WorldWideScience

Sample records for burrowing denning dinosaur

  1. Dinosaur Day!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  2. Dinosaur tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper; B. Loope, David

    2007-01-01

    A dinosaur trackway in the Middle Jurassic eolian Entrada Sandstone of southern Utah, USA, exposes three undertracks that we have modeled as isolated tectonic regimes showing the development of fold-thrust ramp systems induced by the dinosaur's feet. The faulted and folded sequence is comparable...... to crustal scale tectonics associated with plate tectonics and foreland fold-thrust belts. A structural analysis of the dinosaur tracks shows the timing and direction of the forces exercised on the substrate by the animal's foot during the stride. Based on the structural analysis, we establish a scenario...... the back. As the body accelerated, the foot was forced backward. The rotated disc was forced backward along a detachment fault that was bounded by lateral ramps. The interramp segment matches the width of the dinosaur's foot which created an imbricate fan thrust system that extended to the far end...

  3. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  4. Dinosaur Dioramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinkman, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project for second-grade students where in over five class periods, they create fired clay dinosaur sculptures with dioramas as the background. States that this project, the culminating activity for a sculpture unit, teaches students many art terms and uses of different media. (CMK)

  5. What's New, Dinosaur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Carol Spirkoff; Cox, Judy

    1987-01-01

    Activities and information relating to dinosaurs are presented, including: study of warm- and cold-blooded animals; research about recent dinosaur discoveries; track-making; studying and making fossils; and extinction theories. (CB)

  6. Dinosaur Extinction, Early Childhood Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mary; Valentine-Anand, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Do dinosaurs have bellybuttons? This intriguing question launched a journey into inquiry science that captivated a class of four-year-olds for eight months. As students enjoyed dinosaur books, examined dinosaur artifacts, drew pictures, watched videos, and generally immersed themselves in all things dinosaur, the authors built a culture of…

  7. Dinosaur physiology. Evidence for mesothermy in dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, John M; Enquist, Brian J; Dettweiler-Robinson, Eva; Wright, Natalie A; Smith, Felisa A

    2014-06-13

    Were dinosaurs ectotherms or fast-metabolizing endotherms whose activities were unconstrained by temperature? To date, some of the strongest evidence for endothermy comes from the rapid growth rates derived from the analysis of fossil bones. However, these studies are constrained by a lack of comparative data and an appropriate energetic framework. Here we compile data on ontogenetic growth for extant and fossil vertebrates, including all major dinosaur clades. Using a metabolic scaling approach, we find that growth and metabolic rates follow theoretical predictions across clades, although some groups deviate. Moreover, when the effects of size and temperature are considered, dinosaur metabolic rates were intermediate to those of endotherms and ectotherms and closest to those of extant mesotherms. Our results suggest that the modern dichotomy of endothermic versus ectothermic is overly simplistic.

  8. On Dinosaur Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite nearly two centuries of investigation, a comprehensive understanding of dinosaur biology has proven intractable. The recent development of means to study tissue-level growth, age these animals, and make growth curves has revolutionized our knowledge of dinosaur lives. From such data it is now understood that dinosaurs grew both disruptively and determinately; that they rarely if ever exceeded a century in age; that they became giants through accelerated growth and dwarfed through truncated development; that they were likely endothermic, sexually matured like crocodiles, and showed survivorship like populations of large mammals; and that basal birds retained dinosaurian physiology.

  9. The dinosaurs of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffetaut, Eric; Suteethorn, Varavudh

    After more than ten years of Thai-French research, the Thai dinosaur record, from the continental rocks of the Khorat Plateau, is, to date, the best in Southeast Asia. The oldest evidence consists of footprints of small dinosaurs from the Middle to Late Jurassic Phra Wihan Formation. The most varied dinosaur assemblage hitherto found in Thailand comes from the Late Jurassic Sao Khua Formation; it is dominated by sauropods, but also includes various theropods. Large theropod footprints are known from the Early Cretaceous Phu Phan Formation. Theropods and the primitive ceratopsian Psittacosaurus occur in the Aptian-Albian Khok Kruat Formation.

  10. Burrowing owl survey : 1994 report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of burrowing owl nesting activity in the Central Region of Colorado in 1994, produced by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. There is little long term data on...

  11. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  12. Dinosaurs Got Tumors, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the root of the duck-billed dinosaur family tree, and the presence of such a deformity early ... or federal policy. Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Benign Tumors About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  13. Burrows and burrowing of the puffin (Fratercula arctica)

    OpenAIRE

    Hornung, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    During a recent study of soil erosion in the Farne Islands, Northumberland puffin colony it became clear that any interpretation of the erosion process and its causes would require information on the size of nest burrows, their excavation and useful life. The following paper is an attempt to bring together published material on these topics with additional data obtained during the Farne Islands study

  14. Archaeopteryx: Dinosaur or Bird?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2011-01-01

    @@ An Archaeopteryx-like theropod dinosaur newly found from western Liaoning Province in northeastern China would make an unusual, if not unwelcome, gift for the 150th birthday of Archaeopteryx, the oldest bird as long-believed by paleontologists: Named as Xiaotingia zhengiis, the new species carries some critical traits suggesting that Archaeopteryx might have actually been a dinosaur.Naturally this breaking news stirred intense controversies.Was "The Oldest Bird" a bird? If not, what makes a bird? With these questions in mind, the author joined an exploration in search of "the real first bird" along with the paleontologists at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) under CAS.

  15. Giant Dinosaur Find

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Fossil site could provide answers to mystery of extinction Chinese scientists claim to have discovered the world’s largest dinosaur fossil site in eastern Shandong Province, which is expected to shed light on the animal’s mysterious extinction toward the end of the Cretaceous Period 65 millionyears ago.

  16. Dinosaurs' True Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 10,the Beijing Museum of Natural History(BMNH)announced scientists from China and abroad had decoded the full-body color patterns of a dinosaur,a small theropod named as anchiomis huxleyi,for the first time.

