safety of the vehicle electrical system and improve the driver's safety awareness.

  6. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK56 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Action Plan, NHTSA is issuing this NPRM to propose to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard... crash must involve a motor vehicle traveling on a traffic way customarily open to the public, and...

  7. Occupational therapy, culture and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Simó Algado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational behaviour is always an environmental behaviour because the occupation is the dialogue between human beings and their environment. Culture is key dimension in our profession. This article is based on previous research and a new review of the scientific literature on the various meanings associated with culture. In the contemporary context the globalization involves the imposition of the American way of life on a planetary scale. In front of ethnocentrism and racism a diatopical hermeneutics is proposed. A cosmopolitan citizenship can be constructed supporting diversity. The article concludes by reflecting on strategies that can be implemented from occupational therapy to develop a culturally safe occupational therapy. An archaeology of meaning must be developed in front of the Americanization. Occupational therapy needs to develop a powerful political activism in order to build an inclusive society based on human rights and sustainability. Culture and diversity are key elements in this process.

  8. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  9. Performance Improvement for Two-Stage Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters Using a Fast DC Bus Control Scheme and a Novel Synchronous Frame Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage single-phase grid-connected converters are widely used in renewable energy applications. Due to the presence of a second harmonic ripple across the DC bus voltage, it is very challenging to design the DC bus voltage control scheme in single-phase grid-connected inverters. The DC bus voltage controller must filter the ripple and balance a tradeoff between low harmonic distortion and high bandwidth. This paper presents a fast DC bus voltage controller, which uses a second order digital finite impulse response (FIR notch filter in conjunction with input power feedforward scheme to ensure the steady-state and dynamic performance. To gain the input power without extra hardware, a Kalman filter is incorporated to estimate the DC bus input current. At the same time, a modulation compensation strategy is implemented to eliminate the nonlinearity of the grid current control loop, which is caused by the DC bus voltage ripple. Moreover, a novel synchronous frame current controller for single-phase systems is also introduced, and its equivalent model in stationary frame has been derived. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the effective of the proposed control scheme.

  10. Scheduling Combination Optimization Research for Bus Lane Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different scheduling forms can be adopted in bus lane system to meet passengers’ travel demand well and improve operational efficiency. Therefore, this paper researched the optimal headway and bus scheduling combination of a bus lane line. Bus scheduling combination is composed of a sequence of full-length, express bus and short-turn. We established a model to minimize passengers’ waiting cost and vehicles’ operation cost and to optimize headway and bus scheduling combination, under the constraint of the headway restriction for each stop, the minimum number of vehicle trips in one hour and the proportion of short-turn and express bus trips in total trips. The model was solved by improved genetic algorithm, and the optimal solution was obtained by repeating the operation of genetic algorithm L times. The results of numerical example show that the whole cost can be saved by 21.77% at most after optimization, which indicate the model and algorithm we presented are reasonable and practicable.

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  12. Design Optimisation of a High Intensity Beam Facility and Feasibility Experiment of a Solid Fragmented Target

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Rivkin, Leonid

    2014-06-13

    The present PhD thesis describes the design, execution and results of the HRMT-10 experiment performed at the HiRadMat facility of the CERN/SPS complex. The first part of the thesis covers the design optimization studies of the HiRadMat facility, focusing in particular on the radiation protection issues. A detailed Monte-Carlo model of the facility has been developed and validated through comparison with measurements. A very satisfactory agreement between the simulation and the experimental data is observed. In the second part of this thesis, a novel feasibility experiment of a fragmented solid target for a future Neutrino Factory or a Super Beam facility, able to support high beam powers ( 1 MW) is presented in detail. A solid granular target has been proposed as an interesting alternative to an open Hg jet target, presently considered as the baseline for such facilities, but posing considerable technical challenges. The HRMT-10 experiment seeks to address the lack of experimental data of the feasibility of...

  13. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... the Federal Register of selected projects. iii. Cost Sharing Costs will be shared at the following... guidelines. The project improves energy efficiency or reduces energy consumption/green house gas emissions... will be shared at the following ratio: 80 percent FTA/20 percent local contribution. FTA will...

  14. The Myth of the "Ideal Bus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Does as an ideal bus technology exist? Many companies have and will promote a single technology as the ideal bus that will meet all application needs, but in actuality, each bus technology has its own strengths and weaknesses and thus is appropriate for different applications. History has shown the folly of claiming an ideal bus for every application.

  15. Occupation, cadmium exposure, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghany, N A; Schumacher, M C; Slattery, M L; West, D W; Lee, J S

    1990-03-01

    A population-based case-control study was used to investigate associations between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure, longest industry held, and longest occupation held. The study included 358 men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and 679 control men identified from the Utah population. Occupational exposures to cadmium were ascertained from self-reported data, through several a priori suspect industries and occupations, through an occupation-exposure linkage system, and through dietary food frequency questionnaires. Overall, cadmium exposure appeared to result in a small increased relative risk for prostate cancer, most apparent for aggressive tumors (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.0-3.1 for any occupational exposure, high dietary intake, or smoking cigarettes). Cases were more likely to have worked in the following industries: mining, paper and wood, medicine and science, and entertainment and recreation. Among men younger than 67, cases were also more likely to have worked in the food and tobacco industries (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.0-12.8). Cases were less likely to have worked in industries involved with glass, clay and stone, or rubber, plastics, and synthetics. Men employed as janitors and in other building service occupations showed increased relative risk for aggressive tumors (OR = 7.0, CI = 2.5-19.6). Agricultural occupations did not appear to be related to prostate cancer, although an increased relative risk for aggressive tumors was detected among younger men (OR = 2.6, CI = 0.6-12.1).

  16. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  17. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops.Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities.Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk.Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  18. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  19. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  20. A robust and high precision optimal explicit guidance scheme for solid motor propelled launch vehicles with thrust and drag uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arnab; Padhi, Radhakant; Mallaram, Sanjeev; Mallikarjuna Rao, G.; Manickavasagam, M.

