WorldWideScience

Sample records for burst distance indicators

  1. Eddington-limited X-Ray Bursts as Distance Indicators. I. Systematic Trends and Spherical Symmetry in Bursts from 4U 1728-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Duncan K.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Muno, Michael P.

    2003-06-01

    We investigate the limitations of thermonuclear X-ray bursts as a distance indicator for the weakly magnetized accreting neutron star 4U 1728-34. We measured the unabsorbed peak flux of 81 bursts in public data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The distribution of peak fluxes was bimodal: 66 bursts exhibited photospheric radius expansion (presumably reaching the local Eddington limit) and were distributed about a mean bolometric flux of 9.2×10-8ergscm-2s-1, while the remaining (non-radius expansion) bursts reached 4.5×10-8ergscm-2s-1, on average. The peak fluxes of the radius expansion bursts were not constant, exhibiting a standard deviation of 9.4% and a total variation of 46%. These bursts showed significant correlations between their peak flux and the X-ray colors of the persistent emission immediately prior to the burst. We also found evidence for quasi-periodic variation of the peak fluxes of radius expansion bursts, with a timescale of ~=40 days. The persistent flux observed with RXTE/ASM over 5.8 yr exhibited quasi-periodic variability on a similar timescale. We suggest that these variations may have a common origin in reflection from a warped accretion disk. Once the systematic variation of the peak burst fluxes is subtracted, the residual scatter is only ~=3%, roughly consistent with the measurement uncertainties. The narrowness of this distribution strongly suggests that (1) the radiation from the neutron star atmosphere during radius expansion episodes is nearly spherically symmetric and (2) the radius expansion bursts reach a common peak flux that may be interpreted as a standard candle intensity. Adopting the minimum peak flux for the radius expansion bursts as the Eddington flux limit, we derive a distance for the source of 4.4-4.8 kpc (assuming RNS=10 km), with the uncertainty arising from the probable range of the neutron star mass MNS=1.4-2 Msolar.

  2. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  3. THE FLUENCE AND DISTANCE DISTRIBUTIONS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Ravi, V.; Hallinan, G.; Shannon, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRB) are millisecond-duration radio pulses with apparent extragalactic origins. All but two of the FRBs have been discovered using the Parkes dish, which employs multiple beams formed by an array of feed horns on its focal plane. In this paper, we show that (i) the preponderance of multiple-beam detections and (ii) the detection rates for varying dish diameters can be used to infer the index α of the cumulative fluence distribution function (the log N –log F function: α = 1.5 for a non-evolving population in a Euclidean universe). If all detected FRBs arise from a single progenitor population, multiple-beam FRB detection rates from the Parkes telescope yield the constraint 0.52 < α < 1.0 with 90% confidence. Searches at other facilities with different dish sizes refine the constraint to 0.5 < α < 0.9. Our results favor FRB searches with smaller dishes, because for α < 1 the gain in field of view for a smaller dish is more important than the reduction in sensitivity. Further, our results suggest that (i) FRBs are not standard candles, and (ii) the distribution of distances to the detected FRBs is weighted toward larger distances. If FRBs are extragalactic, these results are consistent with a cosmological population, which would make FRBs excellent probes of the baryonic content and geometry of the universe.

  4. Burst-Suppression Ratio on Electrocorticography Depends on Interelectrode Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Calin, Alexandru; Kumaraswamy, Vishakhadatta M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: With deepening of anesthesia-induced comatose states, the EEG becomes fragmented by increasing periods of suppression. When measured from conventional EEG recordings, the binary burst-suppression signal (BS) appears similar across the scalp. As such, the BS ratio (BSR), quantifying...

  5. Giant HII regions as distance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, Jorge; Terlevich, Robert; Moles, Mariano

    1987-01-01

    The correlations between the integrated Hβ luminosities, the velocity widths of the nebular lines and the metallicities of giant HII regions and HII galaxies are demonstrated to provide powerful distance indicators. They are calibrated on a homogeneous sample of giant HII regions with well determined distances and applied to distant HII galaxies to obtain a value of H 0 =95+-10 for the Hubble parameter, consistent with the value obtained by the Tully-Fisher technique. The effect of Malmquist bias and other systematic effects on the HII region method are discussed in detail. (Author)

  6. Leukocytes respiratory burst activity as indicator of innate immunity of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Biller-Takahashi

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the assay to quantify the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu as an indicator of the innate immune system, using the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT to formazan as a measure of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In order to assess the accuracy of the assay, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after challenge. The A. hydrophila infection increased the leukocyte respiratory burst activity. The protocol showed a reliable and easy assay, appropriate to determine the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu, a neotropical fish, in the present experimental conditions.

  7. The development of accessibility indicators for distance learning programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Burgstahler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to explore program policies and practices related to the accessibility of American distance learning courses to qualified students with disabilities. A literature review was conducted, a draft list of accessibility indicators was created, examples of applications of the indicators in existing distance learning programs were collected, the indicators were systematically applied to one distance learning program, input from a variety of distance learning programs was used to further refine the indicators, and these programs were encouraged to adopt the indicators and make use of resources provided by the project. Results of this exploratory work suggest that incorporating accessibility considerations into policies, procedures and communications of a program requires consideration of the unique needs of students, course designers, instructors and evaluators; involves approval and implementation at a variety of administrative levels; and is an ongoing process that may be implemented in incremental steps.

  8. Ultraluminous X-ray sources: new distance indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, A.; Bresler, K.; Bełdycki, B.; Madej, J.; Adhikari, T. P.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: In this paper we fit the NuSTAR and XMM-Newton data of three sources: NGC 7793 P13, NGC5907 ULX1, and Circinus ULX5. Methods: Our single model contains emission from a non-spherical system: a neutron star plus an accretion disk directed towards the observer. Results: We obtained a very good fit with the reduced χ2 per degree of freedom equal to 1.08 for P13, 1.01 for ULX1, and 1.14 for ULX5. The normalization of our model constrains the distance to the source. The resulting distances are D = 3.41-0.10+0.11, 6.55-0.81+0.69, and 2.60-0.03+0.05 Mpc for P13, ULX1, and ULX5 respectively. The distances to P13 and ULX5 are in perfect agreement with previous distance measurements to their host galaxies. Conclusions: Our results confirm that P13, ULX1, and ULX5 may contain central hot neutron stars. When the outgoing emission is computed by integration over the emitting surface and successfully fitted to the data, then the resulting model normalization is the direct distance indicator.

  9. New method for distance-based close following safety indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharizli, A A; Rahizar, R; Karim, M R; Saifizul, A A

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of fatalities caused by road accidents involving heavy vehicles every year has raised the level of concern and awareness on road safety in developing countries like Malaysia. Changes in the vehicle dynamic characteristics such as gross vehicle weight, travel speed, and vehicle classification will affect a heavy vehicle's braking performance and its ability to stop safely in emergency situations. As such, the aim of this study is to establish a more realistic new distance-based safety indicator called the minimum safe distance gap (MSDG), which incorporates vehicle classification (VC), speed, and gross vehicle weight (GVW). Commercial multibody dynamics simulation software was used to generate braking distance data for various heavy vehicle classes under various loads and speeds. By applying nonlinear regression analysis to the simulation results, a mathematical expression of MSDG has been established. The results show that MSDG is dynamically changed according to GVW, VC, and speed. It is envisaged that this new distance-based safety indicator would provide a more realistic depiction of the real traffic situation for safety analysis.

  10. Distance limit for a class of model gamma-ray burst sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W. K. H.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that MeV photons have actually been observed in bursts. These observations imply that the nonrelativistic sources cannot be further away than a few kpc from the sun and, therefore, must be galactic. The 27 April 1972 event observed by Apollo 16 shows at higher energies a power law spectrum with a possible line feature around 4 MeV. The optical depth of a homogeneous, isotropic radiation field is estimated with the aid of formulae used by Nikishov (1962) and Jauch and Rohrlich (1955). On the basis of an investigation of the various factors involved, it is tentatively suggested that the gamma-ray bursts which have been detected are galactic, but are in the majority of the cases not connected with unique irreversible star transformation. It appears also unlikely that the gamma-ray bursts are connected with galactic novae.

  11. A New Redshift Indicator of Gamma-Ray Bursts to Measure the Cosmos

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    Zhibin Zhang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using 64 ms count data of long gamma-ray bursts (LBs, T90 > 2.6 s, we analyze the quantity named relative spectral lag (RSL, τ31/FWHM (1 =τrel, 31. We investigate in detail the properties of the RSL for a sample of nine LBs, using the general cross-correlation technique that includes the lag between two different energy bands. We find that the distribution of RSLs is normal and has a mean value of 0.1. Our important discovery is that redshift (z and peak luminosity (Lp are strongly correlated with the RSL, which can be measured easily and directly, making the RSL a good redshift and peak luminosity indicator. In addition, we find that the redshift and luminosity estimator can also hold for short gamma-ray bursts (SBs, T90 < 2.6 s. With it, we estimate the median of redshift and peak luminosity of SBs to be about z≤0.06 and Lp ∼1.68×1048 erg/s, which are in excellent agreement with the results suggested by some previous authors. We thus argue that the sources including SBs and LBs with positive spectral lags might be one united category with the same physical process.

  12. Evaluation of ultrasonic volume- and underclad indications at long distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, W.; Schmitz, V.; Bernus, L. von; Kroening, M.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis techniques are applied in UT examinations if the standard examination provides unacceptable indications and more exact parameters are required for the fracture mechanics evaluation. The necessity for analysis techniques is particularly great where long distances are involved, i.e. when sensitivity is too limited for crack tip detection or when focusing at the reflector location is insufficient, in order to correct the results of the standard examination, which are often too conservative. There are manual analysis procedures, using focusing transducers or time of flight reconstruction methods, and mechanized, computer-assisted procedures, based on the synthetic aperture principle. ALOK and SAFT measurements were performed by the IzfP (NDE Institute) and KWU on volume flaws and findings near the cladding. The results show that, compared with manual measurements, the computer-assisted methods have the advantage that the complete B-scan representation enables better interpretation of the examination interpretation of the examination results, thereby avoiding evaluation errors in individual cases. ALOK reconstructions have the advantage that they can be interpreted in the same way as a manual analysis, thus facilitating for the UT examiner the transition from the manual to the computer-assisted imaging method. Better image reproduction is a feature of the L SAFT reconstructions. Virtual independence from examination parameters is also advantageous. (orig.)

  13. Indication to distinguish the burst region of coal gas from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-yuan Cheng; Hong-wei Tang; Lin Xu; Yan-fang Li [China Coal Research Institute, Xi' an (China). Xi' an Research Institute

    2009-09-15

    The velocity of an over-burst coal seam is about 1/3 compared to a normal coal seam based on laboratory test results. This can be considered as a basis to confirm the area of coal and gas burst by seismic exploration technique. Similarly, the simulation result of the theoretical seismic model shows that there is obvious distinction between over-burst coal and normal coal based on the coal reflection's travel-time, energy and frequency. The results from the actual seismic data acquired in the coal and gas over-burst cases is consistent with that of the laboratory and seismic modeling; that is, in the coal and gas burst region, seismic reflection travel time is delayed, seismic amplitude is weakened and seismic frequency is reduced. Therefore, it can be concluded that seismic exploration technique is promising for use in distinguishing coal and gas over-burst regions based on the variation of seismic reflection travel time, amplitude and frequency. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  14. A photospheric radius-expansion burst observed from XTE J1701-407 by INTEGRAL: an update on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevez, J.; Falanga, M.; Brandt, S.; Galloway, D.; Kuulkers, E.; Cumming, A.; Schatz, H.; Lund, N.; Ooestbroek, T.; Ferrigno, C.

    2010-08-01

    On 2010-08-22 00:56:19 the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System (IBAS) triggered on an event ((GCN 11132, Gotz & Ferrigno, 2009) from the known burst source XTE J1701-407 (Falanga et al., A&A 496, 333, 2009; Linares et al., MNRAS 392, L11, 2009) during an observation of the field around SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 (PI R. Terrier). As part of our monitoring of long thermonuclear X-ray bursts with INTEGRAL, we have analysed both the JEM-X and ISGRI data covering this event, and we identify it as another type I (thermonuclear) X-ray burst.

  15. Radius expansion bursts from the neutron star transient XTE J1701-462; a new distance estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, D.; Homan, J.; Remillard, R.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed spectral analysis of the second and third type-I X- ray bursts from the neutron star transient XTE J1701-462 (detected on July 20 and July 25, see also ATel #1165) reveals clear photospheric radius expansion in both of them. The bursts show radius expansion for about 2-3 seconds, with the

  16. Machine-z: Rapid Machine-Learned Redshift Indicator for Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Wozniak, P. R.; Gehrels, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide important information about the early Universe such as the rates of stellar collapsars and mergers, the metallicity content, constraints on the re-ionization period, and probes of the Hubble expansion. Rapid selection of high-z candidates from GRB samples reported in real time by dedicated space missions such as Swift is the key to identifying the most distant bursts before the optical afterglow becomes too dim to warrant a good spectrum. Here, we introduce 'machine-z', a redshift prediction algorithm and a 'high-z' classifier for Swift GRBs based on machine learning. Our method relies exclusively on canonical data commonly available within the first few hours after the GRB trigger. Using a sample of 284 bursts with measured redshifts, we trained a randomized ensemble of decision trees (random forest) to perform both regression and classification. Cross-validated performance studies show that the correlation coefficient between machine-z predictions and the true redshift is nearly 0.6. At the same time, our high-z classifier can achieve 80 per cent recall of true high-redshift bursts, while incurring a false positive rate of 20 per cent. With 40 per cent false positive rate the classifier can achieve approximately 100 per cent recall. The most reliable selection of high-redshift GRBs is obtained by combining predictions from both the high-z classifier and the machine-z regressor.

  17. A photospheric radius-expansion burst observed from XTE J1701-407 by INTEGRAL: an update on distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Maurizio, F.; Brandt, Søren Kristian

    2010-01-01

    On 2010-08-22 00:56:19 the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System (IBAS) triggered on an event ((GCN 11132, Gotz & Ferrigno, 2009) from the known burst source XTE J1701-407 (Falanga et al., A&A 496, 333, 2009; Linares et al., MNRAS 392, L11, 2009) during an observation of the field around SNR RXJ1713.7-3946...... (Falanga et al., 2009). Light curves of the burst can be obtained from the following adress: ftp://ftp.spacecenter.dk/pub/Jerome/Science/XTE_J1701-407/...

  18. Interpreting the gamma statistic in phylogenetic diversification rate studies: a rate decrease does not necessarily indicate an early burst.

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    James A Fordyce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. METHODOLOGY: Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. CONCLUSIONS: The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.

  19. Interpreting the gamma statistic in phylogenetic diversification rate studies: a rate decrease does not necessarily indicate an early burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, James A

    2010-07-23

    Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.

  20. Extremal values on Zagreb indices of trees with given distance k-domination number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lidan; Pan, Xiangfeng

    2018-01-01

    Let [Formula: see text] be a graph. A set [Formula: see text] is a distance k -dominating set of G if for every vertex [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] for some vertex [Formula: see text], where k is a positive integer. The distance k -domination number [Formula: see text] of G is the minimum cardinality among all distance k -dominating sets of G . The first Zagreb index of G is defined as [Formula: see text] and the second Zagreb index of G is [Formula: see text]. In this paper, we obtain the upper bounds for the Zagreb indices of n -vertex trees with given distance k -domination number and characterize the extremal trees, which generalize the results of Borovićanin and Furtula (Appl. Math. Comput. 276:208-218, 2016). What is worth mentioning, for an n -vertex tree T , is that a sharp upper bound on the distance k -domination number [Formula: see text] is determined.

  1. Ballerina - pirouettes in search of gamma bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Lund, Niels; Pedersen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The cosmological origin of gamma ray bursts has now been established with reasonable certainty, Many more bursts will need to be studied to establish the typical distance scale, and to map out the large diversity in properties which have been indicated by the first handful of events. We are propo...... are proposing Ballerina, a small satellite to provide accurate positions and new data on the gamma-ray bursts. We anticipate a detection rate an order of magnitude larger than obtained from Beppo-SAX....

  2. A Comparison of Four Indices for Combining Distance and Dose Differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Simon J.; Cowley, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: When one is comparing two dose distributions, a number of methods have been published to combine dose difference and distance to agreement into a single measure. Some have been defined as pass/fail indices and some as numeric indices. We show that the pass/fail indices can all be used to derive numeric indices, and we compare the results of using these indices to evaluate one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions, with the aim of selecting the most appropriate index for use in different circumstances. Methods and Materials: The indices compared are the gamma index, the kappa index, the index in International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 83, and a box index. Comparisons are made for 1D and 3D distributions. The 1D distribution is chosen to have a variety of dose gradients. The 3D distribution is taken from a clinical treatment plan. The effect of offsetting distributions by known distances and doses is studied. Results: The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 83 index causes large discontinuities unless the dose gradient cutoff is set to equal the ratio of the dose tolerance to the distance tolerance. If it is so set, it returns identical results to the kappa index. Where the gradient is very high or very low, all the indices studied in this article give similar results for the same tolerance values. For moderate gradients, they differ, with the box index being the least strict, followed by the gamma index, and with the kappa index being the most strict. Conclusions: If the clinical tolerances are much greater than the uncertainties of the measuring system, the kappa index should be used, with tolerance values determined by the clinical tolerances. In cases where the uncertainties of the measuring system dominate, the box index will be best able to determine errors in the delivery system.

  3. Information Management Processes for Extraction of Student Dropout Indicators in Courses in Distance Mode

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    Renata Maria Abrantes Baracho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the use of information management processes in order to extract student dropout indicators in distance mode courses. Distance education in Brazil aims to facilitate access to information. The MEC (Ministry of Education announced, in the second semester of 2013, that the main obstacles faced by institutions offering courses in this mode were students dropping out and the resistance of both educators and students to this mode. The research used a mixed methodology, qualitative and quantitative, to obtain student dropout indicators. The factors found and validated in this research were: the lack of interest from students, insufficient training in the use of the virtual learning environment for students, structural problems in the schools that were chosen to offer the course, students without e-mail, incoherent answers to activities to the course, lack of knowledge on the part of the student when using the computer tool. The scenario considered was a course offered in distance mode called Aluno Integrado (Integrated Student

  4. Unifying distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators for hydrologic model assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qinbo; Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Chen, Xi; Schulte, Achim

    2014-05-01

    The goodness-of-fit indicator, i.e. efficiency criterion, is very important for model calibration. However, recently the knowledge about the goodness-of-fit indicators is all empirical and lacks a theoretical support. Based on the likelihood theory, a unified distance-based goodness-of-fit indicator termed BC-GED model is proposed, which uses the Box-Cox (BC) transformation to remove the heteroscedasticity of model errors and the generalized error distribution (GED) with zero-mean to fit the distribution of model errors after BC. The BC-GED model can unify all recent distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators, and reveals the mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) that are widely used goodness-of-fit indicators imply statistic assumptions that the model errors follow the Gaussian distribution and the Laplace distribution with zero-mean, respectively. The empirical knowledge about goodness-of-fit indicators can be also easily interpreted by BC-GED model, e.g. the sensitivity to high flow of the goodness-of-fit indicators with large power of model errors results from the low probability of large model error in the assumed distribution of these indicators. In order to assess the effect of the parameters (i.e. the BC transformation parameter λ and the GED kurtosis coefficient β also termed the power of model errors) of BC-GED model on hydrologic model calibration, six cases of BC-GED model were applied in Baocun watershed (East China) with SWAT-WB-VSA model. Comparison of the inferred model parameters and model simulation results among the six indicators demonstrates these indicators can be clearly separated two classes by the GED kurtosis β: β >1 and β ≤ 1. SWAT-WB-VSA calibrated by the class β >1 of distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators captures high flow very well and mimics the baseflow very badly, but it calibrated by the class β ≤ 1 mimics the baseflow very well, because first the larger value of β, the greater emphasis is put on

  5. Ventricular arrhythmia burst is an independent indicator of larger infarct size even in optimal reperfusion in STEMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weg, Kirian; Majidi, Mohamed; Haeck, Joost D. E.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Green, Cynthia L.; Koch, Karel T.; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Gorgels, Anton P. M.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that ventricular arrhythmia (VA) bursts during reperfusion phase are a marker of larger infarct size despite optimal epicardial and microvascular perfusion. 126 STEMI patients were studied with 24h continuous, 12-lead Holter monitoring. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) was determined and

  6. Araucaria Project: Pulsating stars in binary systems and as distance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki Bogumił

    2017-01-01

    Type II Cepheids are recently becoming more important as distance indicators and astrophysics laboratory, although our knowledge of these stars is quite limited. Their evolutionary status is also not well understood and observational constraints are needed to confirm the current theories. We are presenting here our first results of the spectroscopic analysis of 4 of these systems. The masses of type II Cepheids seem consistent with the expected 0.5 − 0.6 M⊙. We also present first results of the fully modeled pulsator originally classified as peculiar W Vir star. The mass of this star is 1.51 ± 0.09 M⊙ and the p-factor 1.3 ± 0.03. It was eventually found not to belong to any typical Cepheid group.

  7. SUSTAINABILITY INDICES AS MEASURES OF SERVICE DELIVERY IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA

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    Salawu, I. O, Adeoye, Felix A & Olugbenga David OJO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Open and Distance Education if well organized, is an adequate alternative to conventional education. For acceptability of this assertion, the public, governments, employers of labour and other stakeholders need to be convinced that ODL institutions are not providing half-baked education. Also, for the public and other shareholders enthusiasm and interest that are usually hard earned to be sustained, there is need for total commitment to the implementation of some established indices of sustainability. The thrust of this paper is in the appraisal of the extent to which two ODL institutions in Nigeria adhere to the principles of sustainability. A set of questionnaire was developed and used to collect data which were analyzed using simple non-parametric statistics. Suggestions which were aimed at improving the service delivery, in the institutions used for the study in particular, and other sister institutions especially in the developed countries were highlighted.

  8. X-ray bursts: Observation versus theory

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    Lewin, W. H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Results of various observations of common type I X-ray bursts are discussed with respect to the theory of thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. Topics covered include burst profiles; irregular burst intervals; rise and decay times and the role of hydrogen; the accuracy of source distances; accuracy in radii determination; radius increase early in the burst; the super Eddington limit; temperatures at burst maximum; and the role of the magnetic field.

  9. Self-regulation of turbulence bursts and transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floriani, E; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Sarazin, Y; Lima, R

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between turbulent bursts and transport barriers is analyzed with a simplified model of interchange turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. The turbulent bursts spread into the transport barriers and, depending on the competing magnitude of the burst and stopping capability of the barrier, can burn through. Simulations of two models of transport barriers are presented: a hard barrier where interchange turbulence modes are stable in a prescribed region and a soft barrier with external plasma biasing. The response of the transport barriers to the non-linear perturbations of the turbulent bursts, addressed in a predator–prey approach, indicates that the barriers monitor an amplification factor of the turbulent bursts, with amplification smaller than one for most bursts and, in some cases, amplification factors that can significantly exceed unity. The weak barriers in corrugated profiles and magnetic structures, as well as the standard barriers, are characterized by these transmission properties, which then regulate the turbulent burst transport properties. The interplays of barriers and turbulent bursts are modeled as competing stochastic processes. For different classes of the probability density function (PDF) of these processes, one can predict the heavy tail properties of the bursts downstream from the barrier, either exponential for a leaky barrier, or with power laws for a tight barrier. The intrinsic probing of the transport barriers by the turbulent bursts thus gives access to the properties of the barriers. The main stochastic variables are the barrier width and the spreading distance of the turbulent bursts within the barrier, together with their level of correlation. One finds that in the case of a barrier with volumetric losses, such as radiation or particle losses as addressed in our present simulations, the stochastic model predicts a leaky behavior with an exponential PDF of escaping turbulent bursts in agreement with the simulation

  10. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  11. Cosmic gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takamasa

    1985-01-01

    Ballon experiments for searching gamma-ray burst were carried out by employing rotating-cross modulation collimators. From a very long observation of total 315 hours during 1975 to 1979, three gamma-ray intensity anomalies were observed which were speculated as a gamma-ray burst. As for the first gamma-ray intensity anomaly observed in 1975, the burst source could be located precisely but the source, heavenly body, could not be specified. Gamma-ray burst source estimation was made by analyzing distribution of burst source in the celestial sphere, burst size distribution, and burst peak. Using the above-mentioned data together with previously published ones, apparent inconsistency was found between the observed results and the adopted theory that the source was in the Galaxy, and this inconsistency was found due to the different time profiles of the burst observed with instruments of different efficiency. It was concluded by these analysis results that employment of logN - logP (relation between burst frequency and burst count) was better than that of logN - logS (burst size) in the examination of gamma-ray burst because the former was less uncertain than the latter. Analyzing the author's observed gamma-ray burst data and the related published data, it was clarified that the burst distribution was almost P -312 for the burst peak value larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec. The author could indicate that the calculated celestial distribution of burst source was consistent with the observed results by the derivation using the logN - logP relationship and that the burst larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec happens about one thousand times a year, about ten times of the previous value. (Takagi, S.)

  12. Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicators—cepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masers—operate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f R0 above 5 × 10 –7 are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.

  13. Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sakstein, Jeremy [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-10

    We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicators—cepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masers—operate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f {sub R0} above 5 × 10{sup –7} are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.

  14. Clustering of gamma-ray burst types in the Fermi GBM catalogue: indications of photosphere and synchrotron emissions during the prompt phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuner, Zeynep; Ryde, Felix

    2018-04-01

    Many different physical processes have been suggested to explain the prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although there are examples of both bursts with photospheric and synchrotron emission origins, these distinct spectral appearances have not been generalized to large samples of GRBs. Here, we search for signatures of the different emission mechanisms in the full Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope/GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor) catalogue. We use Gaussian Mixture Models to cluster bursts according to their parameters from the Band function (α, β, and Epk) as well as their fluence and T90. We find five distinct clusters. We further argue that these clusters can be divided into bursts of photospheric origin (2/3 of all bursts, divided into three clusters) and bursts of synchrotron origin (1/3 of all bursts, divided into two clusters). For instance, the cluster that contains predominantly short bursts is consistent of photospheric emission origin. We discuss several reasons that can determine which cluster a burst belongs to: jet dissipation pattern and/or the jet content, or viewing angle.

  15. Anogenital distance: A longitudinal evaluation of its variants and indices in boys and girls of Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto-Gómez, Carmen; Farías, Paulina; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Romano-Riquer, S P; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio

    2017-10-01

    There is no consensus on which anogenital distance (AGD) variant to use and how to adjust it by body size in humans. This study quantitatively evaluated AGD variants and body size adjustments to determine which would be the best choice. AGD variants, height, and weight were measured on five occasions during the first year of life of 307 infants. The ratio of anoscrotal distance (ASD) in boys and anofourchette distance (AFD) in girls increased from 1.9 at birth to 2.3 at 12 months of age. Each AGD variant was divided by each body size variable to generate different indices. Such indices were standardized to make them comparable when analyzing their performance through mixed models. ASD and AFD adjusted by height generated precise (p<0.05) AGD indices: 0.4-0.5 and 0.2, respectively. Results suggest that the best body size adjustment for all AGD variants in the first year of life is height. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrinsic and cosmological signatures in gamma-ray burst time profiles: Time dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.

    2000-02-08

    The time profiles of many gamma-ray bursts consist of distinct pulses, which offers the possibility of characterizing the temporal structure of these bursts using a relatively small set of pulse shape parameters. The authors have used a pulse decomposition procedure to analyze the Time-to-Spill (TTS) data for all bursts observed by BATSE up through trigger number 2000, in all energy channels for which TTS data is available. The authors obtain amplitude, rise and decay timescales, a pulse shape parameter, and the fluencies of individual pulses in all of the bursts. The authors investigate the correlations between brightness measures (amplitude and fluence) and timescale measures (pulse width and separation) which may result from cosmological time dilation of bursts, or from intrinsic properties of burst sources or from selection effects. The effects of selection biases are evaluated through simulations. The correlations between these parameters among pulses within individual bursts give a measure of the intrinsic effects while the correlations among bursts could result both from intrinsic and cosmological effects. The authors find that timescales tend to be shorter in bursts with higher peak fluxes, as expected from cosmological time dilation effects, but also find that there are non-cosmological effects contributing to this inverse correlation. The authors find that timescales tend to be longer in bursts with higher total fluences, contrary to what is expected from cosmological effects. The authors also find that peak fluxes and total fluences of bursts are uncorrelated, indicating that they cannot both be good distance indicators for bursts.

  17. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter, E-mail: jingluan@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10{sup 3} pc cm{sup –3}. Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ∼5.6 ± 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period.

  18. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10 3 pc cm –3 . Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ∼5.6 ± 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period

  19. New conformity indices based on the calculation of distances between the target volume and the volume of reference isodose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J M; Park, S-Y; Ye, S-J; Kim, J H; Carlson, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present conformity indices (CIs) based on the distance differences between the target volume (TV) and the volume of reference isodose (VRI). Methods: The points on the three-dimensional surfaces of the TV and the VRI were generated. Then, the averaged distances between the points on the TV and the VRI were calculated (CIdistance). The performance of the presented CIs were evaluated by analysing six situations, which were a perfect match, an expansion and a reduction of the distance from the centroid to the VRI compared with the distance from the centroid to the TV by 10%, a lateral shift of the VRI by 3 cm, a rotation of the VRI by 45° and a spherical-shaped VRI having the same volume as the TV. The presented CIs were applied to the clinical prostate and head and neck (H&N) plans. Results: For the perfect match, CIdistance was 0 with 0 as the standard deviation (SD). When expanding and reducing, CIdistance was 10 and −10 with SDs 11. The average value of the CIdistance in the prostate and H&N plans was 0.13 ± 7.44 and 6.04 ± 23.27, respectively. Conclusion: The performance of the CIdistance was equal or better than those of the conventional CIs. Advances in knowledge: The evaluation of target conformity by the distances between the surface of the TV and the VRI could be more accurate than evaluation with volume information. PMID:25225915

  20. LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES OF DISTANCE EFL LEARNERS IN THE TURKISH OPEN EDUCATION SYSTEM AS THE INDICATOR OF THEIR LEARNER AUTONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ALTUNAY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in general learners do not demonstrate autonomous language learning behaviour. They prefer learning English in a relaxed environment particularly by engaging in entertaining activities, and through note-taking. However, they do not have sufficient interaction with their facilitator, other learners or speakers. Although the participants are distance learners, they do not prefer Internet-based activities. Conditions stemming from adulthood, lack of skills necessary to perform an activity, lack of awareness of some activities and learners’ experiences in their previous years of education are some of the reasons for their unautonomous behaviour. The article also includes suggestions for teaching and future research.

  1. The Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program. I. An Independent Approach to the Extragalactic Distance Scale Using Only Population II Distance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Rachael L.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Bono, Giuseppe; Carlson, Erika K.; Clementini, Gisella; Durbin, Meredith J.; Garofalo, Alessia; Hatt, Dylan; Jang, In Sung; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark; Sturch, Laura; Yang, Soung-Chul

    2016-12-01

    We present an overview of the Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program, an ongoing program to obtain a 3% measurement of the Hubble constant (H 0) using alternative methods to the traditional Cepheid distance scale. We aim to establish a completely independent route to H 0 using RR Lyrae variables, the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). This alternative distance ladder can be applied to galaxies of any Hubble type, of any inclination, and, using old stars in low-density environments, is robust to the degenerate effects of metallicity and interstellar extinction. Given the relatively small number of SNe Ia host galaxies with independently measured distances, these properties provide a great systematic advantage in the measurement of H 0 via the distance ladder. Initially, the accuracy of our value of H 0 will be set by the five Galactic RR Lyrae calibrators with Hubble Space Telescope Fine-Guidance Sensor parallaxes. With Gaia, both the RR Lyrae zero-point and TRGB method will be independently calibrated, the former with at least an order of magnitude more calibrators and the latter directly through parallax measurement of tip red giants. As the first end-to-end “distance ladder” completely independent of both Cepheid variables and the Large Magellanic Cloud, this path to H 0 will allow for the high-precision comparison at each rung of the traditional distance ladder that is necessary to understand tensions between this and other routes to H 0. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #13472 and #13691.

  2. CONSTRAINING THE SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH USING SPLIT-BAND TYPE II RADIO BURST OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, P.; Ramesh, R.; Hariharan, K.; Kathiravan, C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore—560034 (India); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: kishore@iiap.res.in [Code 671, Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We report on low-frequency radio (85–35 MHz) spectral observations of four different type II radio bursts, which exhibited fundamental-harmonic emission and split-band structure. Each of the bursts was found to be closely associated with a whitelight coronal mass ejection (CME) close to the Sun. We estimated the coronal magnetic field strength from the split-band characteristics of the bursts, by assuming a model for the coronal electron density distribution. The choice of the model was constrained, based on the following criteria: (1) when the radio burst is observed simultaneously in the upper and lower bands of the fundamental component, the location of the plasma level corresponding to the frequency of the burst in the lower band should be consistent with the deprojected location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated CME; (2) the drift speed of the type II bursts derived from such a model should agree closely with the deprojected speed of the LE of the corresponding CMEs. With the above conditions, we find that: (1) the estimated field strengths are unique to each type II burst, and (2) the radial variation of the field strength in the different events indicate a pattern. It is steepest for the case where the heliocentric distance range over which the associated burst is observed is closest to the Sun, and vice versa.

  3. An Artificial Intelligence Classification Tool and Its Application to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Giblin, Timothy; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite being the most energetic phenomenon in the known universe, the astrophysics of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has still proven difficult to understand. It has only been within the past five years that the GRB distance scale has been firmly established, on the basis of a few dozen bursts with x-ray, optical, and radio afterglows. The afterglows indicate source redshifts of z=1 to z=5, total energy outputs of roughly 10(exp 52) ergs, and energy confined to the far x-ray to near gamma-ray regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multi-wavelength afterglow observations have thus far provided more insight on the nature of the GRB mechanism than the GRB observations; far more papers have been written about the few observed gamma-ray burst afterglows in the past few years than about the thousands of detected gamma-ray bursts. One reason the GRB central engine is still so poorly understood is that GRBs have complex, overlapping characteristics that do not appear to be produced by one homogeneous process. At least two subclasses have been found on the basis of duration, spectral hardness, and fluence (time integrated flux); Class 1 bursts are softer, longer, and brighter than Class 2 bursts (with two second durations indicating a rough division). A third GRB subclass, overlapping the other two, has been identified using statistical clustering techniques; Class 3 bursts are intermediate between Class 1 and Class 2 bursts in brightness and duration, but are softer than Class 1 bursts. We are developing a tool to aid scientists in the study of GRB properties. In the process of developing this tool, we are building a large gamma-ray burst classification database. We are also scientifically analyzing some GRB data as we develop the tool. Tool development thus proceeds in tandem with the dataset for which it is being designed. The tool invokes a modified KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) process, which is described as follows.

  4. BALLERINA - Pirouettes in search of gamma burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Soeren; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The cosmological origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has now been established with reasonable certainty. Many more bursts will need to be studied to establish the typical distance scale, and to map out the large variability in properties, which have been indicated by the first handful of events. We are proposing BALLERINA, a small satellite to provide accurate gamma burst positions at a rate an order of magnitude larger than from Beppo-SAX. On the experimental side, it remains a challenge to ensure the earliest detection of the X-ray afterglow. The mission proposed here allows for the first time systematic studies of the soft X-ray emission in the time interval from only a few minutes after the onset of the burst to a few hours later. In addition to positions of GRBs with accuracy better than 1'reported to the ground within a few minutes of the burst, essential for follow-up work, BALLERINA will on its own provide observations in an uncharted region of parameter space. Secondary objectives of the BALLERINA mission includes observations of the earliest phases of the outbursts of X-ray novae and other X-ray transients. BALLERINA is one of four missions currently under study for the Danish Small Satellite Program. The selection will be announced in 1999 for a planned launch in 2002-2003

  5. Solar Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk,

    2012-01-01

    Radio bursts from the Sun are produced by electron accelerated to relativistic energies by physical processes on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio bursts are thus good indicators of solar eruptions. Three types of nonthermal radio bursts are generally associated with CMEs. Type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines. The electrons are thought to be accelerated at the reconnection region beneath the erupting CME, although there is another view that the electrons may be accelerated at the CME-driven shock. Type II bursts are due to electrons accelerated at the shock front. Type II bursts are also excellent indicators of solar energetic particle (SEP) events because the same shock is supposed accelerate electrons and ions. There is a hierarchical relationship between the wavelength range of type /I bursts and the CME kinetic energy. Finally, Type IV bursts are due to electrons trapped in moving or stationary structures. The low frequency stationary type IV bursts are observed occasionally in association with very fast CMEs. These bursts originate from flare loops behind the erupting CME and hence indicate tall loops. This paper presents a summary of radio bursts and their relation to CMEs and how they can be useful for space weather predictions.

  6. Hop Distance Symmetry Does Not Indicate Normal Landing Biomechanics in Adolescent Athletes With Recent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Mueske, Nicole M; Brophy, Christopher H; Pace, J Lee; Katzel, Mia J; Edison, Bianca R; VandenBerg, Curtis D; Zaslow, Tracy L

    2018-03-30

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Return to sport (RTS) protocols after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often include assessment of hop distance symmetry. However, it is unclear if movement deficits are present regardless of hop symmetry. Objectives To assess biomechanics and symmetry of adolescent athletes following ACLR during a single leg hop for distance. Methods Forty-six patients with ACLR (5-12 months post-surgery; 27 female; age 15.6, SD 1.7 years) were classified as asymmetric (operative limb hop distance biomechanics were compared among operative and contralateral limbs and 24 symmetric controls (12 female; age 14.7, SD 1.5 years) using ANOVA. Results Compared to controls, asymmetric patients hopped a shorter distance on their operative limb (P<0.001), while symmetric patients hopped an intermediate distance on both sides (P≥0.12). During landing, operative limbs, regardless of hop distance, exhibited lower knee flexion moments compared to controls and the contralateral side (P≤0.04) with lower knee energy absorption than the contralateral side (P≤0.006). During take-off, both symmetric and asymmetric patients had less hip extension and smaller ankle range of motion on the operative side compared with controls (P≤0.05). Asymmetric patients also had lower hip range of motion on the operative, compared with the contralateral, side (P=0.001). Conclusion Both symmetric and asymmetric patients offloaded the operative knee; symmetric patients achieved symmetry in part by hopping a shorter distance on the contralateral side. Therefore, hop distance symmetry may not be an adequate test of single limb function and RTS readiness. Level of Evidence 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 30 Mar 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7817.

  7. Heterosis and genetic distance in rapeseed (Brasica napus L.). Use of different indicators of genetic divergence in 7x7 diallel

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort-Buson, Marianne; Guillot-Lemoine, Brigitte; Dattée, Yvette

    1986-01-01

    The paper deals with a comparison of different indicators of genetic divergence between rapeseed parental lines : the relationship coefficient defined by MALÈCOT the generalized distance D2 of Mahalanobis, and a new G2 parameter close to HANSON & CASAS' R2. The purpose of the authors is to discuss the advantages of their simultaneous use in the prediction of both heterosis values and F1 performances of hybrids from parental lines. Relationships between heterosis values and genetic distanc...

  8. New indices for home nursing care resource disparities in rural and urban areas, based on geocoding and geographic distance barriers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyang-Woei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-10-08

    Aging in place is the crucial object of long-term care policy worldwide. Approximately 15.6-19.4% of people aged 15 or above live with a disability, and 15.3% of them have moderate or severe disabilities. The allocation of home nursing care services is therefore an important issue. Service providers in Taiwan vary substantially across regions, and between rural and urban areas. There are no appropriate indices for describing the capacity of providers that it is due to the distances from care recipients. This study therefore aimed to describe and compare distance barriers for home nursing care providers using indices of the "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance". This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 using geocoding and a geographic information system to identify the distance from the providers' locations to participants' homes in urban (Taipei City) and rural (Hualien County) areas in Taiwan. Data were collected in-person by professionals in Taiwanese hospitals using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The indices were calculated using regression curves, and the first inflection points were determined as the points on the curves where the first and second derivatives equaled 0. There were 5627 participants from urban areas and 956 from rural areas. In urban areas, the profit willing distance was 550-600 m, and we were unable to identify them in rural areas. This demonstrates that providers may need to supply services even when there is little profit. The tolerance limited distance were 1600-1650 m in urban areas and 1950-2000 m in rural areas. In rural areas, 33.3% of those living inside the tolerance limited distance and there was no provider within this distance, but this figure fell to just 13.9% in urban areas. There were strong disparities between urban and rural areas in home nursing care resource allocation. Our new "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance" are

  9. INVESTIGATION OF PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLE BURSTS USING INTERPLANETARY NETWORK GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukwatta, T. N. [Director' s Postdoctoral Fellow, Space and Remote Sensing (ISR-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hurley, K. [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); MacGibbon, J. H. [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Pal' shin, V. D. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Goldsten, J. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Boynton, W. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kozyrev, A. S. [Space Research Institute, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Rau, A.; Kienlin, A. von; Zhang, X. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); Connaughton, V. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Yamaoka, K. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan); Ohno, M. [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohmori, N. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Feroci, M. [INAF/IAPS-Roma, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133, Roma (Italy); Frontera, F., E-mail: tilan@lanl.gov [Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); and others

    2016-07-20

    The detection of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) in the solar neighborhood would have very important implications for GRB phenomenology. The leading theories for cosmological GRBs would not be able to explain such events. The final bursts of evaporating primordial black holes (PBHs), however, would be a natural explanation for local GRBs. We present a novel technique that can constrain the distance to GRBs using detections from widely separated, non-imaging spacecraft. This method can determine the actual distance to the burst if it is local. We applied this method to constrain distances to a sample of 36 short-duration GRBs detected by the Interplanetary Network (IPN) that show observational properties that are expected from PBH evaporations. These bursts have minimum possible distances in the 10{sup 13}–10{sup 18} cm (7–10{sup 5} au) range, which are consistent with the expected PBH energetics and with a possible origin in the solar neighborhood, although none of the bursts can be unambiguously demonstrated to be local. Assuming that these bursts are real PBH events, we estimate lower limits on the PBH burst evaporation rate in the solar neighborhood.

  10. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-12-24

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  11. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events.

  12. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33 and Asian (n = 23 elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  13. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  14. Cosmic gamma bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehstulin, I.V.

    1980-01-01

    A brief consideration is being given to the history of cosmic gamma burst discovery and modern knowledge of their properties. The time dependence of gamma bursts is described and their possible sources are discussed

  15. Observing a Burst with Sunglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Unique Five-Week VLT Study of the Polarisation of a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow "Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)" are certainly amongst the most dramatic events known in astrophysics. These short flashes of energetic gamma-rays, first detected in the late 1960's by military satellites, last from less than one second to several minutes. GRBs have been found to be situated at extremely large ("cosmological") distances. The energy released in a few seconds during such an event is larger than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are indeed the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe, cf. ESO PR 08/99 and ESO PR 20/00. During the past years circumstantial evidence has mounted that GRBs signal the collapse of extremely massive stars, the so-called hypernovae. This was finally demonstrated some months ago when astronomers, using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), documented in unprecedented detail the changes in the spectrum of the light source ("the optical afterglow") of the gamma-ray burst GRB 030329 (cf. ESO PR 16/03). A conclusive and direct link between cosmological gamma-ray bursts and explosions of very massive stars was provided on this occasion. Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 030329 was discovered on March 29, 2003 by NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer spacecraft. Follow-up observations with the UVES spectrograph at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the Paranal Observatory (Chile) showed the burst to have a redshift of 0.1685 [1]. This corresponds to a distance of about 2,650 million light-years, making GRB 030329 the second-nearest long-duration GRB ever detected. The proximity of GRB 030329 resulted in very bright afterglow emission, permitting the most extensive follow-up observations of any afterglow to date. A team of astronomers [2] led by Jochen Greiner of the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany) decided to make use of this unique opportunity to study the

  16. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  17. X-Ray Bursts from NGC 6652

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Edward

    The possibly transient X-ray Source in the globular cluster NGC 6652 has been seen by BeppoSax and the ASM on RXTE to undergo X-ray bursts, possibly Type I. Very little is known about this X-ray source, and confirmation of its bursts type-I nature would identify it as a neutron star binary. Type I bursts in 6 other sources have been shown to exhibit intervals of millisecond ocsillation that most likely indicate the neutron star spin period. Radius-expansion bursts can reveal information about the mass and size of the neutron star. We propose to use the ASM to trigger an observation of this source to maximize the probability of catching a burst in the PCA.

  18. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...

  19. Gamma Ray Bursts-Afterglows and Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J

    1998-01-01

    Several breakthrough discoveries were made last year of x-ray, optical and radio afterglows and counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, and a redshift has been associated with at least one of these. These discoveries were made possible by the fast, accurate gamma-ray burst locations of the BeppoSAX satellite. It is now generally believed that the burst sources are at cosmological distances and that they represent the most powerful explosions in the Universe. These observations also open new possibilities for the study of early star formation, the physics of extreme conditions and perhaps even cosmology. This session will concentrate on recent x-ray, optical and radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts, associated redshift measurements, and counterpart observations. Several review and theory talks will also be presented, along with a summary of the astrophysical implications of the observations. There will be additional poster contributions on observations of gamma-ray burst source locations at wavelengths other than gamma rays. Posters are also solicited that describe new observational capabilities for rapid follow-up observations of gamma-ray bursts.