  17. Evolution of dinosaur epidermal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paul M; Evans, David C; Campione, Nicolás E

    2015-06-01

    Spectacularly preserved non-avian dinosaurs with integumentary filaments/feathers have revolutionized dinosaur studies and fostered the suggestion that the dinosaur common ancestor possessed complex integumentary structures homologous to feathers. This hypothesis has major implications for interpreting dinosaur biology, but has not been tested rigorously. Using a comprehensive database of dinosaur skin traces, we apply maximum-likelihood methods to reconstruct the phylogenetic distribution of epidermal structures and interpret their evolutionary history. Most of these analyses find no compelling evidence for the appearance of protofeathers in the dinosaur common ancestor and scales are usually recovered as the plesiomorphic state, but results are sensitive to the outgroup condition in pterosaurs. Rare occurrences of ornithischian filamentous integument might represent independent acquisitions of novel epidermal structures that are not homologous with theropod feathers.

  18. Burrow Occupancy Patterns of the Western Burrowing Owl in Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Greger and Derek B. Hall

    2009-09-01

    Understanding long-term patterns of burrow occupancy for the Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) is necessary for the conservation of this species, especially in arid, desert ecosystems where burrow occupancy data are lacking. Monthly burrow monitoring was conducted over a 4-year period (1997–2001) in southern Nevada to determine burrow occupancy patterns of Burrowing Owls and to evaluate the effects of burrow type and desert region on burrow occupancy. Burrow occupancy occurred year-round and was most consistent in the Transition region and tended to be lowest in the Mojave Desert region. Peak burrow occupancy occurred during March through May, followed by a gradual decline in occupancy through the summer and fall until January and February, when occupancy was lowest. Occupancy was significantly higher at sites with both culvert and pipe burrows than at sites with earthen burrows in disturbed habitat or earthen burrows in natural habitat. Breeding-season occupancy was not significantly higher in wetter, cooler portions (e.g., Great Basin desert region) of the study area. Results suggest that occupancy is influenced by habitat features—such as suitable burrows in open areas with low vegetation—and climatic regime.

  19. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  20. A dark day for dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Pete

    2015-11-01

    On average, 91 people are killed by asteroids each year. In her book Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs, theoretical physicist Lisa Randall focuses on a novel question: how did a dinosaur-killing asteroid end up on its collision course with Earth in the first place?

  1. If You Were a Dinosaur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Dinosaurs are one of those science topics that draw children in and teach them about concepts like measuring and using descriptive language. Learning about dinosaurs, although not hands-on like observing and recording caterpillar growth, develops critical thinking and introduces animal diversity and the relations between body form and function.…

  2. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  3. Dinosaur footprints and other ichnofauna from the cretaceous Kem Kem beds of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Varricchio, David J; Sereno, Paul C; Wilson, Jeffery A; Wilson, Jeff A; Dutheil, Didier B; Martill, David M; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extensive ichnofossil assemblage from the likely Cenomanian-age 'lower' and 'upper' units of the 'Kem Kem beds' in southeastern Morocco. In the lower unit, trace fossils include narrow vertical burrows in cross-bedded sandstones and borings in dinosaur bone, with the latter identified as the insect ichnotaxon Cubiculum ornatus. In the upper unit, several horizons preserve abundant footprints from theropod dinosaurs. Sauropod and ornithischian footprints are much rarer, similar to the record for fossil bone and teeth in the Kem Kem assemblage. The upper unit also preserves a variety of invertebrate traces including Conichnus (the resting trace of a sea-anemone), Scolicia (a gastropod trace), Beaconites (a probable annelid burrow), and subvertical burrows likely created by crabs for residence and detrital feeding on a tidal flat. The ichnofossil assemblage from the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem beds contributes evidence for a transition from predominantly terrestrial to marine deposition. Body fossil and ichnofossil records together provide a detailed view of faunal diversity and local conditions within a fluvial and deltaic depositional setting on the northwestern coast of Africa toward the end of the Cretaceous.

  4. Den gode argumentations anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    God argumentation har tre dimensioner: Den er faktuelt retvisende, den er relevant, og den er vægtig. Desværre slipper politikerne ofte af sted med mangelfuld argumentation fordi de forklæder den godt. Derfor får du her de vigtigste redskaber til at spotte uskikkene i politisk argumentation...

  5. Den performative by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Den performative by omhandler den æstetiske og affektive drejning, der finder sted inden for kulturel byudvikling i øjeblikket......Den performative by omhandler den æstetiske og affektive drejning, der finder sted inden for kulturel byudvikling i øjeblikket...

  6. Misty – museets nye dinosaur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2014-01-01

    I november 2013 fi k Statens Naturhistoriske Museum en 16 meter lang julegave – det meget velbevarede skelet af en langhalset dinosaur med kælenavnet ’Misty’. Købet af det enorme skelet var muligt takket være en meget generøs gave fra Det Obelske Familiefond. Denne artikel ser nærmere på Misty......, hvad man ved om langhalsede dinosaurer, og hendes fremtidige betydning for museets forskning og formidling....

  7. Localized fluidization burrowing mechanics of Ensis directus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Amos G; Deits, Robin L H; Hosoi, A E

    2012-06-15

    Muscle measurements of Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam, indicate that the organism only has sufficient strength to burrow a few centimeters into the soil, yet razor clams burrow to over 70 cm. In this paper, we show that the animal uses the motions of its valves to locally fluidize the surrounding soil and reduce burrowing drag. Substrate deformations were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a novel visualization system that enabled us to see through the soil and watch E. directus burrow in situ. PIV data, supported by soil and fluid mechanics theory, show that contraction of the valves of E. directus locally fluidizes the surrounding soil. Particle and fluid mixtures can be modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity based on the local void fraction. Using these models, we demonstrate that E. directus is strong enough to reach full burrow depth in fluidized soil, but not in static soil. Furthermore, we show that the method of localized fluidization reduces the amount of energy required to reach burrow depth by an order of magnitude compared with penetrating static soil, and leads to a burrowing energy that scales linearly with depth rather than with depth squared. PMID:22623195

  8. Burrowing Owls, Pulex irritans, and Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belthoff, James R; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher L; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K