    2016-10-01

    A new nonlinear optimal and explicit guidance law is presented in this paper for launch vehicles propelled by solid motors. It can ensure very high terminal precision despite not having the exact knowledge of the thrust-time curve apriori. This was motivated from using it for a carrier launch vehicle in a hypersonic mission, which demands an extremely narrow terminal accuracy window for the launch vehicle for successful initiation of operation of the hypersonic vehicle. The proposed explicit guidance scheme, which computes the optimal guidance command online, ensures the required stringent final conditions with high precision at the injection point. A key feature of the proposed guidance law is an innovative extension of the recently developed model predictive static programming guidance with flexible final time. A penalty function approach is also followed to meet the input and output inequality constraints throughout the vehicle trajectory. In this paper, the guidance law has been successfully validated from nonlinear six degree-of-freedom simulation studies by designing an inner-loop autopilot as well, which enhances confidence of its usefulness significantly. In addition to excellent nominal results, the proposed guidance has been found to have good robustness for perturbed cases as well.

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. School bus transportation of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    School systems are responsible for ensuring that children with special needs are safely transported on all forms of federally approved transportation provided by the school system, and a plan should be developed to provide the most current and proper support to children with special transportation requirements. This statement provides current guidelines for the protection of child passengers with specific health care needs, including those with a tracheostomy, those requiring use of car seats, or those transported in wheelchairs. Guidelines that apply to general school transportation should be followed, including the training of staff, provision of nurses or aides if needed, establishment of a written emergency evacuation plan, and a comprehensive infection control program. Research provides the basis for recommendations concerning occupant securement for children in wheelchairs and children with other special needs who are transported on a school bus. Pediatricians can help their patients by being aware of guidelines for restraint systems for children with special needs and by remaining informed of new resources. Pediatricians can also play an important role at the state and local level in the development of school bus specifications.

  2. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  3. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  4. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  5. Galaxy halo occupation at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how current and future data on the clustering and number density of z~3 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) can be used to constrain their relationship to dark matter haloes. We explore a three-parameter model in which the number of LBGs per dark halo scales like a power law in the halo mass: N(M)=(M/M1)S for M>Mmin. Here, Mmin is the minimum mass halo that can host an LBG, M1 is a normalization parameter, associated with the mass above which haloes host more than one observed LBG, and S determines the strength of the mass-dependence. We show how these three parameters are constrained by three observable properties of LBGs: the number density, the large-scale bias and the fraction of objects in close pairs. Given these three quantities, the three unknown model parameters may be estimated analytically, allowing a full exploration of parameter space. As an example, we assume a ΛCDM cosmology and consider the observed properties of a recent sample of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs. We find that the favoured range for our model parameters is Mmin~=(0.4-8)×1010h- 1Msolar, M1~=(6-10)×1012h- 1Msolar, and 0.9acceptable if the allowed range of bg is permitted to span all recent observational estimates. We also discuss how the observed clustering of LBGs as a function of luminosity can be used to constrain halo occupation, although because of current observational uncertainties we are unable to reach any strong conclusions. Our methods and results can be used to constrain more realistic models that aim to derive the occupation function N(M) from first principles, and offer insight into how basic physical properties affect the observed properties of LBGs.

  6. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. M. Payne; V. W. Gorman; S. A. Jensen; M. E. Nitzel; M. J. Russell; R. P. Smith

    2000-03-01

    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.

  7. A LOW BUDGET MOBILE LASER SCANNING SOLUTION USING ON BOARD SENSORS AND FIELD BUS SYSTEMS OF TODAY'S CONSUMER AUTOMOBILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. M. Vock

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning systems (MLS offer a great potential for acquiring detailed point cloud data of urban and suburban surroundings with minimum effort. In this paper a new solution for MLSs is presented, requiring solely a combination of a profile laser scanning device and systems that are included in today's serialized end consumer vehicles. While today's mobile laser scan systems require different and expensive additional hardware that needs to be mounted onto the vehicle, the devices included within vehicle electronics offer good alternatives without additional costs.The actual scan consists of a continuous profile scan together with information gathered from on-board sensor modules. In a post- processing step, the sensor data is used to reconstruct the car's trajectory for the period of the scan and, based on this information, the track of the scan device for every measured laser pixel. Synchronization of pixel data and vehicle movement is realized via a timestamp signal which is transmitted to the car's field bus system and the scan device. To generate the final point cloud scenario, the trajectory is interpolated for every single scan point and used to convert its local position within the profile into the global coordinate system (Fig.1, Left.

  8. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-02-24

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well.

  9. School-to-Work Transition of College Graduates in Korea: The Impact of High School Track on College Performance and Post-College Occupational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sung Youn

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the impacts of high school track on college performance and subsequent occupational outcomes after college graduation. To this end, the Korean Education and Employment Panel (KEEP) data from 2004 through 2010, including 4,000 samples of 12th graders as of 2004 from vocational and general high schools, were analyzed.…

  10. Scaling Laws in Chennai Bus Network

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the structural properties of the complex bus network of Chennai. We formulate this extensive network structure by identifying each bus stop as a node, and a bus which stops at any two adjacent bus stops as an edge connecting the nodes. Rigorous statistical analysis of this data shows that the Chennai bus network displays small-world properties and a scale-free degree distribution with the power-law exponent, $\\gamma > 3$.

  11. Performance of school bus retrofit systems: ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of retrofit systems for diesel-powered school buses, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a spiracle crankcase filtration system (CFS), regarding ultrafine particles (UFPs) and other air pollutants from tailpipe emissions and inside bus cabins. Tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant levels were measured before and after retrofitting when the buses were idling and during actual pick-up/drop off routes. Retrofit systems significantly reduced tailpipe emissions with a reduction of 20-94% of total particles with both DOC and CFS installed. However, no unequivocal decrease was observed for in-cabin air pollutants after retrofitting. The AC/fan unit and the surrounding air pollutant concentrations played more important roles for determining the in-cabin air quality of school buses than did retrofit technologies. Although current retrofit systems reduce children's exposure while waiting to board at a bus station, retrofitting by itself does not protect children satisfactorily from in-cabin particle exposures. Turning on the bus engine increased in-cabin UFP levels significantly only when the wind blew from the bus' tailpipe toward its hood with its windows open. This indicated that wind direction and window position are significant factors determining how much self-released tailpipe emissions may penetrate into the bus cabin. The use of an air purifier was found to remove in-cabin particles by up to 50% which might be an alternative short-to-medium term strategy to protect children's health.