  20. Searching gamma-ray bursts for gravitational lensing echoes - Implications for compact dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Horack, J. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The first available 44 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have been inspected for echo signals following shortly after the main signal. No significant echoes have been found. Echoes would have been expected were the GRBs distant enough and the universe populated with a sufficient density of compact objects composing the dark matter. Constraints on dark matter abundance and GRB redshifts from the present data are presented and discussed. Based on these preliminary results, a universe filled to critical density of compact objects between 10 exp 6.5 and 10 exp 8.1 solar masses are now marginally excluded, or the most likely cosmological distance paradigm for GRBs is not correct. We expect future constraints to be able either to test currently popular cosmological dark matter paradigms or to indicate that GRBs do not lie at cosmological distances.

  1. Interplanetary scattering of fast solar electrons deduced from type III bursts observed at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Lin, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of low frequency solar type III radio bursts and the associated fast solar electrons show that the total path length travelled by the particles between the Sun and the Earth is significantly greater than the length of the smooth Archimedean spiral trajectory followed by the centroid of the type III exciter (Alvarez et al., 1975). Here it is assumed that the ratio of electron path length and the spiral length increases approximately as rsup(n), where r is heliocentric distance, and then compute the radio bursts arrival time at 1 AU for different values of n. A comparison with the radio observations indicates that the best fit occurs for n=1.5+-1.0. These results are interpreted in terms of the variation of electron scattering with heliocentric distance. (Auth.)

  2. Relativistic motion in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolik, J.H.; Pier, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Three fundamental problems affect models of gamma-ray bursts, i.e., the energy source, the ability of high-energy photons to escape the radiation region, and the comparative weakness of X-ray emission. It is indicated that relativistic bulk motion of the gamma-ray-emitting plasma generically provides a solution to all three of these problems. Results show that, if the plasma that produces gamma-ray bursts has a bulk relativistic velocity with Lorentz factor gamma of about 10, several of the most troubling problems having to do with gamma-ray bursts are solved. 42 refs

  3. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  4. A booming economy means a bursting trauma system: association between hospital admission for major injury and indicators of economic activity in a large Canadian health region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Das, Debanjana; Mercado, Michelle; Vis, Christine; Kortbeek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G

    2014-05-01

    Injury epidemiology fluctuates with economic activity in many countries. These relationships remain unclear in Canada. The annual risk of admission for major injury (Injury Severity Score ≥12) to a high-volume, level-1 Canadian trauma center was compared with indicators of economic activity over a 16-year period using linear regression. An increased risk of injured patient admissions was associated with rising mean gross domestic product (GDP [millions of chained 2002 dollars]) (.36 person increase per 100,000 population/$1,000 increase in GDP; P = .001) and annual gasoline prices (.47 person increase per 100,000 population/cent increase in gasoline price; P = .001). Recreation-related vehicle injuries were also associated with economic affluence. The risk of trauma patient mortality with increasing mean annual GDP (P = .72) and gasoline prices (P = .32) remained unchanged. Hospital admissions for major injury, but not trauma patient mortality, were associated with economic activity in a large Canadian health care region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimal Codes for the Burst Erasure Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Deep space communications over noisy channels lead to certain packets that are not decodable. These packets leave gaps, or bursts of erasures, in the data stream. Burst erasure correcting codes overcome this problem. These are forward erasure correcting codes that allow one to recover the missing gaps of data. Much of the recent work on this topic concentrated on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. These are more complicated to encode and decode than Single Parity Check (SPC) codes or Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, and so far have not been able to achieve the theoretical limit for burst erasure protection. A block interleaved maximum distance separable (MDS) code (e.g., an SPC or RS code) offers near-optimal burst erasure protection, in the sense that no other scheme of equal total transmission length and code rate could improve the guaranteed correctible burst erasure length by more than one symbol. The optimality does not depend on the length of the code, i.e., a short MDS code block interleaved to a given length would perform as well as a longer MDS code interleaved to the same overall length. As a result, this approach offers lower decoding complexity with better burst erasure protection compared to other recent designs for the burst erasure channel (e.g., LDPC codes). A limitation of the design is its lack of robustness to channels that have impairments other than burst erasures (e.g., additive white Gaussian noise), making its application best suited for correcting data erasures in layers above the physical layer. The efficiency of a burst erasure code is the length of its burst erasure correction capability divided by the theoretical upper limit on this length. The inefficiency is one minus the efficiency. The illustration compares the inefficiency of interleaved RS codes to Quasi-Cyclic (QC) LDPC codes, Euclidean Geometry (EG) LDPC codes, extended Irregular Repeat Accumulate (eIRA) codes, array codes, and random LDPC codes previously proposed for burst erasure

  6. Fuzzy correlations of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.H.; Linder, E.V.; Blumenthal, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts is not known, both in the sense of the nature of the source emitting the radiation and literally, the position of the burst on the sky. Lacking unambiguously identified counterparts in any wavelength band studied to date, statistical approaches are required to determine the burster distance scale. Angular correlation analysis is one of the most powerful tools in this regard. However, poor detector resolution gives large localization errors, effectively beam smearing the positions. The resulting fuzzy angular correlation function is investigated and the generic isotropization that smearing induces on any intrinsic clustering is discussed. In particular, the extent to which gamma-ray burst observations by the BATSE detector aboard the Gamma-Ray Observatory might recover an intrinsic source correlation is investigated. 16 refs

  7. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Radio Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.

  8. Possible galactic origin of. gamma. -ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, R K; Ramsden, D [Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1977-03-31

    It is stated that extragalactic models for the origin of non-solar ..gamma..-ray bursts include supernova bursts in remote galaxies, and the collapse of the cores of active stars, whilst galactic models are based on flare stars, thermonuclear explosions in neutron stars and the sudden accretion of cometary gas on to neutron stars. The acceptability of any of these models may be tested by the observed size spectrum of the ..gamma..-ray bursts. The extragalactic models predict a power law spectrum with number index -1.5, whilst for the galactic models the number index will be -1. Experimental data on ..gamma..-ray bursts is, however, still meagre, and so far only 44 confirmed events have been recorded by satellite-borne instruments. The number spectrum of the observed ..gamma..-ray bursts indicates that the observed distribution for events with an energy < 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/ is flat; this makes the choice of any model completely arbitrary. An analysis of the observed ..gamma..-ray events is here presented that suggests very interesting possibilities for their origin. There appears to be a preferred mean energy for ..gamma..-ray bursts; some 90% of the recorded events show a mean energy between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/, contrary to the predicted characteristics of the number spectrum of various models. A remarkable similarity is found between the distribution of ..gamma..-ray bursts and that of supernova remnants, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two and the galactic origin of the ..gamma..-ray bursts, and the burst source could be identified with completely run down neutron stars, formed during supernova explosions.

  9. The afterglow, redshift and extreme energetics of the gamma-ray burst of 23 January 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, [No Value; Djorgovski, SG; Odewahn, SC; Bloom, JS; Gal, RR; Koresko, CD; Harrison, FA; Lubin, LM; Armus, L; Sari, R; Illingworth, GD; Kelson, DD; Magee, DK; van Dokkum, PG; Frail, DA; Mulchaey, JS; Malkan, MA; McClean, IS; Teplitz, HI; Koerner, D; Kirkpatrick, D; Kobayashi, N; Yadigaroglu, IA; Halpern, J; Piran, T; Goodrich, RW; Chaffee, FH; Feroci, M; Costa, E

    1999-01-01

    Long-lived emission, known as afterglow, has now been detected from about a dozen gamma-ray bursts. Distance determinations place the bursts at cosmological distances, with redshifts,z, ranging from similar to 1 to 3, The energy required to produce these bright gamma-ray flashes is enormous: up to

  10. Discovery of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050709.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, J S; Lamb, D Q; Ricker, G R; Atteia, J-L; Kawai, N; Butler, N; Nakagawa, Y; Jernigan, J G; Boer, M; Crew, G B; Donaghy, T Q; Doty, J; Fenimore, E E; Galassi, M; Graziani, C; Hurley, K; Levine, A; Martel, F; Matsuoka, M; Olive, J-F; Prigozhin, G; Sakamoto, T; Shirasaki, Y; Suzuki, M; Tamagawa, T; Vanderspek, R; Woosley, S E; Yoshida, A; Braga, J; Manchanda, R; Pizzichini, G; Takagishi, K; Yamauchi, M

    2005-10-06

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) fall into two classes: short-hard and long-soft bursts. The latter are now known to have X-ray and optical afterglows, to occur at cosmological distances in star-forming galaxies, and to be associated with the explosion of massive stars. In contrast, the distance scale, the energy scale and the progenitors of the short bursts have remained a mystery. Here we report the discovery of a short-hard burst whose accurate localization has led to follow-up observations that have identified the X-ray afterglow and (for the first time) the optical afterglow of a short-hard burst; this in turn led to the identification of the host galaxy of the burst as a late-type galaxy at z = 0.16 (ref. 10). These results show that at least some short-hard bursts occur at cosmological distances in the outskirts of galaxies, and are likely to be caused by the merging of compact binaries.

  11. Direction, site and the muzzle target distance of bullet in the head and neck at close range as an indication of suicide or homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanjutha, T

    1988-05-01

    Direction, site and muzzle target distance can indicate suicide or homicide. This conclusion can be drawn from autopsies of 57 cases of suicide and 68 cases of homicide by handgun fired at close range to the head and neck together with going to the crimescene in some cases. This study was carried out in Bangkok during the period from January 1983 to January 1986. In order to determine whether it was suicide or homicide, the path of the bullet, the site, the muzzle target distance must be considered. The angle of the bullet would be either elevated (from below upward), horizontal or an angle of depression (from above downward). For suicide, the direction of the bullet should be at an angle of elevation in the majority of cases. The position of the handgun in relation to the head in suicide was most often in tight contact and near contact. For homicide, the direction of the bullet should be horizontal in most cases. The bullet was at close range in the majority of the cases. There are 8 common sites for suicide and homicide and 10 different sites in the case of homicide which are at neck, left cheek, left aural region, lip, left occipital area orbit, chin, left eyebrow, submental and nose.

  12. Advances in gamma-ray burst astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Desai, U.D.

    1976-01-01

    Work at Goddard is presently being carried out in three major areas of gamma-ray burst research: (1) A pair of simultaneously operating 0.8-m 2 burst detectors were successfully balloon-borne at locations 800 miles apart on 9 May, 1975, each to atmospheric depths of 3 to 4 g cm -2 , for a 20-h period of coincident data coverage. This experiment investigates the size spectrum of bursts in the 10 -7 to 10 -6 erg cm -2 size region where dozens of events per day are expected on a -1.5 index integral power-law extrapolation. Considerable separation in latitude was used to avoid possible atmospheric and auroral secondary effects. Its results are not yet available. (2) A deep-space burst detector, the first spacecraft instrument built specifically for gamma-ray burst studies, was recently successfully integrated into the Helios-B space probe. Its use at distances of up to 2 AU will make possible the first high-resolution directional study of gamma-ray burst source locations. Similar modifications to several other space vehicles are also being prepared. (3) The gamma-ray instrument on the IMP-7 satellite is presently the most sensitive burst detector still operating in orbit. Its results have shown that all measured event-average energy spectra are consistent with being alike. Using this characteristic spectrum to select IMP-7 candidate events of smaller size than those detected using other spacecraft in coincidence, a size spectrum is constructed which fits the -1.5 index power law down to 2.5 x 10 -5 erg cm -2 per event, at an occurrence rate of about once per month. (Auth.)

  13. Fast Radio Burst/Gamma-Ray Burst Cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, He; Li, Zhuo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-06-01

    Recently, both theoretical arguments and observational evidence suggested that a small fraction of fast radio bursts (FRBs) could be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If such FRB/GRB association systems are commonly detected in the future, the combination of dispersion measures (DM) derived from FRBs and redshifts derived from GRBs makes these systems a plausible tool to conduct cosmography. We quantify uncertainties in deriving the redshift-dependent DM_{IGM} as a function of z and test how well dark energy models can be constrained with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that with several tens of FRB/GRB systems potentially detected in a decade or so, one may reach reasonable constraints on wCDM models. When combined with Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, unprecedented constraints on the dark energy equation of state may be achieved, thanks to the prospects of detecting FRB/GRB systems at relatively high redshifts. The ratio between the mean value \\lt {DM_IGM} (z)\\gt and luminosity distance (D L(z)) is insensitive to dark energy models. This gives the prospect of applying SN Ia data to calibrate \\lt {DM_IGM} (z)\\gt using a relatively small sample of FRB/GRB systems, allowing a reliable constraint on the baryon inhomogeneity distribution as a function of redshift. The methodology developed in this paper can also be applied if the FRB redshifts can be measured by other means. Some caveats of putting this method into practice are also discussed.

  14. Fast radio burst/gamma-ray burst cosmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing; Li, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, both theoretical arguments and observational evidence suggested that a small fraction of fast radio bursts (FRBs) could be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If such FRB/GRB association systems are commonly detected in the future, the combination of dispersion measures (DM) derived from FRBs and redshifts derived from GRBs makes these systems a plausible tool to conduct cosmography. We quantify uncertainties in deriving the redshift-dependent DM IGM as a function of z and test how well dark energy models can be constrained with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that with several tens of FRB/GRB systems potentially detected in a decade or so, one may reach reasonable constraints on wCDM models. When combined with Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, unprecedented constraints on the dark energy equation of state may be achieved, thanks to the prospects of detecting FRB/GRB systems at relatively high redshifts. The ratio between the mean value and luminosity distance (D L (z)) is insensitive to dark energy models. This gives the prospect of applying SN Ia data to calibrate using a relatively small sample of FRB/GRB systems, allowing a reliable constraint on the baryon inhomogeneity distribution as a function of redshift. The methodology developed in this paper can also be applied if the FRB redshifts can be measured by other means. Some caveats of putting this method into practice are also discussed.

  15. Fast radio burst/gamma-ray burst cosmography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Li, Zhuo, E-mail: gaohe@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhuo.li@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-20

    Recently, both theoretical arguments and observational evidence suggested that a small fraction of fast radio bursts (FRBs) could be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If such FRB/GRB association systems are commonly detected in the future, the combination of dispersion measures (DM) derived from FRBs and redshifts derived from GRBs makes these systems a plausible tool to conduct cosmography. We quantify uncertainties in deriving the redshift-dependent DM{sub IGM} as a function of z and test how well dark energy models can be constrained with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that with several tens of FRB/GRB systems potentially detected in a decade or so, one may reach reasonable constraints on wCDM models. When combined with Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, unprecedented constraints on the dark energy equation of state may be achieved, thanks to the prospects of detecting FRB/GRB systems at relatively high redshifts. The ratio between the mean value and luminosity distance (D {sub L}(z)) is insensitive to dark energy models. This gives the prospect of applying SN Ia data to calibrate using a relatively small sample of FRB/GRB systems, allowing a reliable constraint on the baryon inhomogeneity distribution as a function of redshift. The methodology developed in this paper can also be applied if the FRB redshifts can be measured by other means. Some caveats of putting this method into practice are also discussed.

  16. Tests and indicators for improving the pedagogical control of the legs force of long and middle distance, as well as sport walk 12-15 school categories athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Santana-García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of the yield inside the process of sport training is one of the instruments that guarantee that it is made on the base of solid arguments as for the correspondence among the loads or preparation stimuli that must receive the sportsman and its condition to assimilate it. Due to the deficiencies, detected during a preliminary diagnosis based on the content analysis, measurement and mathematical statistical methods that corroborate the necessity to perfect elements of the sportsmen preparation management, a study begins with the in o rde r to give solution to the scientific problem: How to improve the pedagogic control of the legs force on Long and Middle distance, as well as Sport Walk athletes at 12 - 15 yeas school categories from “Ormani Arenado” Initial Sport School of Pinar del Río? It has the objective to select tests and indicators that improve this pedagogic control. There were used different methods and investigation instruments such as, analysis and synthesis, the measurement, as well as the descriptive and inferential statistic, which allowed the selection of the test of the ten jumps to include it in the protocol of evaluation of the physical performance set for the school categories, with procedures that brings forth four indicators on the sportsman's state. Its feasibility is being evaluating at present in an extended study certified by the provincial commission of Athletics. The contributions of this research, favor to the results of the investigative project “The evaluation and planning of the training in Long and Middle distance, as well as Sport Walk athletes in Pinar del Río”, answering, at the same time, to the fourth technological demand of the Athletics in this western county of Cuba.

  17. Assessment of anthropometric parameters including area of the psoas, area of the back muscle, and psoas-vertebra distance as indices for prediction of vertebral fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tamotsu; Morita, Masahumi; Mabuchi, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We assessed some anthropometric parameters as indices for the prediction of vertebral compression fracture. We measured the area of the total cross section, area of the back muscle, area of the psoas, area of subcutaneous fat tissue, ratio of the right and left area of the psoas, psoas-vertebra distance, the mediolateral length of the back muscle, anteroposterior length of the back muscle, the mediolateral length of the psoas, and anteroposterior length of the psoas, on computed tomography images. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to test the correlation between each anthropometric parameter and the incidence of fracture. The odds ratio corresponding to one standard deviation of each parameter was calculated. The ratio of center and anterior vertebral heights and the ratio of center and posterior vertebral heights were measured from the positioning image. The smaller value of these was defined as the vertebral height ratio value. Vertebral height ratio was used as the parameter directly related to vertebral fracture. The subjects for research were 25 women with vertebral compression fracture and 36 women without fracture. Vertebral height ratio had a significant correlation with area of the psoas (correlation coefficient, r=0.609 p<0.001), area of the back muscle (r=0.547 p<0.001), and the psoas-vertebra distance (r=-0.523 p<0.001) in the anthropometric parameters. The odds ratios of the area of the psoas (odds ratio, OR:0.18, 95% confidence interval, CI:0.43 to 0.08), area of the back muscle (OR:0.13, 95% CI:0.37 to 0.05), and the psoas-vertebra distance (OR:3.01, 95% CI:6.22 to 1.46) were high. The odds ratio of the mediolateral length of the psoas (OR:0.34, 95% CI:0.67 to 0.18), and the left-to-right area ratio of the psoas (OR:0.41, 95% CI:0.76 to 0.22) were rather high. However, the vertebral height ratio had no significant correlation with the left-to-right area ratio of the psoas. It was considered that area of the psoas, area of the back

  18. New methods for optical distance indicator and gantry angle quality control tests in medical linear accelerators: image processing by using a 3D phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandiz, Mahdi Heravian; Khalilzadeh, Mohammadmahdi; Anvari, Kazem [Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Layen, Ghorban Safaeian [Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In order to keep the acceptable level of the radiation oncology linear accelerators, it is necessary to apply a reliable quality assurance (QA) program. The QA protocols, published by authoritative organizations, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), determine the quality control (QC) tests which should be performed on the medical linear accelerators and the threshold levels for each test. The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy and precision of the selected QC tests in order to increase the quality of treatment and also increase the speed of the tests to convince the crowded centers to start a reliable QA program. A new method has been developed for two of the QC tests; optical distance indicator (ODI) QC test as a daily test and gantry angle QC test as a monthly test. This method uses an image processing approach utilizing the snapshots taken by the CCD camera to measure the source to surface distance (SSD) and gantry angle. The new method of ODI QC test has an accuracy of 99.95% with a standard deviation of 0.061 cm and the new method for gantry angle QC has a precision of 0.43 degrees. The automated proposed method which is used for both ODI and gantry angle QC tests, contains highly accurate and precise results which are objective and the human-caused errors have no effect on the results. The results show that they are in the acceptable range for both of the QC tests, according to AAPM task group 142.

  19. New methods for optical distance indicator and gantry angle quality control tests in medical linear accelerators: image processing by using a 3D phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandiz, Mahdi Heravian; Khalilzadeh, Mohammadmahdi; Anvari, Kazem; Layen, Ghorban Safaeian

    2015-01-01

    In order to keep the acceptable level of the radiation oncology linear accelerators, it is necessary to apply a reliable quality assurance (QA) program. The QA protocols, published by authoritative organizations, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), determine the quality control (QC) tests which should be performed on the medical linear accelerators and the threshold levels for each test. The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy and precision of the selected QC tests in order to increase the quality of treatment and also increase the speed of the tests to convince the crowded centers to start a reliable QA program. A new method has been developed for two of the QC tests; optical distance indicator (ODI) QC test as a daily test and gantry angle QC test as a monthly test. This method uses an image processing approach utilizing the snapshots taken by the CCD camera to measure the source to surface distance (SSD) and gantry angle. The new method of ODI QC test has an accuracy of 99.95% with a standard deviation of 0.061 cm and the new method for gantry angle QC has a precision of 0.43 degrees. The automated proposed method which is used for both ODI and gantry angle QC tests, contains highly accurate and precise results which are objective and the human-caused errors have no effect on the results. The results show that they are in the acceptable range for both of the QC tests, according to AAPM task group 142.

  20. Simulating X-ray bursts during a transient accretion event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Zac; Heger, Alexander; Galloway, Duncan K.

    2018-06-01

    Modelling of thermonuclear X-ray bursts on accreting neutron stars has to date focused on stable accretion rates. However, bursts are also observed during episodes of transient accretion. During such events, the accretion rate can evolve significantly between bursts, and this regime provides a unique test for burst models. The accretion-powered millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 exhibits accretion outbursts every 2-3 yr. During the well-sampled month-long outburst of 2002 October, four helium-rich X-ray bursts were observed. Using this event as a test case, we present the first multizone simulations of X-ray bursts under a time-dependent accretion rate. We investigate the effect of using a time-dependent accretion rate in comparison to constant, averaged rates. Initial results suggest that using a constant, average accretion rate between bursts may underestimate the recurrence time when the accretion rate is decreasing, and overestimate it when the accretion rate is increasing. Our model, with an accreted hydrogen fraction of X = 0.44 and a CNO metallicity of ZCNO = 0.02, reproduces the observed burst arrival times and fluences with root mean square (rms) errors of 2.8 h, and 0.11× 10^{-6} erg cm^{-2}, respectively. Our results support previous modelling that predicted two unobserved bursts and indicate that additional bursts were also missed by observations.

  1. Imaging assessment of vertebral burst fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianlin; Liang Lihua; Wang Yujia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of radiography, CT and MRI in diagnosis of vertebral burst fracture. Methods: 51 patients with vertebral burst fracture were evaluated with X-ray, CT and MRI, including 3 cases in cervical vertebra, 18 cases in thoracic vertebra, and 30 cases in lumbar vertebra. The imaging features were comparatively studied. Results: Radiography showed decreased height of the vertebral body, increased antero-posterior diameter and the transverse diameter, and/or the widened interpedicle distance, the inter-spinous distance, as well as the bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal in 28 cases(54.90%). X-ray findings similar to the compression fracture were revealed in 20 cases(39.21%). And missed diagnosis was made in 3 cases (5.88%). CT clearly demon-strated the vertebral body vertically or transversely burst crack in 49 cases (96.07%); bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal and narrowed vertebral canal in 35 cases(68. 62% ); fracture of spinal appendix in 22 cases(43.14%). Meanwhile MRI showed abnormal signals within the spinal cord in 35 cases (68.62%),injured intervertebral disk in 29 cases(56.86% ), extradural hematoma in 12 cases(23.52% ) and torn posterior longitudinal ligament in 6 cases (11.76%). Conclusions: Radiography is the routine examination, while with limited diagnostic value in vertebral burst fracture. These patients who have nervous symptoms with simple compression fracture or unremarkable on X-ray should receive the CT or MRI examination. CT is better than MRI in demonstrating the fracture and the displaced bony fragment, while MRI is superior to CT in showing nervous injuries. CT and MRI will provide comprehensive information guiding clinical treatment of vertebral burst fracture. (authors)

  2. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the continuous-time Itô semi-martingale model in such a way that the fundamental arbitrage-free property is preserved......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....

  3. The signature of supernova ejecta in the X-ray afterglow of the gamma-ray burst 011211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J N; Watson, D; Osborne, J P; Pounds, K A; O'Brien, P T; Short, A D T; Turner, M J L; Watson, M G; Mason, K O; Ehle, M; Schartel, N

    2002-04-04

    Now that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been determined to lie at cosmological distances, their isotropic burst energies are estimated to be as high as 1054 erg (ref. 2), making them the most energetic phenomena in the Universe. The nature of the progenitors responsible for the bursts remains, however, elusive. The favoured models range from the merger of two neutron stars in a binary system to the collapse of a massive star. Spectroscopic studies of the afterglow emission could reveal details of the environment of the burst, by indicating the elements present, the speed of the outflow and an estimate of the temperature. Here we report an X-ray spectrum of the afterglow of GRB011211, which shows emission lines of magnesium, silicon, sulphur, argon, calcium and possibly nickel, arising in metal-enriched material with an outflow velocity of the order of one-tenth the speed of light. These observations strongly favour models where a supernova explosion from a massive stellar progenitor precedes the burst event and is responsible for the outflowing matter.

  4. Observation of cosmic gamma ray burst by Hinotori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudaira, Kiyoaki; Yoshimori, Masato; Hirashima, Yo; Kondo, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    The solar gamma ray detecor (SGR) on Hinotori has no collimator, and the collimator of a hard X-ray monitor is not effective for gamma ray with energy more than 100 KeV. Accordingly, the detection system can detect cosmic gamma ray burst, and two bursts were observed. The first burst was detected on February 28, 1981, and the source of the burst was in the direction of 81 degree from Venus. The time profile and the spectrum were observed. In July 21, 1981, the second burst was detected. The time profile obtained with the SGR was compared with those of PVO (Pioneer Venus Orbiter) and LASL-ISEE. The time difference among the data of time profiles indicated that the source of the burst was not the sun. The spectrum was also measured. (Kato, T.)

  5. Implications of fast radio bursts for superconducting cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yun-Wei [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, 152 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cheng, Kwong-Sang [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Shiu, Gary; Tye, Henry, E-mail: yuyw@phy.ccnu.edu.cn, E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk, E-mail: shiu@ust.hk, E-mail: iastye@ust.hk [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-11-01

    Highly beamed, short-duration electromagnetic bursts could be produced by superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops oscillating in cosmic magnetic fields. We demonstrated that the basic characteristics of SCS bursts such as the electromagnetic frequency and the energy release could be consistently exhibited in the recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Moreover, it is first showed that the redshift distribution of the FRBs can also be well accounted for by the SCS burst model. Such agreements between the FRBs and SCS bursts suggest that the FRBs could originate from SCS bursts and thus they could provide an effective probe to study SCSs. The obtained values of model parameters indicate that the loops generating the FRBs have a small length scale and they are mostly formed in the radiation-dominated cosmological epoch.

  6. Implications of fast radio bursts for superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Cheng, Kwong-Sang; Shiu, Gary; Tye, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Highly beamed, short-duration electromagnetic bursts could be produced by superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops oscillating in cosmic magnetic fields. We demonstrated that the basic characteristics of SCS bursts such as the electromagnetic frequency and the energy release could be consistently exhibited in the recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Moreover, it is first showed that the redshift distribution of the FRBs can also be well accounted for by the SCS burst model. Such agreements between the FRBs and SCS bursts suggest that the FRBs could originate from SCS bursts and thus they could provide an effective probe to study SCSs. The obtained values of model parameters indicate that the loops generating the FRBs have a small length scale and they are mostly formed in the radiation-dominated cosmological epoch

  7. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  8. Propagation of interplanetary shock waves by observations of type II solar radio bursts on IMP-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertok, I.M.; Fomichev, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    A new interpretation of the low frequency type II solar radio bursts of 30 June 1971, and 7-8 August 1972 observed with IMP-6 satellite (Malitson, H.H., Fainberg, J. and Stone, R.G., 1973, Astrophys. Lett., vol. 14, 111; Astrophys. J., vol. 183, L35) is suggested. The analysis is carried out for two models of the electron density distribution in the interplanetary medium taking into account that N approximately 3.5 cm -3 at a distance of 1 a.u. It is assumed that the frequency of the radio emission corresponds to the average electron density behind the shock front which exceeds the undisturbed electron density by the factor of 3. The radio data indicate essential deceleration of the shock waves during propagation from the Sun up to 1 a.u. The characteristics of the shock waves obtained from the type II bursts agree with the results of the in situ observations. (author)

  9. Nanolensed Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, David

    2017-12-01

    It is suggested that fast radio bursts can probe gravitational lensing by clumpy dark matter objects that range in mass from 10-3 M ⊙-102 M ⊙. They may provide a more sensitive probe than observations of lensings of objects in the Magellanic Clouds, and could find or rule out clumpy dark matter with an extended mass spectrum.

  10. [Distance covered in walking test after heart surgery in patients over 70 years of age: outcome indicator for the assessment of quality of care in intensive rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Stefania; Mazza, Antonio; Camera, Federica; Maestri, Antonella; Opasich, Cristina; Tramarin, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    For quality-of-care assessment of rehabilitation programs after cardiac surgery, measures of functional recovery have been proposed as outcome indicators. Aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, the safety and the informative content of the 6-min walking test (6 WT) performed in elderly patients soon after admission in an intensive rehabilitation program after cardiac surgery. Population consists of 115 consecutive over-70 patients admitted to an in-hospital rehabilitation program after cardiac surgery. Within 7 days of admission, in 107 patients (93%) clinical conditions allowed the execution of a 6 WT, on ECG telemetry monitoring. Resting and exertional heart rate, score of fatigue (Borg Scale 1 divided by 20), symptoms, ECG alterations and arrhythmias were recorded. Other considered variables were: comorbidity (Charlson index), length of stay and complications occurring during the whole surgical and rehabilitation in-hospitalisation stay, disability (nursing needs: Maslow and nursing chart), functional status at discharge, left ventricular ejection fraction, number of exercise treatment sessions, self-perceived health-status at admission and at discharge (EuroQoL questionnaire). The mean walked distance was 194 +/- 93 m. No complication neither ECG alteration occurred during the 6 WT; only isolated premature ventricular beats were recorded in 26 pts. Heart rate increased from 86 +/- 13 at rest to 95 +/- 17 bpm at the end of the 6 WT (p needs, self-perceived health-status and functional capacity at discharge differed between patients who performed the 6 WT within 4 days compared with those who did it later, and between patients who walked < or = 120 m (lower quartile) compared with those who walked more. In elderly patients after cardiac surgery the 6 WT performed within the first week of admission in rehabilitation unit is feasible and safe. Simple cut-offs like timing of the 6 WT and walking performance identify more severe patients with lower

  11. Limits of the memory coefficient in measuring correlated bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Hiraoka, Takayuki

    2018-03-01

    Temporal inhomogeneities in event sequences of natural and social phenomena have been characterized in terms of interevent times and correlations between interevent times. The inhomogeneities of interevent times have been extensively studied, while the correlations between interevent times, often called correlated bursts, are far from being fully understood. For measuring the correlated bursts, two relevant approaches were suggested, i.e., memory coefficient and burst size distribution. Here a burst size denotes the number of events in a bursty train detected for a given time window. Empirical analyses have revealed that the larger memory coefficient tends to be associated with the heavier tail of the burst size distribution. In particular, empirical findings in human activities appear inconsistent, such that the memory coefficient is close to 0, while burst size distributions follow a power law. In order to comprehend these observations, by assuming the conditional independence between consecutive interevent times, we derive the analytical form of the memory coefficient as a function of parameters describing interevent time and burst size distributions. Our analytical result can explain the general tendency of the larger memory coefficient being associated with the heavier tail of burst size distribution. We also find that the apparently inconsistent observations in human activities are compatible with each other, indicating that the memory coefficient has limits to measure the correlated bursts.

  12. Scientific Applications Performance Evaluation on Burst Buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Markomanolis, George S.

    2017-10-19

    Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays additional layers, the latest being the usage of SSD-based storage as a Burst Buffer for I/O acceleration. We present an in-depth analysis on how to use Burst Buffer for specific cases and how the internal MPI I/O aggregators operate according to the options that the user provides during his job submission. We analyze the performance of a range of I/O intensive scientific applications, at various scales on a large installation of Lustre parallel file system compared to an SSD-based Burst Buffer. Our results show a performance improvement over Lustre when using Burst Buffer. Moreover, we show results from a data hierarchy library which indicate that the standard I/O approaches are not enough to get the expected performance from this technology. The performance gain on the total execution time of the studied applications is between 1.16 and 3 times compared to Lustre. One of the test cases achieved an impressive I/O throughput of 900 GB/s on Burst Buffer.

  13. Explaining fast radio bursts through Dicke's superradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Martin; Mathews, Abhilash; Rajabi, Fereshteh

    2018-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs), characterized by strong bursts of radiation intensity at radio wavelengths lasting on the order of a millisecond, have yet to be firmly associated with a family, or families, of astronomical sources. It follows that despite the large number of proposed models, no well-defined physical process has been identified to explain this phenomenon. In this paper, we demonstrate how Dicke's superradiance, for which evidence has recently been found in the interstellar medium, can account for the characteristics associated with FRBs. Our analysis and modelling of previously detected FRBs suggest they could originate from regions in many ways similar to those known to harbour masers or megamasers, and result from the coherent radiation emanating from populations of molecules associated with large-scale entangled quantum mechanical states. We estimate this entanglement to involve as many as ˜1030 to ˜1032 molecules over distances spanning 100-1000 au.

  14. High-Velocity Cloud Complex H and Weaver's "Jet": Two candidate dwarf satellite galaxies for which dark matter halo models indicate distances of ~27 kpc and ~108 kpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, S. Christian

    2018-04-01

    Two anomalous-velocity H I features, High-Velocity Cloud Complex H (HVC H) (Blitz et al. 1999), and Weaver's "jet" (Weaver 1974), appear to be good candidates for dwarf satellites. In this work they are modeled as H I disks in dark matter halos that move in 3D orbits in the combined time-dependent gravitational fields of the Milky Way and M31. As they orbit in the Local Group they develop tidal distortions and produce debris. The current l,b,V appearance of the tidal features as they approach the Milky Way indicate distances of 27 ± 9 kpc for HVC H and 108 ± 36 kpc for Weaver's "jet". As these are within the distances to known Milky Way satellites, finding stellar components would be of interest for the star formation history of the Milky Way. This work uses recent Hubble Space Telescope results on M31 (van der Marel et al. 2012) to calculate the center-of-mass (COM) locations and the dark matter mass distributions of the Milky-Way—M31 system since the Big Bang. Time-dependent COM orbits of the satellites have been computed in 3D, along with rings of test particles representing their disks. Tidal effects that develop on these rings have been compared with published 21-cm line data from Lockman (2003) and Simonson (1975). For HVC H at l = 130.5°, b = +1.5°, V = -200 km/s, the dark matter mass (in solar masses) is estimated as 5.2 ± 3.5E8. The previously estimated H I mass is 6.4E6, or 1.2% of the newly derived satellite mass. For Weaver's "jet", which covers 2° by 7° at l = 197.3°, b = +2.1°, V = -30 to -87 km/s, the dark matter mass is estimated as 1.8 ± 0.6E9. The H I mass is 1.8 ± 1.1E8, or 6% to 12% of the satellite mass. In the case of HVC H, owing to its disk angle of 45°, tidal debris is thrown upward. This would presumably contribute to a halo star stream. In the case of Weaver's "jet", the streamer represents accreting material for the disk. I am grateful to Leo Blitz for bringing Lockman's work on HVC H to my attention and for many helpful

  15. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  16. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  17. Testing and Improving the Luminosity Relations for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazzi, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have several luminosity relations where a measurable property of a burst light curve or spectrum is correlated with the burst luminosity. These luminosity relations are calibrated for the fraction of bursts with spectroscopic redshifts and hence the known luminosities. GRBs have thus become known as a type of "standard candle” where standard candle is meant in the usual sense that luminosities can be derived from measurable properties of the bursts. GRBs can therefore be used for the same cosmology applications as Type Ia supernovae, including the construction of the Hubble Diagram and measuring massive star formation rate. The greatest disadvantage of using GRBs as standard candles is that their accuracy is lower than desired. With the recent advent of GRBs as a new standard candle, every effort must be made to test and improve the distance measures. Here, methods are employed to do just that. First, generalized forms of two tests are performed on the luminosity relations. All the luminosity relations pass one of these tests, and all but two pass the other. Even with this failure, redundancies in using multiple luminosity relations allows all the luminosity relations to retain value. Next, the "Firmani relation” is shown to have poorer accuracy than first advertised. It is also shown to be derivable from two other luminosity relations. For these reasons, the Firmani relation is useless for cosmology. The Amati relation is then revisited and shown to be an artifact of a combination of selection effects. Therefore, the Amati relation is also not good for cosmology. Fourthly, the systematic errors involved in measuring a luminosity indicator (Epeak) are measured. The result is an irreducible systematic error of 28%. Finally, the work concludes with a discussion about the impact of the work and the future of GRB luminosity relations.

  18. Probing Intrinsic Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts with Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xilong; Messenger, Christopher; Heng, Ik Siong

    2017-11-03

    Progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts are thought to be neutron stars coalescing with their companion black hole or neutron star, which are one of the main gravitational wave sources. We have devised a Bayesian framework for combining gamma-ray burst and gravitational wave information that allows us to probe short gamma-ray burst luminosities. We show that combined short gamma-ray burst and gravitational wave observations not only improve progenitor distance and inclination angle estimates, they also allow the isotropic luminosities of short gamma-ray bursts to be determined without the need for host galaxy or light-curve information. We characterize our approach by simulating 1000 joint short gamma-ray burst and gravitational wave detections by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We show that ∼90% of the simulations have uncertainties on short gamma-ray burst isotropic luminosity estimates that are within a factor of two of the ideal scenario, where the distance is known exactly. Therefore, isotropic luminosities can be confidently determined for short gamma-ray bursts observed jointly with gravitational waves detected by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Planned enhancements to Advanced LIGO will extend its range and likely produce several joint detections of short gamma-ray bursts and gravitational waves. Third-generation gravitational wave detectors will allow for isotropic luminosity estimates for the majority of the short gamma-ray burst population within a redshift of z∼1.

  19. DETECTING THE SUPERNOVA BREAKOUT BURST IN TERRESTRIAL NEUTRINO DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Joshua; Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the distance-dependent performance of a few representative terrestrial neutrino detectors in detecting and measuring the properties of the ν e breakout burst light curve in a Galactic core-collapse supernova. The breakout burst is a signature phenomenon of core collapse and offers a probe into the stellar core through collapse and bounce. We examine cases of no neutrino oscillations and oscillations due to normal and inverted neutrino-mass hierarchies. For the normal hierarchy, other neutrino flavors emitted by the supernova overwhelm the ν e signal, making a detection of the breakout burst difficult. For the inverted hierarchy (IH), some detectors at some distances should be able to see the ν e breakout burst peak and measure its properties. For the IH, the maximum luminosity of the breakout burst can be measured at 10 kpc to accuracies of ∼30% for Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K) and ∼60% for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) and Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) lack the mass needed to make an accurate measurement. For the IH, the time of the maximum luminosity of the breakout burst can be measured in Hyper-K to an accuracy of ∼3 ms at 7 kpc, in DUNE to ∼2 ms at 4 kpc, and JUNO and Super-K can measure the time of maximum luminosity to an accuracy of ∼2 ms at 1 kpc. Detector backgrounds in IceCube render a measurement of the ν e breakout burst unlikely. For the IH, a measurement of the maximum luminosity of the breakout burst could be used to differentiate between nuclear equations of state

  20. Burst Pressure Prediction of Multiple Cracks in Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, N A; Alang, N A; Murad, M A

    2013-01-01

    Available industrial code such as ASME B1G, modified ASME B1G and DNV RP-F101 to assess pipeline defects appear more conservative for multiple crack like- defects than single crack-like defects. Thus, this paper presents burst pressure prediction of pipe with multiple cracks like defects. A finite element model was developed and the burst pressure prediction was compared with the available code. The model was used to investigate the effect of the distance between the cracks and the crack length. The coalescence diagram was also developed to evaluate the burst pressure of the multiple cracks. It was found as the distance between crack increases, the interaction effect comes to fade away and multiple cracks behave like two independent single cracks

  1. Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies Have "Normal" Luminosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer

    2000-04-10

    The galactic environment of gamma-ray bursts can provide good evidence about the nature of the progenitor system, with two old arguments implying that the burst host galaxies are significantly subluminous. New data and new analysis have now reversed this picture: (1) Even though the first two known host galaxies are indeed greatly subluminous, the next eight hosts have absolute magnitudes typical for a population of field galaxies. A detailed analysis of the 16 known hosts (10 with redshifts) shows them to be consistent with a Schechter luminosity function with R*=-21.8+/-1.0, as expected for normal galaxies. (2) Bright bursts from the Interplanetary Network are typically 18 times brighter than the faint bursts with redshifts; however, the bright bursts do not have galaxies inside their error boxes to limits deeper than expected based on the luminosities for the two samples being identical. A new solution to this dilemma is that a broad burst luminosity function along with a burst number density varying as the star formation rate will require the average luminosity of the bright sample (>6x1058 photons s-1 or>1.7x1052 ergs s-1) to be much greater than the average luminosity of the faint sample ( approximately 1058 photons s-1 or approximately 3x1051 ergs s-1). This places the bright bursts at distances for which host galaxies with a normal luminosity will not violate the observed limits. In conclusion, all current evidence points to gamma-ray burst host galaxies being normal in luminosity.

  2. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  3. Flash photoionization of gamma-ray burst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1992-01-01

    The H-alpha line emission that a flash-photoionized region emits is calculated. Archival transients, as well as various theoretical predictions, suggest that there may be significant ionizing flux. The limits on the line flux which might be observable indicate that the density must be fairly high for the recombination radiation to be observable. The intense burst radiation is insufficient to melt the dust which will be present in such a dense medium. This dust may attenuate the observable line emission, but does not attenuate the ionizing radiation before it ionizes the neutral medium surrounding the burst source. The dust can also produce a light echo. If there are indeed gamma-ray bursts in dense clouds, then it is possible that the burst was triggered by Bondi-Hoyle accretion from the dense medium, although it is unlikely on statistical grounds that all bursts occur in clouds.

  4. Wolf-Rayet stars as gamma-ray burst progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langer, N.; van Marle, A. -J; Yoon, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    It became clear in the last few years that long gamma-ray bursts are associated with the endpoints of massive star evolution. They occur in star forming regions at cosmological distances (Jakobsson et al., 2005), and are associated with supernova-type energies. The collapsar model explains gamma-ray

  5. Energetics and beaming of gamma ray burst triggers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of mechanisms have been proposed to supply the energy for gamma-ray bursts (GRB) at cosmological distances. It is a common misconception that some of these, notably NS-NS mergers, cannot meet the energy requirements suggested by recent observations. We show here that GRB energies, even

  6. Decay time of type III solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F.T.

    1972-01-01

    Sixty-four Type III bursts that drifted to frequencies below 600 kHz between March 1968 and February 1970 were analyzed. Decay times were measured and combined with published data ranging up to about 200 MHz. By fitting power functions to the computed and observed decay times, and using the local plasma hypothesis, it was found that the ratio rho of computed to observed values varies with radiocentric radial distance according to a power function rho = 3r 0 . 7 . (U.S.)

  7. Endogenous GABA and Glutamate Finely Tune the Bursting of Olfactory Bulb External Tufted Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayar, Abdallah; Ennis, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    In rat olfactory bulb slices, external tufted (ET) cells spontaneously generate spike bursts. Although ET cell bursting is intrinsically generated, its strength and precise timing may be regulated by synaptic input. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing whether the burst properties are modulated by activation of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors. Blocking GABAA receptors increased—whereas blocking ionotropic glutamate receptors decreased—the number of spikes/burst without changing the interburst frequency. The GABAA agonist (isoguvacine, 10 μM) completely inhibited bursting or reduced the number of spikes/burst, suggesting a shunting effect. These findings indicate that the properties of ET cell spontaneous bursting are differentially controlled by GABAergic and glutamatergic fast synaptic transmission. We suggest that ET cell excitatory and inhibitory inputs may be encoded as a change in the pattern of spike bursting in ET cells, which together with mitral/tufted cells constitute the output circuit of the olfactory bulb. PMID:17567771

  8. Quasi-periodic oscillations in short recurring bursts of the soft gamma repeater J1550–5418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenkothen, D.; D' Angelo, C.; Watts, A. L.; Heil, L.; Van der Klis, M.; Van der Horst, A. J. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouveliotou, C. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Göğüş, E.; Kaneko, Y. [SabancıUniversity, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Von Kienlin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Younes, G., E-mail: D.Huppenkothen@uva.nl [NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al., we developed a Bayesian method for searching for QPOs in short magnetar bursts, taking into account the effects of the complicated burst structure, and have shown its feasibility on a small sample of bursts. Here we apply the same method to a much larger sample from a burst storm of 286 bursts from SGR J1550–5418. We report a candidate signal at 260 Hz in a search of the individual bursts, which is fairly broad. We also find two QPOs at ∼93 Hz, and one at 127 Hz, when averaging periodograms from a number of bursts in individual triggers, at frequencies close to QPOs previously observed in magnetar giant flares. Finally, for the first time, we explore the overall burst variability in the sample and report a weak anti-correlation between the power-law index of the broadband model characterizing aperiodic burst variability and the burst duration: shorter bursts have steeper power-law indices than longer bursts. This indicates that longer bursts vary over a broader range of timescales and are not simply longer versions of the short bursts.