    2015-09-01

    Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls of western North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands. Because they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorial mammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found on burrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas collected from burrowing owls and in owl blood. During 2012-2013, fleas and blood were collected from burrowing owls in portions of five states with endemic plague-Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, and South Dakota. Fleas were enumerated, taxonomically identified, pooled by nest, and assayed for Y. pestis using culturing and molecular (PCR) approaches. Owl blood underwent serological analysis for plague antibodies and nested PCR for detection of Y. pestis. Of more than 4750 fleas collected from owls, Pulex irritans, a known plague vector in portions of its range, comprised more than 99.4%. However, diagnostic tests for Y. pestis of flea pools (culturing and PCR) and owl blood (PCR and serology) were negative. Thus, even though fleas were prevalent on burrowing owls and the potential for a relationship with burrowing owls as a phoretic host of infected fleas exists, we found no evidence of Y. pestis in sampled fleas or in owls that harbored them. We suggest that studies similar to those reported here during plague epizootics will be especially useful for confirming these results. PMID:26367482

  9. Application of morphologic burrow architects: lungfish or crayfish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiotis, Stephen T.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Dubiel, Russell R.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for trace fossil identification using burrowing signatures is tested by evaluating ancient and modern lungfish and crayfish burrows and comparing them to previously undescribed burrows in a stratigraphic interval thought to contain both lungfish and crayfish burrows. Permian burrows that bear skeletal remains of the lungfish Gnathorhiza, from museum collections, were evaluated to identify unique burrow morphologies that could be used to distinguish lungfish from crayfish burrows when fossil remains are absent. The lungfish burrows were evaluated for details of the burrowing mechanism preserved in the burrow morphologies together forming burrowing signatures and were compared to new burrows in the Chinle Formation of western Colorado to test the methodology of using burrow signatures to identify unknown burrows. Permian lungfish aestivation burrows show simple, nearly vertical, unbranched architectures and relatively smooth surficial morphologies with characteristic quasi‐horizontal striae on the burrow walls and vertical striae on the bulbous terminus. Burrow lengths do not exceed 0.5 m. In contrast, modern and ancient crayfish burrows exhibit simple to highly complex architectures with highly textured surficial morphologies. Burrow lengths may reach 4 to 5 m. Burrow morphologies unlike those identified in Gnathorhiza aestivation burrows were found in four burrow groups from museum collections. Two of these groups exhibit simple architectures and horizontal striae that were greater in sinuosity and magnitude, respectively. One of these burrows contains the remains of Lysorophus, but the burrow surface reveals no reliable surficial characteristics. It is not clear whether Lysorophus truly burrowed or merely occupied a pre‐existing structure. The other two groups exhibit surficial morphologies similar to those found on modern and ancient crayfish burrows and may provide evidence of freshwater crayfish in the Permian. Burrows from the Upper Triassic

  10. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is...

  11. The burrowing origin of modern snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes.

  12. The Development of a Virtual Dinosaur Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Liou, Hsin-Hun

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to study the network and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual dinosaur museum, which provides a Web-learning environment for students of all ages and the general public to know more about dinosaurs. We first investigate the method for building the 3D dynamic models of dinosaurs, and then describe…

  13. Simulating Dinosaur Digestion in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczkis, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for use with a chapter on dinosaurs, prehistoric life, or digestion in which children make simulated dinosaur stomachs to gain hands-on experience about the theory of gastroliths, or stomach stones. Presents teacher information about the digestive processes in birds and dinosaurs. Discusses materials needed, objectives,…

  14. Burrowing owls, Pulex irritans and plague

    OpenAIRE

    Belthoff, James R.; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H.; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K.

    2015-01-01

    Western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls ofwestern North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands.As they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorialmammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found onburrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas and inowl blood. During 2012-2013 fleas and blood were ...

  15. Idealismen og dens kritikere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    En idéhistorisk redegørelse for filosofien i tiden mellem 1789 og 1857 - med hovedvægt på kritikken af den franske revolution, den tyske idealisme (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel) samt positivismen i Frankrig.......En idéhistorisk redegørelse for filosofien i tiden mellem 1789 og 1857 - med hovedvægt på kritikken af den franske revolution, den tyske idealisme (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel) samt positivismen i Frankrig....

  16. dens psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    2011-01-01

    I kapitlet beskrives psykologiens forhold til og behandling af døden. Der er fokus på en psykoanalytisk og en eksistentialistisk tilgang. Den klassiske teori om dødens forløb repræsenteret af Elisabeth Kübler-Ross diskuteres i lyset af nyere teorier som Terror Management Theory og Meaning Managem...... Management Theory. Endelig er der fokus på døden i det postmoderne samfund....

  17. The zoogeomorphic characteristics of burrows and burrowing by nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Carol F.; Brinkman, Donald C.; Walker, Vincent D.; Covington, Tyler D.; Stienstraw, Elizabeth A.

    2012-07-01

    Burrowing animals act like a geomorphic disturbance, changing the environment through soil excavation, landform creation and bioturbation. The potential zoogeomorphic effects of these actions include modification of surficial features, increased soil erosion, changes in the growth and distribution of vegetation, and modifications to soil fertility. The burrowing ninebanded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) migrated to North America prior to the 1850s and has since continued to expand its habitat to the American Southeast and parts of the Midwest. Little data are available on the zoogeomorphic impact of the burrowing nature of this species, making it difficult to predict future implications of this animal as it continues to migrate into new regions. On the University of South Alabama campus, in Mobile, Alabama, armadillos are present on a 35-hectare unprotected forested preserve used by the university community for outdoor activities and research. To understand the potential zoogeomorphic impact of armadillo burrows on the local environment, morphometric measurements were recorded on 187 burrows located in the study area. Using dimensions of burrow entrances and minimum lengths of tunnels in calculations, armadillos excavated approximately 0.029 m3 to 0.04 m3 of soil from each burrow. The entrances to burrows averaged 33.5° in slope and tended to be located in a microhabitat of a fallen tree, exposed tree roots, or a sideslope. Persistent fall of forest litter and anthropogenic modifications makes positive identification of spoil mounds possible in approximately half of the burrow sites. Surface modification by armadillos is ongoing in the study area with over half of the burrows classified as active during the four-month project. We concluded that, for southern Alabama, armadillos prefer to excavate burrows into sideslopes, and that given the lack of ground cover, sandy soil, and humid climate, armadillos are an important zoogeomorphic agent in the region.