  12. Inductive Theorem Proving and Computer Algebra in the Mathweb Software Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Juergen; Dennis, Louise Abigail

    2002-01-01

    Reasoning systems have reached a high degree of maturity in the last decade. However, even the most successful systems are usually not general purpose problem solvers but are typically specialised on problems in a certain domain. The MathWeb SOftware Bus (Mathweb-SB) is a system for combining reasoning specialists via a common osftware bus. We described the integration of the lambda-clam systems, a reasoning specialist for proofs by induction, into the MathWeb-SB. Due to this integration,...

  13. High Energy Density and High Temperature Multilayer Capacitor Films for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treufeld, Imre; Song, Michelle; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric; Snyder, Joe; Langhe, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer films (MLFs) with high energy density and high temperature capability (>120 °C) have been developed at Case Western Reserve University. Such films offer a potential solution for electric car DC-link capacitors, where high ripple currents and high temperature tolerance are required. The current state-of-the-art capacitors used in electric cars for converting DC to AC use biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), which can only operate at temperatures up to 85 °C requiring an external cooling system. The polycarbonate (PC)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) MLFs have a higher permittivity compared to that of BOPP (2.3), leading to higher energy density. They have good mechanical stability and reasonably low dielectric losses at 120 °C. Nonetheless, our preliminary dielectric measurements show that the MLFs exhibit appreciable dielectric losses (20%) at 120 °C, which would, despite all the other advantages, make them not suitable for practical applications. Our preliminary data showed that dielectric losses of the MLFs at 120 °C up to 400 MV/m and 1000 Hz originate mostly from impurity ionic conduction. This work is supported by the NSF PFI/BIC Program (IIP-1237708).

  14. Analysis of the longitudinal handling qualities and pilot-induced-oscillation tendencies of the High-Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA High-Angle-of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), a modified F-18 aircraft, experienced handling qualities problems in recent flight tests at NASA Dryden Research Center. Foremost in these problems was the tendency of the pilot-aircraft system to exhibit a potentially dangerous phenomenon known as a pilot-induced oscillation (PIO). When they occur, PIO's can severely restrict performance, sharply dimish mission capabilities, and can even result in aircraft loss. A pilot/vehicle analysis was undertaken with the goal of reducing these PIO tendencies and improving the overall vehicle handling qualities with as few changes as possible to the existing feedback/feedforward flight control laws. Utilizing a pair of analytical pilot models developed by the author, a pilot/vehicle analysis of the existing longitudinal flight control system was undertaken. The analysis included prediction of overall handling qualities levels and PIO susceptability. The analysis indicated that improvement in the flight control system was warranted and led to the formulation of a simple control stick command shaping filter. Analysis of the pilot/vehicle system with the shaping filter indicated significant improvements in handling qualities and PIO tendencies could be achieved. A non-real time simulation of the modified control system was undertaken with a realistic, nonlinear model of the current HARV. Special emphasis was placed upon those details of the command filter implementation which could effect safety of flight. The modified system is currently awaiting evaluation in the real-time, pilot-in-the-loop, Dual-Maneuvering-Simulator (DMS) facility at Langley.

  15. Utility and Weight of Factors of Bus Transit’ s Service Quality Analysis in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Liu; Tangyi Guo

    2015-01-01

    Service quality is a major factor that affects how public transport users evaluate bus service. In order to evaluate how bus users make trade⁃offs across travel cost, time, reliability, etc., and to investigate the extent to which the components of service quality vary according to relevant trip characteristics, this paper analyzes service quality of bus transit with the conjoint analysis. Through data analysis, the levels ’ utility values of reliability, waiting time, walking time, etc.,on the commuter trip and the non⁃commuter trip are gotten, so it is the utility function of the transit system. Then the factors’ weights are obtained through the utility values. The results show that on the commuter trip, passengers value reliability the most, which is followed by waiting time and walking time, while in⁃bus environment, price and station environment’ s weights are small. While on the non⁃commuter trip, the weights in a higher order to lower order are the first for reliability, the second for in⁃bus environment, the third for walking time, the fourth for station environment and the last for ticket price.

  16. Novel vehicle based on cubosomes for ophthalmic delivery of flurbiprofen with low irritancy and high bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shun; Shen, Jin-qiu; Gan, Yong; Geng, Hai-ming; Zhang, Xin-xin; Zhu, Chun-liu; Gan, Li

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel vehicle based on cubosomes as an ophthalmic drug delivery system for flurbiprofen (FB) to reduce ocular irritancy and improve bioavailability. Methods: FB-loaded cubosomes were prepared using hot and high-pressure homogenization. Cubosomes were then characterized by particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, particle morphology, inner cubic structure and in vitro release. Corneal permeation was evaluated using modified Franz-type cells. Ocular irritation was then evaluated using both the Draize method and histological examination. The ocular pharmacokinetics of FB was determined using microdialysis. Results: The particle size of each cubosome formulation was about 150 nm. A bicontinuous cubic phase of cubic P-type was determined using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observation and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. In vitro corneal permeation study revealed that FB formulated in cubosomes exhibited 2.5-fold (F1) and 2.0-fold (F2) increase in Papp compared with FB PBS. In the ocular irritation test, irritation scores for each group were less than 2, indicating that all formulations exhibited excellent ocular tolerance. Histological examination revealed that neither the structure nor the integrity of the cornea was visibly affected after incubation with FB cubosomes. The AUC of FB administered as FB cubosome F2 was 486.36±38.93 ng·mL−1·min·μg−1, which was significantly higher than that of FB Na eye drops (P<0.01). Compared with FB Na eye drops, the Tmax of FB cubosome F2 was about 1.6-fold higher and the MRT was also significantly longer (P<0.001). Conclusion: This novel low-irritant vehicle based on cubosomes might be a promising system for effective ocular drug delivery. PMID:20686524

  17. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  18. Real-time and reliability analysis of time-triggered CAN-bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Jiqiang; Zhang Chuansen; Bai Ronggang; Xue Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    Real-time performance and reliability are two most important issues in applications of time-triggered controller area network (CAN) bus systems at present.A scheduling matrix of time-triggered CAN-bus system is established using average-loading algorithm.Periodic messages are guaranteed to transmit without delay by distributing independent transmission windows within the system matrix.Considering the traditional CAN-bus transmission mechanism and the time-triggered feature,an algorithm is improved to calculate the worst-case delay of event-triggered messages in time-triggered CAN-bus systems.The failure probability is calculated for event-triggered messages whose worst-case delay exceeds their deadlines.Different levels of redundant structures of CAN-bus circuits are analyzed and the maintenance management is proposed to improve the system reliability.Finally,the reliabilities of different structures are calculated and the influences of maintenance on the system reliability are analyzed.