  9. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizza, L. J.

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest transient sources in the gamma-ray sky. Since their discovery in the late 1960s, the investigation of the astrophysical sys- tems in which these phenomena take place, and the physical mechanisms that drive them, has become a vast and prolific area of modern astrophysics. In this work I will briefly describe the most relevant observations of these sources, and the models that describe their nature, emphasizing on the in- vestigations about the progenitor astrophysical systems. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  11. Rock burst prevention at steep seam mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremov, G D

    1988-09-01

    At steep shield longwalls one method of preventing rock bursts is to avoid sharp angles during working. Stress in coal and rock body that appears when steep seams are worked where rock bursts occur at corners of set-up entries is discussed. The dynamic interaction between gas and rock pressure is assessed. Maintains that in order to avoid rock bursts at these places it is necessary to turn the protruding coal wall by 20-30 degrees towards the coal body to divert the action of shift forces. At the same time the face should also be inclined (by 10-15 degrees) to move the zones of increased stress away from the corner into the coal and rock body. Stress at workings with round cross-sections is 3-4 times lower than at square cross-sections. Recommendations are given that concern shearer loader operation (semi-spherical shape of the face), borehole drilling and water injection. Initial distance of 10-15 m between boreholes is suggested. 3 refs.

  12. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  13. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  14. Neutron stars as X-ray burst sources. II. Burst energy histograms and why they burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baan, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this work we explore some of the implications of a model for X-ray burst sources where bursts are caused by Kruskal-Schwarzschild instabilities at the magnetopause of an accreting and rotating neutron star. A number of simplifying assumptions are made in order to test the model using observed burst-energy histograms for the rapid burster MXB 1730--335. The predicted histograms have a correct general shape, but it appears that other effects are important as well, and that mode competition, for instance, may suppress the histograms at high burst energies. An explanation is ventured for the enhancement in the histogram at the highest burst energies, which produces the bimodal shape in high accretion rate histograms. Quantitative criteria are given for deciding when accreting neutron stars are steady sources or burst sources, and these criteria are tested using the X-ray pulsars

  15. A HIGH-FREQUENCY TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURST ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 13 CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, K.-S.; Kim, R.-S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Whaamdong, Yooseong-ku, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Gopalswamy, N.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Yashiro, S., E-mail: kscho@kasi.re.kr [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We examine the relationship between the high-frequency (425 MHz) type II radio burst and the associated white-light coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 February 13. The radio burst had a drift rate of 2.5 MHz s{sup -1}, indicating a relatively high shock speed. From SDO/AIA observations we find that a loop-like erupting front sweeps across high-density coronal loops near the start time of the burst (17:34:17 UT). The deduced distance of shock formation (0.06 Rs) from the flare center and speed of the shock (1100 km s{sup -1}) using the measured density from SDO/AIA observations are comparable to the height (0.05 Rs, from the solar surface) and speed (700 km s{sup -1}) of the CME leading edge observed by STEREO/EUVI. We conclude that the type II burst originates even in the low corona (<59 Mm or 0.08 Rs, above the solar surface) due to the fast CME shock passing through high-density loops.

  16. Thermonuclear model for γ-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of magnetized neutron stars with field strengths of approx. 10 12 gauss that are accreting mass onto kilometer-sized polar regions at a rate of approx. 13 M 0 yr -1 is examined. Based on the results of one-dimensional calculations, one finds that stable hydrogen burning, mediated by the hot CNO-cycle, will lead to a critical helium mass in the range 10 20 to 10 22 g km -2 . Owing to the extreme degeneracy of the electron gas providing pressure support, helium burning occurs as a violent thermonuclear runaway which may propagate either as a convective deflagration (Type I burst) or as a detonation wave (Type II burst). Complete combustion of helium into 56 Ni releases from 10 38 to 10 40 erg km -2 and pushes hot plasma with β > 1 above the surface of the neutron star. Rapid expansion of the plasma channels a substantial fraction of the explosion energy into magnetic field stress. Spectral properties are expected to be complex with emission from both thermal and non-thermal processes. The hard γ-outburst of several seconds softens as the event proceeds and is followed by a period, typically of several minutes duration, of softer x-ray emission as the subsurface ashes of the thermonuclear explosion cool. In this model, most γ-ray bursts currently being observed are located at a distance of several hundred parsecs and should recur on a timescale of months to centuries with convective deflagrations (Type I bursts) being the more common variety. An explanation for Jacobson-like transients is also offered

  17. The escape of > MeV photons from cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Epstein, R.I.; Ho, C.

    1992-01-01

    The recent BATSE result indicates that gamma-ray bursts may be at cosmological distances. AS such one must reconcile the high photon densities with the observations of spectra to energies well above the pair production threshold. We have investigated two models of relativistic flows that could provide the requiste beaming to allow the escape of 100 MeV photons: a stationary relativistic wind with a photosphere and a relativistic expanding shell. For typical cosmological gamma-ray burst parameters, the expanding shell model requires a Lorentz factor (γ) of only 10 2 compared with 3 x 10 2 to 10 3 for the relativistic wind. For the expanding shell model, events separated in time at the central source produce peaks observed to be separated by the same time. However, the shape and duration of the peaks are determined by the expansion. The expansion can occur over a much longer time (by γ 2 ) then the duration that the observer sees so gamma-ray burst could be larger than 10 2 light-seconds. We have made two crucial assumptions need require further study. The spectrum has been assumed to a be a power law and a two component power law or a power law with a high-energy cut-off would decrease the required γ. The expanding shell model uses a infinitely thin emitting surface and one with a finite thickness could increase the required γ

  18. Postillumination burst of carbon dioxide in crassalacean Acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C E; Vines, H M; Black, C C

    1975-04-01

    Immediately following exposure to light, a postillumination burst of CO(2) has been detected in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. A detailed study with pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaves indicates that the postillumination burst changes its amplitude and kinetics during the course of a day. In air, the postillumination burst in pineapple leaves generally is exhibited as two peaks. The postillumination burst is sensitive to atmospheric CO(2) and O(2) concentrations as well as to the light intensity under which plants are grown. We propose that the CO(2) released in the first postillumination burst peak is indicative of photorespiration since it is sensitive to either O(2) or CO(2) concentration while the second CO(2) evolution peak is likely due to decarboxylation of organic acids involved in Crassulacean acid metabolism.In marked contrast to other higher plants, the postillumination burst in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants can be equal to or greater than the rate of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in pineapple leaves also varies throughout a day. Both photosynthesis and the postillumination burst have a daily variation which apparently is a complex function of degree of leaf acidity, growth light intensity, ambient gas phase, and the time a plant has been exposed to a given gas.

  19. Gamma-ray Burst Prompt Correlations: Selection and Instrumental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Amati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) even after several decades remains a mystery. However, it is believed that correlations between observable GRB properties, given their huge luminosity/radiated energy and redshift distribution extending up to at least z ≈ 9, are promising possible cosmological tools. They also may help to discriminate among the most plausible theoretical models. Nowadays, the objective is to make GRBs standard candles, similar to supernovae (SNe) Ia, through well-established and robust correlations. However, differently from SNe Ia, GRBs span over several order of magnitude in their energetics, hence they cannot yet be considered standard candles. Additionally, being observed at very large distances, their physical properties are affected by selection biases, the so-called Malmquist bias or Eddington effect. We describe the state of the art on how GRB prompt correlations are corrected for these selection biases to employ them as redshift estimators and cosmological tools. We stress that only after an appropriate evaluation and correction for these effects, GRB correlations can be used to discriminate among the theoretical models of prompt emission, to estimate the cosmological parameters and to serve as distance indicators via redshift estimation.

  20. THE INTERPLANETARY NETWORK SUPPLEMENT TO THE BURST AND TRANSIENT SOURCE EXPERIMENT 5B CATALOG OF COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.; Briggs, M. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.; Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Boynton, W.; Starr, R.; McNutt, R.; Boer, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present Interplanetary Network localization information for 343 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) between the end of the 4th BATSE catalog and the end of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) mission, obtained by analyzing the arrival times of these bursts at the Ulysses, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), and CGRO spacecraft. For any given burst observed by CGRO and one other spacecraft, arrival time analysis (or t riangulation ) results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose half-width varies between 11 arcsec and 21 0 , depending on the intensity, time history, and arrival direction of the burst, as well as the distance between the spacecraft. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in an average reduction of the area of a factor of 20. When all three spacecraft observe a burst, the result is an error box whose area varies between 1 and 48,000 arcmin 2 , resulting in an average reduction of the BATSE error circle area of a factor of 87.

  1. Are we observing Lorentz violation in gamma ray bursts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlopoulos, Theodore G.

    2005-01-01

    From recent observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), it appears that spectral time lags between higher-energy gamma rays photons and lower-energy photons vary with energy difference and time (distance) traveled. These lags appear to be smaller for the most luminous (close) bursts but larger for the fainter (farther away) bursts. From this observation, it has been suggested that it might be possible to determine the distance (L) these bursts have traveled from these time lags alone, without performing any red-shift measurements. These observed spreads (dispersion) of high-energy electromagnetic pulses of different energies with time contradict the special theory of relativity (STR). However, extended theories (ET) of the STR have been developed that contain a dispersive term, predicting the above observations. An example of such an ET is presented, allowing us to derive a relationship between time lags of gamma rays of different energies and distance L traveled from their origin. In addition, this theory predicts the origin of X-ray flashes

  2. Quantum key based burst confidentiality in optical burst switched networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A M; Sivasubramanian, A

    2014-01-01

    The optical burst switching (OBS) is an emergent result to the technology concern that could achieve a feasible network in future. They are endowed with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of those applications that require intensive bandwidth. There are more domains opening up in the OBS that evidently shows their advantages and their capability to face the future network traffic. However, the concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution, and quality of service (QoS). This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher) to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. Although the use of AES algorithm has already been proposed for the same issue, by contrasting the two algorithms under the parameters of burst encryption and decryption time, end-to-end delay, it was found that RC4 provided better results. This paper looks to provide a better solution for the confidentiality of the burst in OBS networks.

  3. Quantum Key Based Burst Confidentiality in Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Balamurugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS is an emergent result to the technology concern that could achieve a feasible network in future. They are endowed with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of those applications that require intensive bandwidth. There are more domains opening up in the OBS that evidently shows their advantages and their capability to face the future network traffic. However, the concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution, and quality of service (QoS. This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. Although the use of AES algorithm has already been proposed for the same issue, by contrasting the two algorithms under the parameters of burst encryption and decryption time, end-to-end delay, it was found that RC4 provided better results. This paper looks to provide a better solution for the confidentiality of the burst in OBS networks.

  4. modelling distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Love

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance predicting functions may be used in a variety of applications for estimating travel distances between points. To evaluate the accuracy of a distance predicting function and to determine its parameters, a goodness-of-fit criteria is employed. AD (Absolute Deviations, SD (Squared Deviations and NAD (Normalized Absolute Deviations are the three criteria that are mostly employed in practice. In the literature some assumptions have been made about the properties of each criterion. In this paper, we present statistical analyses performed to compare the three criteria from different perspectives. For this purpose, we employ the ℓkpθ-norm as the distance predicting function, and statistically compare the three criteria by using normalized absolute prediction error distributions in seventeen geographical regions. We find that there exist no significant differences between the criteria. However, since the criterion SD has desirable properties in terms of distance modelling procedures, we suggest its use in practice.

  5. Human intestinal parasites from a Mamluk Period cesspool in the Christian quarter of Jerusalem: Potential indicators of long distance travel in the 15th century AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Prag, Kay; Clamer, Christa; Humbert, Jean-Baptiste; Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research is to determine which parasites were present in a mediaeval latrine from the old city of Jerusalem. This latrine contains fragments of pottery from the Middle East and also from Italy, suggesting links of some kind with Europe. Excavation identified two separate entry chutes emptying in a shared cesspool. Radiocarbon dating and pottery analysis is compatible with a date of use in the late fifteenth century and early sixteenth century. Twelve coprolites (preserved stool) and mixed cesspool sediment were analysed with light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Six species of intestinal parasites were identified. These were the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), Taenia sp. (beef/pork/asiatic tapeworm) Diphyllobothrium sp. (fish tapeworm), and two protozoa that can cause dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis). While roundworm and whipworm were found in every sample, the other parasite species were present in only one or two samples each, suggesting that only a minority of those using the latrine were infected with those species. The role of Jerusalem as a site for long distance trade, migration or pilgrimage is considered when interpreting the Italian pottery and the parasites present, especially E. histolytica and Diphyllobothrium sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar microwave bursts - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, M. R.; Vlahos, L.

    1982-01-01

    Observational and theoretical results on the physics of microwave bursts that occur in the solar atmosphere are reviewed. Special attention is given to the advances made in burst physics over the last few years with the great improvement in spatial and time resolution, especially with instruments like the NRAO three-element interferometer, the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and more recently the Very Large Array. Observations made on the preflare build-up of an active region at centimeter wavelengths are reviewed. Three distinct phases in the evolution of cm bursts, namely the impulsive phase, the post-burst phase, and the gradual rise and fall, are discussed. Attention is also given to the flux density spectra of centimeter bursts. Descriptions are given of observations of fine structures with temporal resolution of 10-100 ms in the intensity profiles of cm-wavelength bursts. High spatial resolution observations are analyzed, with special reference to the one- and two-dimensional maps of cm burst sources.

  7. Properties of gamma-ray burst progenitor stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Narayan, Ramesh; Johnson, Jarrett L

    2008-07-18

    We determined some basic properties of stars that produce spectacular gamma-ray bursts at the end of their lives. We assumed that accretion of the outer portion of the stellar core by a central black hole fuels the prompt emission and that fall-back and accretion of the stellar envelope later produce the plateau in the x-ray light curve seen in some bursts. Using x-ray data for three bursts, we estimated the radius of the stellar core to be approximately (1 - 3) x 10(10) cm and that of the stellar envelope to be approximately (1 - 2) x 10(11) cm. The density profile in the envelope is fairly shallow, with rho approximately r(-2) (where rho is density and r is distance from the center of the explosion). The rotation speeds of the core and envelope are approximately 0.05 and approximately 0.2 of the local Keplerian speed, respectively.

  8. The distance between the lower edge of the xiphisternum and the center of the umbilicus as an indicator of abdominal obesity and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Jayawardena, Mallika Arachchige Ranil; Sheriff, Mohamed Hussain Rezvi; Matthews, David Richard

    2010-06-01

    Abdominal obesity is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To compare the distance between the lower edge of xiphisternum and the center of the umbilicus (XUD) with other anthropometric measurements in predicting risk factors for CVD. A random sample of 4,485 (males 1,772, females 2,713) nationally representative noninstitutionalized adults aged >or=18 years were included in the analysis. XUD, BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also preformed. The mean XUD (+/- SD) was 17.4 +/- 3.2 cm and 17.0 +/- 3.0 cm for males (M) and females (F) respectively (M vs. F; p continuous variables (p < 0.001), except LDL cholesterol for women. However, the strengths of associations were weak for all associations (<0.3). The correlations of BMI, WC and WHR with XUD were significant (p < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for XUD in predicting the presence of two or more CVD risk factors was 0.62 (95%CI 0.61- 0.64); the corresponding AUC values for BMI (0.71, 95% CI 0.69-0.72), WC (0.71 95% CI, 0.70-0.73), and WHR (0.67 95% CI, 0.65-0.68) were higher than that for XUD. The XUD showed significant correlations with the cardiovascular risk factors among Sriii Lankan adults. However, in predicting CVD risk XUD was inferior to BMI, WC, and WHR. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Phenomenological vessel burst investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippelein, K.W.; Julisch, P.; Muz, J.; Schiedermaier, J.

    1985-07-01

    Fourteen burst experiments have been carried out using vessels with circumferential and longitudinal flaws, for investigation of the fracture behaviour, i.e. the time-related fracture opening. The vessels had dimensions (outer diameter x wall thickness = 800 x 47 mm) which correspond to the dimensions of the main coolant piping of a 1300 MW e PWR. The test specimens had been made of the base-safe material 20 MnMoNi 55 and of a special, 22 NiMoCr 37 base alloy. The experimental conditions with regard to pressure and temperature have been chosen so as to correspond to normal operating conditions of a PWR (p∝17.5 MPa, T∝300 0 C), i.e. the flaws have been so dimensioned that failure was to be expected at a pressure of p∝17.5 MPa. As a rule, water has been used as the pressure medium, or in some cases air, in order to influence the time-dependent pressure decrease. Fluid and structural dynamics calculations have also been made. In order to determine the impact of a fast propagating crack on the leak-to-fracture curve, which normally is defined by quasistationary experiments, suitable tests have been made with large-volume, cylindrical vessels (outer diameter x wall thickness x length = 3000 x 21 x 14000 mm) made of the material WSt E 43. The leak-before-fracture criterion has been confirmed. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Low-Frequency Type III Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type 11 radio bursts associated with a set of six low frequency (15 min) normally used to define these bursts. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type 11 burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type 11 burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 min) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event.

  11. The application of coronal scattering measurements to solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The interpretation of ground based observations of solar 'plasma frequency' radio bursts has been hampered in the past by an insufficient knowledge of coronal scattering by density inhomogeneities close to the Sun. Calculations based on measuurements of the angular broadening of natural radio sources, and Woo's 1975 measurement of the angular broadening of the telemetry carrier by Helios I near occultation (Woo, 1978), indicate that plasma frequency solar bursts should undergo considerable scattering, at least near the maximum of the sunspot cycle. The calculated displacements of the apparent positions of the bursts are about equal to the observed displacements which have been attributed to the bursts occurring in dense streamers. In order to obtain more scattering data close to the Sun, interferometer measurements of the angular broadening of spacecraft signals are planned, and the important contribution which could be made with large dishes is discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  13. Detection of gamma-ray bursts from Andromeda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulik, Tomasz; Coppi, Paolo S.; Lamb, Donald Q.

    1996-01-01

    If gamma-ray bursts originate in a corona around the Milky Way, it should also be possible to detect them from a similar corona around Andromeda. Adopting a simple model of high velocity neutron star corona, we evaluate the ability of instruments on existing missions to detect an excess of bursts toward Andromeda. We also calculate the optimal properties of an instrument designed to detect such an excess. We find that if the bursts radiate isotropically, an experiment with a sampling distance d max > or approx. 500 kpc could detect a significant excess of bursts in the direction of Andromeda in a few years of observation. If the radiation is beamed along the neutron star's direction of motion, an experiment with d max > or approx. 800 kpc would detect such an excess in a similar amount of time, provided that the width of the beam is greater than 10 deg. Lack of an excess toward Andromeda would therefore be compelling evidence that the bursts are cosmological in origin if made by an instrument at least 50 times more sensitive than BATSE, given current constraints on Galactic corona models. Comparisons with detailed dynamical calculations of the spatial distribution of high velocity neutron stars in the coronae around the Milky Way and Andromeda confirm these conclusions

  14. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons to...

  15. Chimera states in bursting neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Ghosh, Dibakar; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the existence of chimera states in pulse-coupled networks of bursting Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with nonlocal, global and local (nearest neighbor) couplings. Through a linear stability analysis, we discuss the behavior of stability function in the incoherent (i.e. disorder), coherent, chimera and multi-chimera states. Surprisingly, we find that chimera and multi-chimera states occur even using local nearest neighbor interaction in a network of identical bursting neurons alone. This is i...

  16. Detection circuit for gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Takamasa; Mori, Kunishiro; Uchiyama, Sadayuki.

    1982-01-01

    A new gamma-ray burst detection system is described. The system was developed as an environmental monitor of an accelerator, and can be used as the burst detection system. The system detects the arrival time of burst. The difference between the arrival times detected at different places will give information on the burst source. The frequency of detecting false burst was estimated, and the detection limit under the estimated frequency of false burst was also calculated. Decision whether the signal is false or true burst was made by the statistical treatment. (Kato, T.)

  17. Gamma-ray burst models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts.

  18. Solar Drift-Pair Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, A.; Volvach, Ya.; Konovalenko, A.; Koval, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new sight on the study of solar bursts historically called drift pairs (DPs) is presented. Having a simple morphology on dynamic spectra of radio records (two short components separated in time, and often they are very similar) and discovered at the dawn of radio astronomy, their features remain unexplained totally up to now. Generally, the DPs are observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, but not every storm of type III bursts is linked with DPs. Detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, the DP bursts are limited in frequency bandwidth. They can drift from high frequencies to low ones and vice versa. Their frequency drift rate may be both lower and higher than typical rates of type III bursts at the same frequency range. The development of low-frequency radio telescopes and data processing provide additional possibilities in the research. In this context the fresh analysis of DPs, made from recent observations in the summer campaign of 2015, are just considered. Their study was implemented by updated tools of the UTR-2 radio telescope at 9-33 MHz. During 10-12 July of 2015, DPs forming the longest patterns on dynamic spectra are about 7% of the total number of recorded DPs. Their marvelous resemblance in frequency drift rates with the solar S-bursts is discussed.

  19. Lensing of Fast Radio Bursts by Plasma Structures in Host Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, J.M.; Wasserman, I.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Lazio, T.J.W.; Chatterjee, S.; Wharton, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    The amplitudes of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can be strongly modulated by plasma lenses in their host galaxies, including that of the repeating FRB 121102 at ∼1 Gpc luminosity distance. Caustics require the lens’ dispersion measure depth ({{DM}}{\\ell }), scale size (a), and distance from the source

  20. Speech Clarity Index (Ψ): A Distance-Based Speech Quality Indicator and Recognition Rate Prediction for Dysarthric Speakers with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayasith, Prakasith; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    It is a tedious and subjective task to measure severity of a dysarthria by manually evaluating his/her speech using available standard assessment methods based on human perception. This paper presents an automated approach to assess speech quality of a dysarthric speaker with cerebral palsy. With the consideration of two complementary factors, speech consistency and speech distinction, a speech quality indicator called speech clarity index (Ψ) is proposed as a measure of the speaker's ability to produce consistent speech signal for a certain word and distinguished speech signal for different words. As an application, it can be used to assess speech quality and forecast speech recognition rate of speech made by an individual dysarthric speaker before actual exhaustive implementation of an automatic speech recognition system for the speaker. The effectiveness of Ψ as a speech recognition rate predictor is evaluated by rank-order inconsistency, correlation coefficient, and root-mean-square of difference. The evaluations had been done by comparing its predicted recognition rates with ones predicted by the standard methods called the articulatory and intelligibility tests based on the two recognition systems (HMM and ANN). The results show that Ψ is a promising indicator for predicting recognition rate of dysarthric speech. All experiments had been done on speech corpus composed of speech data from eight normal speakers and eight dysarthric speakers.

  1. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Clearest-Ever Evidence from VLT Spectra of Powerful Event Summary A very bright burst of gamma-rays was observed on March 29, 2003 by NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-II) , in a sky region within the constellation Leo. Within 90 min, a new, very bright light source (the "optical afterglow") was detected in the same direction by means of a 40-inch telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (Australia) and also in Japan. The gamma-ray burst was designated GRB 030329 , according to the date. And within 24 hours, a first, very detailed spectrum of this new object was obtained by the UVES high-dispersion spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It allowed to determine the distance as about 2,650 million light-years (redshift 0.1685). Continued observations with the FORS1 and FORS2 multi-mode instruments on the VLT during the following month allowed an international team of astronomers [1] to document in unprecedented detail the changes in the spectrum of the optical afterglow of this gamma-ray burst . Their detailed report appears in the June 19 issue of the research journal "Nature". The spectra show the gradual and clear emergence of a supernova spectrum of the most energetic class known, a "hypernova" . This is caused by the explosion of a very heavy star - presumably over 25 times heavier than the Sun. The measured expansion velocity (in excess of 30,000 km/sec) and the total energy released were exceptionally high, even within the elect hypernova class. From a comparison with more nearby hypernovae, the astronomers are able to fix with good accuracy the moment of the stellar explosion. It turns out to be within an interval of plus/minus two days of the gamma-ray burst. This unique conclusion provides compelling evidence that the two events are directly connected. These observations therefore indicate a common physical process behind the hypernova explosion and the associated emission of strong gamma

  2. Light Dawns on Dark Gamma-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic events in the Universe, but some appear curiously faint in visible light. The biggest study to date of these so-called dark gamma-ray bursts, using the GROND instrument on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla in Chile, has found that these gigantic explosions don't require exotic explanations. Their faintness is now fully explained by a combination of causes, the most important of which is the presence of dust between the Earth and the explosion. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fleeting events that last from less than a second to several minutes, are detected by orbiting observatories that can pick up their high energy radiation. Thirteen years ago, however, astronomers discovered a longer-lasting stream of less energetic radiation coming from these violent outbursts, which can last for weeks or even years after the initial explosion. Astronomers call this the burst's afterglow. While all gamma-ray bursts [1] have afterglows that give off X-rays, only about half of them were found to give off visible light, with the rest remaining mysteriously dark. Some astronomers suspected that these dark afterglows could be examples of a whole new class of gamma-ray bursts, while others thought that they might all be at very great distances. Previous studies had suggested that obscuring dust between the burst and us might also explain why they were so dim. "Studying afterglows is vital to further our understanding of the objects that become gamma-ray bursts and what they tell us about star formation in the early Universe," says the study's lead author Jochen Greiner from the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching bei München, Germany. NASA launched the Swift satellite at the end of 2004. From its orbit above the Earth's atmosphere it can detect gamma-ray bursts and immediately relay their positions to other observatories so that the afterglows could be studied. In the new study, astronomers combined Swift

  3. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  4. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of ∼2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (∼6x10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 ) is ∼>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (∼60,000 s) is ∼30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  5. Bursting star formation and the overabundance of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodigfee, G.; Deloore, C.

    1985-01-01

    The ratio of the number of WR-stars to their OB progenitors appears to be significantly higher in some extragalactic systems than in our Galaxy. This overabundance of Wolf-Rayet-stars can be explained as a consequence of a recent burst of star formation. It is suggested that this burst is the manifestation of a long period nonlinear oscillation in the star formation process, produced by positive feedback effects between young stars and the interstellar medium. Star burst galaxies with large numbers of WR-stars must generate gamma fluxes but due to the distance, all of them are beyond the reach of present-day detectors, except probably 30 Dor

  6. Quantum-Gravity Based Photon Dispersion in Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Detection Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances offer a time-varying signal that can be used to search for energy-dependent photon dispersion effects. We show that short bursts with narrow pulse structures at high energies will offer the least ambiguous tests for energy-dependent dispersion effects. We discuss quantitative methods to search for such effects in time-tagged photon data. Utilizing observed gamma-ray burst profiles extrapolated to GeV energies, as may expected to be observed by GLAST, we also demonstrate the extent to which these methods can be used as an empirical exploration of quantum gravity formalisms

  7. A search for dispersed radio bursts in archival Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari; Nieves, Angela Cortes; McLaughlin, Maura

    2012-10-01

    A number of different classes of potentially extra-terrestrial bursts of radio emission have been observed in surveys with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope, including 'rotating radio transients', the 'Lorimer burst' and 'perytons'. Rotating radio transients are radio pulsars which are best detectable in single-pulse searches. The Lorimer burst is a highly dispersed isolated radio burst with properties suggestive of extragalactic origin. Perytons share the frequency-swept nature of the rotating radio transients and Lorimer burst, but unlike these events appear in all 13 beams of the Parkes multibeam receiver and are probably a form of peculiar radio frequency interference. In order to constrain these and other radio source populations further, we searched the archival Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey data for events similar to any of these. We did not find any new rotating radio transients or bursts like the Lorimer burst. We did, however, discover four peryton-like events. Similar to the perytons, these four bursts are highly dispersed, detected in all 13 beams of the Parkes multibeam receiver, and have pulse widths between 20 and 30 ms. Unlike perytons, these bursts are not associated with atmospheric events like rain or lightning. These facts may indicate that lightning was not responsible for the peryton phenomenon. Moreover, the lack of highly dispersed celestial signals is the evidence that the Lorimer burst is unlikely to belong to a cosmological source population.

  8. Detection of bursts in extracellular spike trains using hidden semi-Markov point process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokdar, Surya; Xi, Peiyi; Kelly, Ryan C; Kass, Robert E

    2010-08-01

    Neurons in vitro and in vivo have epochs of bursting or "up state" activity during which firing rates are dramatically elevated. Various methods of detecting bursts in extracellular spike trains have appeared in the literature, the most widely used apparently being Poisson Surprise (PS). A natural description of the phenomenon assumes (1) there are two hidden states, which we label "burst" and "non-burst," (2) the neuron evolves stochastically, switching at random between these two states, and (3) within each state the spike train follows a time-homogeneous point process. If in (2) the transitions from non-burst to burst and burst to non-burst states are memoryless, this becomes a hidden Markov model (HMM). For HMMs, the state transitions follow exponential distributions, and are highly irregular. Because observed bursting may in some cases be fairly regular-exhibiting inter-burst intervals with small variation-we relaxed this assumption. When more general probability distributions are used to describe the state transitions the two-state point process model becomes a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). We developed an efficient Bayesian computational scheme to fit HSMMs to spike train data. Numerical simulations indicate the method can perform well, sometimes yielding very different results than those based on PS.

  9. COSMOLOGICAL FAST RADIO BURSTS FROM BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Thornton et al. reported the detection of four fast radio bursts (FRBs). The dispersion measures indicate that the sources of these FRBs are at cosmological distance. Given the large full sky event rate ∼10 4 sky –1 day –1 , the FRBs are a promising target for multi-messenger astronomy. Here we propose double degenerate, binary white-dwarf (WD) mergers as the source of FRBs, which are produced by coherent emission from the polar region of a rapidly rotating, magnetized massive WD formed after the merger. The basic characteristics of the FRBs, such as the energetics, emission duration and event rate, can be consistently explained in this scenario. As a result, we predict that some FRBs can accompany type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) or X-ray debris disks. Simultaneous detection could test our scenario and probe the progenitors of SNe Ia, and moreover would provide a novel constraint on the cosmological parameters. We strongly encourage future SN and X-ray surveys that follow up FRBs

  10. A “Cosmic Comb” Model of Fast Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Recent observations of fast radio bursts (FRBs) indicate a perplexing, inconsistent picture. We propose a unified scenario to interpret diverse FRBs observed. A regular pulsar, otherwise unnoticeable at a cosmological distance, may produce a bright FRB if its magnetosphere is suddenly “combed” by a nearby, strong plasma stream toward the anti-stream direction. If the Earth is to the night side of the stream, the combed magnetic sheath would sweep across the direction of Earth and make a detectable FRB. The stream could be an AGN flare, a GRB or supernova blastwave, a tidal disruption event, or even a stellar flare. Since it is the energy flux received by the pulsar rather than the luminosity of the stream origin that defines the properties of the FRB, this model predicts a variety of counterparts of FRBs, including a possible connection between FRB 150418 and an AGN flare, a possible connection between FRB 131104 and a weak GRB, a steady radio nebula associated with the repeating FRB 121102, and probably no bright counterparts for some FRBs.

  11. A “Cosmic Comb” Model of Fast Radio Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Recent observations of fast radio bursts (FRBs) indicate a perplexing, inconsistent picture. We propose a unified scenario to interpret diverse FRBs observed. A regular pulsar, otherwise unnoticeable at a cosmological distance, may produce a bright FRB if its magnetosphere is suddenly “combed” by a nearby, strong plasma stream toward the anti-stream direction. If the Earth is to the night side of the stream, the combed magnetic sheath would sweep across the direction of Earth and make a detectable FRB. The stream could be an AGN flare, a GRB or supernova blastwave, a tidal disruption event, or even a stellar flare. Since it is the energy flux received by the pulsar rather than the luminosity of the stream origin that defines the properties of the FRB, this model predicts a variety of counterparts of FRBs, including a possible connection between FRB 150418 and an AGN flare, a possible connection between FRB 131104 and a weak GRB, a steady radio nebula associated with the repeating FRB 121102, and probably no bright counterparts for some FRBs.

  12. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  13. Optical observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2004-01-01

    We briefly review the status and recent progress in the field of optical observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows. We will focus on the fundamental observational evidence for the relationship between gamma-ray bursts and the final evolutionary phases of massive stars. In particular, we will address (i) gamma-ray burst host galaxies, (ii) optically dark gamma-ray burst afterglows, (iii) the gamma-ray burst-supernova connection, and (iv) the relation between X-ray flashes, gamma-ray bursts, and supernovae

  14. Transient optical emission from the error box of the gamma-ray burst of 28 February 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Paradijs, J.; Groot, P.J.; Galama, T.

    1997-01-01

    For almost a quarter of a century(1), the origin of gamma-ray bursts-brief, energetic bursts of high-energy photons-has remained unknown. The detection of a counterpart at another wavelength has long been thought to be a key to understanding the nature of these bursts (see, for example, ref. 2...... in that galaxy and thus that gamma-ray bursts in general lie at cosmological distance.......), but intensive searches have not revealed such a counterpart. The distribution and properties of the bursts(3) are explained naturally if they lie at cosmological distances (a few Gpc)(4), but there is a countervailing view that they are relatively local objects(5), perhaps distributed in a very large halo...

  15. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spike burst length in cat striate cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, B C; DeBruyn, E J; Snider, R K; Kabara, J F; Bonds, A B

    1997-07-01

    Burst activity, defined by groups of two or more spikes with intervals of cats. Bursting varied broadly across a population of 507 simple and complex cells. Half of this population had > or = 42% of their spikes contained in bursts. The fraction of spikes in bursts did not vary as a function of average firing rate and was stationary over time. Peaks in the interspike interval histograms were found at both 3-5 ms and 10-30 ms. In many cells the locations of these peaks were independent of firing rate, indicating a quantized control of firing behavior at two different time scales. The activity at the shorter time scale most likely results from intrinsic properties of the cell membrane, and that at the longer scale from recurrent network excitation. Burst frequency (bursts per s) and burst length (spikes per burst) both depended on firing rate. Burst frequency was essentially linear with firing rate, whereas burst length was a nonlinear function of firing rate and was also governed by stimulus orientation. At a given firing rate, burst length was greater for optimal orientations than for nonoptimal orientations. No organized orientation dependence was seen in bursts from lateral geniculate nucleus cells. Activation of cortical contrast gain control at low response amplitudes resulted in no burst length modulation, but burst shortening at optimal orientations was found in responses characterized by supersaturation. At a given firing rate, cortical burst length was shortened by microinjection of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and bursts became longer in the presence of N-methyl-bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor blocker. These results are consistent with a model in which responses are reduced at nonoptimal orientations, at least in part, by burst shortening that is mediated by GABA. A similar mechanism contributes to response supersaturation at high contrasts via recruitment of inhibitory responses that are tuned to adjacent orientations. Burst length modulation can serve

  16. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the essential aspects of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenon, with emphasis on the more recent results. GRBs are introduced by their time histories, which provide some evidence for a compact object origin. The energy spectra of bursts are presented and they are seen to demonstrate practically unambiguously that the origin of some GRBs involves neutron stars. Counterpart searches are reviewed briefly and the statistical properties of bursters treated. This paper presents a review of the three known repeating bursters (the Soft Gamma Repeaters). Extragalactic and galactic models are discussed and future prospects are assessed

  17. BATSE/OSSE Rapid Burst Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matz, S. M; Grove, J. E; Johnson, W. N; Kurfess, J. D; Share, G. H; Fishman, G. J; Meegan, Charles A

    1995-01-01

    ...) slew the OSSE detectors to burst locations determined on-board by BATSE. This enables OSSE to make sensitive searches for prompt and delayed post-burst line and continuum emission above 50 keV...

  18. US Army Nuclear Burst Detection System (NBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, R.F.

    1980-07-01

    The Nuclear Burst Detection System (NBDS) was developed to meet the Army requirements of an unattended, automatic nuclear burst reporting system. It provides pertinent data for battlefield commanders on a timely basis with high reliability

  19. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Observations have revealed that long bursts, with recorded afterglow, tend to reside in the star forming regions of normal galaxies. Moreover, GRB 980425 ... observer is negligible due to the special relativistic time dilation. However, because of deceleration, eventually Γ−1 > θj and thereafter, sideways expansion becomes.

  20. Optothermally actuated capillary burst valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Johan; Bilenberg, Brian; Kristensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    be burst by raising the temperature due to the temperature dependence of the fluid surface tension. We address individual valves by using a local heating platform based on a thin film of near infrared absorber dye embedded in the lid used to seal the microfluidic device [L. H. Thamdrup et al., Nano Lett...

  1. Dark gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    Many theories of dark matter (DM) predict that DM particles can be captured by stars via scattering on ordinary matter. They subsequently condense into a DM core close to the center of the star and eventually annihilate. In this work, we trace DM capture and annihilation rates throughout the life of a massive star and show that this evolution culminates in an intense annihilation burst coincident with the death of the star in a core collapse supernova. The reason is that, along with the stellar interior, also its DM core heats up and contracts, so that the DM density increases rapidly during the final stages of stellar evolution. We argue that, counterintuitively, the annihilation burst is more intense if DM annihilation is a p -wave process than for s -wave annihilation because in the former case, more DM particles survive until the supernova. If among the DM annihilation products are particles like dark photons that can escape the exploding star and decay to standard model particles later, the annihilation burst results in a flash of gamma rays accompanying the supernova. For a galactic supernova, this "dark gamma-ray burst" may be observable in the Čerenkov Telescope Array.

  2. Arachidonic acid triggers an oxidative burst in leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompeia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The change in cellular reducing potential, most likely reflecting an oxidative burst, was investigated in arachidonic acid- (AA stimulated leukocytes. The cells studied included the human leukemia cell lines HL-60 (undifferentiated and differentiated into macrophage-like and polymorphonuclear-like cells, Jurkat and Raji, and thymocytes and macrophages from rat primary cultures. The oxidative burst was assessed by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. AA increased the oxidative burst until an optimum AA concentration was reached and the burst decreased thereafter. In the leukemia cell lines, optimum concentration ranged from 200 to 400 µM (up to 16-fold, whereas in rat cells it varied from 10 to 20 µM. Initial rates of superoxide generation were high, decreasing steadily and ceasing about 2 h post-treatment. The continuous presence of AA was not needed to stimulate superoxide generation. It seems that the NADPH oxidase system participates in AA-stimulated superoxide production in these cells since the oxidative burst was stimulated by NADPH and inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, diphenyleneiodonium and superoxide dismutase. Some of the effects of AA on the oxidative burst may be due to its detergent action. There apparently was no contribution of other superoxide-generating systems such as xanthine-xanthine oxidase, cytochromes P-450 and mitochondrial electron transport chain, as assessed by the use of inhibitors. Eicosanoids and nitric oxide also do not seem to interfere with the AA-stimulated oxidative burst since there was no systematic effect of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, but lipid peroxides may play a role, as indicated by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction promoted by tocopherol.

  3. Beta burst dynamics in Parkinson's disease OFF and ON dopaminergic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkhauser, Gerd; Pogosyan, Alek; Tan, Huiling; Herz, Damian M; Kühn, Andrea A; Brown, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Exaggerated basal ganglia beta activity (13-35 Hz) is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease and can be suppressed by dopaminergic medication, with the degree of suppression being correlated with the improvement in motor symptoms. Importantly, beta activity is not continuously elevated, but fluctuates to give beta bursts. The percentage number of longer beta bursts in a given interval is positively correlated with clinical impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Here we determine whether the characteristics of beta bursts are dependent on dopaminergic state. Local field potentials were recorded from the subthalamic nucleus of eight Parkinson's disease patients during temporary lead externalization during surgery for deep brain stimulation. The recordings took place with the patient quietly seated following overnight withdrawal of levodopa and after administration of levodopa. Beta bursts were defined by applying a common amplitude threshold and burst characteristics were compared between the two drug conditions. The amplitude of beta bursts, indicative of the degree of local neural synchronization, progressively increased with burst duration. Treatment with levodopa limited this evolution leading to a relative increase of shorter, lower amplitude bursts. Synchronization, however, was not limited to local neural populations during bursts, but also, when such bursts were cotemporaneous across the hemispheres, was evidenced by bilateral phase synchronization. The probability of beta bursts and the proportion of cotemporaneous bursts were reduced by levodopa. The percentage number of longer beta bursts in a given interval was positively related to motor impairment, while the opposite was true for the percentage number of short duration beta bursts. Importantly, the decrease in burst duration was also correlated with the motor improvement. In conclusion, we demonstrate that long duration beta bursts are associated with an increase in local and

  4. What did we learn from gamma-ray burst 080319B?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panaitescu, Alin; Kumar, Pawan

    2008-01-01

    The optical and gamma-ray observations of GRB 080319B allow us to provide a broad-brush picture for this remarkable burst. The data indicate that the prompt optical and gamma-ray photons were possibly produced at the same location but by different radiation processes: synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton, respectively (but we note that this interpretation of the gamma-ray data faces some difficulties). We find that the burst prompt optical emission was produced at a distance of 10 16.3 cm by an ultrarelativistic source moving at Lorentz factor of -500. A straightforward inference is that about 10 times more energy must have been radiated at tens of GeV than that released at 1 MeV. Assuming that the GRB outflow was baryonic and the gamma-ray source was shock-heated plasma, the collimation-corrected kinetic energy of the jet powering GRB 080319B was larger than 10 52.3 erg. The decay of the early afterglow optical emission (up to 1 ks) is too fast to be attributed to the reverse-shock crossing the GRB ejecta but is consistent with the expectations for the 'large-angle' emission released during the burst. The pure power-law decay of the optical afterglow flux from 1 ks to 10 d is most naturally identified with the (synchrotron) emission from the shock propagating into a wind-like medium. However, the X-ray afterglow requires a departure from the standard blast-wave model.

  5. Stellar Sources of Gamma-ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    Correlation analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby star locations (catalog Gliese) reveals 4 coincidences with good angular accuracy. The random probability is 4\\times 10^{-5}, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. Some additional search of stellar gamma-ray bursts is discussed.

  6. Detecting pipe bursts by monitoring water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Van der Roer, M.; Sperber, V.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm which compares measured and predicted water demands to detect pipe bursts was developed and tested on three data sets of water demand and reported pipe bursts of three years. The algorithm proved to be able to detect bursts where the water loss exceeds 30% of the average water demand in

  7. Fine structure in fast drift storm bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.; Ellis, G.R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations with high time resolution of fast drift storm (FDS) solar bursts are described. A new variety of FDS bursts characterised by intensity maxima regularly placed in the frequency domain is reported. Possible interpretations of this are mentioned and the implications of the short duration of FDS bursts are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Limits on the space density of gamma-ray burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst spectra which extend to several MeV without significant steepening indicate that there is negligible degradation due to two-photon pair production. The inferred low rate of photon-photon reactions is used to give upper limits to the distances to the sources and to the intensity of the radiation from the sources. These limits are calculated under the assumptions that the bursters are neutron stars which emit uncollimated gamma rays. The principal results are that the space density of the gamma-ray burst sources exceeds approx.10 -6 pc -3 if the entire surface of the neutron star radiates and exceeds approx.10 -3 pc -3 if only a small cap or thin strip in the stellar surface radiates. In the former case the density of gamma-ray bursters is approx.1% of the inferred density of extinct pulsars, and in the latter case the mean mass density of burster sources is a few percent of the density of unidentified dark matter in the solar neighborhood. In both cases the X-ray intensity of the sources is far below the Rayleigh-Jeans limit, and the total flux is at most comparable to the Eddington limit. This implies that low-energy self-absorption near 10 keV is entirely negligible and that radiation-driven explosions are just barely possible

  9. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs and their correlation to tail-beat frequency and burst activity in Sparus aurata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    until fatigue at 10°C. The anaerobic swimming cost was measured as the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following each swimming speed. To determine tail-beat frequency, amplitude and burst and coast behaviour, the peduncle position was determined at 25 s·' by video tracking. The data showed......, and resulted in a total anaerobic capacity of 170 mg O2 kg·'. Normalized tail-beat amplitude and frequency both predicted the swimming speed but only tail-beat frequency was able to predict the aerobic swimming cost. The change to burst and coast swimming was correlated to the first measurements of EPOC...... and both the burst frequency (bursts min·') and burst distance (percentage burst distance) were found to predict EPOC by linear regressions. The low temperature used in the present study resulted in a prolonged recovery time, which increased with the anaerobic contribution to 10 hours after fatigue. Due...

  10. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  11. Galactic distribution of X-ray burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; Hoffman, J.A.; Doty, J.; Clark, G.W.; Swank, J.H.; Becker, R.H.; Pravdo, S.H.; Serlemitsos, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that 18 X-ray burst sources have been observed to date, applying the following definition for these bursts - rise times of less than a few seconds, durations of seconds to minutes, and recurrence in some regular pattern. If single burst events that meet the criteria of rise time and duration, but not recurrence are included, an additional seven sources can be added. A sky map is shown indicating their positions. The sources are spread along the galactic equator and cluster near low galactic longitudes, and their distribution is different from that of the observed globular clusters. Observations based on the SAS-3 X-ray observatory studies and the Goddard X-ray Spectroscopy Experiment on OSO-9 are described. The distribution of the sources is examined and the effect of uneven sky exposure on the observed distribution is evaluated. It has been suggested that the bursts are perhaps produced by remnants of disrupted globular clusters and specifically supermassive black holes. This would imply the existence of a new class of unknown objects, and at present is merely an ad hoc method of relating the burst sources to globular clusters. (U.K.)