  18. Den kommunikerende organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    samtidig tilbydes optimale muligheder for at få opfyldt individuelle behov og karrieremuligheder. For at en organisation skal kunne korrigere sig i forhold til de krav den konfronteres med, må der kunne fremstilles et adækvat billede af den. Det vil sige at dens faktiske kommunikationsprocesser må kunne...... drages frem i lyset på en måde så hensigtsmæssigheder og uhensigtsmæssigheder kan iagttages og selv blive objekt for reflekteret organisationskommunikation. Dette paper giver et udkast til en analysestrategi, hvormed der kan tegnes et billede af den enkelte organisation ud fra hvordan dens enkelte og...

  19. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  20. A New Day for Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Gene

    1987-01-01

    Presents a series of activities that use dinosaurs as a theme for teaching biological and geological concepts. The activities can be adapted for use with middle school through college level biology students. Exercises address such topics as: evolutionary relationships of vertebrates; Mesozoic ecology; animal tracks; and mineral replacement…

  1. Allometry in dinosaurs and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott

    2015-03-01

    The proportions of the leg bones change as the size of an animal becomes larger since the mass of the animal increases at a faster rate than the cross-sectional area of its leg bones. For the case of elastic similarity (in which the longitudinal stress in the legs remains constant in animals of all sizes), the diameter d and length L of the femur should be related as d = A L3/2. For geometric similarity (in which all dimensions are scaled by the same factor), d = A L. For animals with femora longer than 20 cm, we find the power law relationship to be d = A Lb with b = 1.13 +/- 0.06 for extant mammals (the largest mammal being Loxodonta africana with a 1.00-m-long femur) and b = 1.18 +/- 0.02 for dinosaurs (the largest dinosaur being Brachiosaurus brancai with a 2.03-m-long femur). These data show that extinct dinosaurs and extant animals scale in the same basic manner. The large sauropods (with femora twice as long as found in elephants) scale in a manner consistent with extrapolation of the scaling shown by extant mammals. These results argue that extinct dinosaurs moved in a manner very similar to extant mammals.

  2. Den situationsbestemte bolig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2010-01-01

    Boligen er en del af vores forbrugsmønster, mere og mere uforudsigeligt og præget af tilfældigheder, stemninger og den situation, den enkelte befinder sig i. Dette stiller forskellige krav til den samme bolig, krav om individuel fortolkning, fleksibilitet og åbne anvendelsesmuligheder. Ud fra ana...... analyser af boliger i Pærehaven og VM-huset karakteriseres boligen som et dynamisk projekt rettet mod opbygning af identitet og arkitektonisk kvalitet....

  3. "Den onde kvinde"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Et af Dødehavsskrifterne, af den første udgiver kaldet "Den onde kvindes rænker" (4Q184), beskriver en svigefuld kvinde, der lokker fromme mænd i fordærv. Artiklen gennemgår tekstens fortolkningshistorie og påviser den rolle, det har spillet for læsningen, at teksten a priori er blevet opfattet s...

  4. Den Danske Regnskabsordbog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise; Bergenholtz, Henning

    Den Danske Regnskabsordbog har 4.100 opslagsord og ca. 15.000 ordforbindelser. Ordbøgerne bygger primært på den gældende danske årsregnskabslov, danske regnskabsvejledninger og internationale regnskabsstandarder (IAS/IFRS).......Den Danske Regnskabsordbog har 4.100 opslagsord og ca. 15.000 ordforbindelser. Ordbøgerne bygger primært på den gældende danske årsregnskabslov, danske regnskabsvejledninger og internationale regnskabsstandarder (IAS/IFRS)....

  5. Den store skandinaviske redningsaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bundgård

    2015-01-01

    Historikeren Bo Lidegaard fortæller flot den store historie om den forbløffende og komplicerede skandinaviske redning af fanger fra Hitlers koncentrationslejre. En historie, der samtidig berører alvorlige moralske spørgsmål.......Historikeren Bo Lidegaard fortæller flot den store historie om den forbløffende og komplicerede skandinaviske redning af fanger fra Hitlers koncentrationslejre. En historie, der samtidig berører alvorlige moralske spørgsmål....

  6. Gondwanan dinosaur evolution and biogeographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Catherine A.

    Gondwanan dinosaurs, though less well-known than their Laurasian counterparts,are being discovered and described at an ever accelerating pace. Dinosaurs are known from every major Gondwanan landmass, including South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, India, Madagascar and New Zealand. Much of the Gondwanan dinosaur literature includes speculation on vicariant and dispersal events relating to the fragmentation of Gondwana during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. These prolific biogeographic hypotheses are often inconclusive, speculative in nature, and untestable with the data at hand. To formulate well-supported biogeographic hypotheses, resolved dinosaur phylogenies and sound hypotheses of Earth history are necessary. Other factors, such as taphonomy, depositional setting, and missing taxonomic, temporal and geographic data, also contribute to understanding dinosaur faunal compositions. Additional phylogenetic information, a continuation of the current exploration and discovery, and knowledge of recent advances in tectonic plate reconstructions are paramount to developing a well-supported view of Gondwanan dinosaur biogeography.