  19. Finite Element Analysis Of Large Deformation Of Articular Cartilage In Upper Ankle Joint Of Occupant In Military Vehicles During Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klekiel T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the load of lower limbs of occupants in the armoured military vehicle, which has been destroyed by detonation of the Improvised Explosive Device (IED charge under the vehicle. A simplified model of the human lower limb focused on upper ankle joint was developed in order to determine the reaction forces in joints and load in particular segments during the blast load. The model of upper ankle joint, include a tibia and an ankle bone with corresponding articular cartilage, has been developed. An analysis of the stress distribution under the influence of forces applied at different angles to the biomechanical axis of a limb has been performed. We analyzed the case of the lower limb of a sitting man leaning his feet on the floor. It has been shown that during a foot pronation induced by a knee outward deviation, the axial load on the foot causes significantly greater tension in the tibia. At the same time it has been shown that within the medial malleolus, tensile stresses occur on the surface of the bone which may lead to fracture of the medial malleolus. It is a common case of injuries caused by loads on foot of passengers in armored vehicles during a mine or IED load under the vehicle. It was shown that the outward deviation of the knee increases the risk of the foot injury within the ankle joint.

  20. A Multidisciplinary Optimization Framework for Occupant Centric Ground Vehicle System Design. Part 1: Vehicle Design Parameter Screening Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    shell components. The effects of suspension components on blast loading to a vehicle structure are assumed to be minimal. Therefore, the vehicle...seating mount position rigidly. There is no foot rest included in the model. In the underbody blast modeling and simulation, the cylindrical charge is...assembly and reinforcement structure. The crew cabin is a hull of a box shape with four side walls, a roof attached to the top of the box, and a crew

  1. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  2. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densam, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L. J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J. S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-01

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  3. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  4. Ditching Simulation of Air and Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh; Mouillet, Jean-Baptiste; Burkhalter, Drew; Robert, Adrien; Schwoertzig, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    The impact on water of an aircraft or a re-entry space vehicle is a very complex event and considered as an important issue for the air and space industry. To ensure the safety of the crew and to limit the risks of loss of the vehicle, a prediction of its structural behaviour under various ditching configurations must be performed. Structural tests are very costly and must be limited in scale or number, so numerical simulations may be of great help for this purpose.Numerical simulations aim to predict the trajectory of the vehicle under impact, the pressure repartition on the body, structural stress, possible damages to the structure and occupant 'g' levels during impact. Physically, two types of configurations involving different phenomenon can be identified, vertical impacts and impacts with high horizontal components, where air entrapment, ventilation and cavitations can be the dimensioning factors.The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the features of ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) transient dynamic explicit simulation methods to perform such simulations. This paper details analysis of the critical simulation parameters, fluid dynamic calculations, CPU and model size reduction techniques, Fluid-Structure contact modelling, examples of such simulations, correlation to physical tests using Explicit Finite Element based code RADIOSS from Altair Engineering. Two examples of re-entry and ditching numerical simulation are discussed in this paper with comparisons to physical test data.

  5. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  6. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  7. Navigation Facility for High Accuracy Offline Trajectory and Attitude Estimation in Airborne Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Renga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a navigation facility, relying on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS technology, developed to generate high-accuracy attitude and trajectory measurements in postprocessing. Target performance is cm-level positioning with tenth of degree attitude accuracy. The facility is based on the concept of GPS-aided inertial navigation but comprises carrier-phase differential GPS (CDGPS processing and attitude estimation based on multiantenna GPS configurations. Expected applications of the system include: (a performance assessment of integrated navigation systems, developed for general aviation aircraft and medium size unmanned aircraft systems (UAS; (b generation of reference measurements to evaluate the flight performance of airborne sensors (e.g., radar or laser; and (c generation of reference trajectory and attitude for improving imaging quality of airborne remote sensing data. The paper describes system architecture, selected algorithms for data processing and integration, and theoretical performance evaluation. Experimental results are also presented confirming the effectiveness of the implemented approach.

  8. Environmental air pollution and DNA adducts in Copenhagen bus drivers - effect of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on adduct level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; de Pater, Nettie; Okkels, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The lymphocyte bulky PAH-DNA adduct levels have been studied in persons occupationally exposed to ambient air pollution. The exposure group consisted of 90 healthy, nonsmoking bus drivers from the Copenhagen area, divided into three exposure groups according to driving area, and 60 rural controls...... to levels of exposure to urban air pollution and indicated that these adducts might be helpful as a means of classifying better different exposure groups for epidemiological studies. Furthermore, it demonstrated the ability of 32P-postlabelling to discern small differences in low exposure to ambient air...... pollution and suggested a possible effect of GSTM1*0/0 on DNA adduct levels....

  9. Research on Integration of Coal Mine Monitoring and Control System with Field Bus Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the construction of current coal mine monitoring and control systems in China, the paper proposes three kinds of applicable schemes of integrating PLC and DCS systems with field bus technology to digitize the system and to improve the flexibility and extent of the system. Essentially, the paper introduces the integration of FCS on I/O layers. Based on a real coal mine safety-monitoring and control system applied with a CAN field bus, the major technology of system relays and extensions is discussed. We believe that one of the most applicable methods is currently replacing the connection between function-stations and field-sensors with a CAN bus on I/O layers for system integration.