  12. ARE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS DIFFERENT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boër, M.; Gendre, B. [CNRS-ARTEMIS, Boulevard de l' Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Stratta, G., E-mail: michel.boer@unice.fr [Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo, I-61029 Urbino (Italy)

    2015-02-10

    The discovery of a number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with duration exceeding 1000 s has opened the debate on whether these bursts form a new class of sources, the so-called ultra-long GRBs, or if they are rather the tail of the distribution of the standard long GRB duration. Using the long GRB sample detected by Swift, we investigate the statistical properties of long GRBs and compare them with the ultra-long burst properties. We compute the burst duration of long GRBs using the start epoch of the so-called ''steep decay'' phase detected with Swift/XRT. We discuss also the differences observed in their spectral properties. We find that ultra-long GRBs are statistically different from the standard long GRBs with typical burst duration less than 100-500 s, for which a Wolf-Rayet star progenitor is usually invoked. Together with the presence of a thermal emission component we interpret this result as indication that the usual long GRB progenitor scenario cannot explain the extreme duration of ultra-long GRBs, their energetics, as well as the mass reservoir and size that can feed the central engine for such a long time.

  13. Imaging spectroscopy of type U and J solar radio bursts with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2017-10-01

    bursts to be more frequently observed. The large instability distances required before Langmuir waves are produced by some electron beams, and the small magnitude of the background density gradients makes closed loops less facilitative for radio emission than loops that extend into interplanetary space.

  14. LOCALIZATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS USING THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Burgess, J. M. [CSPAR and Physics Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Goldstein, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Meegan, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Paciesas, W. S. [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL (United States); Preece, R. D. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H. [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Greiner, J.; Yu, H.-F. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Kippen, R. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States); Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S., E-mail: valerie@nasa.gov [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); and others

    2015-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the InterPlanetary Network, to analyze the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations. We find that the reported statistical uncertainties on GBM localizations, which can be as small as 1°, underestimate the distance of the GBM positions to the true GRB locations and we attribute this to systematic uncertainties. The distribution of systematic uncertainties is well represented (68% confidence level) by a 3.°7 Gaussian with a non-Gaussian tail that contains about 10% of GBM-detected GRBs and extends to approximately 14°. A more complex model suggests that there is a dependence of the systematic uncertainty on the position of the GRB in spacecraft coordinates, with GRBs in the quadrants on the Y axis better localized than those on the X axis.

  15. Analysis of the Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Veres, P.; Balazs, L. G.; Kelemen, J.; Bagoly, Z.; Tusnady, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of gamma-ray bursts have been identified in the BATSE catalogs characterized by durations shorter and longer than about 2 seconds. There are, however, some indications for the existence of a third type of burst. Swift satellite detectors have different spectral sensitivity than pre-Swift ones for gamma-ray bursts. Therefore it is worth to reanalyze the durations and their distribution and also the classification of GRBs. Using The First BAT Catalog the maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyzed the duration distribution of GRBs. The three log-normal fit is significantly (99.54% probability) better than the two for the duration distribution. Monte-Carlo simulations also confirm this probability (99.2%).

  16. Propagation and Interaction Properties of Successive Coronal Mass Ejections in Relation to a Complex Type II Radio Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. D.; Zhao, X.; Zhu, B.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the propagation and interaction properties of three successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2001 November 21-22, with a focus on their connection with the behaviors of the associated long-duration complex type II radio burst. In combination with coronagraph and multi-point in situ observations, the long-duration type II burst provides key features that help resolve the propagation and interaction complexities of the three CMEs. The two CMEs from November 22 interacted first and then overtook the November 21 CME at a distance of about 0.85 AU from the Sun. The time scale that the shock originally driven by the last CME spent inside the preceding two CMEs is estimated to be about 14 and 6 hr, respectively. We present a simple analytical model without any free parameters to characterize the whole Sun-to-Earth propagation of the shock, which shows a remarkable consistency with all the available data and MHD simulations even out to the distance of Ulysses (2.34 AU). The coordination of in situ measurements at the Earth and Ulysses, which were separated by 73o in latitude, gives important clues for the understanding of shock structure and the interpretation of in situ signatures. The results also indicate means to increase geo-effectiveness with three CMEs, similar to the the ``perfect storm" scenario proposed by te{liu14a} although the current case is not ``super" in the same sense as the 2012 July 23 event.

  17. Gamma Ray Bursts and Their Links With Supernovae and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Peter; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, whose origin and mechanism is the focus of intense interest. They appear connected to supernova remnants from massive stars or the merger of their remnants, and their brightness makes them temporarily detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. After pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with observations from the recently launched Fermi satellite, as well as the prospect of detections or limits from large neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. The interplay between such observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts is reviewed, as well as their connections to supernovae and cosmology.

  18. The origin of cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, S.

    1983-01-01

    The positions of 46 γ-ray burst sources on the sky are used to show that the majority of these objects either originate in very distant regions with redshifts > or approx. 30 000 km s -1 or within < or approx. 0.5β of the Sun; where β is the scale-height of the parent population perpendicular to the galactic disc. An origin of the majority of γ-ray bursts in the more distant parts of the galactic disc, the galactic nuclear bulge, the Virgo supercluster, in galaxies with msub(pg) < 18 and rich in Abell clusters of distance classes 0 to 4 is excluded by the data. (orig.)

  19. SEARCH FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BURSTS FROM SIX MAGNETARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Anderson, W. G.; Amariutei, D.; Arain, M. A.; Amin, R. S.; Antonucci, F.

    2011-01-01

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are thought to be magnetars: neutron stars powered by extreme magnetic fields. These rare objects are characterized by repeated and sometimes spectacular gamma-ray bursts. The burst mechanism might involve crustal fractures and excitation of non-radial modes which would emit gravitational waves (GWs). We present the results of a search for GW bursts from six galactic magnetars that is sensitive to neutron star f-modes, thought to be the most efficient GW emitting oscillatory modes in compact stars. One of them, SGR 0501+4516, is likely ∼1 kpc from Earth, an order of magnitude closer than magnetars targeted in previous GW searches. A second, AXP 1E 1547.0-5408, gave a burst with an estimated isotropic energy >10 44 erg which is comparable to the giant flares. We find no evidence of GWs associated with a sample of 1279 electromagnetic triggers from six magnetars occurring between 2006 November and 2009 June, in GW data from the LIGO, Virgo, and GEO600 detectors. Our lowest model-dependent GW emission energy upper limits for band- and time-limited white noise bursts in the detector sensitive band, and for f-mode ringdowns (at 1090 Hz), are 3.0 x 10 44 d 2 1 erg and 1.4 x 10 47 d 2 1 erg, respectively, where d 1 = (d 0501 )/1 kpc and d 0501 is the distance to SGR 0501+4516. These limits on GW emission from f-modes are an order of magnitude lower than any previous, and approach the range of electromagnetic energies seen in SGR giant flares for the first time.

  20. Some polarization features of solar microwave bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uralov, A M; Nefed' ev, V P [AN SSSR, Irkutsk. Sibirskij Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln

    1977-01-01

    Consequences of the thermal microwave burst model proposed earlier have been considered. According to the model the centimeter burst is generated at the heat propagation to the upper atmosphere. The polarization features of the burst are explained: a change of the polarization sign in a frequency range, a rapid change of the polarization sign in the development of a burst at a fixed frequency, a lack of time coincidence of the moments of the burst maximum of the polarization and of the total flux. From the model the consequences are obtained, which are still not confirmed by experiment. An ordinary-type wave prevails in the burst radiation, in the course of which the polarization degree falls on the ascending branch of bursts development. At the change of the polarization sign at the fixed frequency prior to the sign change an ordinary-type wave should be present in excess and later an extreordinary type wave.

  1. Stimulus induced bursts in severe postanoxic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; Wijers, Elisabeth T; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2016-11-01

    To report on a distinct effect of auditory and sensory stimuli on the EEG in comatose patients with severe postanoxic encephalopathy. In two comatose patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe postanoxic encephalopathy and burst-suppression EEG, we studied the effect of external stimuli (sound and touch) on the occurrence of bursts. In patient A bursts could be induced by either auditory or sensory stimuli. In patient B bursts could only be induced by touching different facial regions (forehead, nose and chin). When stimuli were presented with relatively long intervals, bursts persistently followed the stimuli, while stimuli with short intervals (encephalopathy can be induced by external stimuli, resulting in stimulus-dependent burst-suppression. Stimulus induced bursts should not be interpreted as prognostic favourable EEG reactivity. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early optical emission from the gamma-ray burst of 4 October 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D W; Yost, S; Kulkarni, S R; Torii, K; Kato, T; Yamaoka, H; Sako, M; Harrison, F A; Sari, R; Price, P A; Berger, E; Soderberg, A M; Djorgovski, S G; Barth, A J; Pravdo, S H; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Lipkin, Y; Mauch, T; Harrison, C; Buttery, H

    2003-03-20

    Observations of the long-lived emission--or 'afterglow'--of long-duration gamma-ray bursts place them at cosmological distances, but the origin of these energetic explosions remains a mystery. Observations of optical emission contemporaneous with the burst of gamma-rays should provide insight into the details of the explosion, as well as into the structure of the surrounding environment. One bright optical flash was detected during a burst, but other efforts have produced negative results. Here we report the discovery of the optical counterpart of GRB021004 only 193 seconds after the event. The initial decline is unexpectedly slow and requires varying energy content in the gamma-ray burst blastwave over the course of the first hour. Further analysis of the X-ray and optical afterglow suggests additional energy variations over the first few days.

  3. Predicting rock bursts in mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    In terms of lives lost, rock bursts in underground mines can be as hazardous as earthquakes on the surface. So it is not surprising that fo the last 40 years the U.S Bureau of Mines has been using seismic methods for detecting areas in underground mines where there is a high differential stress which could lead to structural instability of the rock mass being excavated.

  4. NICER Eyes on Bursting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    What happens to a neutron stars accretion disk when its surface briefly explodes? A new instrument recently deployed at the International Space Station (ISS) is now watching bursts from neutron stars and reporting back.Deploying a New X-Ray MissionLaunch of NICER aboard a Falcon 9 rocket in June 2017. [NASA/Tony Gray]In early June of 2017, a SpaceX Dragon capsule on a Falcon 9 rocket launched on a resupply mission to the ISS. The pressurized interior of the Dragon contained the usual manifest of crew supplies, spacewalk equipment, and vehicle hardware. But the unpressurized trunk of the capsule held something a little different: the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER).In the two weeks following launch, NICER was extracted from the SpaceX Dragon capsule and installed on the ISS. And by the end of the month, the instrument was already collecting its first data set: observations of a bright X-ray burst from Aql X-1, a neutron star accreting matter from a low-mass binary companion.Impact of BurstsNICERs goal is to provide a new view of neutron-star physics at X-ray energies of 0.212 keV a window that allows us to explore bursts of energy that neutron stars sometimes emit from their surfaces.Artists impression of an X-ray binary, in which a compact object accretes material from a companion star. [ESA/NASA/Felix Mirabel]In X-ray burster systems, hydrogen- and helium-rich material from a low-mass companion star piles up in an accretion disk around the neutron star. This material slowly funnels onto the neutron stars surface, forming a layer that gravitationally compresses and eventually becomes so dense and hot that runaway nuclear fusion ignites.Within seconds, the layer of material is burned up, producing a burst of emission from the neutron star that outshines even the inner regions of the hot accretion disk. Then more material funnels onto the neutron star and the process begins again.Though we have a good picture of the physics that causes these bursts

  5. Bubble bursting at an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Sajjad, Kumayl; Anand, Sushant; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2017-11-01

    Bubble bursting is crucial to understanding the life span of bubbles at an interface and more importantly the nature of interaction between the bulk liquid and the outside environment from the point of view of chemical and biological material transport. The dynamics of the bubble as it rises from inside the liquid bulk to its disappearance on the interface after bursting is an intriguing process, many aspects of which are still being explored. In our study, we make detailed high speed imaging measurements to examine carefully the hole initiation and growth in bursting bubbles that unearth some interesting features of the process. Previous analyses available in literature are revisited based on our novel experimental visualizations. Using a combination of experiments and theory we investigate the role of various forces during the rupturing process. This work aims to further our current knowledge of bubble dynamics at an interface with an aim of predicting better the bubble evolution from its growth to its eventual integration with the liquid bulk.

  6. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented

  7. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  8. X-Ray Reflection and an Exceptionally Long Thermonuclear Helium Burst from IGR J17062-6143

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keek, L.; Strohmayer, T. E. [X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iwakiri, W.; Serino, M. [MAXI team, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430 (United States); Zand, J. J. M. in’t, E-mail: laurens.keek@nasa.gov [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-02-10

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars power brief but strong irradiation of their surroundings, providing a unique way to study accretion physics. We analyze MAXI /Gas Slit Camera and Swift /XRT spectra of a day-long flash observed from IGR J17062-6143 in 2015. It is a rare case of recurring bursts at a low accretion luminosity of 0.15% Eddington. Spectra from MAXI , Chandra , and NuSTAR observations taken between the 2015 burst and the previous one in 2012 are used to determine the accretion column. We find it to be consistent with the burst ignition column of 5×10{sup 10} g cm{sup −2}, which indicates that it is likely powered by burning in a deep helium layer. The burst flux is observed for over a day, and decays as a straight power law: F ∝ t {sup −1.15}. The burst and persistent spectra are well described by thermal emission from the neutron star, Comptonization of this emission in a hot optically thin medium surrounding the star, and reflection off the photoionized accretion disk. At the burst peak, the Comptonized component disappears, when the burst may dissipate the Comptonizing gas, and it returns in the burst tail. The reflection signal suggests that the inner disk is truncated at ∼10{sup 2} gravitational radii before the burst, but may move closer to the star during the burst. At the end of the burst, the flux drops below the burst cooling trend for 2 days, before returning to the pre-burst level.

  9. Light speed variation from gamma ray burst GRB 160509A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowei Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated in Einstein's relativity that the speed of light in vacuum is a constant for all observers. However, the effect of quantum gravity could bring an energy dependence of light speed. Even a tiny speed variation, when amplified by the cosmological distance, may be revealed by the observed time lags between photons with different energies from astrophysical sources. From the newly detected long gamma ray burst GRB 160509A, we find evidence to support the prediction for a linear form modification of light speed in cosmological space.

  10. Light speed variation from gamma ray burst GRB 160509A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Haowei [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma, Bo-Qiang, E-mail: mabq@pku.edu.cn [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-09-10

    It is postulated in Einstein's relativity that the speed of light in vacuum is a constant for all observers. However, the effect of quantum gravity could bring an energy dependence of light speed. Even a tiny speed variation, when amplified by the cosmological distance, may be revealed by the observed time lags between photons with different energies from astrophysical sources. From the newly detected long gamma ray burst GRB 160509A, we find evidence to support the prediction for a linear form modification of light speed in cosmological space.

  11. Fast radio bursts: the observational case for a Galactic origin

    OpenAIRE

    Maoz, Dan; Loeb, Abraham; Shvartzvald, Yossi; Sitek, Monika; Engel, Michael; Kiefer, Flavien; Kiraga, Marcin; Levi, Amir; Mazeh, Tsevi; Pawlak, Michal; Rich, R. Michael; Tal-Or, Lev; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    There are by now ten published detections of fast radio bursts (FRBs), single bright GHz-band millisecond pulses of unknown origin. Proposed explanations cover a broad range from exotic processes at cosmological distances to atmospheric and terrestrial sources. Loeb et al. have previously suggested that FRB sources could be nearby flare stars, and pointed out the presence of a W-UMa-type contact binary within the beam of one out of three FRB fields that they examined. Using time-domain optica...

  12. Transitions to Synchrony in Coupled Bursting Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamala, Mukeshwar; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Ding, Mingzhou

    2004-01-01

    Certain cells in the brain, for example, thalamic neurons during sleep, show spike-burst activity. We study such spike-burst neural activity and the transitions to a synchronized state using a model of coupled bursting neurons. In an electrically coupled network, we show that the increase of coupling strength increases incoherence first and then induces two different transitions to synchronized states, one associated with bursts and the other with spikes. These sequential transitions to synchronized states are determined by the zero crossings of the maximum transverse Lyapunov exponents. These results suggest that synchronization of spike-burst activity is a multi-time-scale phenomenon and burst synchrony is a precursor to spike synchrony.

  13. Transitions to synchrony in coupled bursting neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamala, Mukeshwar; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Ding Mingzhou

    2004-01-01

    Certain cells in the brain, for example, thalamic neurons during sleep, show spike-burst activity. We study such spike-burst neural activity and the transitions to a synchronized state using a model of coupled bursting neurons. In an electrically coupled network, we show that the increase of coupling strength increases incoherence first and then induces two different transitions to synchronized states, one associated with bursts and the other with spikes. These sequential transitions to synchronized states are determined by the zero crossings of the maximum transverse Lyapunov exponents. These results suggest that synchronization of spike-burst activity is a multi-time-scale phenomenon and burst synchrony is a precursor to spike synchrony

  14. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies

  15. A study of the temporal and spectral characteristics of gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.

    1983-05-01

    Gamma-ray burst data obtained from the ISEE-3 Gamma Ray Burst Spectrometer and the Solar Maximum Mission's Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) were analyzed to yield information on burst temporal and spectral characteristics. A Monte Carlo approach was used to simulate the HXRBS response to candidate spectral models. At energies above about 100 keV, the spectra are well fit by exponential forms. At lower energies, 30 keV to 60 keV, depressions below the model continua are apparent in some bursts. The depressions are not instrumental or data-reduction artifacts. The event selection criterion of the ISEE-3 experiment is based on the time to accumulate a present number of photons rather than the photon count per unit time and is consequently independent of event duration for a given burst intensity, unlike most conventional systems. As a result, a significantly greater percentage of fast, narrow events have been detected. The ratio of count rates from two ISEE-3 detectors indicates that bursts with durations or aprox. one second have much softer spectra than longer bursts

  16. GRB 090926A AND BRIGHT LATE-TIME FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Vetere, L.; Kennea, J. A.; Maxham, A.; Zhang, B. B.; Zhang, B.; Schady, P.; Holland, S. T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Oates, S. R.; De Pasquale, M.; Page, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    GRB 090926A was detected by both the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Swift follow-up observations began ∼13 hr after the initial trigger. The optical afterglow was detected for nearly 23 days post trigger, placing it in the long-lived category. The afterglow is of particular interest due to its brightness at late times, as well as the presence of optical flares at T0+10 5 s and later, which may indicate late-time central engine activity. The LAT has detected a total of 16 gamma-ray bursts; nine of these bursts, including GRB 090926A, also have been observed by Swift. Of the nine Swift-observed LAT bursts, six were detected by UVOT, with five of the bursts having bright, long-lived optical afterglows. In comparison, Swift has been operating for five years and has detected nearly 500 bursts, but has only seen ∼30% of bursts with optical afterglows that live longer than 10 5 s. We have calculated the predicted gamma-ray fluence, as would have been seen by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift, of the LAT bursts to determine whether this high percentage of long-lived optical afterglows is unique, when compared to BAT-triggered bursts. We find that, with the exception of the short burst GRB 090510A, the predicted BAT fluences indicate that the LAT bursts are more energetic than 88% of all Swift bursts and also have brighter than average X-ray and optical afterglows.

  17. Chaotic bursting in semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Stefan; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the dynamic mechanisms for low frequency fluctuations in semiconductor lasers subjected to delayed optical feedback, using the Lang-Kobayashi model. This system of delay differential equations displays pronounced envelope dynamics, ranging from erratic, so called low frequency fluctuations to regular pulse packages, if the time scales of fast oscillations and envelope dynamics are well separated. We investigate the parameter regions where low frequency fluctuations occur and compute their Lyapunov spectra. Using the geometric singular perturbation theory, we study this intermittent chaotic behavior and characterize these solutions as bursting slow-fast oscillations.

  18. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  19. Fast radio bursts: the observational case for a Galactic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Dan; Loeb, Abraham; Shvartzvald, Yossi; Sitek, Monika; Engel, Michael; Kiefer, Flavien; Kiraga, Marcin; Levi, Amir; Mazeh, Tsevi; Pawlak, Michał; Rich, R. Michael; Tal-Or, Lev; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    There are by now ten published detections of fast radio bursts (FRBs) - single bright GHz-band millisecond pulses of unknown origin. Proposed explanations cover a broad range from exotic processes at cosmological distances to atmospheric and terrestrial sources. Loeb, Maoz, and Shvartzvald have previously suggested that FRB sources could be nearby flare stars, and pointed out the presence of a W-UMa-type contact binary within the beam of one out of three FRB fields that they examined. To further test the flare-star hypothesis, we use time-domain optical photometry and spectroscopy, and now find possible flare stars in additional FRB fields, with one to three such cases among all eight FRB fields studied. We evaluate the chance probabilities of these possible associations to be in the range ˜0.1 per cent to 9 per cent, depending on the input assumptions. Further, we re-analyse the probability that two FRBs recently discovered three years apart within the same radio beam are unrelated. Contrary to other claims, we conclude with 99 per cent confidence that the two events are from the same repeating source. The different dispersion measures between the two bursts then rule out a cosmological intergalactic-medium origin for the dispersion measure, but are consistent with the flare-star scenario with a varying plasma blanket between bursts. Finally, we review some theoretical objections that have been raised against a local flare-star FRB origin, and show that they are incorrect.

  20. Neutrino burst identification in underground detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulgione, W.; Mengotti-Silva, N.; Panaro, L.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the problem of neutrino burst identification in underground ν-telescopes. First the usual statistical analysis based on the time structure of the events is reviewed, with special attention to the statistical significance of burst candidates. Next, we propose a second level analysis that can provide independent confirmation of burst detection. This exploits the spatial distribution of the single events of a burst candidate, and uses the formalism of the entropy of information. Examples of both techniques are shown, based on the LVD experiment at Gran Sasso. (orig.)

  1. TECHNIQUE OF ESTIMATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. Part 2. Dependence on the characteristics of collimator, optical sourse-distance indicator, treatment field, lasers and treatment couch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Tsitovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linac, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error (difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value in determining this value, depending on the characteristics of the collimator, the source to surface distance pointer, lasers, radiation field and treatment table. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the collimator, the deviation of the collimator rotation isocenter, the sourcesurface distance pointer accuracy, field size accuracy, the accuracy of lasers and treatment table positioning were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has the error in the optical SSD indication and the error in the lasers position in the plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3.64 % for the energy of 6 MV. Dose errors caused by error in the field size were different for two photon energies, and reached 2.54 % for 6 MeV and 1.33% for 18 MeV. Errors caused by the rest of the characteristic do not exceed 1 %. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of these devices integrated in linac in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation on the basis of the calibration of radiation output in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence dosimetric

  2. Bursting Bubbles from Combustion of Thermoplastic Materials in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. B.

    1999-01-01

    Many thermoplastic materials in common use for a wide range of applications, including spacecraft, develop bubbles internally as they burn due to chemical reactions taking place within the bulk. These bubbles grow and migrate until they burst at the surface, forceably ejecting volatile gases and, occasionally, molten fuel. In experiments in normal gravity, Kashiwagi and Ohlemiller observed vapor jets extending a few centimeters from the surface of a radiatively heated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) sample, with some molten material ejected into the gas phase. These physical phenomena complicated the combustion process considerably. In addition to the non-steady release of volatiles, the depth of the surface layer affected by oxygen was increased, attributed to the roughening of the surface by bursting events. The ejection of burning droplets in random directions presents a potential fire hazard unique to microgravity. In microgravity combustion experiments on nylon Velcro fasteners and on polyethylene wire insulation, the presence of bursting fuel vapor bubbles was associated with the ejection of small particles of molten fuel as well as pulsations of the flame. For the nylon fasteners, particle velocities were higher than 30 cm/sec. The droplets burned robustly until all fuel was consumed, demonstrating the potential for the spread of fire in random directions over an extended distance. The sequence of events for a bursting bubble has been photographed by Newitt et al.. As the bubble reaches the fluid surface, the outer surface forms a dome while the internal bubble pressure maintains a depression at the inner interface. Liquid drains from the dome until it breaks into a cloud of droplets on the order of a few microns in size. The bubble gases are released rapidly, generating vortices in the quiescent surroundings and transporting the tiny droplets. The depression left by the escaping gases collapses into a central jet, which rises with a high velocity and may

  3. Analysis of historic bursts and burst detection in water supply areas of different size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Trietsch, E.A.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in water distribution networks lead to water losses and a risk of damaging the urban environment. We studied hydraulic data and customer contact records of 44 real bursts for a better understanding of the phenomena. We found that most bursts were reported to the water company shortly

  4. Bursting as a source of non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of nigral dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaeseung; Shi, Wei-Xing; Hoffman, Ralph; Oh, Jihoon; Gore, John C; Bunney, Benjamin S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2012-11-01

    Nigral dopamine (DA) neurons in vivo exhibit complex firing patterns consisting of tonic single-spikes and phasic bursts that encode information for certain types of reward-related learning and behavior. Non-linear dynamical analysis has previously demonstrated the presence of a non-linear deterministic structure in complex firing patterns of DA neurons, yet the origin of this non-linear determinism remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that bursting activity is the primary source of non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of DA neurons. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the dimension complexity of inter-spike interval data recorded in vivo from bursting and non-bursting DA neurons in the chloral hydrate-anesthetized rat substantia nigra. We found that bursting DA neurons exhibited non-linear determinism in their firing patterns, whereas non-bursting DA neurons showed truly stochastic firing patterns. Determinism was also detected in the isolated burst and inter-burst interval data extracted from firing patterns of bursting neurons. Moreover, less bursting DA neurons in halothane-anesthetized rats exhibited higher dimensional spiking dynamics than do more bursting DA neurons in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. These results strongly indicate that bursting activity is the main source of low-dimensional, non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of DA neurons. This finding furthermore suggests that bursts are the likely carriers of meaningful information in the firing activities of DA neurons. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A search for fast radio bursts associated with gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniswamy, Divya; Wayth, Randall B.; Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Reynolds, Cormac; McCallum, Jamie N.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of seven fast radio bursts (FRBs) has recently been reported. FRBs are short duration (∼1 ms), highly dispersed radio pulses from astronomical sources. The physical interpretation for the FRBs remains unclear but is thought to involve highly compact objects at cosmological distance. It has been suggested that a fraction of FRBs could be physically associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent radio observations of GRBs have reported the detection of two highly dispersed short duration radio pulses using a 12 m radio telescope at 1.4 GHz. Motivated by this result, we have performed a systematic and sensitive search for FRBs associated with GRBs. We have observed five GRBs at 2.3 GHz using a 26 m radio telescope located at the Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory, Hobart. The radio telescope was automated to rapidly respond to Gamma-ray Coordination Network notifications from the Swift satellite and slew to the GRB position within ∼140 s. The data were searched for pulses up to 5000 pc cm –3 in dispersion measure and pulse widths ranging from 640 μs to 25.60 ms. We did not detect any events ≥6σ. An in depth statistical analysis of our data shows that events detected above 5σ are consistent with thermal noise fluctuations only. A joint analysis of our data with previous experiments shows that previously claimed detections of FRBs from GRBs are unlikely to be astrophysical. Our results are in line with the lack of consistency noted between the recently presented FRB event rates and GRB event rates.

  6. High-z Universe with Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in space and trace the cosmic star formation history back to the first generations of stars. Their bright afterglows allow us to trace the abundances of heavy elements to large distances, thereby measuring cosmic chemical evolution. To date GRBs have been detected up to distances of z=8.23 and possibly even beyond z9. This makes GRBs a unique and powerful tool to probe the high-z Universe up to the re-ionization era. We discuss the current status of the field, place it in context with other probes, and also discuss new mission concepts that have been planned to utilize GRBs as probes.

  7. Bursting and critical layer frequencies in minimal turbulent dynamics and connections to exact coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Sung; Shekar, Ashwin; Graham, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of the turbulent near-wall region is known to be dominated by coherent structures. These near-wall coherent structures are observed to burst in a very intermittent fashion, exporting turbulent kinetic energy to the rest of the flow. In addition, they are closely related to invariant solutions known as exact coherent states (ECS), some of which display nonlinear critical layer dynamics (motions that are highly localized around the surface on which the streamwise velocity matches the wave speed of ECS). The present work aims to investigate temporal coherence in minimal channel flow relevant to turbulent bursting and critical layer dynamics and its connection to the instability of ECS. It is seen that the minimal channel turbulence displays frequencies very close to those displayed by an ECS family recently identified in the channel flow geometry. The frequencies of these ECS are determined by critical layer structures and thus might be described as "critical layer frequencies." While the bursting frequency is predominant near the wall, the ECS frequencies (critical layer frequencies) become predominant over the bursting frequency at larger distances from the wall, and increasingly so as Reynolds number increases. Turbulent bursts are classified into strong and relatively weak classes with respect to an intermittent approach to a lower branch ECS. This temporally intermittent approach is closely related to an intermittent low drag event, called hibernating turbulence, found in minimal and large domains. The relationship between the strong burst and the instability of the lower branch ECS is further discussed in state space. The state-space dynamics of strong bursts is very similar to that of the unstable manifolds of the lower branch ECS. In particular, strong bursting processes are always preceded by hibernation events. This precursor dynamics to strong turbulence may aid in development of more effective control schemes by a way of anticipating dynamics

  8. Multifrequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, J.

    1995-01-01

    Neither a flaring nor a quiescent counterpart to a gamma-ray burst has yet been convincingly identified at any wavelength region. The present status of the search for counterparts of classical gamma-ray bursts is given. Particular emphasis is put on the search for flaring counterparts, i.e. emission during or shortly after the gamma-ray emission.

  9. Neutrino bursts and gravitational waves experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnoli, C; Galeotti, P; Saavedra, O [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1978-05-01

    Several experiments have been performed in many countries to observe gravitational waves or neutrino bursts. Since their simultaneous emission may occur in stellar collapse, the authors evaluate the effect of neutrino bursts on gravitational wave antennas and suggest the usefulness of a time correlation among the different detectors.

  10. Polarization of a periodic solar microwave burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica

    1976-09-01

    No fluctuations in polarization have been found during a 7 GHz solar burst showing 17s periodic pulses in intensity. Polarization effects can be produced by the propagation media in the active centre, which are not affected directly by the burst source, but situated more deeply than the observed heights at that microwave frequency.

  11. A New Clue in the Mystery of Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    .Bassa and collaborators also found that the properties of the host galaxy are consistent with those of a type of galaxy known as extreme emission line galaxies. This provides a tantalizing clue, as these galaxies are known to host both hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts.Linking to the CauseWhat can this tell us about the cause of FRB 121102? The fact that this burst repeats already eliminates cataclysmic events as the origin. But the projected location of FRB 121102 within a star-forming region especially in a host galaxy thats similar to those typically hosting superluminous supernovae and long gamma-ray bursts strongly suggests theres a relation between these events.Artists impression of a gamma-ray burst in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]The authors propose that this observed coincidence, supported by models of magnetized neutron star birth, indicate an evolutionary link between fast radio bursts and neutron stars. In this picture, neutron stars or magnetars are born as long gamma-ray bursts or hydrogen-poor supernovae, and then evolve into fast-radio-burst-emitting sources.This picture may finally explain the cause of fast radio bursts but Bassa and collaborators caution that its also possible that this model applies only to FRB 121102. Since FRB 121102 is unique in being the only burst discovered to repeat, its cause may also be unique. The authors suggest that targeted searches of star-forming regions in galaxies similar to FRB 121102s host may reveal other repeating burst candidates, helping us to unravel the ongoing mystery of fast radio bursts.CitationC. G. Bassa et al 2017 ApJL 843 L8. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7a0c

  12. THE SECOND SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Krimm, H. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Parsons, A. M.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E. E.; Palmer, D. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters, and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs, and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8%, and 2%, respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX, and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T 90 and T 50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs and that the time-averaged E obs peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV, which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample, which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that only 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. We see no obvious observed trend in the BAT T 90 and the observed spectra with redshifts. The T 90

  13. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  14. Bursting synchronization in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, C.A.S.; Batista, A.M.; Pontes, J.C.A. de; Lopes, S.R.; Viana, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal networks in some areas of the brain cortex present the scale-free property, i.e., the neuron connectivity is distributed according to a power-law, such that neurons are more likely to couple with other already well-connected ones. Neuron activity presents two timescales, a fast one related to action-potential spiking, and a slow timescale in which bursting takes place. Some pathological conditions are related with the synchronization of the bursting activity in a weak sense, meaning the adjustment of the bursting phase due to coupling. Hence it has been proposed that an externally applied time-periodic signal be applied in order to control undesirable synchronized bursting rhythms. We investigated this kind of intervention using a two-dimensional map to describe neurons with spiking-bursting activity in a scale-free network.

  15. Gamma-ray burst observations with the Compton/Ulysses/Pioneer-Venus network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Hurley, K.C.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The third and latest interplanetary network for the precise directional analysis of gamma ray bursts consists of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and instruments on Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and the deep-space mission Ulysses. The unsurpassed resolution of the BATSE instrument, the use of refined analysis techniques, and Ulysses' distance of up to 6 AU all contribute to a potential for greater precision than had been achieved with former networks. Also, the departure of Ulysses from the ecliptic plane in 1992 avoids any positional alignment of the three instruments that would lessen the source directional accuracy

  16. The oxidative burst reaction in mammalian cells depends on gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Astrid; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Sromicki, Juri; Brungs, Sonja; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Hock, Bertold; Kolanus, Waldemar; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Ullrich, Oliver

    2013-12-20

    Gravity has been a constant force throughout the Earth's evolutionary history. Thus, one of the fundamental biological questions is if and how complex cellular and molecular functions of life on Earth require gravity. In this study, we investigated the influence of gravity on the oxidative burst reaction in macrophages, one of the key elements in innate immune response and cellular signaling. An important step is the production of superoxide by the NADPH oxidase, which is rapidly converted to H2O2 by spontaneous and enzymatic dismutation. The phagozytosis-mediated oxidative burst under altered gravity conditions was studied in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages by means of a luminol assay. Ground-based experiments in "functional weightlessness" were performed using a 2 D clinostat combined with a photomultiplier (PMT clinostat). The same technical set-up was used during the 13th DLR and 51st ESA parabolic flight campaign. Furthermore, hypergravity conditions were provided by using the Multi-Sample Incubation Centrifuge (MuSIC) and the Short Arm Human Centrifuge (SAHC). The results demonstrate that release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the oxidative burst reaction depends greatly on gravity conditions. ROS release is 1.) reduced in microgravity, 2.) enhanced in hypergravity and 3.) responds rapidly and reversible to altered gravity within seconds. We substantiated the effect of altered gravity on oxidative burst reaction in two independent experimental systems, parabolic flights and 2D clinostat / centrifuge experiments. Furthermore, the results obtained in simulated microgravity (2D clinorotation experiments) were proven by experiments in real microgravity as in both cases a pronounced reduction in ROS was observed. Our experiments indicate that gravity-sensitive steps are located both in the initial activation pathways and in the final oxidative burst reaction itself, which could be explained by the role of cytoskeletal dynamics in the assembly and function

  17. Spatiotemporal chaos from bursting dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, Igal; De Decker, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the emergence of spatiotemporal chaos from mixed-mode oscillations, by using an extended Oregonator model. We show that bursting dynamics consisting of fast/slow mixed mode oscillations along a single attractor can lead to spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics, although the spatially homogeneous solution is itself non-chaotic. This behavior is observed far from the Hopf bifurcation and takes the form of a spatiotemporal intermittency where the system locally alternates between the fast and the slow phases of the mixed mode oscillations. We expect this form of spatiotemporal chaos to be generic for models in which one or several slow variables are coupled to activator-inhibitor type of oscillators

  18. Reconstructing the cosmic expansion history up to redshift z=6.29 with the calibrated gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hao; Nan Zhang, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) were proposed to be a complementary cosmological probe to type Ia supernovae (SNIa). GRBs have been advocated to be standard candles since several empirical GRB luminosity relations were proposed as distance indicators. However, there is a so-called circularity problem in the direct use of GRBs. Recently, a new idea to calibrate GRBs in a completely cosmology independent manner has been proposed, and the circularity problem can be solved. In the present work, following the method proposed by Liang et al., we calibrate 70 GRBs with the Amati relation using 307 SNIa. Then, following the method proposed by Shafieloo et al., we smoothly reconstruct the cosmic expansion history up to redshift z=6.29 with the calibrated GRBs. We find some new features in the reconstructed results. (orig.)

  19. Neutron bursts from long laboratory sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkin, P.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Montanya, J.; Van Deursen, A.; Ostgaard, N.

    2016-12-01

    Neutron emission in association with thunderstorms and lightning discharges was reported by different investigators from ground-based observation platforms. In both cases such emission is explained by photonuclear reaction, since high-energy gamma-rays in sufficient fluxes are routinely detected from both, lightning and thunderclouds. The required gamma-rays are presumably generated by high-energy electrons in Bremsstrahlung process after their acceleration via cold and/or relativistic runaway mechanisms. This phenomenon attracted moderate scientific attention until fast neutron bursts (up to 10 MeV) from long 1 MV laboratory sparks have been reported. Clearly, with such relatively low applied voltage the electrons are unable to accelerate to the energies required for photo/electro disintegration. Moreover, all known elementary neutron generation processes are not capable to explain this emission right away. We performed an independent laboratory experiment on long sparks with the aim to confirm or disprove the neutron emission from them. The experimental setup was assembled at High-Voltage Laboratory in Barcelona and contained a Marx generator in a cone-cone spark gap configuration. The applied voltage was as low as 800 kV and the gap distance was only 60 cm. Two ns-fast cameras were located near the gap capturing short-exposure images of the pre-breakdown phenomenon at the expected neutron generation time. A plastic scintillation detector sensitive to neutrons was covered in 11 cm of lead and placed near the spark gap. The detector was calibrated and showed good performance in neutron detection. Apart of it, voltage, currents through both electrodes, and three X-ray detectors were also monitored in sophisticated measuring system. We will give an overview of the previous experimental and theoretical work in this topic, and present the results of our new experimental campaign. The conclusions are based on good signal-to-noise ratio measurements and are

  20. Analytic processing of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Galyer, Darin

    2018-01-01

    How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame? To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Swift: A gamma ray burst MIDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Swift is a first of its kind multiwavelength transient observatory for gamma-ray burst astronomy. It has the optimum capabilities for the next breakthroughs in determining the origin of gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows as well as using bursts to probe the early Universe. Swift will also perform the first sensitive hard X-ray survey of the sky. The mission is being developed by an international collaboration and consists of three instruments, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the X-ray Telescope (XRT), and the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT). The BAT, a wide-field gamma-ray detector, will detect ∼1 gamma-ray burst per day with a sensitivity 5 times that of BATSE. The sensitive narrow-field XRT and UVOT will be autonomously slewed to the burst location in 20 to 70 seconds to determine 0.3-5.0 arcsec positions and perform optical, UV, and X-ray spectrophotometry. On-board measurements of redshift will also be done for hundreds of bursts. Swift will incorporate superb, low-cost instruments using existing flight-spare hardware and designs. Strong education/public outreach and follow-up programs will help to engage the public and astronomical community. Swift has been selected by NASA for development and launch in late 2003

  2. THE DISTANCE TO M104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.

  3. THE DISTANCE TO M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  4. The Distance to M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  6. Giant sparks at cosmological distances?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Neill, J. D.; Zheng, Z.; Juric, M.

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond-duration bright radio pulses at 1.4 GHz with high dispersion measures (DMs) were reported by Lorimer et al., Keane et al., and Thornton et al. Their all-sky rate is ≈10 4 day –1 above ∼1 Jy. Related events are 'Perytons'–similar pulsed, dispersed sources, but most certainly local. Suggested models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can originate in Earth's atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies, and even at cosmological distances. Using physically motivated assumptions combined with observed properties, we explore these models. In our analysis, we focus on the Lorimer event: a 30 Jy, 5 ms duration burst with DM = 375 cm –3 pc, exhibiting a steep frequency-dependent pulse width (the Sparker). To be complete, we drop the assumption that high DMs are produced by plasma propagation and assume that the source produces pulses with frequency-dependent arrival time ('chirped signals'). Within this framework, we explore a scenario in which Perytons, the Sparker, and the FRBs are all atmospheric phenomena occurring at different heights. This model is ad hoc in that we cannot explain why Perytons at higher altitudes show greater DMs or exhibit narrower pulses. Nonetheless, we argue that the Sparker may be a Peryton. We end with two remarks. First, the detection of a single FRB by an interferometer with a kilometer (or longer) baseline will prove that FRBs are of extraterrestrial origin. Second, we urge astronomers to pursue observations and understanding of Perytons since they form (at least) a formidable foreground for the FRBs.

  7. Giant sparks at cosmological distances?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, S. R. [Caltech Optical Observatories 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ofek, E. O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Neill, J. D. [Space Radiation Laboratory 290-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zheng, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Juric, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Millisecond-duration bright radio pulses at 1.4 GHz with high dispersion measures (DMs) were reported by Lorimer et al., Keane et al., and Thornton et al. Their all-sky rate is ≈10{sup 4} day{sup –1} above ∼1 Jy. Related events are 'Perytons'–similar pulsed, dispersed sources, but most certainly local. Suggested models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can originate in Earth's atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies, and even at cosmological distances. Using physically motivated assumptions combined with observed properties, we explore these models. In our analysis, we focus on the Lorimer event: a 30 Jy, 5 ms duration burst with DM = 375 cm{sup –3} pc, exhibiting a steep frequency-dependent pulse width (the Sparker). To be complete, we drop the assumption that high DMs are produced by plasma propagation and assume that the source produces pulses with frequency-dependent arrival time ('chirped signals'). Within this framework, we explore a scenario in which Perytons, the Sparker, and the FRBs are all atmospheric phenomena occurring at different heights. This model is ad hoc in that we cannot explain why Perytons at higher altitudes show greater DMs or exhibit narrower pulses. Nonetheless, we argue that the Sparker may be a Peryton. We end with two remarks. First, the detection of a single FRB by an interferometer with a kilometer (or longer) baseline will prove that FRBs are of extraterrestrial origin. Second, we urge astronomers to pursue observations and understanding of Perytons since they form (at least) a formidable foreground for the FRBs.

  8. A brief history of the discovery of cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, J.T.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic gamma-ray bursts, based on an analysis of data produced by the Vela defense satellites was announced in Ap.J. letters in 1973 by Klebesadel, Strong, and Olsen. The story of the discovery begins 10 years earlier, in October of 1963, when the US Air Force launched the first in this series of satellites inspired by a nuclear test ban treaty. Interest in the events surrounding this discovery has been piqued by the recent public debate on the distance scale to the burst sources. Details of the Vela program to detect nuclear detonations and general circumstances surrounding the discovery of gamma-ray bursts of cosmic 'origin' are presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered

  10. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  11. Microseismic Precursory Characteristics of Rock Burst Hazard in Mining Areas Near a Large Residual Coal Pillar: A Case Study from Xuzhuang Coal Mine, Xuzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, An-ye; Dou, Lin-ming; Wang, Chang-bin; Yao, Xiao-xiao; Dong, Jing-yuan; Gu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Identification of precursory characteristics is a key issue for rock burst prevention. The aim of this research is to provide a reference for assessing rock burst risk and determining potential rock burst risk areas in coal mining. In this work, the microseismic multidimensional information for the identification of rock bursts and spatial-temporal pre-warning was investigated in a specific coalface which suffered high rock burst risk in a mining area near a large residual coal pillar. Firstly, microseismicity evolution prior to a disastrous rock burst was qualitatively analysed, and the abnormal clustering of seismic sources, abnormal variations in daily total energy release, and event counts can be regarded as precursors to rock burst. Secondly, passive tomographic imaging has been used to locate high seismic activity zones and assess rock burst hazard when the coalface passes through residual pillar areas. The results show that high-velocity or velocity anomaly regions correlated well with strong seismic activities in future mining periods and that passive tomography has the potential to describe, both quantitatively and periodically, hazardous regions and assess rock burst risk. Finally, the bursting strain energy index was further used for short-term spatial-temporal pre-warning of rock bursts. The temporal sequence curve and spatial contour nephograms indicate that the status of the danger and the specific hazardous zones, and levels of rock burst risk can be quantitatively and rapidly analysed in short time and in space. The multidimensional precursory characteristic identification of rock bursts, including qualitative analysis, intermediate and short-time quantitative predictions, can guide the choice of measures implemented to control rock bursts in the field, and provides a new approach to monitor and forecast rock bursts in space and time.