  7. The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastovsky, David E.; Weishampel, David B.

    2005-02-01

    Written for non-specialists, this detailed survey of dinosaur origins, diversity, and extinction is designed as a series of successive essays covering important and timely topics in dinosaur paleobiology, such as "warm-bloodedness," birds as living dinosaurs, the new, non-flying feathered dinosaurs, dinosaur functional morphology, and cladistic methods in systematics. Its explicitly phylogenetic approach to the group is that taken by dinosaur specialists. The book is not an edited compilation of the works of many individuals, but a unique, cohesive perspective on Dinosauria. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of new, specially commissioned illustrations by John Sibbick, world-famous illustrator of dinosaurs, the volume includes multi-page drawings as well as sketches and diagrams. First edition Hb (1996): 0-521-44496-9 David E. Fastovsky is Professor of Geosciences at the University of Rhode Island. Fastovsky, the author of numerous scientific publications dealing with Mesozoic vertebrate faunas and their ancient environments, is also scientific co-Editor of Geology. He has undertaken extensive fieldwork studying dinosaurs and their environments in Montana, North Dakota, Arizona, Mexico, and Mongolia. David B. Weishampel is a professor at the Center for Functional Anatomy and Evolution at Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine. Weishampel is best known for discovering, researching, and naming several rare European dinosaur species. During the 1980s Weishampel gained fame for his work with American paleontologist Jack Horner and later named the famous plant-eating, egg-laying Orodromeus, Horner. Now, a decade after his pioneering studies with Horner, Weishampel is most widely known for his current work on the Romanian dinosaur fauna. He is the author and co-author of many titles, including The Dinosaur Papers, 1676-1906 (Norton, 2003); The Dinosauria, (University of California, 1990); and Dinosaurs of the East Coast, (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).

  8. Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise). Burrow collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Caleb L.; Ennen, Joshua; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    In the deserts of the southwestern U.S., burrows are utilized by the Desert Tortoise to escape environmental extremes (reviewed by Ernst and Lovich 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada. 2nd ed. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 827 pp.). However, the potential for mortality through burrow collapse and entrapment is poorly documented. Nicholson and Humphreys (1981. Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council, pp. 163−194) suggested that collapse due to livestock trampling may cause mortality. In addition, Lovich et al. (2011. Chelon. Cons. Biol. 10[1]:124–129) documented a Desert Tortoise that used a steel culvert as a burrow surrogate. The culvert filled completely with sediment following a significant rain event, entombing the animal and ultimately resulting in its death. We note that this mortality was associated with an anthropogenic structure; because tortoises are prodigious diggers, one might hypothesize that they have the ability to dig out of collapsed natural burrows in most situations. Circumstances described here presented us with an opportunity to test this hypothesis.

  9. Den lille levnedsmiddeltabel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse; Matthiessen, Jeppe;

    Den lille levnedsmiddeltabel er en oversigt over indholdet af næringsstoffer i næsten 600 af de mest anvendte fødevarer i den danske kost. Herudover rummer bogen anvisninger til anvendelsen af fødevaredata....

  10. Den nordjyske bankkrig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florentsen, Bjarne; Møller, Michael; Parum, Claus

    2015-01-01

    I denne artikel ses på den aktuelle bankkrig i Nordjylland med Nordjyske Bank, Nørresundby Bank og Spar Nord som de primære aktører. Med udgangspunkt i denne krig diskuteres konsolidering i banksektoren, kompleksiteten i denne fusion, problemerne i den offentliggjorte information samt...

  11. Den moderate revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bøje

    "normale" industrivirksomheder, men den er absolut set begrænset. Årsagerne til denne kun "moderate revolution" af organisationsformerne diskuteres: Er det fordi klassisk organisation og social nærkontakt er nødvendig i den nye økonomi, eller er det manglende fantasi og tryghedsbehov? Begge muligheder...

  12. Den humane virksomhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.; Thorup, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Med den stadig tiltagende opmærksomhed på mennesket som den væsentligste ressource i videnssamfundet, har virksomhederne gennem de seneste årtier opprioriteret de menneskelige værdier i en sådan grad, at man i dag taler om en humanisering af kapitalismen. Christian Olaf Christiansen og Mikkel Tho...

  13. Den Legende Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    Bogen beskriver, hvordan to vidt forskellige organisationer - den store internationale virksomhed LEGO og den mindre nonprofit organisation SUS - har bragt legen i spil. Ann Charlotte Thorsted viser i bogen, hvordan leg kan understøtte innovation, læring, kommunikation, samarbejde og det gode...

  14. The origin and early radiation of dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Irmis, Randall B.; Butler, Richard J.; Benton, Michael J.; Norell, Mark A.

    2010-07-01

    Dinosaurs were remarkably successful during the Mesozoic and one subgroup, birds, remain an important component of modern ecosystems. Although the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous has been the subject of intense debate, comparatively little attention has been given to the origin and early evolution of dinosaurs during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, one of the most important evolutionary radiations in earth history. Our understanding of this keystone event has dramatically changed over the past 25 years, thanks to an influx of new fossil discoveries, reinterpretations of long-ignored specimens, and quantitative macroevolutionary analyses that synthesize anatomical and geological data. Here we provide an overview of the first 50 million years of dinosaur history, with a focus on the large-scale patterns that characterize the ascent of dinosaurs from a small, almost marginal group of reptiles in the Late Triassic to the preeminent terrestrial vertebrates of the Jurassic and Cretaceous. We provide both a biological and geological background for early dinosaur history. Dinosaurs are deeply nested among the archosaurian reptiles, diagnosed by only a small number of characters, and are subdivided into a number of major lineages. The first unequivocal dinosaurs are known from the late Carnian of South America, but the presence of their sister group in the Middle Triassic implies that dinosaurs possibly originated much earlier. The three major dinosaur lineages, theropods, sauropodomorphs, and ornithischians, are all known from the Triassic, when continents were joined into the supercontinent Pangaea and global climates were hot and arid. Although many researchers have long suggested that dinosaurs outcompeted other reptile groups during the Triassic, we argue that the ascent of dinosaurs was more of a matter of contingency and opportunism. Dinosaurs were overshadowed in most Late Triassic ecosystems by crocodile-line archosaurs and

  15. Den Gode Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T.E.

    den nysgerrige læser af trilogien. Den kan beses og bestilles på: www.universitypress.dk/DK/detail.php?token=73278292116&R=8778387078&N=nej ELLER KØB DEN DIREKTE HOS MIG: SLAGTILBUD 100 kr. (inkl. porto og forsendelse)!                            Henvendelse pr. e-mail til tine.engel@gmail.com...

  16. Dinosaur dynamics in the Jurassic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott

    2010-04-01

    Dinosaurs were fascinating animals and elicit much excitement in the classroom. Analysis of fossilized dinosaur trackways permits one to estimate the locomotion speeds and accelerations of these extinct beasts. Such analysis allows one to apply Newton's laws of motion to examples from the Jurassic Era.