  10. Contributions of ergonomics to the construction of bus drivers health and excellence in public transport and at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal; Bolis, Ivan; Abrahão, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article is the product of research that analyzed the work of bus drivers of a public transportation company that is considered a benchmark reference in its field of operations, in which it strives to achieve operating excellence. Within this context, the authors sought to understand how such a company has managed to maintain a policy that is capable of reconciling quality public transport while also providing working conditions compatible with the professional development, comfort and health of its workers. Ergonomic work analysis and activity analysis were the guiding elements used in this study. Initial analyses indicate that the activity of drivers includes serving a population and providing mobility for it, which depends on driving the vehicle itself and on relationships with colleagues, users, pedestrians, drivers and others.

  11. Extracting DC bus current information for optimal phase correction and current ripple in sensorless brushless DC motor drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-sheng HO; Chii-maw UANG; Ping-chieh WANG

    2014-01-01

    Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) sensorless driving technology is becoming increasingly established. However, op-timal phase correction still relies on complex calculations or algorithms. In finding the correct commutation point, the problem of phase lag is introduced. In this paper, we extract DC bus current information for auto-calibrating the phase shift to obtain the correct commutation point and optimize the control of BLDC sensorless driving. As we capture only DC bus current information, the original shunt resistor is used in the BLDCM driver and there is no need to add further current sensor components. Software processing using only simple arithmetic operations successfully accomplishes the phase correction. Experimental results show that the proposed method can operate accurately and stably at low or high speed, with light or heavy load, and is suitable for practical applications. This approach will not increase cost but will achieve the best performance/cost ratio and meet market expectations.

  12. THE COMPONENT TEST FACILITY – A NATIONAL USER FACILITY FOR TESTING OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR (HTGR) COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Duncan; Vondell J. Balls; Stephanie L. Austad

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and other High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) Projects require research, development, design, construction, and operation of a nuclear plant intended for both high-efficiency electricity production and high-temperature industrial applications, including hydrogen production. During the life cycle stages of an HTGR, plant systems, structures and components (SSCs) will be developed to support this reactor technology. To mitigate technical, schedule, and project risk associated with development of these SSCs, a large-scale test facility is required to support design verification and qualification prior to operational implementation. As a full-scale helium test facility, the Component Test facility (CTF) will provide prototype testing and qualification of heat transfer system components (e.g., Intermediate Heat Exchanger, valves, hot gas ducts), reactor internals, and hydrogen generation processing. It will perform confirmation tests for large-scale effects, validate component performance requirements, perform transient effects tests, and provide production demonstration of hydrogen and other high-temperature applications. Sponsored wholly or in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, the CTF will support NGNP and will also act as a National User Facility to support worldwide development of High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor technologies.

  13. Realization and optimization of bus bar current transducers based on Hall effect sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Marjan; Jovanović, Uglješa; Jovanović, Igor; Mančić, Dragan; Popović, Radivoje S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the realization and optimization of two coreless open-loop bus bar current transducers based on a Hall effect sensor are presented. Two types of bus bar are evaluated: flat rectangular and rectangular with a restrictive region in the middle. Both realized transducers are capable of measuring AC and DC currents up to 300 A and 10 kHz frequency with nonlinearity less than 0.3% in the entire range. Several methods for resolving issues with the skin effect and stray magnetic fields are presented along with the experimental test results. Some of the presented methods are novel and have never been evaluated.

  14. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volume flow rate of the coolant water of the electrical devices. Heating capacity, compressor work, and heating COP were measured; their behaviors with regard to the parameters were observed. Experimental results showed that heating COP increased with decrease of outdoor temperature, from 20.0 °C to 0 °C, and it observed to be 3.0 in the case of 0 °C outdoor temperature. The observed characteristics of the heating COP suggest that the heat pump is applicable as the cabin heater of an electric vehicle, which is limited by short driving range.

  15. Research and design on a kind of CASE environment architectural style based on ToolBus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Bing; Shen Yan; Xie Jun; Wang Yong; Xiong Guangze

    2005-01-01

    Because CASE (computer aided software engineering) environment is a kind of complex system software, its software architecture is very important. From the viewpoint of software architecture, this paper first presents TBus architectural style, which is a kind of CASE environment architectural style based on ToolBus, then describes the architectural model and system's behavior in formal method, researches and analyzes the corresponding tool structural model. Last the paper implements a TBus architectural instance-LambdaBridge, which proves the validity of ToolBus and TBus architectural styles.

  16. A New High-Resolution Direction Finding Architecture Using Photonics and Neural Network Signal Processing for Miniature Air Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    dimensional circular array real-time phase interferometer algorithm and its correction,” in Int. Conf. on Image Signal Process . (CISP), Tianjin, China...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A NEW HIGH...RESOLUTION DIRECTION FINDING ARCHITECTURE USING PHOTONICS AND NEURAL NETWORK SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR MINIATURE AIR VEHICLE APPLICATIONS by Robert

  17. A High-Rate Virtual Instrument of Marine Vehicle Motions for Underwater Navigation and Ocean Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Gelin, Chrystel

    2013-01-01

    Dead-Reckoning aided with Doppler velocity measurement has been the most common method for underwater navigation for small vehicles. Unfortunately DR requires frequent position recalibrations and underwater vehicle navigation systems are limited to periodic position update when they surface. Finally standard Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are unable to provide the rate or precision required when used on a small vessel. To overcome this, a low cost high rate motion measurement system for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) with underwater and oceanographic purposes is proposed. The proposed onboard system for the USV consists of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with accelerometers and rate gyros, a GPS receiver, a flux-gate compass, a roll and tilt sensor and an ADCP. Interfacing all the sensors proved rather challenging because of their different characteristics. The proposed data fusion technique integrates the sensors and develops an embeddable software package, using real time data fusion method...