  12. Frequency chirping during a fishbone burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, V.S.; Reznik, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that frequency chirping during fishbone activity can be attributed to the reactive torque exerted on the plasma during the instability burst, which slows down plasma rotation inside the q = 1 surface and reduces the mode frequency in the lab frame. Estimates show that the peak value of this torque can exceed the neutral beam torque in modern tokamaks. The simple line-broadened quasilinear burst model (Berk et al 1995 Nucl. Fusion 35 1661), properly adapted for the fishbone case, is capable of reproducing the key features of the bursting mode. (letter)

  13. Space 'beachballs' generate pulsar bursts

    CERN Multimedia

    Wasowicz, L

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have analyzed radio emissions from a pulsar at the center of the Crab Nebula and have found 'subpulses' that last around 2 nanoseconds. They speculate this means the regions in which these ultra-short pulses are generated can be no larger than about 2 feet across - the distance light travels in 2 nanoseconds (2 pages).

  14. The genesis of period-adding bursting without bursting-chaos in the Chay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhuoqin; Lu Qishao; Li Li

    2006-01-01

    According to the period-adding firing patterns without chaos observed in neuronal experiments, the genesis of the period-adding 'fold/homoclinic' bursting sequence without bursting-chaos is explored by numerical simulation, fast/slow dynamics and bifurcation analysis of limit cycle in the neuronal Chay model. It is found that each periodic bursting, from period-1 to period-7, is separately generated by the corresponding periodic spiking pattern through two period-doubling bifurcations, except for the period-1 bursting occurring via a Hopf bifurcation. Consequently, it can be revealed that this period-adding bursting bifurcation without chaos has a compound bifurcation structure with transitions from spiking to bursting, which is closely related to period-doubling bifurcations of periodic spiking in essence

  15. The genesis of period-adding bursting without bursting-chaos in the Chay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhuoqin; Lu Qishao; Li Li

    2006-01-01

    According to the period-adding firing patterns without chaos observed in neuronal experiments, the genesis of the period-adding 'fold/homoclinic' bursting sequence without bursting-chaos is explored by numerical simulation, fast/slow dynamics and bifurcation analysis of limit cycle in the neuronal Chay model. It is found that each periodic bursting, from period-1 to 7, is separately generated by the corresponding periodic spiking pattern through two period-doubling bifurcations, except for the period-1 bursting occurring via a Hopf bifurcation. Consequently, it can be revealed that this period-adding bursting bifurcation without chaos has a compound bifurcation structure with transitions from spiking to bursting, which is closely related to period-doubling bifurcations of periodic spiking in essence

  16. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  17. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  18. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Cherubini, Christian; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Fraschetti, Federico; Geralico, Andrea; Guida, Roberto; Patricelli, Barbara; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the...

  19. Complex transitions between spike, burst or chaos synchronization states in coupled neurons with coexisting bursting patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hua-Guang; Chen Sheng-Gen; Li Yu-Ye

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synchronization dynamics of a coupled neuronal system composed of two identical Chay model neurons. The Chay model showed coexisting period-1 and period-2 bursting patterns as a parameter and initial values are varied. We simulated multiple periodic and chaotic bursting patterns with non-(NS), burst phase (BS), spike phase (SS), complete (CS), and lag synchronization states. When the coexisting behavior is near period-2 bursting, the transitions of synchronization states of the coupled system follows very complex transitions that begins with transitions between BS and SS, moves to transitions between CS and SS, and to CS. Most initial values lead to the CS state of period-2 bursting while only a few lead to the CS state of period-1 bursting. When the coexisting behavior is near period-1 bursting, the transitions begin with NS, move to transitions between SS and BS, to transitions between SS and CS, and then to CS. Most initial values lead to the CS state of period-1 bursting but a few lead to the CS state of period-2 bursting. The BS was identified as chaos synchronization. The patterns for NS and transitions between BS and SS are insensitive to initial values. The patterns for transitions between CS and SS and the CS state are sensitive to them. The number of spikes per burst of non-CS bursting increases with increasing coupling strength. These results not only reveal the initial value- and parameter-dependent synchronization transitions of coupled systems with coexisting behaviors, but also facilitate interpretation of various bursting patterns and synchronization transitions generated in the nervous system with weak coupling strength. (paper)

  20. Observation of an ionospheric disturbance caused by a gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, G.J.; Inan, U.S.

    1988-01-01

    We report a first observation of an ionospheric disturbance from a gamma-ray burst. The burst, GB830801, occurred at 22:14:18 UT on 1 August 1983 and was one of the strongest ever observed. The total fluence was 2 x 10 -3 erg cm -2 , most of which occurred in the first 4 s of the burst. Simultaneously, a change was observed in the amplitude of a very-low-frequency (VLF) radio signal from a transmitter in Rugby, England, monitored at Palmer Station, Antarctica, indicative of an ionospheric disturbance. Weaker disturbances were also recorded at the same receiving site on signals from VLF stations in Annapolis, Maryland and Lualualei, Hawaii. The times of the burst and the disturbances are coincident within the 10-s resolution of the VLF recording system. (author)

  1. Association of time structures of solar bursts at millimetric waves and at metric waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, H.S.; Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J.E.R.; Zlobec, P.; Messerotti, M.; Fornasari, L.

    Due to the lack of simultaneous high sensitivity/time resolution observations at mm-lambda, cm-lambda and m-lambda a program on such investigations has been carried out with data obtained by INPE at Itapetinga and by the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. Preliminary results obtained by comparing mm-wave burst structures with 408, 327 and 237 MHz indicate that i) for majority of major time structures (time scales of the order of 1 sec) observed at 22 GHz bursts, corresponding type III bursts have been observed at 237 Mhz, however ii) start times at mm-lambda and m-lambda are not often coincident at two wavelengths. These observations favour the hypothesis of (a) time dependent acceleration of energetic electrons and (b) burst emission is the response to a multiple injection of energetic electrons. (Author) [pt

  2. Relativistic effects in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, Erik; Groen, Oeyvind

    1999-01-01

    According to recent models of the sources of gamma-ray bursts the extremely energetic emission is caused by shells expanding with ultrarelativistic velocity. With the recent identification of optical sources at the positions of some gamma-ray bursts these ''fireball'' models have acquired an actuality that invites to use them as a motivating application when teaching special relativity. We demonstrate several relativistic effects associated with these models which are very pronounced due to the great velocity of the shell. For example a burst lasting for a month in the rest frame of an element of the shell lasts for a few seconds only, in the rest frame of our detector. It is shown how the observed properties of a burst are modified by aberration and the Doppler effect. The apparent luminosity as a function of time is calculated. Modifications due to the motion of the star away from the observer are calculated. (Author)

  3. Solar energetic particles and radio burst emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miteva Rositsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical study on the observed solar radio burst emission associated with the origin of in situ detected solar energetic particles. Several proton event catalogs in the period 1996–2016 are used. At the time of appearance of the particle origin (flare and coronal mass ejection we identified radio burst signatures of types II, III and IV by inspecting dynamic radio spectral plots. The information from observatory reports is also accounted for during the analysis. The occurrence of solar radio burst signatures is evaluated within selected wavelength ranges during the solar cycle 23 and the ongoing 24. Finally, we present the burst occurrence trends with respect to the intensity of the proton events and the location of their solar origin.

  4. Bursts from the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Stodolsky, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of phenomena associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse

  5. Bursts from the very early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: les@mppmu.mpg.de

    2006-07-27

    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of pheno associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse.

  6. Observations of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, I.B.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Observational data on gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Information is grouped into temporal properties, energy fluxes and spectral properties, and directions and distributions of the sources in space. (BJG)

  7. Damping of type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    The meter- and decameter-wavelength damping of type III bursts may be attributable to stabilization of the Langmuir-wave instability of the fast-electron streams through excitation of cyclotron-branch plasma waves

  8. Upper limits on gravitational wave bursts in LIGO's second science run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors, using a method based on a wavelet time-frequency decomposition. This search is sensitive to bursts of duration much less than a second and with frequency content in the 100-1100 Hz range. It features significant improvements in the instrument sensitivity and in the analysis pipeline with respect to the burst search previously reported by LIGO. Improvements in the search method allow exploring weaker signals, relative to the detector noise floor, while maintaining a low false alarm rate, O(0.1) μHz. The sensitivity in terms of the root-sum-square (rss) strain amplitude lies in the range of h rss ∼10 -20 -10 -19 Hz -1/2 . No gravitational wave signals were detected in 9.98 days of analyzed data. We interpret the search result in terms of a frequentist upper limit on the rate of detectable gravitational wave bursts at the level of 0.26 events per day at 90% confidence level. We combine this limit with measurements of the detection efficiency for selected waveform morphologies in order to yield rate versus strength exclusion curves as well as to establish order-of-magnitude distance sensitivity to certain modeled astrophysical sources. Both the rate upper limit and its applicability to signal strengths improve our previously reported limits and reflect the most sensitive broad-band search for untriggered and unmodeled gravitational wave bursts to date

  9. Compact solar UV burst triggered in a magnetic field with a fan-spine topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Young, P. R.; Huang, Y.-M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Solar ultraviolet (UV) bursts are small-scale features that exhibit intermittent brightenings that are thought to be due to magnetic reconnection. They are observed abundantly in the chromosphere and transition region, in particular in active regions. Aims: We investigate in detail a UV burst related to a magnetic feature that is advected by the moat flow from a sunspot towards a pore. The moving feature is parasitic in that its magnetic polarity is opposite to that of the spot and the pore. This comparably simple photospheric magnetic field distribution allows for an unambiguous interpretation of the magnetic geometry leading to the onset of the observed UV burst. Methods: We used UV spectroscopic and slit-jaw observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to identify and study chromospheric and transition region spectral signatures of said UV burst. To investigate the magnetic topology surrounding the UV burst, we used a two-hour-long time sequence of simultaneous line-of-sight magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and performed data-driven 3D magnetic field extrapolations by means of a magnetofrictional relaxation technique. We can connect UV burst signatures to the overlying extreme UV (EUV) coronal loops observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Results: The UV burst shows a variety of extremely broad line profiles indicating plasma flows in excess of ±200 km s-1 at times. The whole structure is divided into two spatially distinct zones of predominantly up- and downflows. The magnetic field extrapolations show a persistent fan-spine magnetic topology at the UV burst. The associated 3D magnetic null point exists at a height of about 500 km above the photosphere and evolves co-spatially with the observed UV burst. The EUV emission at the footpoints of coronal loops is correlated with the evolution of the underlying UV burst. Conclusions: The magnetic field around the null point is sheared by

  10. Training for Distance Teaching through Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima

    2002-01-01

    Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)

  11. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  12. Nature of gamma-ray burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, J.

    1983-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that gamma ray bursts have a local galactic origin involving neutron stars. In this light we make a critical review of physics of the thermonuclear runaway model placing emphasis on self-consistency. We further show that some of the proposed models can be observationally excluded in the light of existing data from the Einstein Observatory. The possibility of gamma bursts arising in low mass binaries is finally discussed in the light of evolutionary scenarios leading to low luminosity systems

  13. A Fast Radio Burst Host Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, E. F.; Johnston, S.; Bhandari, S.; Barr, E.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Caleb, M.; Flynn, C.; Jameson, A.; Kramer, M.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, millisecond duration radio signals originating from distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called Fast Radio Bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. While every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, none before now have had a redshift measurement, due to the difficulty in...

  14. Fast radio bursts as giant pulses from young rapidly rotating pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Burzawa, Lukasz; Popov, Sergei B.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss possible association of fast radio bursts (FRBs) with supergiant pulses emitted by young pulsars (ages ˜ tens to hundreds of years) born with regular magnetic field but very short - few milliseconds - spin periods. We assume that FRBs are extra-Galactic events coming from distances d ≲ 100 Mpc and that most of the dispersion measure (DM) comes from the material in the freshly ejected SNR shell. We then predict that for a given burst the DM should decrease with time and that FRBs are not expected to be seen below ˜300 MHz due to free-free absorption in the expanding ejecta. A supernova might have been detected years before the burst; FRBs are mostly associated with star-forming galaxies. The model requires that some pulsars are born with very fast spins, of the order of few milliseconds. The observed distribution of spin-down powers dot{E} in young energetic pulsars is consistent with equal birth rate per decade of dot{E}. Accepting this injection distribution and scaling the intrinsic brightness of FRBs with dot{E}, we predict the following properties of a large sample of FRBs: (I) the brightest observed events come from a broad distribution in distances; (II) for repeating bursts brightness either remains nearly constant (if the spin-down time is longer than the age of the pulsar) or decreases with time otherwise; in the latter case DM ∝ dot{E}.

  15. Balloon observation of gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Fujii, Masami; Yamagami, Takamasa; Oda, Minoru; Ogawara, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic gamma-ray burst is an interesting high energy astrophysical phenomenon, but the burst mechanism has not been well understood. Since 1975, long duration balloon flight has been conducted to search for gamma-ray bursts and to determine the source locations. A rotating cross-modulation collimator was employed to determine the locations of sources, and four NaI(Tl) scintillation counters were employed to detect hard X-ray with energy from 20 to 200 keV. The balloon light was performed at altitude of 8.3 mb from September 28, 1977, and the observation time of 79 hours was achieved. In this experiment, the monitor counter was not mounted. The count increase was observed at 16 h 22 m 31 s JST on October 1, 1977. The event disappeared after 1 sec. The total flux is estimated to be 1.6 x 10 -6 erg/cm 2 sec at the top of the atmosphere. When this event was observed, the solar-terrestrial environment was also quiet. Thus, this event was attributed to a small gamma-ray burst. Unfortunately, the duration of the burst was so short that the position of the burst source was not able to be determined. (Yoshimori, M.)

  16. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: yypspore@gmail.com, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-09-20

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  17. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  18. Photon Mass Limits from Fast Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Bonetti, Luca; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E.; Sakharov, Alexander S.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward K.G.; Spallicci, Alessandro D.A.M.

    2016-06-10

    The frequency-dependent time delays in fast radio bursts (FRBs) can be used to constrain the photon mass, if the FRB redshifts are known, but the similarity between the frequency dependences of dispersion due to plasma effects and a photon mass complicates the derivation of a limit on $m_\\gamma$. The redshift of FRB 150418 has been measured to $\\sim 2$% and its dispersion measure (DM) is known to $\\sim 0.1$%, but the strength of the constraint on $m_\\gamma$ is limited by uncertainties in the modelling of the host galaxy and the Milky Way, as well as possible inhomogeneities in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Allowing for these uncertainties, the recent data on FRB 150418 indicate that $m_\\gamma \\lesssim 1.7 \\times 10^{-14}$ eV c$^{-2}$ ($4.6 \\times 10^{-50}$ kg). In the future, the different redshift dependences of the plasma and photon mass contributions to DM can be used to improve the sensitivity to $m_\\gamma$ if more FRB redshifts are measured. For a fixed fractional uncertainty in the extra-galactic cont...

  19. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  20. Local gamma ray events as tests of the antimatter theory of gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofia, S.; Wilson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Nearby examples of the antimatter 'chunks' postulated by Sofia and Van Horn to explain the cosmic gamma ray bursts may produce detectable gamma ray events when struck by solar system meteoroids. These events would have a much shorter time scale and higher energy spectrum than the bursts already observed. In order to have a reasonably high event rate, the local meteoroid population must extend to a distance from the Sun of the order of 0.1 pc, but the required distance could become much lower if the instrumental threshold is improved. The expected gamma ray flux for interaction of the antimatter bodies with the solar wind is also examined, and found to be far below present instrumental capabilities. (Auth.)

  1. AN ABSENCE OF FAST RADIO BURSTS AT INTERMEDIATE GALACTIC LATITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, E.; Van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Johnston, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bates, S. D.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bhat, N. D. R. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), 44 Rosehill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Tiburzi, C. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Burke-Spolaor, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91104 (United States); Champion, D.; Ng, C. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Levin, L., E-mail: epetroff@astro.swin.edu.au [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); and others

    2014-07-10

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (–15° bursts.

  2. On the radiation mechanism of repeating fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2018-06-01

    Recent observations show that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are energetic but probably non-catastrophic events occurring at cosmological distances. The properties of their progenitors are largely unknown in spite of many attempts to determine them using the event rate, duration, and energetics. Understanding the radiation mechanism for FRBs should provide the missing insights regarding their progenitors, which is investigated in this paper. The high brightness temperatures (≳1035 K) of FRBs mean that the emission process must be coherent. Two general classes of coherent radiation mechanisms are considered - maser and the antenna mechanism. We use the observed properties of the repeater FRB 121102 to constrain the plasma conditions needed for these two mechanisms. We have looked into a wide variety of maser mechanisms operating in either vacuum or plasma and find that none of them can explain the high luminosity of FRBs without invoking unrealistic or fine-tuned plasma conditions. The most favourable mechanism is antenna curvature emission by coherent charge bunches where the burst is powered by magnetic reconnection near the surface of a magnetar (B ≳ 1014 G). We show that the plasma in the twisted magnetosphere of a magnetar may be clumpy due to two-stream instability. When magnetic reconnection occurs, the pre-existing density clumps may provide charge bunches for the antenna mechanism to operate. This model should be applicable to all FRBs that have multiple outbursts like FRB 121102.

  3. AN ABSENCE OF FAST RADIO BURSTS AT INTERMEDIATE GALACTIC LATITUDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroff, E.; Van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F.; Johnston, S.; Bates, S. D.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Tiburzi, C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D.; Ng, C.; Levin, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (–15° bursts

  4. Fast radio burst event rate counts - I. Interpreting the observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquart, J.-P.; Ekers, R. D.

    2018-02-01

    The fluence distribution of the fast radio burst (FRB) population (the `source count' distribution, N (>F) ∝Fα), is a crucial diagnostic of its distance distribution, and hence the progenitor evolutionary history. We critically reanalyse current estimates of the FRB source count distribution. We demonstrate that the Lorimer burst (FRB 010724) is subject to discovery bias, and should be excluded from all statistical studies of the population. We re-examine the evidence for flat, α > -1, source count estimates based on the ratio of single-beam to multiple-beam detections with the Parkes multibeam receiver, and show that current data imply only a very weak constraint of α ≲ -1.3. A maximum-likelihood analysis applied to the portion of the Parkes FRB population detected above the observational completeness fluence of 2 Jy ms yields α = -2.6_{-1.3}^{+0.7 }. Uncertainties in the location of each FRB within the Parkes beam render estimates of the Parkes event rate uncertain in both normalizing survey area and the estimated post-beam-corrected completeness fluence; this uncertainty needs to be accounted for when comparing the event rate against event rates measured at other telescopes.

  5. Safety distance between underground natural gas and water pipeline facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Yusof, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    A leaking water pipe bursting high pressure water jet in the soil will create slurry erosion which will eventually erode the adjacent natural gas pipe, thus causing its failure. The standard 300 mm safety distance used to place natural gas pipe away from water pipeline facilities needs to be reviewed to consider accidental damage and provide safety cushion to the natural gas pipe. This paper presents a study on underground natural gas pipeline safety distance via experimental and numerical approaches. The pressure–distance characteristic curve obtained from this experimental study showed that the pressure was inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance. Experimental testing using water-to-water pipeline system environment was used to represent the worst case environment, and could be used as a guide to estimate appropriate safety distance. Dynamic pressures obtained from the experimental measurement and simulation prediction mutually agreed along the high-pressure water jetting path. From the experimental and simulation exercises, zero effect distance for water-to-water medium was obtained at an estimated horizontal distance at a minimum of 1500 mm, while for the water-to-sand medium, the distance was estimated at a minimum of 1200 mm. - Highlights: • Safe separation distance of underground natural gas pipes was determined. • Pressure curve is inversely proportional to separation distance. • Water-to-water system represents the worst case environment. • Measured dynamic pressures mutually agreed with simulation results. • Safe separation distance of more than 1200 mm should be applied

  6. Revisiting the dispersion measure of fast radio bursts associated with gamma-ray burst afterglows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yuyw@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Some fast radio bursts (FRBs) are expected to be associated with the afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), while a short-lived, supermassive neutron star (NS) forms during the GRBs. I investigate the possible contributions to the dispersion measure (DM) of the FRBs from the GRB ejecta and the wind blown from the precollapsing NS. On the one hand, sometimes an internal X-ray plateau afterglow could be produced by the NS wind, which indicates that a great number of electron-positron pairs are carried by the wind. If the pair-generation radius satisfies a somewhat rigorous condition, the relativistic and dense wind would contribute a high DM to the associated FRB, which can be comparable to and even exceed the DM contributed by the intergalactic medium. On the other hand, if the wind only carries a Goldreich-Julian particle flux, its DM contribution would become negligible; meanwhile, the internal plateau afterglow would not appear. Alternatively, the FRB should be associated with a GRB afterglow produced by the GRB external shock, i.e., an energy-injection-caused shallow-decay afterglow or a normal single-power-law afterglow if the impulsive energy release of the GRB is high enough. In the latter case, the DM contributed by the high-mass GRB ejecta could be substantially important, in particular, for an environment of main-sequence stellar wind. In summary, a careful assessment on the various DM contributors could be required for the cosmological application of the expected FRB-GRB association. The future DM measurements of GRB-associated FRBs could provide a constraint on the physics of NS winds.

  7. Revisiting the dispersion measure of fast radio bursts associated with gamma-ray burst afterglows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Some fast radio bursts (FRBs) are expected to be associated with the afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), while a short-lived, supermassive neutron star (NS) forms during the GRBs. I investigate the possible contributions to the dispersion measure (DM) of the FRBs from the GRB ejecta and the wind blown from the precollapsing NS. On the one hand, sometimes an internal X-ray plateau afterglow could be produced by the NS wind, which indicates that a great number of electron-positron pairs are carried by the wind. If the pair-generation radius satisfies a somewhat rigorous condition, the relativistic and dense wind would contribute a high DM to the associated FRB, which can be comparable to and even exceed the DM contributed by the intergalactic medium. On the other hand, if the wind only carries a Goldreich-Julian particle flux, its DM contribution would become negligible; meanwhile, the internal plateau afterglow would not appear. Alternatively, the FRB should be associated with a GRB afterglow produced by the GRB external shock, i.e., an energy-injection-caused shallow-decay afterglow or a normal single-power-law afterglow if the impulsive energy release of the GRB is high enough. In the latter case, the DM contributed by the high-mass GRB ejecta could be substantially important, in particular, for an environment of main-sequence stellar wind. In summary, a careful assessment on the various DM contributors could be required for the cosmological application of the expected FRB-GRB association. The future DM measurements of GRB-associated FRBs could provide a constraint on the physics of NS winds.

  8. Coronal mass ejections and solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of coronal mass ejection (CME) events and their radio signatures are discussed. These signatures are mostly in the form of type II and type IV burst emissions. Although type II bursts are temporally associated with CMEs, it is shown that there is no spatial relationship between them. Type II's associated with CMEs have in most cases a different origin, and they are not piston-driven by CMEs. Moving type IV and type II bursts can be associated with slow CMEs with speeds as low as 200 km/s, contrary to the earlier belief that only CMEs with speeds >400 km/s are associated with radio bursts. A specific event has been discussed in which the CME and type IV burst has nearly the same speed and direction, but the type II burst location was behind the CME and its motion was transverse. The speed and motion of the type II burst strongly suggest that the type II shock was decoupled from the CME and was probably due to a flare behind the limb. Therefore only the type IV source could be directly associated with the slow CME. The electrons responsble for the type IV emission could be produced in the flare or in the type II and then become trapped in a plasmoid associated with the CME. The reconnected loop could then move outwards as in the usual palsmoid model. Alternatively, the type IV emission could be interpreted as due to electrons produced by acceleration in wave turbulence driven by currents in the shock front driven by the CME. The lower-hybrid model Lampe and Papadopoulos (1982), which operates at both fast and slow mode shocks, could be applied to this situation. (author). 31 refs., 12 figs

  9. Swift pointing and gravitational-wave bursts from gamma-ray burst events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Patrick J; Finn, Lee Samuel; Krishnan, Badri

    2003-01-01

    The currently accepted model for gamma-ray burst phenomena involves the violent formation of a rapidly rotating solar-mass black hole. Gravitational waves should be associated with the black-hole formation, and their detection would permit this model to be tested. Even upper limits on the gravitational-wave strength associated with gamma-ray bursts could constrain the gamma-ray burst model. This requires joint observations of gamma-ray burst events with gravitational and gamma-ray detectors. Here we examine how the quality of an upper limit on the gravitational-wave strength associated with gamma-ray bursts depends on the relative orientation of the gamma-ray-burst and gravitational-wave detectors, and apply our results to the particular case of the Swift Burst-Alert Telescope (BAT) and the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors. A result of this investigation is a science-based 'figure of merit' that can be used, together with other mission constraints, to optimize the pointing of the Swift telescope for the detection of gravitational waves associated with gamma-ray bursts

  10. Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M.S.; Goldstein, A.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Preece, R.D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Gibby, M.H.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R.M.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Yu, H-F.; Bhat, P.N.; Burgess, J.M.; Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Giles, M.M.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; von Kienlin, A.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Tierney, D.; Zhang, B..B.

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the

  11. INDUCED SCATTERING LIMITS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS FROM STELLAR CORONAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubarsky, Yuri [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, P.O.B. 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ostrovska, Sofiya [Department of Mathematics, Atilim University, Incek 06836, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-02-10

    The origin of fast radio bursts remains a puzzle. Suggestions have been made that they are produced within the Earth’s atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies, or at cosmological distances. If they are extraterrestrial, the implied brightness temperature is very high, and therefore the induced scattering places constraints on possible models. In this paper, constraints are obtained on flares from coronae of nearby stars. It is shown that the radio pulses with the observed power could not be generated if the plasma density within and in the nearest vicinity of the source is as high as is necessary to provide the observed dispersion measure. However, one cannot exclude the possibility that the pulses are generated within a bubble with a very low density and pass through the dense plasma only in the outer corona.

  12. Fast Radio Bursts from the Collapse of Strange Star Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Geng, Jin-Jun; Huang, Yong-Feng

    2018-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are transient radio sources at cosmological distances. No counterparts in other bands have been observed for non-repeating FRBs. Here we suggest the collapse of strange star (SS) crusts as a possible origin for FRBs. SSs, which are composed of almost equal numbers of u, d, and s quarks, may be encapsulated by a thin crust of normal hadronic matter. When a SS accretes matter from its environment, the crust becomes heavier and heavier. It may finally collapse, leading to the release of a large amount of magnetic energy and plenty of electron/positron pairs on a very short timescale. Electron/positron pairs in the polar cap region of the SS can be accelerated to relativistic velocities, streaming along the magnetic field lines to form a thin shell. FRBs are produced by coherent emission from these electrons when the shell is expanding. Basic characteristics of observed FRBs can be explained in our model.

  13. Estimate of an environmental magnetic field of fast radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wei-Li; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a type of newly-discovered transient astronomical phenomenon. They have short durations, high dispersion measures and a high event rate. However, due to unknown distances and undetected electromagnetic counterparts at other wavebands, it is difficult to further investigate FRBs. Here we propose a method to study their environmental magnetic field using an indirect method. Starting with dispersion measures and rotation measures (RMs), we try to obtain the parallel magnetic field component B-bar ‖ which is the average value along the line of sight in the host galaxy. Because both RMs and redshifts are now unavailable, we demonstrate the dependence of B-bar ‖ on these two separate quantities. This result, if the RM and redshift of an FRB are measured, would be expected to provide a clue towards understanding an environmental magnetic field of an FRB. (paper)

  14. MULTI-WAVELENGTH AFTERGLOWS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The physical origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is unknown. Detecting electromagnetic counterparts to FRBs in other wavelengths is essential to measure their distances and to determine their physical origin. Assuming that at least some of them are of cosmological origin, we calculate their afterglow light curves in multiple wavelengths (X-rays, optical, and radio) by assuming a range of total kinetic energies and redshifts. We focus on forward shock emission, but also consider the possibility that some of the FRBs might have bright reverse shock emission. In general, FRB afterglows are too faint to be detected by current detectors. Only if an FRB has a very low radiative efficiency in radio (hence, a very large kinetic energy), and when it is close enough to observe can its afterglow be detected in the optical and radio bands. We discuss observational strategies for detecting these faint afterglows using future telescopes such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array

  15. Probing the Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Rate with Trigger Simulations of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Sakamoto, Takanori; Gehrels, Neil; Palmer, David M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Graziani, Carlo; Cannizzo, John K.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate is essential for revealing the connection between GRBs, supernovae and stellar evolution. Additionally, the GRB rate at high redshift provides a strong probe of star formation history in the early universe. While hundreds of GRBs are observed by Swift, it remains difficult to determine the intrinsic GRB rate due to the complex trigger algorithm of Swift. Current studies of the GRB rate usually approximate the Swift trigger algorithm by a single detection threshold. However, unlike the previously own GRB instruments, Swift has over 500 trigger criteria based on photon count rate and additional image threshold for localization. To investigate possible systematic biases and explore the intrinsic GRB properties, we develop a program that is capable of simulating all the rate trigger criteria and mimicking the image threshold. Our simulations show that adopting the complex trigger algorithm of Swift increases the detection rate of dim bursts. As a result, our simulations suggest bursts need to be dimmer than previously expected to avoid over-producing the number of detections and to match with Swift observations. Moreover, our results indicate that these dim bursts are more likely to be high redshift events than low-luminosity GRBs. This would imply an even higher cosmic GRB rate at large redshifts than previous expectations based on star-formation rate measurements, unless other factors, such as the luminosity evolution, are taken into account. The GRB rate from our best result gives a total number of 4568 +825 -1429 GRBs per year that are beamed toward us in the whole universe.

  16. QKD-Based Secured Burst Integrity Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2016-03-01

    The field of optical transmission has undergone numerous advancements and is still being researched mainly due to the fact that optical data transmission can be done at enormous speeds. It is quite evident that people prefer optical communication when it comes to large amount of data involving its transmission. The concept of switching in networks has matured enormously with several researches, architecture to implement and methods starting with Optical circuit switching to Optical Burst Switching. Optical burst switching is regarded as viable solution for switching bursts over networks but has several security vulnerabilities. However, this work exploited the security issues associated with Optical Burst Switching with respect to integrity of burst. This proposed Quantum Key based Secure Hash Algorithm (QKBSHA-512) with enhanced compression function design provides better avalanche effect over the conventional integrity algorithms.

  17. Brownian distance covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new class of multivariate dependence coefficients applicable to random vectors of arbitrary and not necessarily equal dimension. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but generalize and extend these classical bivariate measures of dependence. Distance correlation characterizes independence: it is zero if and only if the random vectors are independent. The notion of covariance with...

  18. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  19. Sources of type III solar microwave bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanov D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave fine structures allow us to study plasma evolution in an energy release region. The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT is a unique instrument designed to examine fine structures at 5.7 GHz. A complex analysis of data from RATAN-600, 4–8 GHz spectropolarimeter, and SSRT, simultaneously with EUV data, made it possible to localize sources of III type microwave bursts in August 10, 2011 event within the entire frequency band of burst occurrence, as well as to determine the most probable region of primary energy release. To localize sources of III type bursts from RATAN-600 data, an original method for data processing has been worked out. At 5.7 GHz, the source of bursts was determined along two coordinates, whereas at 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, and 6.0 GHz, their locations were identified along one coordinate. The size of the burst source at 5.1 GHz was found to be maximum as compared to those at other frequencies.

  20. Bursting synchronization in clustered neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hai-Tao; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal networks in the brain exhibit the modular (clustered) property, i.e., they are composed of certain subnetworks with differential internal and external connectivity. We investigate bursting synchronization in a clustered neuronal network. A transition to mutual-phase synchronization takes place on the bursting time scale of coupled neurons, while on the spiking time scale, they behave asynchronously. This synchronization transition can be induced by the variations of inter- and intracoupling strengths, as well as the probability of random links between different subnetworks. Considering that some pathological conditions are related with the synchronization of bursting neurons in the brain, we analyze the control of bursting synchronization by using a time-periodic external signal in the clustered neuronal network. Simulation results show a frequency locking tongue in the driving parameter plane, where bursting synchronization is maintained, even in the presence of external driving. Hence, effective synchronization suppression can be realized with the driving parameters outside the frequency locking region. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Pulsar-Driven Jets in Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Middleditch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bipolarity of Supernova 1987A can be understood through its very early light curve from the CTIO 0.4 m telescope and IUE FES and following speckle observations of the “Mystery Spot”. These indicate a beam/jet of light/particles, with initial collimation factors >104 and velocities >0.95 c, involving up to 10−5 M⊙ interacting with circumstellar material. These can be produced by a model of pulsar emission from polarization currents induced/(modulated faster than c beyond the pulsar light cylinder by the periodic electromagnetic field (supraluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP. SLIP accounts for the disruption of supernova progenitors and their anomalous dimming at cosmological distances, jets from Sco X-1 and SS 433, the lack/presence of pulsations from the high-/low-luminosity low-mass X-ray binaries, and long/short gamma-ray bursts, and it predicts that their afterglows are the pulsed optical-/near-infrared emission associated with these pulsars. SLIP may also account for the TeV e+/e− results from PAMELA and ATIC, the WMAP “Haze”/Fermi “Bubbles,” and the r-process. SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without dark matter and explain the peculiar nongravitational motions between pairs of distant galaxies observed by GALEX.

  2. Investigation on the Vibration Effect of Shock Wave in Rock Burst by In Situ Microseismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshi Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock burst is a physical explosion associated with enormous damage at a short time. Due to the complicity of mechanics of rock burst in coal mine roadway, the direct use of traditional investigation method applied in tunnel is inappropriate since the components of surrounding rock are much more complex in underground than that of tunnel. In addition, the reliability of the results obtained through these methods (i.e., physical simulation, theoretical analysis, and monitoring in filed application is still not certain with complex geological conditions. Against this background, present experimental study was first ever conducted at initial site to evaluate the effect of shock wave during the rock burst. TDS-6 microseismic monitoring system was set up in situ to evaluate the propagation of shock wave resulting in microexplosions of roadway surrounding rock. Various parameters including the distance of epicentre and the characteristic of response have been investigated. Detailed test results revealed that (1 the shock wave attenuated exponentially with the increase of the distance to seismic source according to the equation of E=E0e-ηl; particularly, the amplitude decreased significantly after being 20 m apart from explosive resource and then became very weak after being 30 m apart from the seismic source; (2 the response mechanics are characteristic with large scatter based on the real location of surrounding rock despite being at the same section. That is, the surrounding rock of floor experienced serious damage, followed by ribs, the roof, and the humeral angles. This in situ experimental study also demonstrated that microseismic monitoring system can be effectively used in rock burst through careful setup and data investigation. The proposed in situ monitoring method has provided a new way to predict rock burst due to its simple instalment procedure associated with direct and reasonable experimental results.

  3. HUBBLE STAYS ON TRAIL OF FADING GAMMA-RAY BURST FIREBALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A Hubble Space Telescope image of the fading fireball from one of the universe's most mysterious phenomena, a gamma-ray burst. Though the visible component has faded to 1/500th its brightness (27.7 magnitude) from the time it was first discovered by ground- based telescopes last March (the actual gamma-ray burst took place on February 28), Hubble continues to clearly see the fireball and discriminated a surrounding nebulosity (at 25th magnitude) which is considered a host galaxy. The continued visibility of the burst, and the rate of its fading, support theories that the light from a gamma-ray burst is an expanding relativistic (moving near the speed of light) fireball, possibly produced by the collision of two dense objects, such as an orbiting pair of neutron stars. If the burst happened nearby, within our own galaxy, the resulting fireball should have had only enough energy to propel it into space for a month. The fact that this fireball is still visible after six months means the explosion was truly titanic and, to match the observed brightness, must have happened at the vast distances of galaxies. The energy released in a burst, which can last from a fraction of a second to a few hundred seconds, is equal to all of the Sun's energy generated over its 10 billion year lifetime. The false-color image was taken Sept. 5, 1997 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Credit: Andrew Fruchter (STScI), Elena Pian (ITSRE-CNR), and NASA

  4. Gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Murakami, Toshio; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Gunji, Shuichi; Kubo, Shin

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP: GAmma-ray burst Polarimeter), which had been almost handcrafted by scientists, has succeeded in working normally in interplanetary space, and in detecting the polarization of the gamma-ray from a mysterious astronomical object 'gamma-ray burst'. It is the first result of the detectors in the world exclusively aiming at detecting gamma-ray polarization. We mainly describe the hardware of our GAP equipment and show the method of preparing equipment to work in the cosmic space with a tight budget. The mechanical structure, the electronic circuits, the software on the equipment, the data analysis on the earth, and the scientific results gained by the observation just over one year, are presented after explaining the principle of gamma-ray polarization detection. Our design to protect equipment against mechanical shock and cosmic radiation may provide useful information for future preparation of compact satellite. (J.P.N.)

  5. Gamma-ray burst theory after Swift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2007-05-15

    Afterglow observations in the pre-Swift era confirmed to a large extend the relativistic blast wave model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Together with the observations of properties of host galaxies and the association with (type Ic) SNe, this has led to the generally accepted collapsar origin of long GRBs. However, most of the afterglow data was collected hours after the burst. The X-ray telescope and the UV/optical telescope onboard Swift are able to slew to the direction of a burst in real time and record the early broadband afterglow light curves. These observations, and in particular the X-ray observations, resulted in many surprises. While we have anticipated a smooth transition from the prompt emission to the afterglow, many observed that early light curves are drastically different. We review here how these observations are changing our understanding of GRBs.

  6. High sensitivity neutron bursts detecting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyam, A.; Kaushik, T.C.; Srinivasan, M.; Kulkarni, L.V.

    1993-01-01

    Technique and instrumentation to detect multiplicity of fast neutrons, emitted in sharp bursts, has been developed. A bank of 16 BF 3 detectors, in an appropriate thermalising assembly, efficiency ∼ 16%, is used to detect neutron bursts. The output from this setup, through appropriate electronics, is divided into two paths. The first is directly connected to a computer controlled scalar. The second is connected to another similar scalar through a delay time unit (DTU). The DTU design is such that once it is triggered by a count pulse than it does not allow any counts to be recorded for a fixed dead time set at ∼ 100 μs. The difference in counts recorded directly and through DTU gives the total number of neutrons produced in bursts. This setup is being used to study lattice cracking, anomalous effects in solid deuterium systems and various reactor physics experiments. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  7. Localised Microwave Bursts During ELMs on MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freethy Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bursts of microwave emission are observed during ELM events on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak. In agreement with observations on other machines, these bursts are up to 3 orders of magnitude more intense than the thermal background, but are electron cyclotron in nature. The peak in microwave emission is ~20μ before the peak in midplane Dα emission. Using the Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging radiometer, we are able to demonstrate that these bursts are often highly spatially localised and preferentially occur at the tokamak midplane. It is hypothesised that the localisation is a result of Doppler resonance broadening for electron Bernstein waves and the high perpendicular electron energies could be the result of pitch angle scattering in high collisionality regions of the plasma.

  8. Frequency Chirping during a Fishbone Burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, V.; Reznik, S., E-mail: march@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: It is shown that gradual (more than a factor of two, in some cases - down to zero in the lab frame) reduction of the mode frequency (the so called frequency chirping) can be attributed to the reactive torque exerted on the plasma during the fishbone instability burst, which slows down the plasma rotation inside the q = 1 surface and reduces the mode frequency in the lab frame, while frequency in the plasma frame remains constant. This torque arises due to imbalance between the power transfered to the mode by energeric ions and the power of the mode dissipation by thermal species. Estimates show that the peak value of this torque exceeds the neutral beam torque in modern tokamaks and in ITER. The line-broadened quasilinear burst model, properly adapted for the fishbone case, is capable of reproducing the key features of the bursting mode. (author)

  9. Interaction function of coupled bursting neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xia; Zhang Jiadong

    2016-01-01

    The interaction functions of electrically coupled Hindmarsh–Rose (HR) neurons for different firing patterns are investigated in this paper. By applying the phase reduction technique, the phase response curve (PRC) of the spiking neuron and burst phase response curve (BPRC) of the bursting neuron are derived. Then the interaction function of two coupled neurons can be calculated numerically according to the PRC (or BPRC) and the voltage time course of the neurons. Results show that the BPRC is more and more complicated with the increase of the spike number within a burst, and the curve of the interaction function oscillates more and more frequently with it. However, two certain things are unchanged: ϕ = 0, which corresponds to the in-phase synchronization state, is always the stable equilibrium, while the anti-phase synchronization state with ϕ = 0.5 is an unstable equilibrium. (paper)

  10. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  11. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  12. Westerly Wind Bursts: a Synoptic-Dynamic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartten, Leslie Marie

    This research examines the synoptic and climatological settings of westerly wind bursts (WWBs) during the 1980s and the dynamical processes active during them. Probabilities of strong westerly and easterly 1000 mb winds over the western equatorial Pacific are presented. Westerlies exhibit a clear annual cycle, appearing in the north in July, moving southeastward as the year progresses, and disappearing by June. Conditional probabilities, dependent on the value of the SOI, show that strong westerlies are more likely and more geographically extensive when the SOI is low, especially from July through January. A newly developed two-dimensional classification scheme qualitatively describes the near-surface synoptic flow of almost 90% of the 131 WWBs identified during the decade. Only 8% of the WWBs are described by the pattern involving twin cyclonic circulations straddling the equator. The trades, tropical cyclones, and the southeast Asian monsoon are all at times linked to WWBs, and the synoptic patterns often contain a significant barotropic component. Breaks in WWB activity are well correlated with a cooler than normal western Pacific warm pool. However, near-equatorial WWBs do not show a good correlation with the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Four near-equatorial WWBs are examined in detail. All are associated with broad cross-equatorial flow; two also have a cyclonic circulation poleward of the westerlies. Anticyclonic relative vorticity equatorward of the burst displaces the zero line of absolute vorticity, eta, into the burst hemisphere. In the three Southern Hemisphere cases, horizontal advection in a region extending from north of New Guinea east-southeast toward the dateline is crucial to the generation and maintenance of the eta pattern. Vorticity stretching associated with convection helps maintain a tight gradient of eta near and poleward of the burst, but also drives the eta = 0 line back towards the equator as the burst ends. In the Northern Hemisphere case

  13. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  14. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  15. New decoding methods of interleaved burst error-correcting codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Y.; Kasahara, M.; Namekawa, T.

    1983-04-01

    A probabilistic method of single burst error correction, using the syndrome correlation of subcodes which constitute the interleaved code, is presented. This method makes it possible to realize a high capability of burst error correction with less decoding delay. By generalizing this method it is possible to obtain probabilistic method of multiple (m-fold) burst error correction. After estimating the burst error positions using syndrome correlation of subcodes which are interleaved m-fold burst error detecting codes, this second method corrects erasure errors in each subcode and m-fold burst errors. The performance of these two methods is analyzed via computer simulation, and their effectiveness is demonstrated.

  16. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels

    2006-01-01

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  17. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin

    2017-09-01

    We present our broadband (2-250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550-5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806-20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  18. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin, E-mail: demetk@sabanciuniv.edu [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Orhanlı Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey)

    2017-09-01

    We present our broadband (2–250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550−5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806−20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ( RXTE ) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  19. Bursting Smoke as an Infrared Countermeasure

    OpenAIRE

    Amarjit Singh; P. J. Kamale; S. A. Joshi; L. K. Bankar

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental setup for the evaluation of bursting smoke for anti-infrared role using SR-5000 spectroradiometer and a source of IR radiation (8-13 micrometer) using cadmium-mercury-telluride (CMI) detector cooled by liquid nitrogen. The particle size and shape of the powders used in the bursting smokes were determined microscopically using Carl Zeiss Jena Neophot- 21. Highest attenuation of 97 -lOO percent was produced for about 12 s using a mixture of bronze fl...

  20. Radon and rock bursts in deep mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulashevich, Yu.P.; Utkin, V.I.; Yurkov, A.K.; Nikolaev, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Variation fields of radon concentration in time to ascertain stress-strain state of the North Ural bauxite mines have been studied. It is shown that dynamic changes in the stress-strain state of the rocks prior to the rock burst bring about variations in radon concentration in the observation wells. Depending on mutual positioning of the observation points and the rock burst epicenter, the above-mentioned variations differ in principle, reduction of radon concentration in the near zone and its increase in the far zone are observed [ru

  1. Spike Bursts from an Excitable Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Leite, Jose R.; Rosero, Edison J.; Barbosa, Wendson A. S.; Tredicce, Jorge R.

    Diode Lasers with double optical feedback are shown to present power drop spikes with statistical distribution controllable by the ratio of the two feedback times. The average time between spikes and the variance within long time series are studied. The system is shown to be excitable and present bursting of spikes created with specific feedback time ratios and strength. A rate equation model, extending the Lang-Kobayashi single feedback for semiconductor lasers proves to match the experimental observations. Potential applications to construct network to mimic neural systems having controlled bursting properties in each unit will be discussed. Brazilian Agency CNPQ.

  2. Flux decay during thermonuclear X-ray bursts analysed with the dynamic power-law index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuttila, J.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Nättilä, J.; Motta, S. E.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Cumming, A.; Poutanen, J.