  17. The precise temporal calibration of dinosaur origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Claudia A.; Irmis, Randall B.; Mancuso, Adriana C.; Mundil, Roland; Chemale, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs have been major components of ecosystems for over 200 million years. Although different macroevolutionary scenarios exist to explain the Triassic origin and subsequent rise to dominance of dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs), all lack critical support from a precise biostratigraphically independent temporal framework. The absence of robust geochronologic age control for comparing alternative scenarios makes it impossible to determine if observed faunal differences vary across time, space, or a combination of both. To better constrain the origin of dinosaurs, we produced radioisotopic ages for the Argentinian Chañares Formation, which preserves a quintessential assemblage of dinosaurian precursors (early dinosauromorphs) just before the first dinosaurs. Our new high-precision chemical abrasion thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages reveal that the assemblage is early Carnian (early Late Triassic), 5- to 10-Ma younger than previously thought. Combined with other geochronologic data from the same basin, we constrain the rate of dinosaur origins, demonstrating their relatively rapid origin in a less than 5-Ma interval, thus halving the temporal gap between assemblages containing only dinosaur precursors and those with early dinosaurs. After their origin, dinosaurs only gradually dominated mid- to high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems millions of years later, closer to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  18. I den sidste time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Lis

    : Dekadencens teori. Arthur William Symons: Dekadencens litteratur. Oscar Wilde: Kritikeren som kunstner) Noter I tekster skrevet i 1800-tallet udfoldes dekadencekunsten som den forfinede sensibilitets, de forstyrrede sansers og det oprevne sinds digtning. Med litteraturhenvisninger....

  19. Den positive psykologis metoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen introducerer til de mange metoder, som anvendes i positiv psykologi. dette sker ud fra en reflekteret tilgang, der ligeledes rummer bidrag fra kritisk psykologi med det formål at nuancere den positive psykologis forståelser...

  20. EF & den sociale dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Jesper Jørgen; Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    En analyse af EU's institutioner og udviklingen af den sociale dimension i forbindelse med etbaleringen af det indre marked med særlig henblik på effekterne på det danske aftalesystem.......En analyse af EU's institutioner og udviklingen af den sociale dimension i forbindelse med etbaleringen af det indre marked med særlig henblik på effekterne på det danske aftalesystem....

  1. Den signede dag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev-Clausen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår de tre middelalderlige versioner af den fællesnordiske dagvise fra 14. århundrede og gør rede for salmens tekst- og receptionshistorie i Dansk tradition.......Artiklen gennemgår de tre middelalderlige versioner af den fællesnordiske dagvise fra 14. århundrede og gør rede for salmens tekst- og receptionshistorie i Dansk tradition....

  2. Healthies er den nye selfie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Om den sunde selfie, healthien. Om årsagne til dens opståen, succes og visuelt kulturelle og æstetiske betydning på de sociale medier.......Om den sunde selfie, healthien. Om årsagne til dens opståen, succes og visuelt kulturelle og æstetiske betydning på de sociale medier....

  3. Berlin og den Kolde Krig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik; Friis, Thomas Wegener

    Bogen fortæller om den kolde krigs udvikling, om Berlins rivende udvikling og om forskellige danskeres besøg i den delte by.......Bogen fortæller om den kolde krigs udvikling, om Berlins rivende udvikling og om forskellige danskeres besøg i den delte by....

  4. Burrowing Owl Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin W.; Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.

    2013-03-14

    The monitoring during 2012 focused on documenting the status of known burrows. Newly identified burrows were documented while examining historical locations, during ecological resource reviews, or discovered during other monitoring efforts. The timing of the monitoring effort allowed staff to perform the surveys without disrupting any breeding or hatching, while also allowing for easy discernment of adults from juveniles, which helped in determining burrow-use type.

  5. Recent Progress in the Study of Dinosaur Eggs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; WANG Xiaolin; ZHAO Zikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dinosaur eggs are a special type of vertebrate fossils.Despite their varied shapes,all dinosaur eggs are composed of eggshells,though the thickness of the shell may also vary.Dinosaur eggshells consist primarily of the mineral calcite(calcium carbonate).By studying dinosaur eggs,we can infer the reproductive system and behavior of dinosaurs and even the palaeoenvironment,palaeoclimate,palaeoecology in which they lived.Moreover,dinosaur eggs are useful for stratigraphic division and correlation as well as paleobiogeographic interpretations.

  6. Den mindst ringe verdensorden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birthe

    2015-01-01

    I 25 år har USA's styrkeposition og politik forsynet os med en 'verdensorden', der i et historisk perspektiv fremstår som den mindst ringe: fravær af store krige, mere demokrati, økonomisk fremgang - men dog også sammenbrudte stater og terrorisme.......I 25 år har USA's styrkeposition og politik forsynet os med en 'verdensorden', der i et historisk perspektiv fremstår som den mindst ringe: fravær af store krige, mere demokrati, økonomisk fremgang - men dog også sammenbrudte stater og terrorisme....

  7. Den formbare seksualitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin Cohr

    2016-01-01

    Den amerikanske sociolog John Gagnon så seksualiteten som noget, vi lærer af vores omgivelser, ligesom vi lærer at spille tennis eller at spise snegle. Karin Lützen mindes en ven og et forbillede.......Den amerikanske sociolog John Gagnon så seksualiteten som noget, vi lærer af vores omgivelser, ligesom vi lærer at spille tennis eller at spise snegle. Karin Lützen mindes en ven og et forbillede....