  18. Aerodynamic and engineering design of a 1.5 s high quality microgravity drop tower facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Valentin; Breuninger, Jakob; Reilly, Matthew; Laufer, René; Dropmann, Michael; Herdrich, Georg; Hyde, Truell; Röser, Hans-Peter; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2016-12-01

    Microgravity experiments are essential for research in space science, biology, fluid mechanics, combustion, and material sciences. One way to conduct microgravity experiments on Earth is by using drop tower facilities. These facilities combine a high quality of microgravity, adequate payload masses and have the advantage of virtually unlimited repeatability under same experimental conditions, at a low cost. In a collaboration between the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart and Baylor University (BU) in Waco, Texas, a new drop tower is currently under development at the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER). The design parameters of the drop tower ask for at least 1.5 s in free fall duration while providing a quality of at least 10-5 g. Previously, this quality has only been achieved in vacuum drop tower facilities where the capsule experiences virtually zero aerodynamic drag during its free fall. Since this design comes at high costs, a different drop tower design concept, which does not require an evacuated drop shaft, was chosen. It features a dual-capsule system in which the experiment capsule is shielded from aerodynamic forces by surrounding it with a drag shield during the drop. As no other dual-capsule drop tower has been able to achieve a quality as good as or better than 10-5 g previous work optimized the design with an aerodynamic perspective by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to determine the ideal shape and size of the outer capsule and to specify the aerodynamically crucial dimensions for the overall system. Experiments later demonstrated that the required quality of microgravity can be met with the proposed design. The main focus of this paper is the mechanical realization of the capsule as well as the development and layout of the surrounding components, such as the release mechanism, the deceleration device and the drop shaft. Because the drop tower facility is a

  19. bus660 full course  all discussions and all week assignments but no week 8

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    bus660 full course  all discussions and all week assignments but no week 8   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus660-full-course/   week 1 Present an example of a business situation that you believe would lend itself to the use of a quantitative business model. Clearly explain how the model could be used in this situation. grand canyon 2 Multiple models are often used in supporting business decision making. Why might this be the case and ...

  20. Facile fabrication of AgNPs/(PVA/PEI) nanofibers: high electrochemical efficiency and durability for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Du, MingLiang; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Pan; Bao, ShiYong; Wang, LiNa; Fu, YaQin; Yao, JuMing

    2013-11-15

    A novel, facile and green approach for the fabrication of H2O2, glutathione (GSH) and glucose detection biosensor using water-stable PVA and PVA/PEI nanofibers decorated with AgNPs by combining an in situ reduction approach and electrospinning technique has been demonstrated. Small, uniform and well-dispersed AgNPs embedded in the PVA nanofibers and immobilized on functionalized PVA/PEI nanofibers indicate the highly sensitive detection of H2O2 with a detection limit of 5 μM and exhibit a fast response, broad linear range, low detection limit and excellent stability and reusability.

  1. More than Just Fun and Games: BSG and Glo-Bus as Strategic Education Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker, Joy H.; Aaron, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Simulations like the BSG and Glo-Bus allow students the opportunity to practice their integrated, strategic management skills in a relatively risk-free environment or "live case." We review these games and address their strengths, along with the challenges associated with their classroom application. Because of their sound designs and…

  2. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing – Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Jing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the ownership of vehicles and frequency of utilization increase, vehicle emissions have become an important source of air pollution in Chinese cities. An accurate emission inventory for on-road vehicles is necessary for numerical air quality simulation and the assessment of implementation strategies. This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT model and near real time (NRT traffic data on road segments to develop a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE for the urban Beijing area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg, respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Additionally, the on-road vehicle emission inventory model and control effect assessment system in Beijing, a vehicle emission inventory model, was established based on this study in a companion paper (He et al., 2015.

  3. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, B. Y.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Gong, S. L.; He, J. J.; Zou, C.; Song, G. H.; Li, X. Y.; Wu, Z.

    2015-10-01

    As the ownership of vehicles and frequency of utilization increase, vehicle emissions have become an important source of air pollution in Chinese cities. An accurate emission inventory for on-road vehicles is necessary for numerical air quality simulation and the assessment of implementation strategies. This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near real time (NRT) traffic data on road segments to develop a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for the urban Beijing area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg, respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Additionally, the on-road vehicle emission inventory model and control effect assessment system in Beijing, a vehicle emission inventory model, was established based on this study in a companion paper (He et al., 2015).

  4. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  5. Noise from high speed maglev systems: Noise sources, noise criteria, preliminary design guidelines for noise control, and recommendations for acoustical test facility for maglev research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C. E.; Abbot, P.; Dyer, I.

    1993-01-01

    Noise levels from magnetically-levitated trains (maglev) at very high speed may be high enough to cause environmental noise impact in residential areas. Aeroacoustic sources dominate the sound at high speeds and guideway vibrations generate noticeable sound at low speed. In addition to high noise levels, the startle effect as a result of sudden onset of sound from a rapidly moving nearby maglev vehicle may lead to increased annoyance to neighbors of a maglev system. The report provides a base for determining the noise consequences and potential mitigation for a high speed maglev system in populated areas of the United States. Four areas are included in the study: (1) definition of noise sources; (2) development of noise criteria; (3) development of design guidelines; and (4) recommendations for a noise testing facility.

  6. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Gray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  7. Are biophilic-designed site office buildings linked to health benefits and high performing occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia; Birrell, Carol

    2014-11-26

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  8. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment.

  9. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwtiz

    2011-05-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object

  10. On-field investigation and process modelling of end-of-life vehicles treatment in the context of Italian craft-type authorized treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzi, Lorenzo; Delogu, Massimo; Giorgetti, Alessandro; Pierini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The present article analyses the current situation of End-of-Life-of-Vehicles (ELVs) management in Europe, with particular attention on Italian condition. Similarly to other European countries, metal recycling is the main activity of the whole system, but such situation is evolving due to the 2000/53/EC Directive, which sets out targets for Reuse, Recycling and Recovery of ELVs. Due to the relevance of the ELVs problem, in 2008 Italian Ministry of Environment subscribed a framework agreement with competent stakeholders as carmakers, dismantlers, shredders. The main result is an industrial plan to promote (amongst other objectives) technological progress for residual waste (Automotive Shredder Residue-ASR) treatment. According with Italian Trial 2006 analysis about ELVs, Reuse and Recycling rate is currently estimated to be about 81%. At the present time, dismantling plants constitute the first collection points for ELVs; for this reason, during 2009 an investigation has been done over a number of ten Authorized Treatment Facilities (ATFs) operating in Italy. The first step of the analysis was aimed to find out major practices and methods through observations of ATFs activities and interviews to operators. Furthermore, the depollution and dismantling treatments of about 70 different ELVs have been observed and timed in detail over a period of three months. The results included the identification of most relevant critical issues in ELVs treatment, such as distortions between scrapping activities and Directive's regulation, and the assessment of the time and of the resources needed to perform each operation. In the second step of the survey, a process simulation model has been built on the basis of such data. The model was aimed to include the real variability and all the uncertainties that are typical of dismantling activities; it is intended as a tool for process layout planning and for its management. Some control parameters have been introduced; these are able to