    2017-08-01

    The cooling of type-I X-ray bursts can be used to probe the nuclear burning conditions in neutron star envelopes. The flux decay of the bursts has been traditionally modelled with an exponential, even if theoretical considerations predict power-law-like decays. We have analysed a total of 540 type-I X-ray bursts from five low-mass X-ray binaries observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We grouped the bursts according to the source spectral state during which they were observed (hard or soft), flagging those bursts that showed signs of photospheric radius expansion (PRE). The decay phase of all the bursts were then fitted with a dynamic power-law index method. This method provides a new way of probing the chemical composition of the accreted material. Our results show that in the hydrogen-rich sources the power-law decay index is variable during the burst tails and that simple cooling models qualitatively describe the cooling of presumably helium-rich sources 4U 1728-34 and 3A 1820-303. The cooling in the hydrogen-rich sources 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-536, and GS 1826-24, instead, is clearly different and depends on the spectral states and whether PRE occurred or not. Especially the hard state bursts behave differently than the models predict, exhibiting a peculiar rise in the cooling index at low burst fluxes, which suggests that the cooling in the tail is much faster than expected. Our results indicate that the drivers of the bursting behaviour are not only the accretion rate and chemical composition of the accreted material, but also the cooling that is somehow linked to the spectral states. The latter suggests that the properties of the burning layers deep in the neutron star envelope might be impacted differently depending on the spectral state.

  3. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    should emit similar amounts of gamma-ray energy. The fraction of it detected at Earth should then depend on the 'width' (opening angle) and orientation of the beam as well as on the distance. The energy received should be larger when the beam is narrow or points towards us and smaller when the beam is broad or points away from us. New data collected with ESA's high energy observatories, Integral and XMM-Newton, now show that this picture is not so clear-cut and that the amount of energy emitted by GRBs can vary significantly. "The idea that all GRBs spit out the same amount of gamma rays, or that they are 'standard candles' as we call them, is simply ruled out by the new data," said Dr Sergey Sazonov, from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia) and the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching near Munich (Germany). Sazonov and an international team of researchers studied the GRB detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 and given the code-name of GRB 031203. Within a record 18 seconds of the burst, the Integral Burst Alert System had pinpointed the approximate position of GRB 031203 in the sky and sent the information to a network of observatories around the world. A few hours later one of them, ESA's XMM-Newton, determined a much more precise position for GRB 031203 and detected a rapidly fading X-ray source, which was subsequently seen by radio and optical telescopes on the ground. This wealth of data allowed astronomers to determine that GRB 031203 went off in a galaxy less than 1300 million light years away, making it the closest GRB ever observed. Even so, the way in which GRB 031203 dimmed with time and the distribution of its energy were not different from those of distant GRBs. Then, scientists started to realise that the concept of the 'standard candle' may not hold. "Being so close should make GRB 031203 appear very bright, but the amount of gamma-rays measured by Integral is about one thousand times less than what

  4. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of the polarization of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB030329.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Reinsch, Klaus; Schmid, Hans Martin; Sari, Re'em; Hartmann, Dieter H; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Rau, Arne; Palazzi, Eliana; Straubmeier, Christian; Stecklum, Bringfried; Zharikov, Sergej; Tovmassian, Gaghik; Bärnbantner, Otto; Ries, Christoph; Jehin, Emmanuel; Henden, Arne; Kaas, Anlaug A; Grav, Tommy; Hjorth, Jens; Pedersen, Holger; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Kaufer, Andreas; Park, Hye-Sook; Williams, Grant; Reimer, Olaf

    2003-11-13

    The association of a supernova with GRB030329 strongly supports the 'collapsar' model of gamma-ray bursts, where a relativistic jet forms after the progenitor star collapses. Such jets cannot be spatially resolved because gamma-ray bursts lie at cosmological distances; their existence is instead inferred from 'breaks' in the light curves of the afterglows, and from the theoretical desire to reduce the estimated total energy of the burst by proposing that most of it comes out in narrow beams. Temporal evolution of the polarization of the afterglows may provide independent evidence for the jet structure of the relativistic outflow. Small-level polarization ( approximately 1-3 per cent) has been reported for a few bursts, but its temporal evolution has yet to be established. Here we report polarimetric observations of the afterglow of GRB030329. We establish the polarization light curve, detect sustained polarization at the per cent level, and find significant variability. The data imply that the afterglow magnetic field has a small coherence length and is mostly random, probably generated by turbulence, in contrast with the picture arising from the high polarization detected in the prompt gamma-rays from GRB021206 (ref. 18).

  6. Introduction: recent developments in the study of gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alan; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Rees, Martin J

    2007-05-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are immensely powerful explosions, originating at cosmological distances, whose outbursts persist for durations ranging from milliseconds to tens of seconds or more. In these brief moments, the explosions radiate more energy than the Sun will release in its entire 10Gyr lifetime. Current theories attribute these phenomena to the final collapse of a massive star, or the coalescence of a binary system induced by gravity wave emission. New results from Swift and related programmes offer fresh understanding of the physics of GRBs, and of the local environments and host galaxies of burst progenitors. Bursts found at very high red shifts are new tools for exploring the intergalactic medium, the first stars and the earliest stages of galaxy formation. This Royal Society Discussion Meeting has brought together leading figures in the field, together with young researchers and students, to discuss and review the latest results from NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Observatory and elsewhere, and to examine their impact on current understanding of the observed phenomena.

  7. Solving the Mystery of the Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Derek

    2005-07-01

    Eight years after the afterglow detections that revolutionized studies of the long-soft gamma-ray bursts, not even one afterglow of a short-hard GRB has been seen, and the nature of these events has become one of the most important problems in GRB research. The Swift satellite, expected to be in full operation throughout Cycle 14, will report few-arcsecond localizations for short-hard bursts in minutes, enabling prompt, deep optical afterglow searches for the first time. Discovery and observation of the first short-hard optical afterglows will answer most of the critical questions about these events: What are their distances and energies? Do they occur in distant galaxies, and if so, in which regions of those galaxies? Are they the result of collimated or quasi-spherical explosions? In combination with an extensive rapid-response ground-based campaign, we propose to make the critical high-sensitivity HST TOO observations that will allow us to answer these questions. If theorists are correct in attributing the short-hard bursts to binary neutron star coalescence events, then they will serve as signposts to the primary targeted source population for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, and short-hard burst studies will have a vital role to play in guiding those observations.

  8. Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kruparova, O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Type III bursts are generated by fast electron beams originated from magnetic reconnection sites of solar flares. As propagation of radio waves in the interplanetary medium is strongly affected by random electron density fluctuations, type III bursts provide us with a unique diagnostic tool for solar wind remote plasma measurements. Here, we performed a statistical survey of 152 simple and isolated type III bursts observed by the twin-spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission. We investigated their time–frequency profiles in order to retrieve decay times as a function of frequency. Next, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the role of scattering due to random electron density fluctuations on time–frequency profiles of radio emissions generated in the interplanetary medium. For simplification, we assumed the presence of isotropic electron density fluctuations described by a power law with the Kolmogorov spectral index. Decay times obtained from observations and simulations were compared. We found that the characteristic exponential decay profile of type III bursts can be explained by the scattering of the fundamental component between the source and the observer despite restrictive assumptions included in the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Our results suggest that relative electron density fluctuations /{n}{{e}} in the solar wind are 0.06–0.07 over wide range of heliospheric distances.

  9. On the Nature of the Gamma-ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ai Hong

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of the γ-ray burst phenomena are presented. History of the γ-ray bursts, characteristics, and three radiation mechanisms of thermal bremsstrahlung, thermal synchrotron, and inverse Compton scattering processes are considered.

  10. THE FIVE YEAR FERMI/GBM MAGNETAR BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazzi, A. C. [SciTec, Inc., 100 Wall Street, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Horst, A. J. van der; Younes, G. A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raanana 43537 (Israel); Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Chaplin, V. L. [School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Avenue S, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Huppenkothen, D. [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Watts, A. L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H., E-mail: acollazzi@scitec.com [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550–5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  11. THE FERMI-GBM X-RAY BURST MONITOR: THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS FROM 4U 0614+09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, M.; Chakrabarty, D.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R.; Jenke, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Beklen, E.; Von Kienlin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear bursts from slowly accreting neutron stars (NSs) have proven difficult to detect, yet they are potential probes of the thermal properties of the NS interior. During the first year of a systematic all-sky search for X-ray bursts using the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope we have detected 15 thermonuclear bursts from the NS low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+09 when it was accreting at nearly 1% of the Eddington limit. We measured an average burst recurrence time of 12 ± 3 days (68% confidence interval) between 2010 March and 2011 March, classified all bursts as normal duration bursts and placed a lower limit on the recurrence time of long/intermediate bursts of 62 days (95% confidence level). We discuss how observations of thermonuclear bursts in the hard X-ray band compare to pointed soft X-ray observations and quantify such bandpass effects on measurements of burst radiated energy and duration. We put our results for 4U 0614+09 in the context of other bursters and briefly discuss the constraints on ignition models. Interestingly, we find that the burst energies in 4U 0614+09 are on average between those of normal duration bursts and those measured in long/intermediate bursts. Such a continuous distribution in burst energy provides a new observational link between normal and long/intermediate bursts. We suggest that the apparent bimodal distribution that defined normal and long/intermediate duration bursts during the last decade could be due to an observational bias toward detecting only the longest and most energetic bursts from slowly accreting NSs.

  12. BACODINE/3rd Interplanetary Network burst localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.

    1996-01-01

    Even with only two widely separated spacecraft (Ulysses and GRO), 3rd Interplanetary Network (IPN) localizations can reduce the areas of BATSE error circles by two orders of magnitude. Therefore it is useful to disseminate them as quickly as possible following BATSE bursts. We have implemented a system which transmits the light curves of BACODINE/BATSE bursts directly by e-mail to UC Berkeley immediately after detection. An automatic e-mail parser at Berkeley watches for these notices, determines the Ulysses crossing time window, and initiates a search for the burst data on the JPL computer as they are received. In ideal cases, it is possible to retrieve the Ulysses data within a few hours of a burst, generate an annulus of arrival directions, and e-mail it out to the astronomical community by local nightfall. Human operators remain in this loop, but we are developing a fully automated routine which should remove them, at least for intense events, and reduce turn-around times to an absolute minimum. We explain the current operations, the data types used, and the speed/accuracy tradeoffs

  13. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive

  14. Robust Bayesian detection of unmodelled bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Antony C; Sutton, Patrick J; Tinto, Massimo; Woan, Graham

    2008-01-01

    We develop a Bayesian treatment of the problem of detecting unmodelled gravitational wave bursts using the new global network of interferometric detectors. We also compare this Bayesian treatment with existing coherent methods, and demonstrate that the existing methods make implicit assumptions on the distribution of signals that make them sub-optimal for realistic signal populations

  15. Extragalactic dispersion measures of fast radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Han, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Fast radio bursts show large dispersion measures, much larger than the Galactic dispersion measure foreground. Therefore, they evidently have an extragalactic origin. We investigate possible contributions to the dispersion measure from host galaxies. We simulate the spatial distribution of fast radio bursts and calculate the dispersion measures along the sightlines from fast radio bursts to the edge of host galaxies by using the scaled NE2001 model for thermal electron density distributions. We find that contributions to the dispersion measure of fast radio bursts from the host galaxy follow a skew Gaussian distribution. The peak and the width at half maximum of the dispersion measure distribution increase with the inclination angle of a spiral galaxy, to large values when the inclination angle is over 70°. The largest dispersion measure produced by an edge-on spiral galaxy can reach a few thousand pc cm −3 , while the dispersion measures from dwarf galaxies and elliptical galaxies have a maximum of only a few tens of pc cm −3 . Notice, however, that additional dispersion measures of tens to hundreds of pc cm −3 can be produced by high density clumps in host galaxies. Simulations that include dispersion measure contributions from the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Andromeda Galaxy are shown as examples to demonstrate how to extract the dispersion measure from the intergalactic medium. (paper)

  16. Radio Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lekshmi Resmi

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... ments on-board high energy missions like BeppoSAX1,. CGRO2, HETE3, .... rest energy of a solar mass object (GRB 080916C; Abdo et al. 2009). ..... Though the same afterglow physics applies to short bursts too, there are.

  17. Magnetized environs of a repeating radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian D.

    2018-03-01

    One of the astrophysical sources that gives rise to the mysterious transients known as fast radio bursts is embedded in a highly magnetized environment, such as the vicinity of an accreting massive black hole or the birth nebula of a highly magnetized neutron star.

  18. Distance measurements from supernovae and dark energy constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun

    2009-01-01

    Constraints on dark energy from current observational data are sensitive to how distances are measured from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data. We find that flux averaging of SNe Ia can be used to test the presence of unknown systematic uncertainties, and yield more robust distance measurements from SNe Ia. We have applied this approach to the nearby+SDSS+ESSENCE+SNLS+HST set of 288 SNe Ia, and the 'Constitution' set of 397 SNe Ia. Combining the SN Ia data with cosmic microwave background anisotropy data from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5 yr observations, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, the data of 69 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) , and the Hubble constant measurement from the Hubble Space Telescope project SHOES, we measure the dark energy density function X(z)≡ρ X (z)/ρ X (0) as a free function of redshift (assumed to be a constant at z>1 or z>1.5). Without the flux averaging of SNe Ia, the combined data using the Constitution set of SNe Ia seem to indicate a deviation from a cosmological constant at ∼95% confidence level at 0 98% confidence level for z≤0.75 using the combined data with 288 SNe Ia from nearby+SDSS+ESSENCE+SNLS+HST, independent of the assumptions about X(z≥1). We quantify dark energy constraints without assuming a flat Universe using the dark energy figure of merit for both X(z) and a dark energy equation-of-state linear in the cosmic scale factor.

  19. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  20. 3rd Interplanetary Network Gamma-Ray Burst Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    1998-05-01

    We announce the opening of the 3rd Interplanetary Network web site at http://ssl.berkeley.edu/ipn3/index.html This site presently has four parts: 1. A bibliography of over 3000 publications on gamma-ray bursts, 2. IPN data on all bursts triangulated up to February 1998, 3. A master list showing which spacecraft observed which bursts, 4. Preliminary IPN data on the latest bursts observed.

  1. BurstMem: A High-Performance Burst Buffer System for Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Teng [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Yandong [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

    2014-01-01

    The growth of computing power on large-scale sys- tems requires commensurate high-bandwidth I/O system. Many parallel file systems are designed to provide fast sustainable I/O in response to applications soaring requirements. To meet this need, a novel system is imperative to temporarily buffer the bursty I/O and gradually flush datasets to long-term parallel file systems. In this paper, we introduce the design of BurstMem, a high- performance burst buffer system. BurstMem provides a storage framework with efficient storage and communication manage- ment strategies. Our experiments demonstrate that BurstMem is able to speed up the I/O performance of scientific applications by up to 8.5 on leadership computer systems.

  2. Constraining the High-Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sonbas, E.; Stamatikos, M.; Guirec, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine 288 GRBs detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field-of-view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the nuF(sub v) spectra (E(sub pk)). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E(sub pk) than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cut-off in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to gamma gamma attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. All of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.

  3. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Kaufman

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity, followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  4. Long-term Relationships between Cholinergic Tone, Synchronous Bursting and Synaptic Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A.; Ziv, Noam E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited. PMID:22911726

  5. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A; Ziv, Noam E

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  6. Risk Factors for the Failure of Spinal Burst Fractures Treated Conservatively According to the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS: A Retrospective Cohort Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieliang Shen

    Full Text Available The management of thoracolumbar (TL burst fractures is still controversial. The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS algorithm is now widely used to guide clinical decision making, however, in clinical practice, we come to realize that TLICS also has its limitations for treating patients with total scores less than 4, for which conservative treatment may not be optimal in all cases.The aim of this study is to identify several risk factors for the failure of conservative treatment of TL burst fractures according to TLICS algorithm.From June 2008 to December 2013, a cohort of 129 patients with T10-l2 TL burst fractures with a TLISC score ≤3 treated non-operatively were identified and included into this retrospective study. Age, sex, pain intensity, interpedicular distance (IPD, canal compromise, loss of vertebral body height and kyphotic angle (KA were selected as potential risk factors and compared between the non-operative success group and the non-operative failure group.One hundred and four patients successfully completed non-operative treatment, the other 25 patients were converted to surgical treatment because of persistent local back pain or progressive neurological deficits during follow-up. Our results showed that age, visual analogue scale (VAS score and IPD, KA were significantly different between the two groups. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that VAS score and IPD could be considered as significant predictors for the failure of conservative treatment.The recommendation of non-operative treatment for TLICS score ≤3 has limitations in some patients, and VAS score and IPD could be considered as risk factors for the failure of conservative treatment. Thus, conservative treatment should be decided with caution in patients with greater VAS scores or IPD. If non-operative management is decided, a close follow-up is necessary.

  7. Gamma-ray burst observations: the present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrenne, G.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results in gamma ray burst investigations concerning the spectral variability on a short time scale, precise locations, and the discovery of optical flashes in gamma ray burst positions on archival plates are presented. The implications of optical and X-ray observations of gamma ray burst error boxes are also discussed. 72 references

  8. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, C.A.

    1990-04-01

    Gamma ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in a low energy, gamma ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms are proposed

  9. Heuristic burst detection method using flow and pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Roer, Van de M.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst

  10. IGR J17254-3257, a new bursting neutron star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.; Kuulkers, E.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The study of the observational properties of uncommonly long bursts from low luminosity sources is important when investigating the transition from a hydrogen - rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime and from helium burning to carbon burning as predicted by current burst theories. On ...

  11. A search for optical bursts from the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, L. K.; Dhillon, V. S.; Spitler, L. G.; Littlefair, S. P.; Ashley, R. P.; De Cia, A.; Green, M. J.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Keane, E. F.; Kerry, P.; Kramer, M.; Malesani, D.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Possenti, A.; Rattanasoon, S.; Sahman, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    We present a search for optical bursts from the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 using simultaneous observations with the high-speed optical camera ULTRASPEC on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope and radio observations with the 100-m Effelsberg Radio Telescope. A total of 13 radio bursts were detected, but we found no evidence for corresponding optical bursts in our 70.7-ms frames. The 5σ upper limit to the optical flux density during our observations is 0.33 mJy at 767 nm. This gives an upper limit for the optical burst fluence of 0.046 Jy ms, which constrains the broad-band spectral index of the burst emission to α ≤ -0.2. Two of the radio pulses are separated by just 34 ms, which may represent an upper limit on a possible underlying periodicity (a rotation period typical of pulsars), or these pulses may have come from a single emission window that is a small fraction of a possible period.

  12. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  13. Distance-transitive graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

  14. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  15. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  16. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  17. Distance Learning: Are We Being Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana; Kidwell, Jill

    2000-01-01

    Presents conceptual frameworks for discussing distance education. Considers the networked environment; the higher education market; rationales for distance education, including expanding access to educational and training needs; learner segments, including lifelong learners and professional development; indicators of institutional readiness;…

  18. Development of a Remote Monitoring System Using Meteor Burst Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewanic, M.A.; Dunstan, M.T.; Reichhardt, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the cleanup and closure of contaminated sites requires extensive data acquisition, processing, and storage. At remote sites, the task of monitoring often becomes problematical due to the lack of site infrastructure (i.e., electrical power lines, telephone lines, etc.). MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has designed an economical and efficient remote monitoring system that will handle large amounts of data; process the data, if necessary; and transmit this data over long distances. Design criteria MSE considered during the development of the remote monitoring system included: the ability to handle multiple, remote sampling points with independent sampling frequencies; robust (i.e., less susceptible to moisture, heat, and cold extremes); independent of infrastructure; user friendly; economical; and easy to expand system capabilities. MSE installed and tested a prototype system at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center (MMATC), Butte, Montana, in June 2005. The system MSE designed and installed consisted of a 'master' control station and two remote 'slave' stations. Data acquired at the two slave stations were transmitted to the master control station, which then transmits a complete data package to a ground station using meteor burst technology. The meteor burst technology has no need for hardwired land-lines or man-made satellites. Instead, it uses ionized particles in the Earth's atmosphere to propagate a radio signal. One major advantage of the system is that it can be configured to accept data from virtually any type of device, so long as the signal from the device can be read and recorded by a standard data-logger. In fact, MSE has designed and built an electrical resistivity monitoring system that will be powered and controlled by the meteor burst system components. As sites move through the process of remediation and eventual closure, monitoring provides data vital to the successful long term management of the site. The remote

  19. A possible very high energy gamma-ray burst from Hercules X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwanath, P.R.; Bhat, P.N.; Ramanamurthy, P.V.; Sreekantan, B.V.

    1989-01-01

    A large increase is observed in the trigger rate in the direction of Hercules X-1 in the Atmospheric Cerenkov array at Pachmarhi, India. The burst lasted from 2147 UT to 2201 UT on April 11, 1986. The accidental coincidence rate did not show any increase during the burst. Barring any electronic noise or celestial or terrestrial optical phenomenon with time structure similar to that of atmospheric Cerenkov phenomenon, the increase is ascribed to TeV gamma rays from Her X-1. The number of gamma-ray events during the burst amounted to about 54 percent of the cosmic-ray flux, resulting in a 42-sigma effect. This is the largest TeV gamma-ray signal seen from any source till now. The time-averaged flux for the burst period is 1.8 x 10 photons/sq cm per s above a threshold energy of 0.4 TeV, which results in a luminosity of 1.8 x 10 to the 37 ergs/s. The burst took place at the end of the 'high on' state in the 35-day cycle of the Her X-1 binary system indicating accretion disk as the possible production site. 14 refs

  20. Decimetric type III radio bursts and associated hard X-ray spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Benz, A. O.; Ranieri, M.; Simnett, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    For a relatively weak solar flare on August 6, 1981, at 10:32 UT, a detailed comparison is made between hard X-ray spikes and decimetric type III radio bursts. The hard X-ray observations are made at energies above 30 keV, and the radio data are obtained in the frequency range from 100 to 1000 MHz. The time resolution for all the data sets is approximately 0.1 s or better. The dynamic radio spectrum exhibits many fast drift type III radio bursts with both normal and reverse slope, whereas the X-ray time profile contains many well resolved short spikes with durations less than or equal to 1 s. Some of the X-ray spikes are seen to be associated in time with reverse-slope bursts, indicating either that the electron beams producing the radio burst contain two or three orders of magnitude more fast electrons than has previously been assumed or that the electron beams can induce the acceleration of additional electrons or occur in coincidence with this acceleration. A case is presented in which a normal slope radio burst at approximately 600 MHz occurs in coincidence with the peak of an X-ray spike to within 0.1 s.

  1. Search for gravitational waves associated with γ-ray bursts detected by the interplanetary network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J S; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Augustus, H; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calderón Bustillo, J; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castaldi, G; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Croce, R P; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, C; Dahl, K; Dal Canton, T; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Dickson, J; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Dominguez, E; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C J; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, J; Hall, E D; Hamilton, W; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Hopkins, P; Horrom, T; Hoske, D; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Haris, K; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N G; Kim, N; Kim, S; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, D Nanda; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Lee, P J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Le Roux, A; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lopez, E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Ma, Y; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N M; Mansell, G; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; May, G; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A H; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Omar, S; Oppermann, P; Oram, R; O'Reilly, B; Ortega, W; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Recchia, S; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Reula, O; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S B; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sankar, S; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schilman, M; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tao, J; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; Tellez, G; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Tshilumba, D; Tuennermann, H; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wolovick, N; Worden, J; Wu, Y; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, H; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J; Aptekar, R L; Atteia, J L; Cline, T; Connaughton, V; Frederiks, D D; Golenetskii, S V; Hurley, K; Krimm, H A; Marisaldi, M; Pal'shin, V D; Palmer, D; Svinkin, D S; Terada, Y; von Kienlin, A

    2014-07-04

    We present the results of a search for gravitational waves associated with 223 γ-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the InterPlanetary Network (IPN) in 2005-2010 during LIGO's fifth and sixth science runs and Virgo's first, second, and third science runs. The IPN satellites provide accurate times of the bursts and sky localizations that vary significantly from degree scale to hundreds of square degrees. We search for both a well-modeled binary coalescence signal, the favored progenitor model for short GRBs, and for generic, unmodeled gravitational wave bursts. Both searches use the event time and sky localization to improve the gravitational wave search sensitivity as compared to corresponding all-time, all-sky searches. We find no evidence of a gravitational wave signal associated with any of the IPN GRBs in the sample, nor do we find evidence for a population of weak gravitational wave signals associated with the GRBs. For all IPN-detected GRBs, for which a sufficient duration of quality gravitational wave data are available, we place lower bounds on the distance to the source in accordance with an optimistic assumption of gravitational wave emission energy of 10(-2)M⊙c(2) at 150 Hz, and find a median of 13 Mpc. For the 27 short-hard GRBs we place 90% confidence exclusion distances to two source models: a binary neutron star coalescence, with a median distance of 12 Mpc, or the coalescence of a neutron star and black hole, with a median distance of 22 Mpc. Finally, we combine this search with previously published results to provide a population statement for GRB searches in first-generation LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors and a resulting examination of prospects for the advanced gravitational wave detectors.

  2. Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected by the Interplanetary Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Blackbum, L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a search for gravitational waves associated with 223 gamma ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the InterPlanetary Network (IPN) in 2005-2010 during LIGO's fifth and sixth science runs and Virgo's first, second, and third science runs. The IPN satellites provide accurate times of the bursts and sky localizations that vary significantly from degree scale to hundreds of square degrees. We search for both a well-modeled binary coalescence signal, the favored progenitor model for short GRBs, and for generic, unmodeled gravitational wave bursts. Both searches use the event time and sky localization to improve the gravitational wave search sensitivity as compared to corresponding all-time, all-sky searches. We find no evidence of a gravitational wave signal associated with any of the IPN GRBs in the sample, nor do we find evidence for a population of weak gravitational wave signals associated with the GRBs. For all IPN-detected GRBs, for which a sufficient duration of quality gravitational wave data are available, we place lower bounds on the distance to the source in accordance with an optimistic assumption of gravitational wave emission energy of 10(exp-2) solar mass c(exp 2) at 150 Hz, and find a median of 13 Mpc. For the 27 short-hard GRBs we place 90% confidence exclusion distances to two source models: a binary neutron star coalescence, with a median distance of 12 Mpc, or the coalescence of a neutron star and black hole, with a median distance of 22 Mpc. Finally, we combine this search with previously published results to provide a population statement for GRB searches in first-generation LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors and a resulting examination of prospects for the advanced gravitational wave detectors.

  3. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  4. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.; Kuulkers, E.

    2008-01-01

    of exceptional burst events lasting more than ~10 minutes. Half of the dozen so-called intermediate long bursts registered so far have been observed by INTEGRAL. The goal is to derive a comprehensive picture of the relationship between the nuclear ignition processes and the accretion states of the system leading...... up to such long bursts. Depending on the composition of the accreted material, these bursts may be explained by either the unstable burning of a large pile of mixed hydrogen and helium, or the ignition of a thick pure helium layer. Intermediate long bursts are particularly expected to occur at very...

  5. Direct observations of low-energy solar electrons associated with a type 3 solar radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    On 6 April 1971 a solar X-ray flare and a type 3 solar radio noise burst were observed with instrumentation on the eccentric-orbiting satellite IMP 6. The type 3 solar radio noise burst was detected down to a frequency of 31 kHz. A highly anisotropic packet of low-energy solar electron intensities arrived at the satellite approximately 6000 seconds after the onset of the solar flare. This packet of solar electron intensities was observed for 4200 seconds. Maximum differential intensities of the solar electrons were in the energy range of one to several keV. The frequency drift rate of the type 3 radio noise at frequencies below 178 kHz also indicated an average particle speed corresponding to that of a 3-keV electron. The simultaneous observations of these solar electron intensities and of the type 3 solar radio burst are presented, and their interrelationships are explored.

  6. Burst muscle performance predicts the speed, acceleration, and turning performance of Anna's hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Paolo S; Dakin, Roslyn; Zordan, Victor B; Dickinson, Michael H; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2015-11-19

    Despite recent advances in the study of animal flight, the biomechanical determinants of maneuverability are poorly understood. It is thought that maneuverability may be influenced by intrinsic body mass and wing morphology, and by physiological muscle capacity, but this hypothesis has not yet been evaluated because it requires tracking a large number of free flight maneuvers from known individuals. We used an automated tracking system to record flight sequences from 20 Anna's hummingbirds flying solo and in competition in a large chamber. We found that burst muscle capacity predicted most performance metrics. Hummingbirds with higher burst capacity flew with faster velocities, accelerations, and rotations, and they used more demanding complex turns. In contrast, body mass did not predict variation in maneuvering performance, and wing morphology predicted only the use of arcing turns and high centripetal accelerations. Collectively, our results indicate that burst muscle capacity is a key predictor of maneuverability.

  7. Forming a constant density medium close to long gamma-ray burst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, A.J.; Langer, N.; Achterberg, A; Garia-Segura, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aims. The progenitor stars of long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are thought to be Wolf-Rayet stars, which generate a massive and energetic wind. Nevertheless, about 25 percent of all GRB afterglows light curves indicate a constant density medium close to the exploding star. We explore various ways to

  8. The bright optical afterglow of the nearby gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P A; Fox, D W; Kulkarni, S R; Peterson, B A; Schmidt, B P; Soderberg, A M; Yost, S A; Berger, E; Djorgovski, S G; Frail, D A; Harrison, F A; Sari, R; Blain, A W; Chapman, S C

    2003-06-19

    Past studies of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been hampered by their extreme distances, resulting in faint afterglows. A nearby GRB could potentially shed much light on the origin of these events, but GRBs with a redshift z burst of 29 March 2003 (GRB030329; ref. 2). The brightness of the afterglow and the prompt report of its position resulted in extensive follow-up observations at many wavelengths, along with the measurement of the redshift, z = 0.169 (ref. 4). The gamma-ray and afterglow properties of GRB030329 are similar to those of GRBs at cosmological redshifts. Observations have already identified the progenitor as a massive star that exploded as a supernova.

  9. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Their Links with Supernovae and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Peter; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, whose origin and mechanism are the focus of intense interest. They appear connected to supernova remnants from massive stars or the merger of their remnants, and their brightness makes them temporarily detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the universe. After pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with observations from the recently launched Fermi satellite, as well as the prospect of detections or limits from large neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. The interplay between such observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts is reviewed, as well as their connections to supernovae and cosmology.

  10. Fermi/GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR OBSERVATIONS OF SGR J0501+4516 BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Baring, Matthew G.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Finger, Mark H.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Preece, Robert; Chaplin, Vandiver; Bhat, Narayan; Woods, Peter M.; Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Scargle, Jeffrey; Granot, Jonathan; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Watts, Anna L.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Gehrels, Neil; Harding, Alice

    2011-01-01

    We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGR J0501+4516, detected with the gamma-ray burst monitor on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during 13 days of the source's activation in 2008 (August 22- September 3). We find that the T 90 durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ∼123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i.e., using their deconvolved spectra) and find that these are very similar to the T 90 values estimated in count space (following a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ∼124 ms). We fit the time-integrated spectra for each burst and the time-resolved spectra of the five brightest bursts with several models. We find that a single power law with an exponential cutoff model fits all 29 bursts well, while 18 of the events can also be fit with two blackbody functions. We expand on the physical interpretation of these two models and we compare their parameters and discuss their evolution. We show that the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra reveal that E peak decreases with energy flux (and fluence) to a minimum of ∼30 keV at F = 8.7 x 10 -6 erg cm -2 s -1 , increasing steadily afterward. Two more sources exhibit a similar trend: SGRs J1550-5418 and 1806-20. The isotropic luminosity, L iso , corresponding to these flux values is roughly similar for all sources (0.4-1.5 x 10 40 erg s -1 ).

  11. Hierarchic Analysis Method to Evaluate Rock Burst Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reasonably evaluate the risk of rock bursts in mines, the factors impacting rock bursts and the existing grading criterion on the risk of rock bursts were studied. By building a model of hierarchic analysis method, the natural factors, technology factors, and management factors that influence rock bursts were analyzed and researched, which determined the degree of each factor’s influence (i.e., weight and comprehensive index. Then the grade of rock burst risk was assessed. The results showed that the assessment level generated by the model accurately reflected the actual risk degree of rock bursts in mines. The model improved the maneuverability and practicability of existing evaluation criteria and also enhanced the accuracy and science of rock burst risk assessment.

  12. Impulsive EUV bursts observed in C IV with OSO-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Athay, R.; White, O.R.; Lites, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Time sequences of profiles of the lambda 1548 line of C IV containing 51 EUV bursts observed in or near active regions are analyzed to determine the brightness. Doppler shift and line broadening characteristics of the bursts. The bursts have mean lifetimes of approximately 150s, and mean increases in brightness at burst maximum of four-fold as observed with a field of view of 2'' x 20''. Mean burst diameters are estimated to be 3'', or smaller. All but three of the bursts show Doppler shift with velocities sometimes exceeding 75 km s -1 ; 31 are dominated by red shifts and 17 are dominated by blue shifts. Approximately half of the latter group have red-shifted precursors. We interpret the bursts as prominence material, such as surges and coronal rain, moving through the field of view of the spectrometer. (orig.)

  13. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory tone burst elicited vestibular evoked activation, indicated by eye muscle response. Our preliminary analyses showed that the skull tap elicited activation in medial frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate, and putamen. The auditory tone bursts elicited activation in medial frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules. In line with our hypothesis, skull taps elicited a pattern of cortical activity closely similar to one elicited by auditory tone bursts. Further analysis will determine the extent to which the skull taps can replace the auditory tone stimulation in clinical and basic science vestibular assessments.

  14. Burst Mode ASIC-Based Modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is sponsoring the Advanced Communication Technology Insertion (ACTION) for Commercial Space Applications program. The goal of the program is to expedite the development of new technology with a clear path towards productization and enhancing the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers. The industry has made significant investment in developing ASIC-based modem technology for continuous-mode applications and has made investigations into East, reliable acquisition of burst-mode digital communication signals. With rapid advances in analog and digital communications ICs, it is expected that more functions will be integrated onto these parts in the near future. In addition custom ASIC's can also be developed to address the areas not covered by the other IC's. Using the commercial chips and custom ASIC's, lower-cost, compact, reliable, and high-performance modems can be built for demanding satellite communication application. This report outlines a frequency-hop burst modem design based on commercially available chips.

  15. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov—Maxwell system. A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma. It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light, as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction. The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period. The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade, which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures. For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation, higher-harmonic generation and wave—wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter. In addition, stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  16. A review of gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin J

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts, an enigma for more than 25 years, are now coming into focus. They involve extraordinary power outputs, and highly relativistic dynamics. The 'trigger' involves stellar-mass compact objects. The most plausible progenitors, ranging from neutron star binary mergers to collapsars (sometimes called 'hypernovae') eventually lead to the formation of a black hole with a torus of hot neutron-density material around it, the extractable energy being up to 10 sup 5 sup 4 ergs. Magnetic fields may exceed 10 sup 1 sup 5 G and particles may be accelerated up to > or approx. 10 sup 2 sup 0 eV. Details of the afterglow may be easier to understand than the initial trigger. Bursts at very high redshift can be astronomically-important as probes of the distant universe.

  17. Environmental Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Osmel; Zarauza, Dario; Cardenas, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    Gamma rays bursts, coming from very massive stars, are the most powerful explosions in our Universe. Some authors have linked them to some of the climatic changes and consequent biological mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic eon. However, the consequences of their direct impact on primitive Earth, is today a hot topic of debate. On the other hand, it is usually assumed that they were more common in earlier stages of our galaxy. So it is important to evaluate its potential effects on terrestrial paleoenvironments. We outline some simple models to estimate their influence mainly on the primordial atmospheric chemistry of Earth and on the climate in general. To do that, we consider different scenarios where the atmospheric composition diverges substantially from the atmosphere today, and compute the evolution of principal chemical species under the intense radiational stress of a gamma ray burst. Furthermore, the possible impact on the isotopic composition, geochemistry and the biosphere are mentioned in general way

  18. Coherent combining pulse bursts in time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2018-01-09

    A beam combining and pulse stacking technique is provided that enhances laser pulse energy by coherent stacking pulse bursts (i.e. non-periodic pulsed signals) in time domain. This energy enhancement is achieved by using various configurations of Fabry-Perot, Gires-Tournois and other types of resonant cavities, so that a multiple-pulse burst incident at either a single input or multiple inputs of the system produces an output with a solitary pulse, which contains the summed energy of the incident multiple pulses from all beams. This disclosure provides a substantial improvement over conventional coherent-combining methods in that it achieves very high pulse energies using a relatively small number of combined laser systems, thus providing with orders of magnitude reduction in system size, complexity, and cost compared to current combining approaches.

  19. Gravitational-wave bursts from the nuclei of distant galaxies and quasars: proposal for detection using Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Braginsky, V.B.

    1976-01-01

    It is likely that supermassive black holes (Mapprox. =10 6 to 10 10 M/sub sun/) exist in the nuclei of many quasars and galaxies. The collapse which forms these holes and subsequent collisions between them should produce strong, broad-band bursts of gravitational waves: for a source of mass M at the Hubble distance of approx.10 10 light-years, the dimensionless amplitude would be h approx. 2 x 10 -17 x (M/10 6 M/sub sun/), and the duration of the burst would be tauapprox. (90 s) x (M/10 6 M/sub sun/). Such bursts might arrive at Earth as often as 50 times per year: or as rarely as once each 300 years. The detection of such bursts may be possible within the next few years using dual-frequency Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft

  20. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  1. Gamma-ray bursts - a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudose, Valeriu; Biermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a short general introduction into the field of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) research, summarizing the past and the present status. We give an general view of the GRBs observations to date, both in the prompt emission phase as well as in the afterglow phase, and a brief primer into the theory, mainly in the frame-work of the fireball model. (authors)

  2. The behaviour of neutron bursts in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syros, C.

    1978-01-01

    An exact method is developed for solving the time-dependent linear transport equation for neutrons. The problem of finding the behaviour of neutron bursts in matter have been considered. The method leads to a new kind of perturbation theory applicable to the transport theoretical reactor dynamics. Applications of the theory are given for discontinuously or continuously distributed initial values of the neutron population. The boundary and initial conditions are exactly fulfilled. (author)

  3. Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406

  4. Applicability of modified burst test data to reactivity initiated accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueh, K., E-mail: yuehky@hotmail.com

    2017-05-15

    A comprehensive irradiated cladding mechanical property dataset was generated by a recently developed modified burst test (MBT) under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) loading conditions [1,2]. The test data contains a wide range of test conditions that could bridge the gap between fast transient test reactor data (short pulse and/or low temperature) and prototypical commercial reactor conditions. This paper documents an evaluation performed to demonstrate the applicability of the MBT data to fuel cladding performance under RIA conditions. The current effort includes a comparison of calculated fuel cladding failure/burst strain for tests conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to the MBT dataset, and an evaluation of potential mechanisms on how some NSRR tests survived beyond the cladding loading capacity. A simple shell model, coupled with temperature output from the Falcon fuel performance code, was used to calculate the fuel pellet thermal expansion of NSRR tests at the point of failure. The calculated fuel pellet thermal expansion correlates well directly with the MBT data at similar loading conditions. A 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) model was used to evaluate fuel movement potential during a RIA. The evaluation indicates fuel relocation into the pellet chamfer and later into the dish is possible once a temperature threshold is reached before cladding failure and thus could significantly increase the fuel rod energy absorption capacity in a RIA event.

  5. The InterPlanetary Network Supplement to the Second Fermi GBM Catalog of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, K. [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Pal’shin, V. D. [Vedeneeva 2-31, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Briggs, M. S.; Meegan, C. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Connaughton, V. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Goldsten, J. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K. [University of Arizona, Department of Planetary Sciences, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B. [Space Research Institute, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Rau, A.; Kienlin, A. von, E-mail: khurley@ssl.berkeley.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); and others

    2017-04-01

    InterPlanetary Network (IPN) data are presented for the gamma-ray bursts in the second Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) catalog. Of the 462 bursts in that catalog between 2010 July 12 and 2012 July 11, 428, or 93%, were observed by at least 1 other instrument in the 9-spacecraft IPN. Of the 428, the localizations of 165 could be improved by triangulation. For these bursts, triangulation gives one or more annuli whose half-widths vary between about 2.′3° and 16°, depending on the peak flux, fluence, time history, arrival direction, and the distance between the spacecraft. We compare the IPN localizations with the GBM 1 σ , 2 σ , and 3 σ error contours and find good agreement between them. The IPN 3 σ error boxes have areas between about 8 square arcminutes and 380 square degrees, and are an average of 2500 times smaller than the corresponding GBM 3 σ localizations. We identify four bursts in the IPN/GBM sample whose origins were given as “uncertain,” but may in fact be cosmic. This leads to an estimate of over 99% completeness for the GBM catalog.

  6. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  7. Burst firing enhances neural output correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ka eChan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurons communicate and transmit information predominantly through spikes. Given that experimentally observed neural spike trains in a variety of brain areas can be highly correlated, it is important to investigate how neurons process correlated inputs. Most previous work in this area studied the problem of correlation transfer analytically by making significant simplifications on neural dynamics. Temporal correlation between inputs that arises from synaptic filtering, for instance, is often ignored when assuming that an input spike can at most generate one output spike. Through numerical simulations of a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons receiving correlated inputs, we demonstrate that neurons in the presence of synaptic filtering by slow synapses exhibit strong output correlations. We then show that burst firing plays a central role in enhancing output correlations, which can explain the above-mentioned observation because synaptic filtering induces bursting. The observed changes of correlations are mostly on a long time scale. Our results suggest that other features affecting the prevalence of neural burst firing in biological neurons, e.g., adaptive spiking mechanisms, may play an important role in modulating the overall level of correlations in neural networks.

  8. Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hetao; Hu Zhenmin; Shi Yuxin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability of the fifth lumber vertebra after burst fracture. Methods: 7 patients with burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra were examined by X-ray and CT, and followed for 6-36 months. The changes of wedge index, lordosis, degree of spinal canal stenosis and neurological features were observed during the episode and followed up. Results: The three spinal column structure was disrupted in 6 of 7 patients. The anterior and mid columns were involved in 1 case. Spinal stenosis of first and second degrees was seen in 3 cases, and in one case, there was no spinal canal stenosis. Lower lumber motor-root deficits were found in 2 of 7 patients and resolved in follow up. There was no tendency of progressive collapse of the vertebral body and spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra was specific, most of them were stable fractures, although two or three columns of the spine were disrupted and accompanied by spinal canal stenosis

  9. Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetao, Cao; Zhenmin, Hu; Yuxin, Shi [Affiliated Hosptial of Nantong Medical College, JS, Nantong (China). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability of the fifth lumber vertebra after burst fracture. Methods: 7 patients with burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra were examined by X-ray and CT, and followed for 6-36 months. The changes of wedge index, lordosis, degree of spinal canal stenosis and neurological features were observed during the episode and followed up. Results: The three spinal column structure was disrupted in 6 of 7 patients. The anterior and mid columns were involved in 1 case. Spinal stenosis of first and second degrees was seen in 3 cases, and in one case, there was no spinal canal stenosis. Lower lumber motor-root deficits were found in 2 of 7 patients and resolved in follow up. There was no tendency of progressive collapse of the vertebral body and spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Burst fracture of the fifth lumber vertebra was specific, most of them were stable fractures, although two or three columns of the spine were disrupted and accompanied by spinal canal stenosis

  10. Radio Flares from Gamma-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Gomboc, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1-1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  11. RADIO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time

  12. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  13. Einstein at a distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambourne, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines the challenges and rewards that can arise when the teaching of Einsteinian physics has to be accomplished by means of distance education. The discussion is mainly based on experiences gathered over the past 35 years at the UK Open University, where special and general relativity, relativistic cosmology and other aspects of Einsteinian physics, have been taught at a variety of levels, and using a range of techniques, to students studying at a distance.

  14. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  15. Analysis of Precursors Prior to Rock Burst in Granite Tunnel Using Acoustic Emission and Far Infrared Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhao Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the physical mechanism of the anomalous behaviors observed prior to rock burst, the acoustic emission (AE and far infrared (FIR techniques were applied to monitor the progressive failure of a rock tunnel model subjected to biaxial stresses. Images of fracturing process, temperature changes of the tunnel, and spatiotemporal serials of acoustic emission were simultaneously recorded during deformation of the model. The b-value derived from the amplitude distribution data of AE was calculated to predict the tunnel rock burst. The results showed that the vertical stress enhanced the stability of the tunnel, and the tunnels with higher confining pressure demonstrated a more abrupt and strong rock burst. Abnormal temperature changes around the wall were observed prior to the rock burst of the tunnel. Analysis of the AE events showed that a sudden drop and then a quiet period could be considered as the precursors to forecast the rock burst hazard. Statistical analysis indicated that rock fragment spalling occurred earlier than the abnormal temperature changes, and the abnormal temperature occurred earlier than the descent of the AE b-value. The analysis indicated that the temperature changes were more sensitive than the AE b-value changes to predict the tunnel rock bursts.

  16. Persistent 1.5s oscillations superimposed to a solar burst observed at two mm-wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zodi, A.M.; Kaufmann, P.; Zirin, H.