  8. Lower Cretaceous Dinosaur Tracks from Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén A. Rodríguez-de la Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaur tracks have been identified near San Martín Atexcal, southern Puebla, Mexico, within the sedimentary sequence of the San Juan Raya Formation of Lower Cretaceous (Albian age. The tracksite, located in the bed of the Magdalena River, reveals six different ichnofossiliferous levels identified within a 9 m thick sedimentary sequence. The inferred environment is that of a tidal (marginal marine mudflat (Level I. Level I preserves three theropods trackways (?Allosauroidea, additionally, isolated tracks belonging to iguanodontids (Ornithopoda. Level II preserves faint iguanodontid tracks. Levels III to V preserve sauropod tracks. Younger level VI preserves, although morphologically different, a track belonging to Ornithopoda. The dinosaur tracks from San Martín Atexcal support the existence of continental facies within the San Juan Raya Formation; they represent the second record of dinosaur tracks from the Lower Cretaceous of Mexico and are part of an important but little documented record of Lower Cretaceous dinosaurs in Mexico.

  9. Den Fornybare Kemiske Industri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    En af de største udfordringer for den kemiske industri i dag er udviklingen af selektive reaktioner, hvor kulhydrater, ethanol og glycerol omdannes til simple kemikalier. Udfordringen vanskeliggøres af, at kun de simpleste reagenser som ilt og brint er tilladte, da processerne ellers vil blive ikke-rentable....

  10. Den personlige dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2009-01-01

    Personlig udvikling og kompetence er vigtige dimensioner i sygeplejerskeuddannelsen. Dette stiller krav til læringsmæssige metoder, som er specielt egenede til denne særlige undervisningsopgave. På baggrund af en række psykologiske og filosofiske inspirationskilder foreslåes den såkaldste...

  11. Den moderne by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De to første bind af Danske Bystudier beskrev byerne i en tid, da de var del af et langt større omgivende landbrugssamfund. Med industrialiseringen indledtes en proces, der førte frem til, at rollerne blev byttet om mellem land og by. Den moderne by blev skabt i denne proces. Tredje bind af serie...

  12. Den mentale didaktikportal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2008-01-01

      Digitale læringsmidler og virtuelle læringsformer er to vigtige aktører, når der skal arbejdes med didaktiske udfordringer i relation til digital kommunikationsteknologi. Imidlertid er udfordringerne for den tredje aktør - underviseren - mindst lige så store. Hvordan ændrer underviserens funkti...

  13. Den danske regionskonstruktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Kurt Klaudi

    Region Midtjylland er i centrum for analysen men den omfatter også regionsdannelsen i almindelighed. Der anlægges i analysen på samme tid et politologisk, organisationsteoretisk og økonomisk resonnement. Regionsdannelsen finder sted på baggrund af de setup Strukturreformen har sat, men udfoldes p...

  14. Den kaotiske organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Præsentation af den britiske organisationsteoretiker Ralph Stacey: Stacey mener samlet, at organisationer ikke skal ses som systemer, der opstår, når individer interagerer med hinanden. Det er selve interaktionen, der er organisationen. Staceys kernebegreb er temporære processer. Når vi interager...

  15. Den skjulte religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubow, Cecilie

    2001-01-01

    Kulturbegrebet har længe været genstand for kritik i human- og samfundsvidenskaberne. Studier i Vesteuropa, blandt andet i det danske folkekirkelige felt, viser, at der er flere paralleller at drage til religionsbegrebet. Der er behov for at bevæge sig væk fra den rutineprægede beskrivelse og gør...

  16. Den patriarkalske Abraham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2015-01-01

    økonomi og slægtskabsrelationer. I Mary Douglas' Grid/Group-skema vil Abraham stå i samme grad fjernt fra præsteligt-hierarkiske og deuteronomistisk-enklavistiske idealer, De pietistiske og etnocentriske temaer som den bibelske tekstoverleveringsproces har tilføjet Abraham-figuren, har ikke tildækket en...

  17. Den amerikanske udfordring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver den bulgarsk-franske tænker Tzvetan Todorovs udvikling fra litteraturteoretiker til bredt humanistisk engageret tænker. I artiklen argumenteres der for, at Todorovs bekendelse til oplysningshumanismen skal forstås på baggrund af hans personlige erfaringer fra en opvækst i det...

  18. Den globale provins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    »Den globale provins« gennemgår - med udgangspunkt i Ottmar Ettes begreb om at skrive mellem verdener - centrale værker fra denne migrationslitteratur. Ilija Trojanow kan med sin bulgarsk-sydafrikansk-østrigske baggrund beskrive en global verden mangfoldigt og komplekst, mens forfattere som Selim...

  19. Den sundhedsvidenskabelige opgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Marianne Pia; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    troværdigheden af sine resultater. Bogen er opdateret, så den refererer til Microsoft Office 2013, og giver instruktioner og tips til: • Hvordan man bruger Word til hjælp med indholdsfortegnelse, overskrifter og korrektur • Hvordan man bruger Word til hjælp med diagrammer og tabeller• Hvordan man bruger Excel...

  20. Forord til den danske udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Egelund, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Forord til den danske udgave af: What really works in special and inclusive education / af David Mitchell......Forord til den danske udgave af: What really works in special and inclusive education / af David Mitchell...

  1. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-07-25

    Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs.

  2. Hvad karakteriserer den netbaserede vejledning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter

    2008-01-01

    Hensigten med artiklen er at bidrage til forståelsen af sider ved den netbaserede vejledning. Fremgangsmåden vil være: •Først at beskrive og diskutere, hvorledes jeg forstår det virtuelle læringsmiljø, herunder en afklaring af, hvad der karakteriserer den netbaserede vejledning. •Dernæst gennem e...

  3. Dannelsen af den ansvarlige elev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Denne artikel handler om den del af lærergerningen, der har at gøre med udarbejdelse af elevplaner. Der tages udgangspunkt i en foucaultsk forståelse, hvor beskrivelsen af den enkelte elev udtrykker et særligt normativt ideal om, hvilke former for elevhed der er de ønskværdige i den danske...