  11. Hydrogen detonation and detonation transition data from the High-Temperature Combustion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.; Finfrock, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The BNL High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) is an experimental research tool capable of investigating the effects of initial thermodynamic state on the high-speed combustion characteristic of reactive gas mixtures. The overall experimental program has been designed to provide data to help characterize the influence of elevated gas-mixture temperature (and pressure) on the inherent sensitivity of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonation, on the potential for flames accelerating in these mixtures to transition into detonations, on the effects of gas venting on the flame-accelerating process, on the phenomena of initiation of detonations in these mixtures by jets of hot reactant products, and on the capability of detonations within a confined space to transmit into another, larger confined space. This paper presents results obtained from the completion of two of the overall test series that was designed to characterize high-speed combustion phenomena in initially high-temperature gas mixtures. These two test series are the intrinsic detonability test series and the deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) test series. A brief description of the facility is provided below.

  12. A Celebration for Chinese Auto Elite——The 3rd China International Bus Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ The awarding ceremony of the 3rd China International Bus Competition (CIBC) was held in Beijing on April 18, 2007. The competition was jointly sponsored by the Urban Vehicle Expert Committee of the Scientific and Technology Committee, the Ministry of Construction, China Highway Academy Passenger Car Branch, China Road Transportation Association, China Urban Traffic Association and China Travel Vehicle and Ship Association.

  13. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  14. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  15. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  16. The design of a vehicle-mounted test system for the thermal performance of solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, S. R.; Wu, X. H.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, W.; Liu, L.; Yan, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    To increase the test efficiency of thermal performance of solar collector, a vehicle- mounted test system with high automation, simple operation, good mobility and stability is proposed in this paper. By refitting a medium bus, design of mechanical system and test loop, and using PC control technology, we implemented the vehicle-mounted system and realized effective integration between vehicle and test equipment. A number of tests have been done, and the results show that the vehicle-mounted test system has good parameters and performance and can be widely used to provide door-to-door testing services in the field of solar thermal application.

  17. The Myth of "Rosa Parks the Tired." Teaching about Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    Retells the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery (Alabama) bus boycott to reflect more accurately the cultural and historical background of the boycott and the conscious decision made by Mrs. Parks. Accurate examination of the story actually enhances a child's ability to identify with the issues and the protagonists. (SLD)

  18. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

  19. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous three evaluation reports.

  20. The Politics of Children's Literature: The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    As commonly told to and read by children, the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott fails to indicate Mrs. Parks' activist role or the degree of community organization and participation in the boycott. Telling what actually occurred allows children identify with people who make justice happen. (SLD)

  1. DUKSUP: A Computer Program for High Thrust Launch Vehicle Trajectory Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, O. Frank; Williams, Craig H.

    2015-01-01

    From the late 1960s through 1997, the leadership of NASAs Intermediate and Large class unmanned expendable launch vehicle projects resided at the NASA Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center (LeRC). One of LeRCs primary responsibilities --- trajectory design and performance analysis --- was accomplished by an internally-developed analytic three dimensional computer program called DUKSUP. Because of its Calculus of Variations-based optimization routine, this code was generally more capable of finding optimal solutions than its contemporaries. A derivation of optimal control using the Calculus of Variations is summarized including transversality, intermediate, and final conditions. The two point boundary value problem is explained. A brief summary of the codes operation is provided, including iteration via the Newton-Raphson scheme and integration of variational and motion equations via a 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Main subroutines are discussed. The history of the LeRC trajectory design efforts in the early 1960s is explained within the context of supporting the Centaur upper stage program. How the code was constructed based on the operation of the AtlasCentaur launch vehicle, the limits of the computers of that era, the limits of the computer programming languages, and the missions it supported are discussed. The vehicles DUKSUP supported (AtlasCentaur, TitanCentaur, and ShuttleCentaur) are briefly described. The types of missions, including Earth orbital and interplanetary, are described. The roles of flight constraints and their impact on launch operations are detailed (such as jettisoning hardware on heating, Range Safety, ground station tracking, and elliptical parking orbits). The computer main frames on which the code was hosted are described. The applications of the code are detailed, including independent check of contractor analysis, benchmarking, leading edge analysis, and vehicle performance improvement assessments. Several of DUKSUPs many major impacts on

  2. Proposal for multi-agency facility : High Desert Interagency Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to construct a multi-agency facility to house the High Desert Interagency Partnership. The facility would be on federally owned land in Hines,...

  3. Navigation and Control of an Autonomous Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Schworer, Ian Josef

    2005-01-01

    The navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle is a highly complex task. Making a vehicle intelligent and able to operate â unmannedâ requires extensive theoretical as well as practical knowledge. An autonomous vehicle must be able to make decisions and respond to situations completely on its own. Navigation and control serves as the major limitation of the overall performance, accuracy and robustness of an autonomous vehicle. This thesis will address this problem and propose a uni...

  4. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  5. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-wei; Wang, Dian-hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays. PMID:25759720

  6. Study on the calculation models of bus delay at bays using queueing theory and Markov chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-Wei; Wang, Dian-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  7. Characteristic of Modal Choice Preference between Bus and Train from Medan to Kuala Namu Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, M.; Bombongan, C.

    2017-03-01

    Kuala Namu International Airport started operating on July 25, 2013 to replace Polonia International Airport followed by the operation of airport train and bus as a public transport service mode. The purpose of the study was to define the characteristic of airport train and bus users how they choose both of the transportation modes and to test the sensitivity, if one of the transportation attribute are changes. The data obtained through stated preference method was modelled by using binary logit and probit models. From these two models, the probability of using airport train and bus transportation can be known. The result of analysis showed the equations of the function of utility difference of airport train and bus: UKAB-BB = 2,606 ‑ 0,028X1 ‑ 0,007X2 ‑ 0,014X3 ‑ 0,016X4 + 0,044X5, where X1, (cost attribute), X2 (time attribute), X3 (headway attribute), X4 (access attribute) and X5 (service attribute)..