    1983-05-01

    Long-enduring quasi-periodic oscillations (1.5s) superimposed to a solar burst were by the first time observed simultaneously at two different mm-wayelengths (22 GHz and 44 GHz). The oscillations were present throughout the burst duration (about 10 min), and were delayed at 44 GHz with respect to 22 GHz by 0.3s. The relative amplitude of the oscillation was of about 20 percent at 44 GHz and of about 5 percent at 22 GHz. Interferometer measurements at 10.6 GHz indicated the burst source stable within 1 arcsec. HeD3 line flare indicated two persistent small spots separated by about 10 arcsec. The 22/44 GHz burst position has good correspondence with the HeD3 spots' location. The oscillations display features which appear to distinguish them from ultrafast time structures found in other bursts. One possible interpretation was suggested by assuming a modulation of the gyrosynchrotron emission of trapped electrons by a variable magnetic field on a double burst source, optically thin at 44 GHz and with optical thickness > or equivalent 0.3 at 22 GHz. (Author) [pt

  17. Secured Hash Based Burst Header Authentication Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2017-12-01

    The optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising technology that could meet the fast growing network demand. They are featured with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of applications that demand intensive bandwidth. OBS proves to be a satisfactory technology to tackle the huge bandwidth constraints, but suffers from security vulnerabilities. The objective of this proposed work is to design a faster and efficient burst header authentication algorithm for core nodes. There are two important key features in this work, viz., header encryption and authentication. Since the burst header is an important in optical burst switched network, it has to be encrypted; otherwise it is be prone to attack. The proposed MD5&RC4-4S based burst header authentication algorithm runs 20.75 ns faster than the conventional algorithms. The modification suggested in the proposed RC4-4S algorithm gives a better security and solves the correlation problems between the publicly known outputs during key generation phase. The modified MD5 recommended in this work provides 7.81 % better avalanche effect than the conventional algorithm. The device utilization result also shows the suitability of the proposed algorithm for header authentication in real time applications.

  18. Polarization of the prompt gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst of 6 December 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Wayne; Boggs, Steven E

    2003-05-22

    Observations of the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have revealed that they lie at cosmological distances, and so correspond to the release of an enormous amount of energy. The nature of the central engine that powers these events and the prompt gamma-ray emission mechanism itself remain enigmatic because, once a relativistic fireball is created, the physics of the afterglow is insensitive to the nature of the progenitor. Here we report the discovery of linear polarization in the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRB021206, which indicates that it is synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons in a strong magnetic field. The polarization is at the theoretical maximum, which requires a uniform, large-scale magnetic field over the gamma-ray emission region. A large-scale magnetic field constrains possible progenitors to those either having or producing organized fields. We suggest that the large magnetic energy densities in the progenitor environment (comparable to the kinetic energy densities of the fireball), combined with the large-scale structure of the field, indicate that magnetic fields drive the GRB explosion.

  19. The sub-energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 031203 as a cosmic analogue to the nearby GRB 980425.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A M; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Fox, D W; Sako, M; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Moon, D S; Cenko, S B; Yost, S A; Phillips, M M; Persson, S E; Freedman, W L; Wyatt, P; Jayawardhana, R; Paulson, D

    2004-08-05

    Over the six years since the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425, which was associated with the nearby (distance approximately 40 Mpc) supernova 1998bw, astronomers have debated fiercely the nature of this event. Relative to bursts located at cosmological distance (redshift z approximately 1), GRB 980425 was under-luminous in gamma-rays by three orders of magnitude. Radio calorimetry showed that the explosion was sub-energetic by a factor of 10. Here we report observations of the radio and X-ray afterglow of the recent GRB 031203 (refs 5-7), which has a redshift of z = 0.105. We demonstrate that it too is sub-energetic which, when taken together with the low gamma-ray luminosity, suggests that GRB 031203 is the first cosmic analogue to GRB 980425. We find no evidence that this event was a highly collimated explosion viewed off-axis. Like GRB 980425, GRB 031203 appears to be an intrinsically sub-energetic gamma-ray burst. Such sub-energetic events have faint afterglows. We expect intensive follow-up of faint bursts with smooth gamma-ray light curves (common to both GRB 031203 and 980425) to reveal a large population of such events.

  20. Inland Waters - Navigation Distance Mark - Minnesota River (Non-Navigable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A distance mark indicates the distance measured from an origin and consists of a distinct location without special installation, used to serve as a reference along...

  1. A cognitively grounded measure of pronunciation distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Wieling

    Full Text Available In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL. Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments.

  2. Dynamic encoding of natural luminance sequences by LGN bursts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Lesica

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN of the thalamus, visual stimulation produces two distinct types of responses known as tonic and burst. Due to the dynamics of the T-type Ca(2+ channels involved in burst generation, the type of response evoked by a particular stimulus depends on the resting membrane potential, which is controlled by a network of modulatory connections from other brain areas. In this study, we use simulated responses to natural scene movies to describe how modulatory and stimulus-driven changes in LGN membrane potential interact to determine the luminance sequences that trigger burst responses. We find that at low resting potentials, when the T channels are de-inactivated and bursts are relatively frequent, an excitatory stimulus transient alone is sufficient to evoke a burst. However, to evoke a burst at high resting potentials, when the T channels are inactivated and bursts are relatively rare, prolonged inhibitory stimulation followed by an excitatory transient is required. We also observe evidence of these effects in vivo, where analysis of experimental recordings demonstrates that the luminance sequences that trigger bursts can vary dramatically with the overall burst percentage of the response. To characterize the functional consequences of the effects of resting potential on burst generation, we simulate LGN responses to different luminance sequences at a range of resting potentials with and without a mechanism for generating bursts. Using analysis based on signal detection theory, we show that bursts enhance detection of specific luminance sequences, ranging from the onset of excitatory sequences at low resting potentials to the offset of inhibitory sequences at high resting potentials. These results suggest a dynamic role for burst responses during visual processing that may change according to behavioral state.

  3. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies con......, but corporate governance and fiduciary behavior more generally....... on differences among the industrial foundations themselves. We work with a rich data set comprising 113 foundation-owned Danish companies over the period 2003-2008. We focus in particular on a composite structural factor that we term “managerial distance.” We propose this as a measure of the extent to which......-seeking outside owners of the company. Consistent with this hypothesis, our empirical analysis shows a positive, significant, and robust association between managerial distance and the economic performance of foundation owned companies. The findings appear to illuminate not just foundation governance...

  4. Burst firing and modulation of functional connectivity in cat striate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, R K; Kabara, J F; Roig, B R; Bonds, A B

    1998-08-01

    We studied the influences of the temporal firing patterns of presynaptic cat visual cortical cells on spike generation by postsynaptic cells. Multiunit recordings were dissected into the activity of individual neurons within the recorded group. Cross-correlation analysis was then used to identify directly coupled neuron pairs. The 22 multiunit groups recorded typically showed activity from two to six neurons, each containing between 1 and 15 neuron pairs. From a total of 241 neuron pairs, 91 (38%) had a shifted cross-correlation peak, which indicated a possible direct connection. Only two multiunit groups contained no shifted peaks. Burst activity, defined by groups of two or more spikes with intervals of bursts (of any length) in eliciting a time-related response spike averaged 18.53% across all measurements as compared with the effectiveness of single spikes, which averaged 9.53%. Longer bursts were more effective than shorter ones. Effectiveness was reduced with spatially nonoptimal, as opposed to optimal, stimuli. The effectiveness of both bursts and single spikes decreased by the same amount across measurements with nonoptimal orientations, spatial frequencies and contrasts. At similar firing rates and burst lengths, the decrease was more pronounced for nonoptimal orientations than for lower contrasts, suggesting the existence of a mechanism that reduces effectiveness at nonoptimal orientations. These results support the hypothesis that neural information can be emphasized via instantaneous rate coding that is not preserved over long intervals or over trials. This is consistent with the integrate and fire model, where bursts participate in temporal integration.

  5. Predicting burst pressure of radiofrequency-induced colorectal anastomosis by bio-impedance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingxi; Zhou, Yu; Song, Chengli; Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between bio-impedance and burst pressure of colorectal anastomosis created by radiofrequency (RF)-induced tissue fusion. Colorectal anastomosis were created with ex vivo porcine colorectal segments, during which 5 levels of compression pressure were applied by a custom-made bipolar prototype, with 5 replicate experiments at each compression pressure. Instant anastomotic tensile strength was assessed by burst pressure. Bio-impedance of fused tissue was measured by Impedance Analyzer across frequency that 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Statistical analysis shows only a weak correlation between bio-impedance modulus and burst pressures at frequency of 445 kHz ([Formula: see text]  =  -0.426, P  =  0.099  >  0.05). In contrast, results demonstrated a highly significant negative correlation between reactance modulus and burst pressures ([Formula: see text]  =  -0.812, P  =  0.000  <  0.05). The decrease in mean reactance modulus with increasing burst pressures was highly significant (P  =  0.019  <  0.05). The observed strong negative correlation between reactance modulus and burst pressures at frequency of 445 kHz indicates that reactance is likely to be a good index for tensile strength of RF-induced colorectal anastomosis, and should be considered for inclusion in a feedback loops in devices design.

  6. Testing gravitational parity violation with coincident gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Owen, Benjamin J.; Alexander, Stephon

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational parity violation is a possibility motivated by particle physics, string theory, and loop quantum gravity. One effect of it is amplitude birefringence of gravitational waves, whereby left and right circularly polarized waves propagate at the same speed but with different amplitude evolution. Here we propose a test of this effect through coincident observations of gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts from binary mergers involving neutron stars. Such gravitational waves are highly left or right circularly polarized due to the geometry of the merger. Using localization information from the gamma-ray burst, ground-based gravitational wave detectors can measure the distance to the source with reasonable accuracy. An electromagnetic determination of the redshift from an afterglow or host galaxy yields an independent measure of this distance. Gravitational parity violation would manifest itself as a discrepancy between these two distance measurements. We exemplify such a test by considering one specific effective theory that leads to such gravitational parity violation, Chern-Simons gravity. We show that the advanced LIGO-Virgo network and all-sky gamma-ray telescopes can be sensitive to the propagating sector of Chern-Simons gravitational parity violation to a level roughly 2 orders of magnitude better than current stationary constraints from the LAGEOS satellites.

  7. Na(+)/K(+) pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Daniel; Barnett, William H; Cymbalyuk, Gennady S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2016-09-02

    The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na(+)/K(+) pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs(+). The decreased period could also occur if the pump was inhibited with strophanthidin or K(+)-free saline. Our monensin results were reproduced in model, which explains the pump's contributions to bursting activity based on Na(+) dynamics. Our results indicate that a dynamically oscillating pump current that interacts with the h-current can regulate the bursting activity of neurons and networks.

  8. From damselflies to pterosaurs: how burst and sustainable flight performance scale with size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, J H

    1994-04-01

    Recent empirical data for short-burst lift and power production of flying animals indicate that mass-specific lift and power output scale independently (lift) or slightly positively (power) with increasing size. These results contradict previous theory, as well as simple observation, which argues for degradation of flight performance with increasing size. Here, empirical measures of lift and power during short-burst exertion are combined with empirically based estimates of maximum muscle power output in order to predict how burst and sustainable performance scale with body size. The resulting model is used to estimate performance of the largest extant flying birds and insects, along with the largest flying animals known from fossils. These estimates indicate that burst flight performance capacities of even the largest extinct fliers (estimated mass 250 kg) would allow takeoff from the ground; however, limitations on sustainable power output should constrain capacity for continuous flight at body sizes exceeding 0.003-1.0 kg, depending on relative wing length and flight muscle mass.

  9. PWR clad ballooning: The effect of circumferential clad temperature variations on the burst strain/burst temperature relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.

    1983-01-01

    By experiment, it has been shown by other workers that there is a reduction in the creep ductility of Zircaloy 4 in the α+β phase transition region. Results from single rod burst tests also show a reduction in burst strain in the α+β phase region. In this report it is shown theoretically that for single rod burst tests in the presence of circumferential temperature gradients, the temperature dependence of the mean burst strain is not determined by temperature variations in creep ductility, but is governed by the temperature sensitivity of the creep strain rate, which is shown to be a maximum in the α+β phase transition region. To demonstrate this effect, the mean clad strain at burst was calculated for creep straining at different temperature levels in the α, α+β and β phase regions. Cross-pin temperature gradients were applied which produced strain variations around the clad which were greatest in the α+β phase region. The mean strain at burst was determined using a maximum local burst strain (i.e. a creep ductility) which is independent of temperature. By assuming cross-pin temperature gradients which are typical of those observed during burst tests, then the calculated mean burst strain/burst temperature relationship gave good agreement with experiment. The calculations also show that when circumferential temperature differences are present, the calculated mean strain at burst is not sensitive to variations in the magnitude of the assumed creep ductility. This reduces the importance of the assumed burst criterion in the calculations. Hence a temperature independent creep ductility (e.g. 100% local strain) is adequate as a burst criterion for calculations under PWR LOCA conditions. (author)

  10. The Truncated Lognormal Distribution as a Luminosity Function for SWIFT-BAT Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zaninetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the luminosity function (LF in Gamma ray bursts (GRBs depends on the adopted cosmology, each one characterized by its corresponding luminosity distance. Here, we analyze three cosmologies: the standard cosmology, the plasma cosmology and the pseudo-Euclidean universe. The LF of the GRBs is firstly modeled by the lognormal distribution and the four broken power law and, secondly, by a truncated lognormal distribution. The truncated lognormal distribution fits acceptably the range in luminosity of GRBs as a function of the redshift.

  11. A search for neutrino and gamma ray burst temporal correlations with the IMB detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Bratton, C.B.; Breault, J.; Casper, D.; Dye, S.T.; Gajewski, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; LoSecco, J.; Matsuno, S.; Matthews, J.; McGrath, G.; McGrew, C.; Miller, R.S.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sinclair, D.; Sobel, H.W.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Svoboda, R.

    1993-01-01

    If Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are associated with a stellar collapse-like phenomenon then it is resonable to expect neutrino production to occur at the source. We have performed a temporal correlation analysis with GRBs using the IMB low-energy neutrino dataset during 809 days of livetime between 1986 and 1990. No correlations were observed placing a 90%. C.L. limit of 0.046 ν interactions per GRB. The dependence of the GRB distances to neutrino yield using volume and shell distribution models is discussed. Lower limits are derived which exclude galactic stellar collapse-like models

  12. Possible correlations between gamma-ray burst and its host galaxy offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei-Fei; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Liu, Yu; Liao, Bin; Moharana, Reetanjali

    2018-06-01

    We collected the information of 304 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the literature, and analyzed the correlations among the host galaxy offsets (the distance from the site of the GRB to the center of its host galaxy), T90,i (the duration T90 in rest-frame), TR45,i (the duration TR45 in rest-frame), Eγ,iso (the isotropic equivalent energy), Lγ,iso (=Eγ,iso /T90,i, the isotropic equivalent luminosity) and Lpk (peak luminosity). We found that T90,i, TR45,i, Eγ,iso, Lpk have negative correlation with offset, which is consistent with origin of short GRBs (SGRBs) and long GRBs (LGRBs). On separate analysis, we found similar results for log ⁡Eγ,iso - log ⁡ (offset) and log ⁡Lpk - log ⁡ (offset) relations in case of SGRBs only, while no obvious relation for LGRBs. There is no correlations between offset and Lγ,iso. We also put the special GRB 170817A and GRB 060218A on the plots. The two GRBs both have low luminosity and small offset. In the log ⁡ (offset) - log ⁡T90,i plot, we found GRB 170817A locates in between the two regions of SGRBs and LGRBs and it is the outlier in the offset -Eγ,iso, offset -Lγ,iso and offset -Lpk plots. Together with GRB 060218A being an outlier in all plots, it indicates the speciality of GRBs 170817A and 060218A, and might imply more subgroups of the GRB samples.

  13. Gamma-ray bursts as cosmological probes: ΛCDM vs. conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaferio, Antonaldo; Ostorero, Luisa; Cardone, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    ΛCDM, for the currently preferred cosmological density Ω 0 and cosmological constant Ω Λ , predicts that the Universe expansion decelerates from early times to redshift z ≈ 0.9 and accelerates at later times. On the contrary, the cosmological model based on conformal gravity predicts that the cosmic expansion has always been accelerating. To distinguish between these two very different cosmologies, we resort to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which have been suggested to probe the Universe expansion history at z > 1, where identified type Ia supernovae (SNe) are rare. We use the full Bayesian approach to infer the cosmological parameters and the additional parameters required to describe the GRB data available in the literature. For the first time, we use GRBs as cosmological probes without any prior information from other data. In addition, when we combine the GRB samples with SNe, our approach neatly avoids all the inconsistencies of most numerous previous methods that are plagued by the so-called circularity problem. In fact, when analyzed properly, current data are consistent with distance moduli of GRBs and SNe that can respectively be, in a variant of conformal gravity, ∼ 15 and ∼ 3 magnitudes fainter than in ΛCDM. Our results indicate that the currently available SN and GRB samples are accommodated equally well by both ΛCDM and conformal gravity and do not exclude a continuous accelerated expansion. We conclude that GRBs are currently far from being effective cosmological probes, as they are unable to distinguish between these two very different expansion histories

  14. Review of GRANAT observations of gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terekhov, O.; Denissenko, D.; Sunyaev, R.

    1995-01-01

    The GRANAT observatory was launched into a high apogee orbit on 1 December, 1989. Three instruments onboard GRANAT - PHEBUS, WATCH and SIGMA are able to detect gamma-ray bursts in a very broad energy range from 6 keV up to 100 MeV. Over 250 gamma-ray bursts were detected. We discuss the results...... of the observations of the time histories and spectral evolution of the detected events provided by the different instruments in different energy ranges. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts ( 2 s) events. Evidence of the existence...... of four differently behaving componenents in gamma-ray burst spectra is discussed. Statistical properties of the gamma-ray burst sources based on the 5 years of observations with (∼ 10−6 erg/cm2) sensitivity as well as the results of high sensitivity (∼ 10−8 erg/cm2) search for Gamma-Ray Bursts within...

  15. Gamma-Ray Bursts: 4th Huntsville Symposium. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, C.A.; Preece, R.D.; Koshut, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Fourth Huntsville Gamma-Ray Bursts Symposium held in September, 1997 in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. This conference occurred at a crucial time in the history of the gamma-ray burst research. In early 1997, 30 years after the detection of the first gamma-ray burst by the Vela satellites, counterparts to bursts were finally detected at optical and radio wavelengths. The symposium attracted about 200 scientists from 16 countries. Some of the topics discussed include gamma-ray burst spectra, x-ray observations, optical observations, radio observations, host galaxies, shocks and afterglows and models of gamma-ray bursts. There were 183 papers presented, out of these, 16 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  16. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...

  17. Hanging-induced burst suppression pattern in EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Cinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lethal suspension (hanging is one of the most common methods of attempting suicide. Spinal fractures, cognitive and motor deficits as well as epileptic seizures can be detected after unsuccessful hanging attempts. Introduced here is the case of a 25-year-old man exemplifying the clinical observations stated hereafter, who was conveyed to our emergency room after having survived attempted suicide by hanging, with his post-anoxic burst-suppression electroencephalography (BS-EEG pattern and clinical diagnoses in the post-comatose stage. The patient′s state of consciousness was gradually improved over a period of time. His neuropsychiatric assessment proved that memory deficit, a slight lack of attention and minor executive dysfunction was observed a month after the patient was discharged. Although the BS-EEG pattern indicates severe brain dysfunction, it is a poor prognostic factor; rarely, patients survive with minor cognitive deficits and can perform their normal daily activities.

  18. Emergent synchronous bursting of oxytocin neuronal network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rossoni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available When young suckle, they are rewarded intermittently with a let-down of milk that results from reflex secretion of the hormone oxytocin; without oxytocin, newly born young will die unless they are fostered. Oxytocin is made by magnocellular hypothalamic neurons, and is secreted from their nerve endings in the pituitary in response to action potentials (spikes that are generated in the cell bodies and which are propagated down their axons to the nerve endings. Normally, oxytocin cells discharge asynchronously at 1-3 spikes/s, but during suckling, every 5 min or so, each discharges a brief, intense burst of spikes that release a pulse of oxytocin into the circulation. This reflex was the first, and is perhaps the best, example of a physiological role for peptide-mediated communication within the brain: it is coordinated by the release of oxytocin from the dendrites of oxytocin cells; it can be facilitated by injection of tiny amounts of oxytocin into the hypothalamus, and it can be blocked by injection of tiny amounts of oxytocin antagonist. Here we show how synchronized bursting can arise in a neuronal network model that incorporates basic observations of the physiology of oxytocin cells. In our model, bursting is an emergent behaviour of a complex system, involving both positive and negative feedbacks, between many sparsely connected cells. The oxytocin cells are regulated by independent afferent inputs, but they interact by local release of oxytocin and endocannabinoids. Oxytocin released from the dendrites of these cells has a positive-feedback effect, while endocannabinoids have an inhibitory effect by suppressing the afferent input to the cells.

  19. Near stellar sources of gamma-ray bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.; Markin, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Correlation analysis of gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby stars, registered on 2008-2011, revealed 5 coincidences with angular accuracy better than 0.1 degree. The random probability is $7\\times 10^{-7}$, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. The proposed method should be continued in order to provide their share in common balance of cosmic gamma-ray bursts.

  20. On Burst Detection and Prediction in Retweeting Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    We conduct a comprehensive empirical analysis of a large microblogging dataset collected from the Sina Weibo and report our observations of burst...whether and how accurate we can predict bursts using classifiers based on the extracted features. Our empirical study of the Sina Weibo data shows the...feasibility of burst prediction using appropriately extracted features and classic classifiers. 1 Introduction Microblogging, such as Twitter and Sina

  1. Voltage interval mappings for an elliptic bursting model

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, Jeremy; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    We employed Poincar\\'e return mappings for a parameter interval to an exemplary elliptic bursting model, the FitzHugh-Nagumo-Rinzel model. Using the interval mappings, we were able to examine in detail the bifurcations that underlie the complex activity transitions between: tonic spiking and bursting, bursting and mixed-mode oscillations, and finally, mixed-mode oscillations and quiescence in the FitzHugh-Nagumo-Rinzel model. We illustrate the wealth of information, qualitative and quantitati...

  2. The velocities of type II solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlamicha, A.; Karlicky, M.

    1976-01-01

    A list is presented of type II radio bursts identified at Ondrejov between January 1973 and December 1974 in the frequency range of the dynamic spectrum 70 to 810 MHz. The velocities of shock waves in the individual cases of type II bursts are given using the fourfold Newkirk model. Some problems associated with type II radio bursts and with the propagation of the shock wave into the interplanetary space and into the region of the Earth are also discussed. (author)

  3. Infrared and X-ray bursts from the rapid burster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Chitre, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on sudden bursts from the cosmic X-ray sources are reported. The processes occuring from the rise in luminosity of an x-ray source to its collapse are described. Records of the x-ray burst from the globular cluster NGC 6624 and the 'Rapid Burster' are shown. The Infra-red bursts from the Rapid Burster are also explained. (A.K.)

  4. Physical characterization of the Skua fast burst assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternoster, R.; Bounds, J.; Sanchez, R.; Miko, D.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the system design and ongoing efforts to characterize the machine physics and operating properties of the Skua fast burst assembly. The machine is currently operating up to prompt critical while we await approval for super-prompt burst operations. Efforts have centered on characterizing neutron kinetic properties, comparing calculated and measured temperature coefficients and power distributions, improving the burst reproducibility, examining the site-wide dose characteristics, and fitting the machine with cooling and filtration systems

  5. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…

  6. Optical burst switching based satellite backbone network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Guo, Hongxiang; Wang, Cen; Wu, Jian

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel time slot based optical burst switching (OBS) architecture for GEO/LEO based satellite backbone network. This architecture can provide high speed data transmission rate and high switching capacity . Furthermore, we design the control plane of this optical satellite backbone network. The software defined network (SDN) and network slice (NS) technologies are introduced. Under the properly designed control mechanism, this backbone network is flexible to support various services with diverse transmission requirements. Additionally, the LEO access and handoff management in this network is also discussed.

  7. Burst protected nuclear reactor plant with PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harand, E.; Michel, E.

    1978-01-01

    In the PWR, several integrated components from the steam raising unit and the main coolant pump are grouped around the reactor pressure vessel in a multiloop circuit and in a vertical arrangement. For safety reasons all primary circuit components and pipelines are situated in burst protection covers. To reduce the area of the plant straight tube steam raising units with forced circulation are used as steam raising units. The boiler pumps are connected to the vertical tubes and to the pressure vessel via double pipelines made as twin chamber pipes. (DG) [de

  8. Gamma ray bursts from extragalactic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Fred; Burbidge, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    The properties of gamma ray bursts of classical type are found to be explicable in terms of high speed collisions between stars. A model is proposed in which the frequency of such collisions can be calculated. The model is then applied to the nuclei of galaxies in general on the basis that galaxies, or at least some fraction of them, originate in the expulsion of stars from creation centers. Evidence that low level activity of this kind is also taking place at the center of our own Galaxy is discussed. The implications for galactic evolution are discussed and a negative view of black holes is taken.

  9. Capabilities of the Power Burst Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.; Jensen, A.M.; McCardell, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    The unique and diverse test capabilities of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) are described in this paper. The PBF test reactor, located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, simulates normal, off-normal, and accident operating conditions of light water reactor fuel rods. An overview description is given, with specific detail on design and operating characteristics of the driver core, experiment test loop, fission product detection system, test train assembly facility, and support equipment which make the testing capability of the PBF so versatile

  10. Burst-Mode Asynchronous Controllers on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte L. Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs have been mainly used to design synchronous circuits. Asynchronous design on FPGAs is difficult because the resulting circuit may suffer from hazard problems. We propose a method that implements a popular class of asynchronous circuits, known as burst mode, on FPGAs based on look-up table architectures. We present two conditions that, if satisfied, guarantee essential hazard-free implementation on any LUT-based FPGA. By doing that, besides all the intrinsic advantages of asynchronous over synchronous circuits, they also take advantage of the shorter design time and lower cost associated with FPGA designs.

  11. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  12. Accident analysis for US fast burst reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternoster, R.; Flanders, M.; Kazi, H.

    1994-01-01

    In the US fast burst reactor (FBR) community there has been increasing emphasis and scrutiny on safety analysis and understanding of possible accident scenarios. This paper summarizes recent work in these areas that is going on at the different US FBR sites. At this time, all of the FBR facilities have or in the process of updating and refining their accident analyses. This effort is driven by two objectives: to obtain a more realistic scenario for emergency response procedures and contingency plans, and to determine compliance with changing regulatory standards

  13. Burst Alert Robotic Telescope and Optical Afterglows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Polášek, Cyril; Štrobl, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3/4 (2009), s. 374-378 ISSN 1392-0049. [INTEGRAL/BART workshop 2009. Karlovy Vary, 26.03.2009-29.03.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : gamma rays bursts, * observations * robotic telescopes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2009

  14. Solar energetic particles and radio burst emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miteva, R.; Samwel, S. W.; Krupař, Vratislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7 (2017), č. článku A37. ISSN 2115-7251 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar energetic particles * solar radio burst emission * solar cycle Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 https://www.swsc-journal.org/ articles /swsc/abs/2017/01/swsc170028/swsc170028.html

  15. Fast Computing for Distance Covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Xiaoming; Szekely, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O($n^2$) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be...

  16. Experiment of Burst Speed of Fingerling Masu salmon, Oncorhynchus, with Stamina Tunnel in The River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mattashi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Yataya, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kohhei

    A swimming experiment of cultured fingerling masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou masou) (measuring 3cm to 6cm in length) was conducted in a round stamina tunnel (cylindrical pipe) installed in a fishway of a local river with a water flow velocity of 64cm·s-1 to 218cm·s-1 in order to study the burst speed of the masu salmon.The results show that: (1) the faster the swimming speed,the swimming time of the fingerling masu salmon shortened, and the ground speed also decreased as the flow velocity increased; (2)the faster the flow velocity,the shorter the swimming distance became; (3) the burst speed was calculated for the fingerling masu salmon with the considerably excellent swimming ability(measuring 4.6cm to 6.2cm in mean length) in conditions of a high velocity(218cm·s-1), and the result was: mean burst speed:229cm·s-1(S.D.8cm·s-1) to 232cm·s-1(S.D.:8cm·s-1).

  17. Intermediate-duration burst from AX J1754.2-2754 detected by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Beeck, Sarah; Brandt, Søren

    2017-01-01

    any emission from the source, and we infer a 3-σ upper limit on the persistent flux of 10-10 erg/cm2/s between 3-40 keV. We tentatively interpret this as an intermediate-duration burst (see, e.g., Cumming et al., ApJ 646, 429, 2006) with a superexpansion phase (see in 't Zand & Weinberg, A&A 520, 81...... is not detected outside the burst interval, with a 3-σ upper limit of 4 mCrab in the JEM-X range, and the burst is only marginally detected by the IBIS/ISGRI instrument in the 20-40 keV energy band. Previous observations regularly taken since February 13, when the region became visible by INTEGRAL, do not reveal....... At this distance, the upper-limit on the persistent emission translates to a 3-40 keV luminosity of 5.2×1035 erg/s, which is consistent with previous values measured when the source was observed in outburst with Chandra (Jonker & Keek 2008, ATel #1643) and Swift (Maccarone et al. 2012, ATel #4109). INTEGRAL...

  18. A Search for High-Energy Counterparts to Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Virginia A.; Cenko, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    We report on a search for high-energy counterparts to Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). We find no significant associations for any of the 14 FRBs in our sample, but report upper limits to the high-energy fluence for each on timescales of ∼0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s. We report lower limits on the radio to high-energy fluence, fr / fγ, for timescales of ∼0.1 and 100 s. The non-detection of high-energy emission is expected if FRBs are analogous to the giant pulses seen from the Crab pulsar, but the observed radio fluences of FRBs are orders of magnitude larger than even the most extreme giant pulses would be at the implied cosmological distances. It has also been proposed that events similar to magnetar hyperflares produce FRBs; this might be a viable model, but our fr / fγ lower limits are in tension with the fr / fγ upper limit for the 2004 superburst of SGR 1806‑20, for 6 out of the 12 FRBs that we study. This demonstrates the utility of analyses of high-energy data for FRBs in tracking down the nature of these elusive sources.

  19. Frequency of fast, narrow γ-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.P.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Cline, T.L.; Desai, U.D.; Teegarden, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the existence of two γ-ray burst populations detected by the ISEE-3 experiment. Data from the distribution of 123 Venera 13 and 14 events (60 detected by both spacecraft) also suggests two γ-ray burst populations in each experiment sample, the domains separated with a minimum near 1 or 2 s. The authors point out that the results of the Goddard ISEE-3 γ-ray burst spectrometer actually enhance the appearance of two burst populations suggested in the Venera data. (author)

  20. Multiparameter Monitoring and Prevention of Fault-Slip Rock Burst

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shan-chao; Tan, Yun-liang; Ning, Jian-guo; Guo, Wei-Yao; Liu, Xue-sheng

    2017-01-01

    Fault-slip rock burst is one type of the tectonic rock burst during mining. A detailed understanding of the precursory information of fault-slip rock burst and implementation of monitoring and early warning systems, as well as pressure relief measures, are essential to safety production in deep mines. This paper first establishes a mechanical model of stick-slip instability in fault-slip rock bursts and then reveals the failure characteristics of the instability. Then, change rule of mining-i...

  1. Type III bursts in interplanetary space - Fundamental or harmonic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulk, G. A.; Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.

    1984-01-01

    ISEE-3 spacecraft observation of 120 relatively simple, isolated bursts in the 30-1980 kHz range are the basis of the present study of Type III bursts in the solar wind. Several characteristics are identified for many of these bursts which imply that the mode of emission changes from predominantly fundamental plasma radiation during the rise phase to predominantly second harmonic during decay. The fundamental emission begins in time coincidence with the start of Langmuir waves, confirming the conventional belief in these waves' causation of Type III bursts. Attention is given to the characteristics of fundamental components, by comparison to harmonics, at km-wavelengths.

  2. Coupled hydro-neutronic calculations for fast burst reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternoster, R.; Kimpland, R.; Jaegers, P.; McGhee, J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are described for determining the fully coupled neutronic/hydrodynamic response of fast burst reactors (FBR) under disruptive accident conditions. Two code systems, PAD (1 -D Lagrangian) and NIKE-PAGOSA (3-D Eulerian) were used to accomplish this. This is in contrast to the typical methodology that computes these responses by either single point kinetics or in a decoupled manner. This methodology is enabled by the use of modem supercomputers (CM-200). Two examples of this capability are presented: an unreflected metal fast burst assembly, and a reflected fast burst assembly typical of the Skua or SPR-III class of fast burst reactor

  3. X-ray echoes from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Hurley, K.C.; Hartmann, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The identification of an echo of reflected radiation in time histories of gamma-ray burst spectra can provide important information about the existence of binary companions or accretion disks in gamma-ray burst systems. Because of the nature of Compton scattering, the spectrum of the echo will be attenuated at gamma-ray energies compared with the spectrum of the primary burst emission. The expected temporal and spectral signatures of the echo and a search for such echoes are described, and implications for gamma-ray burst models are discussed. 35 refs

  4. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the accreted material, these bursts may be explained by either the unstable burning of a large pile of mixed hydrogen and helium, or the ignition of a thick pure helium layer. Long duration bursts are particularly expected at very low accretion rates and make possible to study the transition from a hydrogen......Thermonuclear bursts on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries have been studied for many years and have in a few cases confirmed theoretical models of nuclear ignition and burning mechanisms. The large majority of X-ray bursts last less than 100s. A good number......-rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime. Moreover, a handful of long bursts have shown, before the extended decay phase, an initial spike similar to a normal short X-ray burst. Such twofold bursts might be a sort of link between short and super-bursts, where the premature ignition of a carbon layer could...

  5. Study on cosmic gamma bursts in the ''KONUS'' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazets, E.P.; Golenetskij, S.V.; Il'inskij, V.N.; Panov, V.N.; Aptekar', R.L.; Gur'yan, Yu.A.; Sokolov, I.A.; Sokolova, Z.Ya.; Kharitonova, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    Made are the investigations of cosmic gamma bursts with the help of the ''Konus'' apparatus, positioned on the ''Venera 11'' and ''Venera 12'' automatic interplanetary stations. 37 gamma bursts have been recorded in the energy range from 50 to 150 keV during the observation period from September to December 1978. Time profiles of bursts on 4, 9 and 24.11.1978 are presented. For the most events the time of burst increase and decrease constitute parts and units of seconds. Differential energy spectra are measured for all recorded bursts. In many cases the spectrum shape is similar to the grade one with the 1.5-2.3 index. In a graphical form built up are the integral distributions of gamma bursts appearence frequency in dependence on their intensity and maximum capacity in the burst peak. Galaxy coordinates of the 17-teen bursts, for which a simple localization is possible, are put on the celestial sphere map. The type of the integral distributions and the source distribution about the celestial sphere show that the gamma burst sources are whithin the Galaxy

  6. The Second SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts. (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples.. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs.

  7. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot's number of degrees of freedom. In addition

  8. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  9. The Euclidean distance degree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.; Zhi, L.; Watt, M.

    2014-01-01

    The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low rank matrices, the Eckart-Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest

  10. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  11. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  12. Prospect of Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Monsurur; Karim, Reza; Byramjee, Framarz

    2015-01-01

    Many educational institutions in the United States are currently offering programs through distance learning, and that trend is rising. In almost all spheres of education a developing country like Bangladesh needs to make available the expertise of the most qualified faculty to her distant people. But the fundamental question remains as to whether…

  13. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  14. The effects of clouds on the detection of light signals from near-ground nuclear bursts at satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongshan; Zhang Enshan; Zhao Wenli; Gao Chunxia

    2002-01-01

    The effects of clouds on the detection of light signals from near-ground nuclear bursts are analysed quantitatively. The results indicate: the degree of the effect increasing with the growth of clouds optical thickness and satellite look angle; clouds lead really harmful effect in detectable signal intensity and precision of optical location, but degree of the effect is not great too. The enhancement of the photon optical paths by multiple scattering within the cloud will cause both a delay and a time-broadening of an impulsive light signal, and get 'lower and fat'; upward optical transmission of light through clouds is essentially the same as if there were no cloud present at all, when a point source is above the geometrical mid-plane of the cloud. And if the point source is below the mid-plane, then upward optical transmission of light through clods will be related closely to the distance of the source below the mid-plane. Given also some charts which evaluate conveniently degree of the effect due to clouds for the purpose of reference and use of a person of the same trade or occupation are given also

  15. Bursting Events in Pressure Flushing with Expanding Bottom Outlet Channel within Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila Tofighi

    2017-01-01

    each experiment, the bed level of scouring was measured using laser meters, and the volume of flushing cone was calculated by Surfer software. For investigation of turbulence parameters, the measurement of flow velocity in 0.5cm from the bed of flushing cone in the central axis of the outlet channel in the flow rate of 3 liters per second and water level of 47.5cm for three expansion sizes of the outlet channel (10, 20, and 30cm was performed. The flow velocity measurement was done using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. This device is capable of measuring instantaneous velocity in three directions. Results and Discussion: The results indicated that the relative amount of bottom outlet channel expansion for 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times height of the sediments in the reservoir, leads to increase in flushing cone length for an average of 48, 83 and 113% and flushing cone volume for the average amount of 50, 74 and 96% compared to the case when the outlet channel is not developed. Also the analysis of the turbulence parameters showed that in the nearest axis to the inlet of the bottom outlet channel in which the maximum depth of flushing cone, the occurrence probability of sweep and ejection are maximum and impact angle of moment force due to these events is minimized. However the dominant event here is ejected which was also observed in laboratory experiments the particles were transferred into the channel as suspended load. By increasing the distance from the inlet opening of the channel the occurrence probability of sweep and ejection are decreased and impact angle of moment force due to these events is increased, but again, these two events are the dominant events in this regions and sweep is more important than ejection, that the observations also verify the particles transferred as bed load in these region. Ultimately, it comes to a region where the probabilities of all four events are the same and where the sediment flushing cone reaches the primary sedimentation level that

  16. Star bursts and giant HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Massive star formation bursts occur in a variety of galactic environments and can temporarily dominate the light output of a galaxy even when a relatively small proportion of its mass is involved. Inferences about their ages, the IMF and its dependence on chemical composition are still somewhat wobbly owing to an excess of unknowns, but certain things can be deduced from emission spectra of associated H II regions when due regard is paid to the effects of chemical composition and ionization parameter: In particular, largest ionization parameters and effective temperatures of exciting stars, at any given oxygen abundance, are anti-correlated with the abundance, and the second effect suggests an increasing proportion of more massive stars at lower abundances, although this is not yet satisfactorily quantified. A new blue compact galaxies could be very young, but it is equally possible that there is an older population of low surface brightness. Some giant H II regions may be self-polluted with nitrogen and helium due to winds from massive stars in the associated burst. (orig.)

  17. Interplanetary type II radio bursts and their association with CMEs and flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Suresh, K.; Vasanth, V.; Selvarani, G.; Umapathy, S.

    2018-06-01

    We study the characteristics of the CMEs and their association with the end-frequency of interplanetary (IP)-type-II bursts by analyzing a set of 138 events (IP-type-II bursts-flares-CMEs) observed during the period 1997-2012. The present analysis consider only the type II bursts having starting frequency < 14 MHz to avoid the extension of coronal type IIs. The selected events are classified into three groups depending on the end-frequency of type IIs as follows, (A) Higher, (B) Intermediate and (C) Lower end-frequency. We compare characteristics of CMEs, flares and type II burst for the three selected groups of events and report some of the important differences. The observed height of CMEs is compared with the height of IP type IIs estimated using the electron density models. By applying a density multiplier (m) to this model, the density has been constrained both in the upper corona and in the interplanetary medium, respectively as m= 1 to 10 and m = 1 to 3. This study indicates that there is a correlation between the observed CME height and estimated type II height for groups B and C events whereas this correlation is absent in group A. In all the groups (A, B & C), the different heights of CMEs and type II reveal that the type IIs are not only observed at the nose but also at the flank of the CMEs.

  18. A link between prompt optical and prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W T; Wozniak, P R; Wren, J A; Fenimore, E E; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Casperson, D; Davis, H; Evans, S; Galassi, M; McGowan, K E; Schier, J A; Asa, J W; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Gehrels, N; Hullinger, D; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; McLean, K; Palmer, D; Parsons, A; Tueller, J

    2005-05-12

    The prompt optical emission that arrives with the gamma-rays from a cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a signature of the engine powering the burst, the properties of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of the explosion, and the ejecta's interactions with the surroundings. Until now, only GRB 990123 had been detected at optical wavelengths during the burst phase. Its prompt optical emission was variable and uncorrelated with the prompt gamma-ray emission, suggesting that the optical emission was generated by a reverse shock arising from the ejecta's collision with surrounding material. Here we report prompt optical emission from GRB 041219a. It is variable and correlated with the prompt gamma-rays, indicating a common origin for the optical light and the gamma-rays. Within the context of the standard fireball model of GRBs, we attribute this new optical component to internal shocks driven into the burst ejecta by variations of the inner engine. The correlated optical emission is a direct probe of the jet isolated from the medium. The timing of the uncorrelated optical emission is strongly dependent on the nature of the medium.

  19. The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050724.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, E; Price, P A; Cenko, S B; Gal-Yam, A; Soderberg, A M; Kasliwal, M; Leonard, D C; Cameron, P B; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Murphy, D C; Krzeminski, W; Piran, T; Lee, B L; Roth, K C; Moon, D-S; Fox, D B; Harrison, F A; Persson, S E; Schmidt, B P; Penprase, B E; Rich, J; Peterson, B A; Cowie, L L

    2005-12-15

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness--the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star-forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, and indicating an energy release of about 10(51) erg. While theoretical arguments suggest that short GRBs are produced in the coalescence of binary compact objects (neutron stars or black holes), the progenitors, energetics and environments of these events remain elusive despite recent localizations. Here we report the discovery of the first radio afterglow from the short burst GRB 050724, which unambiguously associates it with an elliptical galaxy at a redshift z = 0.257. We show that the burst is powered by the same relativistic fireball mechanism as long GRBs, with the ejecta possibly collimated in jets, but that the total energy release is 10-1,000 times smaller. More importantly, the nature of the host galaxy demonstrates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors.

  20. One-dimensional Turbulence Models of Type I X-ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Chen [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-01-06

    Type I X-ray bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary star system. Observations and simulations of these phenomena are of great importance for understanding the fundamental properties of neutron stars and dense matter because the equation of state for cold dense matter can be constrained by the mass-radius relationship of neutron stars. During the bursts, turbulence plays a key role in mixing the fuels and driving the unstable nuclear burning process. This dissertation presents one-dimensional models of photospheric radius expansion bursts with a new approach to simulate turbulent advection. Compared with the traditional mixing length theory, the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model represents turbulent motions by a sequence of maps that are generated according to a stochastic process. The light curves I obtained with the ODT models are in good agreement with those of the KEPLER model in which the mixing length theory and various diffusive processes are applied. The abundance comparison, however, indicates that the differences in turbulent regions and turbulent diffusivities result in more 12C survival during the bursts in the ODT models, which can make a difference in the superbursts phenomena triggered by unstable carbon burning.

  1. One-dimensional Turbulence Models of Type I X-ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Type I X-ray bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary star system. Observations and simulations of these phenomena are of great importance for understanding the fundamental properties of neutron stars and dense matter because the equation of state for cold dense matter can be constrained by the mass-radius relationship of neutron stars. During the bursts, turbulence plays a key role in mixing the fuels and driving the unstable nuclear burning process. This dissertation presents one-dimensional models of photospheric radius expansion bursts with a new approach to simulate turbulent advection. Compared with the traditional mixing length theory, the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model represents turbulent motions by a sequence of maps that are generated according to a stochastic process. The light curves I obtained with the ODT models are in good agreement with those of the KEPLER model in which the mixing length theory and various diffusive processes are applied. The abundance comparison, however, indicates that the differences in turbulent regions and turbulent diffusivities result in more 12 C survival during the bursts in the ODT models, which can make a difference in the superbursts phenomena triggered by unstable carbon burning.

  2. Type II solar radio bursts, interplanetary shocks, and energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane, H.V.; Stone, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Using the ISEE 3 radio astronomy experiment data we have identified 37 interplanetary type II bursts in the period 1978 September to 1981 December. We lists these events and the associated phenomena. The events are preceded by intense, soft X-ray events with long decay times and type II or type IV bursts, or both, at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range appears as a fast drift radio feature which we refer to as a shock associated radio event. The shock associated event is an important diagnostic for the presence of a strong shock and particle acceleration. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. Our results support other studies which indicate that energetic soalr particles detected at 1 A.U. are generatd by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients. The transients are fast: i.e., velocities greater than 500 km s -1

  3. A very small and super strong zebra pattern burst at the beginning of a solar flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Mészárosová, Hana; Karlický, Marian, E-mail: bltan@nao.cas.cn [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ondřejov 15165 (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-01

    Microwave emission with spectral zebra pattern structures (ZPs) is frequently observed in solar flares and the Crab pulsar. The previous observations show that ZP is a structure only overlapped on the underlying broadband continuum with slight increments and decrements. This work reports an unusually strong ZP burst occurring at the beginning of a solar flare observed simultaneously by two radio telescopes located in China and the Czech Republic and by the EUV telescope on board NASA's satellite Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2013 April 11. It is a very short and super strong explosion whose intensity exceeds several times that of the underlying flaring broadband continuum emission, lasting for just 18 s. EUV images show that the flare starts from several small flare bursting points (FBPs). There is a sudden EUV flash with extra enhancement in one of these FBPs during the ZP burst. Analysis indicates that the ZP burst accompanying an EUV flash is an unusual explosion revealing a strong coherent process with rapid particle acceleration, violent energy release, and fast plasma heating simultaneously in a small region with a short duration just at the beginning of the flare.

  4. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    tone burst elicited vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, indicated by eye muscle responses. We further assessed subjects' postural control and its correlation with vestibular cortical activity. Our results provide the first evidence of using skull taps to elicit vestibular activity inside the MRI scanner. By conducting conjunction analyses we showed that skull taps elicit the same activation pattern as auditory tone bursts (superior temporal gyrus), and both modes of stimulation activate previously identified vestibular cortical regions. Additionally, we found that skull taps elicit more robust vestibular activity compared to auditory tone bursts, with less reported aversive effects. This further supports that the skull tap could replace auditory tone burst stimulation in clinical interventions and basic science research. Moreover, we observed that greater vestibular activation is associated with better balance control. We showed that not only the quality of balance (indicated by the amount of body sway) but also the ability to maintain balance for a longer time (indicated by the balance time) was associated with individuals' vestibular cortical excitability. Our findings support an association between vestibular cortical activity and individual differences in balance. In sum, we found that the skull tap stimulation results in activation of canonical vestibular cortex, suggesting an equally valid, but more tolerable stimulation method compared to auditory tone bursts. This is of high importance in longitudinal vestibular assessments, in which minimizing aversive effects may contribute to higher protocol adherence.

  5. 3-10 keV and 0.1- to 2-MeV observations of four gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laros, J.G.; Evans, W.D.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Shulman, S.; Fritz, G.

    1983-01-01

    Four catalogued γ-ray bursts that occurred between 79/3/7 and 79/7/31 have been observed over the 3 to 10 keV range by a joint NRL/Los Alamos experiment on the Air Force P78-1 satellite. The bursts were also well observed by members of the interplanetary network. In this paper we present hardness ratios, x-ray/γ-ray luminosity ratios, and time histories. The most significant results presented herein can be summarized as follows: (1) gamma-ray bursters can emit fairly strongly at x-ray energies near the time of the γ burst with L/sub x//L/sub γ/ approx. .02 (L/sub x/ approx. 10 37 ergs s -1 , 3 to 10 keV, assuming a distance of 1 kpc); (2) the centroid of the x-ray emission generally lags the γ-ray centroid, but there is also evidence for one or more types of x-ray precursor activity; (3) the γ-ray hardness ratios were not highly variable for these particular events. However, there is some evidence that the γ-ray spectra softened near the ends of the bursts when the x-ray/γ-ray ratios were high; (4) the x-ray/γ-ray power law number index during times of the strongest γ-ray emission ranged from 0.8 to approx. 1.1 for the four bursts; (5) the x-ray tail of GB790307 probably can be modeled as the cooling of hot plasma generated during the γ-ray burst. Simple versions of this model can be used to estimate various source parameters. These estimates imply a distance of a few hundred to a few thousand pc; (6) gamma-ray bursters probably do not produce events similar to classical x-ray bursts independently of the γ-ray emission

  6. Investigating Reliabilities of Intraindividual Variability Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Reliabilities of the two most widely used intraindividual variability indicators, "ISD[superscript 2]" and "ISD", are derived analytically. Both are functions of the sizes of the first and second moments of true intraindividual variability, the size of the measurement error variance, and the number of assessments within a burst. For comparison,…

  7. BURST FLUENCE DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOFT GAMMA REPEATERS 1806–20 AND 1900+14 IN THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER PCA ERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieskorn, Zachary; Kaaret, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We study the fluence distributions of over 3040 bursts from SGR 1806–20 and over 1963 bursts from SGR 1900+14 using the complete set of observations available from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array through 2011 March. Cumulative event distributions are presented for both sources and are fitted with single and broken power laws as well as an exponential cutoff. The distributions are best fitted by a broken power law with exponential cutoff; however the statistical significance of the cutoff is not high and the upper portion of the broken power law can be explained as the expected number of false bursts due to random noise fluctuations. Event distributions are also examined in high and low burst rate regimes and power-law indices are found to be consistent, independent of the burst rate. The contribution function of the event fluence is calculated. This distribution shows that the energy released in the soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts is dominated by the most powerful events for both sources. The power-law nature of these distributions combined with the dominant energy dissipation of the system occurring in the large, less frequent bursts is indicative of a self-organized critical system, as suggested by Goğus et al. in 1999.

  8. Formation Rates of Black Hole Accretion Disk Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Woosley, S. E.; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1999-01-01

    The cosmological origin of at least an appreciable fraction of classical gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is now supported by redshift measurements for a half-dozen faint host galaxies. Still, the nature of the central engine (or engines) that provide the burst energy remains unclear. While many models have been proposed, those currently favored are all based upon the formation of and/or rapid accretion into stellar-mass black holes. Here we discuss a variety of such scenarios and estimate the probability of each. Population synthesis calculations are carried out using a Monte Carlo approach in which the many uncertain parameters intrinsic to such calculations are varied. We estimate the event rate for each class of model as well as the propagation distances for those having significant delay between formation and burst production, i.e., double neutron star (DNS) mergers and black hole-neutron star (BH/NS) mergers. One conclusion is a 1-2 order of magnitude decrease in the rate of DNS and BH/NS mergers compared to that previously calculated using invalid assumptions about common envelope evolution. Other major uncertainties in the event rates and propagation distances include the history of star formation in the universe, the masses of the galaxies in which merging compact objects are born, and the radii of the hydrogen-stripped cores of massive stars. For reasonable assumptions regarding each, we calculate a daily event rate in the universe for (1) merging neutron stars: ∼100 day-1; (2) neutron star-black hole mergers: ∼450 day-1; (3) collapsars: ∼104 day-1; (4) helium star black hole mergers: ∼1000 day-1; and (5) white dwarf-black hole mergers: ∼20 day-1. The range of uncertainty in these numbers, however, is very large, typically 2-3 orders of magnitude. These rates must additionally be multiplied by any relevant beaming factor (f Ω <1) and sampling fraction (if the entire universal set of models is not being observed). Depending upon the mass of the host

  9. Distance between images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, J. A.; Le Moigne, J.; Packer, C. V.

    1992-01-01

    Comparing two binary images and assigning a quantitative measure to this comparison finds its purpose in such tasks as image recognition, image compression, and image browsing. This quantitative measurement may be computed by utilizing the Hausdorff distance of the images represented as two-dimensional point sets. In this paper, we review two algorithms that have been proposed to compute this distance, and we present a parallel implementation of one of them on the MasPar parallel processor. We study their complexity and the results obtained by these algorithms for two different types of images: a set of displaced pairs of images of Gaussian densities, and a comparison of a Canny edge image with several edge images from a hierarchical region growing code.

  10. THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2009-01-01

    A database can be accessed on the Web at http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu that was developed to promote access to information related to galaxy distances. The database has three functional components. First, tables from many literature sources have been gathered and enhanced with links through a distinct galaxy naming convention. Second, comparisons of results both at the levels of parameters and of techniques have begun and are continuing, leading to increasing homogeneity and consistency of distance measurements. Third, new material is presented arising from ongoing observational programs at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, radio telescopes at Green Bank, Arecibo, and Parkes and with the Hubble Space Telescope. This new observational material is made available in tandem with related material drawn from archives and passed through common analysis pipelines.

  11. Cosmological model-independent Gamma-ray bursts calibration and its cosmological constraint to dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    As so far, the redshift of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can extend to z ∼ 8 which makes it as a complementary probe of dark energy to supernova Ia (SN Ia). However, the calibration of GRBs is still a big challenge when they are used to constrain cosmological models. Though, the absolute magnitude of GRBs is still unknown, the slopes of GRBs correlations can be used as a useful constraint to dark energy in a completely cosmological model independent way. In this paper, we follow Wang's model-independent distance measurement method and calculate their values by using 109 GRBs events via the so-called Amati relation. Then, we use the obtained model-independent distances to constrain ΛCDM model as an example

  12. Distance to Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Capachi, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Distance to Cure A three-part television series by Casey Capachi www.distancetocure.com   Abstract   How far would you go for health care? This three-part television series, featuring two introductory segments between each piece, focuses on the physical, cultural, and political obstacles facing rural Native American patients and the potential of health technology to break down those barriers to care.   Part one,Telemedici...

  13. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mark D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in taxonomy such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The ambiguity of which branching height to choose, is resolved by postulating that branching occurs at the lowest height available. An ultrametric produces a measure of the complexity of sentences: presumably the complexity of sentences increases as a language is acquired so that this can be tested. All ultrametric triangles are equilateral or isosceles. Here it is shown that X̅ structure implies that there are no equilateral triangles. Restricting attention to simple syntax a minimum ultrametric distance between lexical categories is calculated. A matrix constructed from this ultrametric distance is shown to be different than the matrix obtained from features. It is shown that the definition of C-COMMAND can be replaced by an equivalent ultrametric definition. The new definition invokes a minimum distance between nodes and this is more aesthetically satisfying than previous varieties of definitions. From the new definition of C-COMMAND follows a new definition of of the central notion in syntax namely GOVERNMENT.

  14. Burst Mode Composite Photography for Dynamic Physics Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    I am writing this article to raise awareness of burst mode photography as a fun and engaging way for teachers and students to experience physics demonstration activities. In the context of digital photography, "burst mode" means taking multiple photographs per second, and this is a feature that now comes standard on most digital…

  15. Observation of gamma-ray bursts with GINGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Toshio; Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-ray Burst Detector System (GBD) on board the scientific satellite 'GINGA' which was launched on Feb. 5, 1987, was realized as an international cooperation between ISAS and LANL. It has recorded more than 40 Gamma-Ray Burst candidates during 20 months observation. Although many observational evidences were accumulated in past 20 years after the discovery of gamma-ray burst by LANL scientists, there are not enough evidence to determine the origin and the production mechanism of the gamma-ray burst. GBD consists of a proportional counter and a NaI scintillation counter so that it became possible to observe energy spectrum of the gamma-ray burst with high energy resolution over wide range of energy (1.5-380 keV) together with high time resolution. As the result of observation, the following facts are obtained: (1) A large fraction of observed gamma-ray bursts has a long X-ray tail after the harder part of gamma-ray emission has terminated. (2) Clear spectral absorption features with harmonic in energy was observed in some of the energy spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. These evidences support the hypothesis that the strongly magnetized neutron star is the origin of gamma-ray burst. (author)

  16. The γ-ray burst-detection system of SPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichti, G.G.; Georgii, R.; Kienlin, A. von; Schoenfelder, V.; Wunderer, C.; Jung, H.-J.; Hurley, K.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of precise locations of γ-ray bursts is a crucial task of γ-ray astronomy. Although γ-ray burst locations can be obtained nowadays from single experiments (BATSE, COMPTEL, BeppoSax) the location of bursts via triangulation using the interplanetary network is still important because not all bursts will be located precisely enough by these single instruments. In order to get location accuracies down to arcseconds via triangulation one needs long baselines. At the beginning of the next decade several spacecrafts which explore the outer planetary system (the Mars-Surveyor-2001 Orbiter and probably Ulysses) will carry γ-ray burst instruments. INTEGRAL as a near-earth spacecraft is the ideal counterpart for these satellites. The massive anticoincidence shield of the INTEGRAL-spectrometer SPI allows the measurement of γ-ray bursts with a high sensitivity. Estimations have shown that with SPI some hundred γ-ray bursts per year on the 5σ level can be measured. This is equivalent to the BATSE sensitivity. We describe the γ-ray burst-detection system of SPI, present its technical features and assess the scientific capabilities

  17. Gamma ray bursts observed with WATCH‐EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The WATCH wide field x‐ray monitor has the capability of independently locating bright Gamma Ray Bursts to 1° accuracy. We report the preliminary positions of 12 Gamma Ray Bursts observed with the WATCH monitor flown on the ES spacecraft EURECA during its 11 month mission. Also the recurrence...

  18. The many phases of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leventis, K.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest sources in the universe. Their afterglows have been observed for about 15 years now, and their study has greatly advanced our understanding of these, mysterious until recently, events. In a way, gamma-ray bursts can be seen as huge cosmic bombs which convert

  19. Hydrodynamics of burst swimming fish larvae; a conceptual model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    Burst swimming of fish larvae is analysed from a hydrodynamic point of view. A picture of the expected flow pattern is presented based on information in literature on unsteady-flow patterns around obstacles in the intermediate Reynolds number region. It is shown that the acceleration stage of burst

  20. Supernova sheds light on gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 29 March the HETE-II satellite detected the most violent explosion in the universe to date - an enormous burst of gamma rays. Observers across the world recorded and studied the event. It appears to prove that gamma ray bursts originate in supernovae (1 page)

  1. Multiparameter Monitoring and Prevention of Fault-Slip Rock Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-chao Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault-slip rock burst is one type of the tectonic rock burst during mining. A detailed understanding of the precursory information of fault-slip rock burst and implementation of monitoring and early warning systems, as well as pressure relief measures, are essential to safety production in deep mines. This paper first establishes a mechanical model of stick-slip instability in fault-slip rock bursts and then reveals the failure characteristics of the instability. Then, change rule of mining-induced stress and microseismic signals before the occurrence of fault-slip rock burst are proposed, and multiparameter integrated early warning methods including mining-induced stress and energy are established. Finally, pressure relief methods targeting large-diameter boreholes and coal seam infusion are presented in accordance with the occurrence mechanism of fault-slip rock burst. The research results have been successfully applied in working faces 2310 of the Suncun Coal Mine, and the safety of the mine has been enhanced. These research results improve the theory of fault-slip rock burst mechanisms and provide the basis for prediction and forecasting, as well as pressure relief, of fault-slip rock bursts.

  2. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H.J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  3. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  4. Testing and Performance of UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rípa, Jakub; Bin Kim, Min; Lee, Jik

    2014-01-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory pathfinder (UFFO-p) is a new space mission dedicated to detect Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and rapidly follow their afterglows in order to provide early optical/ultraviolet measurements. A GRB location is determined in a few seconds by the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger t...

  5. Fast Radio Burst Discovered in the Arecibo Pulsar ALFA Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitler, L.G.; Cordes, J.M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Lorimer, D.R.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.S.; Kaspi, V.M.; Wharton, R.S.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Freire, P.C.C.; Jenet, F.A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Knispel, B.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K.J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S.M.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I.H.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J.K.; Venkataraman, A.; Zhu, W.W.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has exploited pulsar survey data to identify temporally isolated, millisecond-duration radio bursts with large dispersion measures (DMs). These bursts have been interpreted as arising from a population of extragalactic sources, in which case they would provide unprecedented opportunities

  6. Observations of cosmic gamma ray bursts with WATCH on EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    19 Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts were detected by the WATCH wide field X-ray monitor during the 11 months flight of EURECA. The identification of the bursts were complicated by a high frequency of background of events caused by high energy cosmic ray interactions in the detector and by low energy, trap...

  7. A burst-mode photon counting receiver with automatic channel estimation and bit rate detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hemonth G.; DeVoe, Catherine E.; Fletcher, Andrew S.; Gaschits, Igor D.; Hakimi, Farhad; Hamilton, Scott A.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Ingwersen, John G.; Kaminsky, Richard D.; Moores, John D.; Scheinbart, Marvin S.; Yarnall, Timothy M.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a multi-rate burst-mode photon-counting receiver for undersea communication at data rates up to 10.416 Mb/s over a 30-foot water channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of burst-mode photon-counting communication. With added attenuation, the maximum link loss is 97.1 dB at λ=517 nm. In clear ocean water, this equates to link distances up to 148 meters. For λ=470 nm, the achievable link distance in clear ocean water is 450 meters. The receiver incorporates soft-decision forward error correction (FEC) based on a product code of an inner LDPC code and an outer BCH code. The FEC supports multiple code rates to achieve error-free performance. We have selected a burst-mode receiver architecture to provide robust performance with respect to unpredictable channel obstructions. The receiver is capable of on-the-fly data rate detection and adapts to changing levels of signal and background light. The receiver updates its phase alignment and channel estimates every 1.6 ms, allowing for rapid changes in water quality as well as motion between transmitter and receiver. We demonstrate on-the-fly rate detection, channel BER within 0.2 dB of theory across all data rates, and error-free performance within 1.82 dB of soft-decision capacity across all tested code rates. All signal processing is done in FPGAs and runs continuously in real time.

  8. FAST TCP over optical burst switched networks: Modeling and stability analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; El-Ferik, Sami; Ho, Pin-Han

    2013-01-01

    congestion-control mechanism in bufferless Optical Burst Switched Networks (OBS). The paper first shows that random burst contentions are essential to stabilize the network, but cause throughput degradation in FAST TCP flows when a burst with all the packets

  9. BURST AND OUTBURST CHARACTERISTICS OF MAGNETAR 4U 0142+61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Göğüş, Ersin; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Kaneko, Yuki [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, Lin [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Roberts, Oliver J. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Stillorgan Road, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ranana 43537 (Israel); Horst, Alexander J. van der; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Younes, George [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Watts, Anna L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baring, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Huppenkothen, Daniela [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We have compiled the most comprehensive burst sample from magnetar 4U 0142+61, comprising 27 bursts from its three burst-active episodes in 2011, 2012 and the latest one in 2015 observed with Swift /Burst Alert Telescope and Fermi /Gamma-ray Burst Monitor. Bursts from 4U 0142+61 morphologically resemble typical short bursts from other magnetars. However, 4U 0142+61 bursts are less energetic compared to the bulk of magnetar bursts. We uncovered an extended tail emission following a burst on 2015 February 28, with a thermal nature, cooling over a timescale of several minutes. During this tail emission, we also uncovered pulse peak phase aligned X-ray bursts, which could originate from the same underlying mechanism as that of the extended burst tail, or an associated and spatially coincident but different mechanism.

  10. ELF Transients and Q-bursts Detected Around the Globe: First results from Palmer Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Q. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first analysis of data from the recently deployed broadband ELF (5-500 Hz) B-field receiver at Palmer Station, Antarctica together with observations at similar receivers located at Sondrestromfjord, Greenland and Arrival Heights, Antarctica. Such remote locations afford the unique opportunity to record signals that are essentially unperturbed by power line noise. As a result, using this multi-site global network of ELF/VLF receivers, we are able to easily detect a particular type of ELF transient that propagates around the world multiple times, known as the Q-burst. The Q-burst is characterized by a large increase in amplitude above the background at the Schumann Resonance modes and is believed to result from especially powerful cloud-to-ground lightning discharges. These powerful lightning discharges are likely responsible for a significant level of energetic coupling between the troposphere, the ionosphere, and the magnetosphere. The ELF and VLF waves excited by the lightning discharge propagate to great distances in the earth-ionosphere waveguide, and in fact propagate around the Earth multiple times. By measuring the received waveform at multiple distant sites around the globe, we can pinpoint the source lightning location, compare the changes in field strength and spectrum as a function of distance from the source, and evaluate modal propagation effects in the VLF range (that are not apparent in the ELF range).

  11. Operational experiences with automated acoustic burst classification by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olma, B.; Ding, Y.; Enders, R.

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of Loose Parts Monitoring System sensors for signal bursts associated with metallic impacts of loose parts has proved as an useful methodology for on-line assessing the mechanical integrity of components in the primary circuit of nuclear power plants. With the availability of neural networks new powerful possibilities for classification and diagnosis of burst signals can be realized for acoustic monitoring with the online system RAMSES. In order to look for relevant burst signals an automated classification is needed, that means acoustic signature analysis and assessment has to be performed automatically on-line. A back propagation neural network based on five pre-calculated signal parameter values has been set up for identification of different signal types. During a three-month monitoring program of medium-operated check valves burst signals have been measured and classified separately according to their cause. The successful results of the three measurement campaigns with an automated burst type classification are presented. (author)

  12. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  13. Recent achievements in the field of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tan; Dai Zigao

    2001-01-01

    Recent progresses in the field of gamma-ray bursts is briefly introduced. Gamma-ray bursts are the most energetic explosion since the Big Bang of the universe. Within a few tens of seconds, the energy released in gamma-ray bursts could be several hundred times larger than that released form the sun in its whole life (about 10 billion years). The authors will first briefly discuss the observational facts, based on which the authors will discuss the standard fireball model, the dynamical behavior and evolution of gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. Then, various observational phenomena that contradict the standard model are given and the importance of these post-standard effects are pointed out. The questions related to the energy source of gamma-ray bursts are still unanswered, and other important questions also remain to be solved

  14. Ablation of silicon with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiuso, Caterina; Kämmer, Helena; Dreisow, Felix; Ancona, Antonio; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of ultrafast laser ablation of silicon with bursts of pulses. The pristine 1030nm-wavelength 200-fs pulses were split into bursts of up to 16 sub-pulses with time separation ranging from 0.5ps to 4080ps. The total ablation threshold fluence was measured depending on the burst features, finding that it strongly increases with the number of sub-pulses for longer sub-pulse delays, while a slowly increasing trend is observed for shorter separation time. The ablation depth per burst follows two different trends according to the time separation between the sub-pulses, as well as the total threshold fluence. For delays shorter than 4ps it decreases with the number of pulses, while for time separations longer than 510ps, deeper craters were achieved by increasing the number of subpulses in the burst, probably due to a change of the effective penetration depth.

  15. Cosmology and the Subgroups of Gamma-ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mészáros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Both short and intermediate gamma-ray bursts are distributed anisotropically in the sky (Mészáros, A. et al. ApJ, 539, 98 (2000, Vavrek, R. et al. MNRAS, 391, 1 741 (2008. Hence, in the redshift range, where these bursts take place, the cosmological principle is in doubt. It has already been noted that short bursts should be mainly at redshifts smaller than one (Mészáros, A. et al. Gamma-ray burst: Sixth Huntsville Symp., AIP, Vol. 1 133, 483 (2009; Mészáros, A. et al. Baltic Astron., 18, 293 (2009. Here we show that intermediate bursts should be at redshifts up to three.

  16. Analyses of resource reservation schemes for optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanska, Michaela; Scholtz, Lubomir; Ladanyi, Libor; Mullerova, Jarmila

    2017-12-01

    With growing demands of Internet Protocol services for transmission capacity and speed, the Optical Burst Switching presents the solution for future high-speed optical networks. Optical Burst Switching is a technology for transmitting large amounts of data bursts through a transparent optical switching network. To successfully transmit bursts over OBS network and reach the destination node, resource reservation schemes have to be implemented to allocate resources and configure optical switches for that burst at each node. The one-way resource reservation schemes and the performance evaluation of reservation schemes are presented. The OBS network model is performed using OMNeT++ simulation environment. During the reservation of network resources, the optical cross-connect based on semiconductor optical amplifier is used as the core node. Optical switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers are a promising technology for high-speed optical communication networks.

  17. The voice conveys specific emotions: evidence from vocal burst displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Keltner, Dacher J; Sauter, Disa; Sinicropi-Yao, Lara; Abramson, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more reliably than heterogeneous vocal bursts (Study 3). Results show that vocal bursts communicate emotions like anger, fear, and sadness, as well as seldom-studied states like awe, compassion, interest, and embarrassment. Ancillary analyses reveal family-wise patterns of vocal burst expression. Errors in classification were more common within emotion families (e.g., 'self-conscious,' 'pro-social') than between emotion families. The three studies reported highlight the voice as a rich modality for emotion display that can inform fundamental constructs about emotion.

  18. Long X-ray burst monitoring with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems. In the frame of the INTEGRAL observational Key Programme over the Galactic Center a good number of the known X-ray bursters are frequently being monitored. An international...... collaboration lead by the JEM-X team at the Danish National Space Center has proposed to exploit the improved sensitivity of the INTEGRAL instruments to investigate the observational properties and physics up to high energies of exceptional burst events lasting between a few tens of minutes and several hours....... Of special interest are low luminosity bursting sources that exhibit X-ray bursts of very different durations allowing to study the transition from a hydrogen-rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime and from helium burning to carbon burning. I will present results obtained from INTEGRAL archive data...

  19. GLOBALIZATION, DISTANCE EDUCATION AND HEGEMONIC FUTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn RUSSELL

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Consideration of the place of theory in distance education suggests that existing definitions do not adequately account for economic, cultural and historical factors. The application of the notion of hegemonic valency to distance education highlights the ways in which tools, technological systems and online environments operate in predictable ways. Historically, the imperatives of market forces and social justice have displayed a tension that is continued in contemporary contexts including virtual learning environments. A characteristic of this tension can be seen in the forces and interactions associated with globalisation and technology. These forces, in association with others, have contributed to a null curriculum in which some alternatives open to distance education practitioners remain invisible. It is likely that this situation is further compounded by the difficulty of ascertaining what distance education practices are actually operating world-wide at any identifiable time. Available options for distance educators can be understood in terms of instrumental and interpersonal axes that can potentially indicate the relative consideration that can be given to these factors. This approach is suggested as one way to understand available options at a time when there has been an apparent increase in instrumental approaches to distance education at the expense of interpersonal approaches and issues of social justice. While this problem is of concern, it is more appropriate to reflect on the unintended consequences of distance education for society and identify them than it is to uncritically oppose globalisation and its adherents.

  20. Cepheids Geometrical Distances Using Space Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sanchez, M.

    2004-05-01

    A space based interferometer with a sub-milliarcsecond resolution in the UV-optical will provide a new avenue for the calibration of primary distance indicators with unprecedented accuracy, by allowing very accurate and stable measurements of Cepheids pulsation amplitudes at wavelengths not accessible from the ground. Sasselov & Karovska (1994) have shown that interferometers allow very accurate measurements of Cepheids distances by using a ``geometric'' variant of the Baade-Wesselink method. This method has been succesfully applied to derive distances and radii of nearby Cepheids using ground-based near-IR and optical interferometers, within a 15% accuracy level. Our study shows that the main source of error in these measurements is due to the perturbing effects of the Earth atmosphere, which is the limiting factor in the interferometer stability. A space interferometer will not suffer from this intrinsic limitations, and can potentially lead to improve astronomical distance measurements by an order of magnitude in precision. We discuss here the technical requirements that a space based facility will need to carry out this project, allowing distance measurements within a few percent accuracy level. We will finally discuss how a sub-milliarcsecond resolution will allow the direct distance determination for hundreds of galactic sources, and provide a substantial improvement in the zero-point of the Cepheid distance scale.

  1. Electron precipitation burst in the nighttime slot region measured simultaneously from two satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhof, W.L.; Voss, H.D.; Mobilla, J.; Gaines, E.E.; Evans, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Based on data acquired in 1982 with the Stimulated Emission of Energetic Particles payload on the low-altitude (170--280 km) S81-1 spacecraft and the Space Environment Monitor instrumentation on the NOAA 6 satellite (800--830 km), a study has been made of short-duration nighttime electron precipitation bursts at L = 2.0--35. From 54 passes of each satellite across the slot region simultaneously in time, 21 bursts were observed on the NOAA 6 spacecraft, and 76 on the S81-1 satellite. Five events, probably associated with lightning, were observed simultaneously from the two spacecraft within 1.2 s, providing a measure of the spatial extent of the bursts. This limited sample indicates that the intensity of precipitation events falls off with width in longitude and L shell but individual events extend as much as 5 0 in invariant latitude and 43 0 in longitude. The number of events above a given flux observed in each satellite was found to be approximately inversely proportional to the flux. The time average energy input to the atmosphere over the longitude range 180 0 E to 360 0 E at a local time of 2230 directly from short-duration bursts spanning a wide range of intensity enhancements was estimated to be about 6 x 10/sup -6/ ergs/cm 2 s in the northern hemisphere and about 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ ergs/cm 2 s in the southern hemisphere. In the south, this energy precipitation rate is lower than that from electrons in the drift loss cone by about 2 orders of magnitude. However, on the basis of these data alone we cannot discount weak bursts from being a major contributor to populating the drift loss cone with electrons which ultimately precipitate into the atmosphere. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  2. Anterior Z-plate and titanic mesh fixation for acute burst thoracolumbar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Guang; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Zhou, Wei; Kong, Wei-Qing; Fu, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Bi-Zeng; Zhang, Tao; Lian, Xiao-Feng

    2011-04-01

    A retrospective study. To evaluate the clinical outcome, effectiveness, and security of the surgical management of acute thoracolumbar burst fracture with corpectomy, titanic mesh autograft, and Z-plate fixation by anterior approach. Many surgical methods were adopted to treat acute burst thoracolumbar fracture. But the optimal surgical management remains controversial. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 48 patients with thoracolumbar burst fracture treated with anterior corpectomy, titanic mesh autograft, and Z-plate internal fixation was carried out. Preoperative clinical and radiographic data of all cases were originally collected. Surgical indications were motor neurologic deficit and thoracolumbar column instability. Twenty-two patients (45.8%) with acute thoracolumbar burst fractures presented with a neurologic deficit. The postoperative recovery of neural function, restoration of anterior cortex collapse, kyphotic angle, and spinal canal compromise were observed. The preoperative kyphotic angle was improved to a mean of 5.6°, radiographic height restored to 95.8% of the adjacent normal levels, and canal compromise was 0%. None of the patients had neurologic deterioration. Mean follow-up time was 32.4 months (range, 24-47 months). All 22 patients with neurologic deficit demonstrated at least one Frankel grade improvement on final observation, with 16 (73%) patients had accomplished complete neurologic recovery. Forty-six (96%) patients reported minimal or no pain at final follow-up observation, and 40 (83%) patients who had been working before injury returned to original work. The authors considered spinal cord decompression with anterior corpectomy and stability reconstruction with titanic mesh autograft and Z-plate fixation at same time in one incision as an effective technique for unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture with and without neurologic deficit.

  3. Infrasonic harmonic tremor and degassing bursts from Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, David; Garcés, Milton; Patrick, Matt; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phil; Swanson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between 2008 and early 2009. After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March 2008 produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December 2008, when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Tremor spectra and power are also correlated with cavity geometry and dynamics, with the cavity depth estimated at ~219 m and volume ~3 x 106 m3 in November 2008. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period (0.03-0.1 Hz) infrasound, the first recorded at Kilauea, indicative of long-duration atmospheric accelerations. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it.

  4. The Second Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parametert:; measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs, and that the time-averaged E obs/peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate

  5. Black Hole Information Problem and Wave Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Pantskhava, Lasha

    2018-06-01

    By reexamination of the boundary conditions of wave equation on a black hole horizon it is found not harmonic, but real-valued exponentially time-dependent solutions. This means that quantum particles probably do not cross the Schwarzschild horizon, but are absorbed and some are reflected by it, what potentially can solve the famous black hole information paradox. To study this strong gravitational lensing we are introducing an effective negative cosmological constant between the Schwarzschild and photon spheres. It is shown that the reflected particles can obtain their additional energy in this effective AdS space and could explain properties of some unusually strong signals, like LIGO events, gamma ray and fast radio bursts.

  6. Gravitational wave: gamma-ray burst connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Jim

    2007-05-15

    After 35 years of experimental research, we are rapidly approaching the point at which gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources may be directly detected by the long-baseline detectors LIGO (USA), GEO 600 (Germany/UK), VIRGO (Italy/France) and TAMA 300 (Japan), which are now in or coming into operation.A promising source of GWs is the coalescence of compact binary systems, events which are now believed to be the origin of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in detector development and exploitation will be given, with particular relevance to a search for signals associated with GRBs, and plans for the future will be discussed.

  7. Soap films burst like flapping flags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2009-07-31

    When punctured, a flat soap film bursts by opening a hole driven by liquid surface tension. The hole rim does not, however, remain smooth but soon develops indentations at the tip of which ligaments form, ultimately breaking and leaving the initially connex film into a mist of disjointed drops. We report on original observations showing that these indentations result from a flaglike instability between the film and the surrounding atmosphere inducing an oscillatory motion out of its plane. Just like a flag edge flaps in the wind, the film is successively accelerated on both sides perpendicularly to its plane, inducing film thickness modulations and centrifuging liquid ligaments that finally pinch off to form the observed spray. This effect exemplifies how the dynamics of fragile objects such as thin liquid films is sensitive to their embedding medium.

  8. Bursting of filaments in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, F.T.L.

    1976-01-01

    Photographs of the current sheath of (low energy) plasma focus show a disruption of the filaments. This phenomenon is interpreted as a vortex breakdown. Physical parameters which support this hypothesis are obtained from measurements, from the theoretical thickness of the current sheath given by Nardi and from some models of the plasma flow. The widening of a vortex due to axial velocity increase is analyzed by means of magnetohydrodynamic collinear models. The main results are: (1) the existence of a limit separating supercritical from subcritical regimes (their character changes with the ratio between kinetic and magnetic energy); (2) the existence of flow regimes where the vortex radius remains approximately constant for moderate increments of the external velocity; (3) the structure of the vortex may change substantially for a sufficiently large increment of the external velocity, even in subcritical states; (4) the possibility that a burst of the vortex may occur when the external velocity suffers a slowdown

  9. Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Dainotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism responsible for the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs is still a debated issue. The prompt phase-related GRB correlations can allow discriminating among the most plausible theoretical models explaining this emission. We present an overview of the observational two-parameter correlations, their physical interpretations, and their use as redshift estimators and possibly as cosmological tools. The nowadays challenge is to make GRBs, the farthest stellar-scaled objects observed (up to redshift z=9.4, standard candles through well established and robust correlations. However, GRBs spanning several orders of magnitude in their energetics are far from being standard candles. We describe the advances in the prompt correlation research in the past decades, with particular focus paid to the discoveries in the last 20 years.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF BURSTING WATER MASER FEATURES IN ORION KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Tsuboi, Masato; Fujisawa, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Imai, Hiroshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Yonekura, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    In 2011 February, a burst event of the H 2 O maser in Orion KL (Kleinmann-Low object) has started after a 13 year silence. This is the third time such phenomena has been detected in Orion KL, followed by the events in 1979-1985 and 1998. We have carried out astrometric observations of the bursting H 2 O maser features in Orion KL with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), a Japanese very long baseline interferometry network dedicated for astrometry. The total flux of the bursting feature at the local standard of rest (LSR) velocity of 7.58 km s -1 reaches 4.4 x 10 4 Jy in 2011 March. The intensity of the bursting feature is three orders of magnitude larger than that of the same velocity feature in the quiescent phase in 2006. Two months later, another new feature appears at the LSR velocity of 6.95 km s -1 in 2011 May, separated by 12 mas north of the 7.58 km s -1 feature. Thus, the current burst occurs at two spatially different features. The bursting masers are elongated along the northwest-southeast direction as reported in the previous burst in 1998. We determine the absolute positions of the bursting features for the first time ever with a submilliarcsecond (mas) accuracy. Their positions are coincident with the shocked molecular gas called the Orion Compact Ridge. We tentatively detect the absolute proper motions of the bursting features toward the southwest direction. It is most likely that the outflow from the radio source I or another young stellar object interacting with the Compact Ridge is a possible origin of the H 2 O maser burst.

  11. A POSSIBLE CONNECTION BETWEEN FAST RADIO BURSTS AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The physical nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs), a new type of cosmological transient discovered recently, is not known. It has been suggested that FRBs can be produced when a spinning supra-massive neutron star loses centrifugal support and collapses to a black hole. Here, we suggest that such implosions can happen in supra-massive neutron stars shortly (hundreds to thousands of seconds) after their births, and an observational signature of such implosions may have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of some long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Within this picture, a small fraction of FRBs would be physically connected to GRBs. We discuss possible multi-wavelength electromagnetic signals and gravitational wave signals that might be associated with FRBs, and propose an observational campaign to unveil the physical nature of FRBs. In particular, we strongly encourage a rapid radio follow-up observation of GRBs starting from 100 s after a GRB trigger

  12. Does Twitter trigger bursts in signature collections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The quantification of social media impacts on societal and political events is a difficult undertaking. The Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine started a signature-collecting campaign to oppose a medical policy of the Government Revitalization Unit to exclude a traditional Japanese medicine, "Kampo," from the public insurance system. The signature count showed a series of aberrant bursts from November 26 to 29, 2009. In the same interval, the number of messages on Twitter including the keywords "Signature" and "Kampo," increased abruptly. Moreover, the number of messages on an Internet forum that discussed the policy and called for signatures showed a train of spikes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to estimate the contributions of social media, we developed a statistical model with state-space modeling framework that distinguishes the contributions of multiple social media in time-series of collected public opinions. We applied the model to the time-series of signature counts of the campaign and quantified contributions of two social media, i.e., Twitter and an Internet forum, by the estimation. We found that a considerable portion (78% of the signatures was affected from either of the social media throughout the campaign and the Twitter effect (26% was smaller than the Forum effect (52% in total, although Twitter probably triggered the initial two bursts of signatures. Comparisons of the estimated profiles of the both effects suggested distinctions between the social media in terms of sustainable impact of messages or tweets. Twitter shows messages on various topics on a time-line; newer messages push out older ones. Twitter may diminish the impact of messages that are tweeted intermittently. CONCLUSIONS: The quantification of social media impacts is beneficial to better understand people's tendency and may promote developing strategies to engage public opinions effectively. Our proposed method is a promising tool to explore

  13. Does Twitter trigger bursts in signature collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Kami, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Miyano, Satoru; Yuji, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of social media impacts on societal and political events is a difficult undertaking. The Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine started a signature-collecting campaign to oppose a medical policy of the Government Revitalization Unit to exclude a traditional Japanese medicine, "Kampo," from the public insurance system. The signature count showed a series of aberrant bursts from November 26 to 29, 2009. In the same interval, the number of messages on Twitter including the keywords "Signature" and "Kampo," increased abruptly. Moreover, the number of messages on an Internet forum that discussed the policy and called for signatures showed a train of spikes. In order to estimate the contributions of social media, we developed a statistical model with state-space modeling framework that distinguishes the contributions of multiple social media in time-series of collected public opinions. We applied the model to the time-series of signature counts of the campaign and quantified contributions of two social media, i.e., Twitter and an Internet forum, by the estimation. We found that a considerable portion (78%) of the signatures was affected from either of the social media throughout the campaign and the Twitter effect (26%) was smaller than the Forum effect (52%) in total, although Twitter probably triggered the initial two bursts of signatures. Comparisons of the estimated profiles of the both effects suggested distinctions between the social media in terms of sustainable impact of messages or tweets. Twitter shows messages on various topics on a time-line; newer messages push out older ones. Twitter may diminish the impact of messages that are tweeted intermittently. The quantification of social media impacts is beneficial to better understand people's tendency and may promote developing strategies to engage public opinions effectively. Our proposed method is a promising tool to explore information hidden in social phenomena.

  14. Monitoring burst (M-burst) — A novel framework of failure localization in all-optical mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Mohammed L.; Ho, Pin-Han; Wu, Bin; Tapolcai, Janos; Shihada, Basem

    2011-01-01

    Achieving instantaneous and precise failure localization in all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks has been an attractive feature of network fault management systems, and is particularly important when failure-dependent protection is employed. The paper introduces a novel framework of real-time failure localization in all-optical WDM mesh networks, called monitoring-burst (m-burst), which aims to initiate a graceful compromise between consumed monitoring resources and monitoring delay. Different from any previously reported solution, the proposed m-burst framework has a single monitoring node (MN) which launches optical bursts along a set of pre-defined close-loop routes, called monitoring cycles (m-cycles), to probe the links along the m-cycles. Bursts along different m-cycles are kept non-overlapping through any link of the network. By identifying the lost bursts due to single link failure events only, the MN can unambiguously localize the failed link in at least 3-connected networks. We will justify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed m-burst framework in the scenario of interest. To avoid possible collision among optical bursts launched by the MN, we define the problem of collision-free scheduling and formulate it into an integer linear program (ILP) in order to minimize the monitoring delay. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and the proposed solution.

  15. Monitoring burst (M-burst) — A novel framework of failure localization in all-optical mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Mohammed L.

    2011-10-10

    Achieving instantaneous and precise failure localization in all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks has been an attractive feature of network fault management systems, and is particularly important when failure-dependent protection is employed. The paper introduces a novel framework of real-time failure localization in all-optical WDM mesh networks, called monitoring-burst (m-burst), which aims to initiate a graceful compromise between consumed monitoring resources and monitoring delay. Different from any previously reported solution, the proposed m-burst framework has a single monitoring node (MN) which launches optical bursts along a set of pre-defined close-loop routes, called monitoring cycles (m-cycles), to probe the links along the m-cycles. Bursts along different m-cycles are kept non-overlapping through any link of the network. By identifying the lost bursts due to single link failure events only, the MN can unambiguously localize the failed link in at least 3-connected networks. We will justify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed m-burst framework in the scenario of interest. To avoid possible collision among optical bursts launched by the MN, we define the problem of collision-free scheduling and formulate it into an integer linear program (ILP) in order to minimize the monitoring delay. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and the proposed solution.

  16. Inhibition of the neutrophil oxidative burst by sphingoid long-chain bases: role of protein kinase C in the activation of the burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.; Olcott, M.C.; Bell, R.M.; Merrill, A.H.; Lambeth, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The neutrophil oxidative burst is triggered by a variety of both particulate (opsonized zymosan) and soluble agonists [formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), arachidonate, short-chained diacylglycerols (DAG) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)]. The authors show that the long-chain lipid bases sphinganine and sphingosine block activation of the burst in human neutrophils. Inhibition is reversible, does not alter cell viability, and does not affect phagocytosis. The inhibition affects the activation mechanism rather than the NADPH-oxidase enzyme. The structural requirements for inhibition include a hydrophobic carbon chain and an amino-containing headgroup, and the naturally occurring erythro sphinganine was more potent than the threo isomer. Activation of the oxidative burst by a variety of agonists was blocked by the same concentration of sphinganine indicating a common inhibited step. The authors suggest that the common step is protein kinase C, as evidenced by the following: 1) long-chain bases inhibit PKC in a micelle reconstituted system, 2) PMA-induced phophorylation is inhibited by sphinganine, and 3) sphinganine competes with ( 3 H)-phorbol dibutyrate for its cytosolic receptor (i.e. protein kinase C). The authors suggest that sphingoid long-chain bases play a role in the cellular regulations

  17. Slow Bursting Neurons of Mouse Cortical Layer 6b Are Depolarized by Hypocretin/Orexin and Major Transmitters of Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger Combremont, Anne-Laure; Bayer, Laurence; Dupré, Anouk; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Neurons firing spontaneously in bursts in the absence of synaptic transmission have been previously recorded in different layers of cortical brain slices. It has been suggested that such neurons could contribute to the generation of alternating UP and DOWN states, a pattern of activity seen during slow-wave sleep. Here, we show that in layer 6b (L6b), known from our previous studies to contain neurons highly responsive to the wake-promoting transmitter hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx), there is a set of neurons, endowed with distinct intrinsic properties, which displayed a strong propensity to fire spontaneously in rhythmic bursts. In response to small depolarizing steps, they responded with a delayed firing of action potentials which, upon higher depolarizing steps, invariably inactivated and were followed by a depolarized plateau potential and a depolarizing afterpotential. These cells also displayed a strong hyperpolarization-activated rectification compatible with the presence of an I h current. Most L6b neurons with such properties were able to fire spontaneously in bursts. Their bursting activity was of intrinsic origin as it persisted not only in presence of blockers of ionotropic glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors but also in a condition of complete synaptic blockade. However, a small number of these neurons displayed a mix of intrinsic bursting and synaptically driven recurrent UP and DOWN states. Most of the bursting L6b neurons were depolarized and excited by hcrt/orx through a direct postsynaptic mechanism that led to tonic firing and eventually inactivation. Similarly, they were directly excited by noradrenaline, histamine, dopamine, and neurotensin. Finally, the intracellular injection of these cells with dye and their subsequent Neurolucida reconstruction indicated that they were spiny non-pyramidal neurons. These results lead us to suggest that the propensity for slow rhythmic bursting of this set of L6b neurons could be directly impeded by hcrt

  18. Bullet Ultrasonic Obstruction Detection & Distance Measurement Using AVR Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Pandey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the practical implementation of a short range ultrasonic obstruction detection and distance measurement device. By employing an ultrasonic transducer pair for producing ultrasonic sounds and sensing the reflected sound waves, the obstructions are detected. The hardware interface uses an Atmel ATmega8 AVR microcontroller to facilitate the generation of 40 kHz signal burst which is used in the transmitter circuit, and also to process the received signal for measuring the time of flight of reflected waves and exact distance of the obstruction. The program for this device is developed in WinAVR, and the code generated is dumped into microcontroller using AVR Studio. Educational aspects of this project include the mastery of a programming language and corresponding tools, the design of a functional and intuitive embedded application, and the development of appropriate hardware to build the device.

  19. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  20. Distance Metric Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    whereBψ is any Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. From (Hall & Willett, 2015) we have: Theorem 1. G` = max θ∈Θ,`∈L ‖∇f(θ)‖ φmax = 1...Kullback-Liebler divergence between an initial guess of the matrix that parameterizes the Mahalanobis distance and a solution that satisfies a set of...Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. M̂0, µ̂0 are initialized to some initial value. In [18] a closed-form algorithm for solving