  8. Light and ultralight electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Today electrical vehicles are again considered seriously. However, one is not yet used to their performance. An overview is given in what one can expect from electric vehicles, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical SUV. Special attention is given to the possibility of ultralight electric cars and the elbev concept, “Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle”. Together with high efficiency power plants, a CO2 emissions of about 10gr/km could be obtained.

  9. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  10. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  11. System Matching and Scheme Designing of a Specified Pure Electric Bus%某款纯电动客车系统匹配和方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石添华

    2015-01-01

    Taking the R&D and application of a specified pure electric bus as an example, the author introduces pure electric power system matching and CAN network architecture, and then expounds appropriate high voltage power management solution of pure electric bus.%结合某款纯电动客车的研发与应用,介绍纯电动系统的匹配设计和整车CAN网络架构,并提出合理的纯电动系统高压配电管理方案.

  12. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  13. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process.

  14. Fuzzy Approach to Critical Bus Ranking under Normal and Line Outage Contingencies

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, Shobha

    2011-01-01

    Identification of critical or weak buses for a given operating condition is an important task in the load dispatch centre. It has become more vital in view of the threat of voltage instability leading to voltage collapse. This paper presents a fuzzy approach for ranking critical buses in a power system under normal and network contingencies based on Line Flow index and voltage profiles at load buses. The Line Flow index determines the maximum load that is possible to be connected to a bus in order to maintain stability before the system reaches its bifurcation point. Line Flow index (LF index) along with voltage profiles at the load buses are represented in Fuzzy Set notation. Further they are evaluated using fuzzy rules to compute Criticality Index. Based on this index, critical buses are ranked. The bus with highest rank is the weakest bus as it can withstand a small amount of load before causing voltage collapse. The proposed method is tested on Five Bus Test System.

  15. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  16. [Need for occupational and environmental allergology in occupational health - the 45th Japanese society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy Annual Meeting 2014 in Fukuoka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Reiko; Oshikawa, Chie

    2014-12-01

    The 45th Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy (OEA) Annual Meeting 2014 was held in Fukuoka city in conjunction with a technical course for occupational health physicians to learn occupational and environmental diseases more deeply. Allergic reaction due to low concentrations of chemical and biological materials is important in toxicological diseases due to highly concentrated chemical materials in the field of occupational and environmental medicine. In this paper we describe the activities of the OEA, which was established in 1970 and has completely cured patients with severe occupational asthma, such as the regional Konjac asthma in Gunma prefecture and Sea Squirt asthma in Hiroshima prefecture. Regard for the occupational environment will prevent the onset and/or exacerbation of allergic occupational disease in individual employees with allergy. Occupational cancer of the bile duct and asbestosis are also current, serious issues that should be resolved as soon as possible. It is desirable for the occupational health physician to have a large stock of knowledge about toxicological and allergic diseases in various occupational settings to maintain the health and safety of workers.

  17. Towards an occupational safety and health culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Steijger, N.

    2014-01-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a highly regulated area that appears to be based on rational planning and logical management approaches, e.g. OSM Management Systems: employers and employees of organisations should be aware of OSH risks, assess these risks systematically, provide the necessar

  18. A comparison of core degradation phenomena in the CORA, QUENCH, Phébus SFD and Phébus FP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haste, T., E-mail: tim.haste@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Steinbrück, M., E-mail: martin.steinbrueck@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Barrachin, M., E-mail: marc.barrachin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Luze, O. de, E-mail: olivier.de-luze@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Grosse, M., E-mail: mirco.grosse@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stuckert, J., E-mail: juri.stuckert@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The results of the experiments CORA, QUENCH and Phébus SFD/FP are summarised. • All phenomena expected up to melt movement to the lower head are shown consistently. • Separate-effect tests performed at KIT and IRSN aid improve their modelling. • Data from the integral tests help independent validation of new and improved models. • The improved codes will help reduce uncertainties in safety-critical areas for core degradation. - Abstract: Over the past 20 years, integral fuel bundle experiments performed at IRSN Cadarache, France (Phébus-SFD and Phébus FP – fission heated) and at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany (CORA and QUENCH – electrically heated), accompanied by separate-effect tests, have provided a wealth of detailed information on core degradation phenomena that occur under severe accident conditions, relevant to such safety issues as in-vessel retention of the core, recovery of the core by water reflood, hydrogen generation and fission product release. These data form an important basis for development and validation of severe accident analysis codes such as ASTEC (IRSN/GRS, EC) and MELCOR (USNRC/SNL, USA) that are used to assess the safety of current and future reactor designs, so helping to reduce the uncertainty associated with such code predictions. Following the recent end of the Phébus FP project, it is appropriate now to compare the core degradation phenomena observed in these four major experimental series, indicating the main conclusions that have been drawn. This covers subjects such as early phase degradation up to loss of rod-like geometry (all the series), late phase degradation and the link between fission product release and core degradation (Phébus FP), oxidation phenomena (all the series), reflood behaviour (CORA and QUENCH), as well as particular topics such as the effects of control rod material and fuel burn-up on core degradation. It also outlines the separate-effects experiments performed to

  19. 47 CFR 32.6112 - Motor vehicle expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle expense. 32.6112 Section 32.6112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6112 Motor vehicle expense. (a... motor vehicles, such as chauffeurs and shuttle bus drivers. The costs of users of motor vehicles...

  20. Cooling of highly charged ions—the HITRAP facility and Cooler trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, S.; Boulton, E.; Brantjes, N. P. M.; Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N.; Krantz, C.; Neidherr, D.; Steinmann, J.; Vorobjev, G.; HITRAP Collaboration

    2013-09-01

    HITRAP is a facility at GSI in Darmstadt for decelerating, cooling and storing heavy, highly charged ions. It is designed to decelerate a beam of A/q cold ions to the experiments. The linac has shown to decelerate ions down to 500 keV per nucleon on-line and to 6 keV per nucleon off-line. Recent tests with electrons and ions injected into the trap showed the necessity of a more careful electric and magnetic field alignment. An installed test ion source as well as a system of apertures and position sensitive diagnostics will be used to align the fields. A highly charged ion beam from a small room temperature electron beam ion trap was used for commissioning the VBL.