  4. Photogrammetric survey of dinosaur skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedemann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To derive physiological data of dinosaurs, it is necessary to determine the volume and the surface area of this animals. For this purpose, a detailed survey of reconstructed skeletons is required. The skeletons of three dinosaurs in the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin and two skeletons in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris have been surveyed using stereo photogrammetry. Two of the Berlin skeletons were also surveyed with the close range laser scanners of the Institut für Navigation of the Universität Stuttgart. Both data acquisition techniques require a geodetic control network as a geometric reference system. The surveying methods used, together with results of mathematical approaches for the determination of the volume and surface of the animals are presented in this paper. Zur Herleitung physiologischer Daten der Dinosaurier ist es erforderlich, zunächst Volumen und Oberfläche ihres Körpers zu bestimmen. Dazu wurde eine detaillierte Vermessung rekonstruierter Skelette durchgeführt. Die Skelette dreier Saurier im Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin und zweier im Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris wurden stereophotogrammetrisch vermessen. Bei zwei der Berliner Skelette wurden zusätzlich die Laserscanner des Instituts für Navigation der Universität Stuttgart eingesetzt. Beide Datenerfassungstechniken benötigen ein Paßpunktfeld als geometrisches Referenzsystem. Die verwendeten Vermessungsmethoden, die mathematischen Ansätze für die Berechnung von Volumina und Oberflächen und die Ergebnisse werden in diesem Aufsatz vorgestellt. doi:10.1002/mmng.1999.4860020108

  5. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Codd, Jonathan R.; Phillip L. Manning; Mark A Norell; Perry, Steven F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of ‘avian’ characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in th...

  6. All about Dinosaurs. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Dinosaurs were the rulers of the land 65 million years ago. In this videotape, children learn more about the different kinds of dinosaurs by viewing vivid illustrations and fossil discoveries. Students compare the dinosaurs to their modern kin--snakes, lizards, and crocodiles. Students also listen to different theories to try to answer the big…

  7. The Great Dinosaur Feud: Science against All Odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James; Carpinelli, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, the race to uncover dinosaur fossils and name new dinosaur species inspired two rival scientists, Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, to behave in ways that were the antithesis of scientific methods. Subterfuge, theft, and espionage were the ingredients of the Great Dinosaur Feud. Because students often enjoy…

  8. Den retoriske situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen, som er skrevet på baggrund af et oplæg, som jeg holdt på  Årsmødet for Sektionen for Gymnasium og HF i Helsingør, oktober 2009, plæderer for anvendelsen af Lloyd F. Bitzers teori om den retoriske situation i retorikundervisningen i gymnasiet. I artiklen benytter jeg Bitzers teori som en...

  9. Den Danske Netordbog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Vrang, Vibeke; Almind, Richard;

    Denne danske ordbog er primært tænkt som hjælpeværktøj i forbindelse med tvivl og usikkerhed, når man skriver en dansk tekst. Den Danske Netordbog er en yderst omfattende ordbog med mere end 110.000 forskellige opslagsord og en lang række oplysninger, herunder grammatik, betydning, synonym (ord m...

  10. Den moderne russiske stat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel

    Briefet er inddelt i tre hovedafsnit. I første del gennemgås de tre verdensordener kort, og Flemming Splidsboel forklarer hvorledes de forholder sig til hinanden. Derefter diskuteres det russiske syn på fire elementer fra de moderne og postmoderne verdensordener - suverænitet, magt, de nationale ...... interesser og individets status. Flemming Splidsboel slutter af med at præsentere nogle tanker vedrørende den fremtidige læring i Rusland....

  11. Den skjulte fattigdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Wessel

    og vejen på egen hånd ved at arbejde og sælge ud af deres ejendele. De undgik at tigge og søge fattighjælp, for de fandt det skamfuldt at falde omverdenen til byrde. De skjulte fattigdommen men ofte lykkedes det ikke i længden. Efterhånden som den standsmæssige overflade krakelerede, fik fattigdommen...

  12. Hvorfor den titel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejberg, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    Den skandaløse titel på Karl Ove Knausgårds store selvbiografi Min kamp 1-6 er ikke kun en provokation eller en ironisk kommentar, men udtryk for en gennemgående interesse for og fascination af nazismen. Artiklen ser denne fascination efter i sømmene og beskriver dermed, hvad formålet med referen...... referencen til Hitlers Mein Kampf kan være...

  13. Villavejen og dens muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Petersen, F.

    Publikationen handler om hvordan villavejen kan tilføres nye kvaliteter, blive smukkere, mere oplevelsesrig og sikker for de mange der bor og færdes på vejen. Den beskriver en lille villavej, Hjortekærbakken, og indeholder desuden en række råd og anvisninger vedrørende planlægning af nye villavej...

  14. Peter J. Denning

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MAHC.2012.65 A leading scientist in computing since his graduation from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1968, Peter J. Denning is best known for his pioneering work in virtual memory, especially for inventing the working-set model for program behavior, which eliminated thrashing in operating systems and became the reference standard for all memory management policies. He...

  15. Burrowing in rodents: a sensitive method for detecting behavioral dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Robert M J

    2006-01-01

    Virtually all rodents display burrowing behavior, yet measurement of this behavior has not yet been standardized or formalized. Previously, parameters such as the latency to burrow and the complexity of the burrow systems in substrate-filled boxes in the laboratory or naturalistic outdoor environments have been assessed. We describe here a simple protocol that can quantitatively measure burrowing in laboratory rodents, using a simple apparatus that can be placed in the home cage. The test is very cheap to run and requires minimal experimenter training, yet seems sensitive to a variety of treatments, such as the early stages of prion disease in mice, mouse strain differences, lesions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in mice, also effects of lipopolysaccharide and IL-1beta in rats. Other species such as hamsters, gerbils and Egyptian spiny mice also burrow in this apparatus, and with suitable size modification probably almost any burrowing animal could be tested in it. The simplicity, sensitivity and robustness of burrowing make it ideal for assessing genetically modified animals, which in most cases would be mice. The test is run from late afternoon until the next morning, but only two measurements need to be taken. PMID:17406222

  16. Detecting Burrowing Owl Bloodmeals in Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Belthoff, James R

    2016-03-01

    Pulex irritans L. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. In North America it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the Pacific Northwest an association has emerged between P. irritans and the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea). While investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. Here we describe using a real-time assay that was originally developed to identify bloodmeals in Ugandan cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché) to detect burrowing owl DNA in P. irritans collected from burrowing owls in southern Idaho. Of 50 fleas tested, 12 had no detectable vertebrate bloodmeal. The remaining 38 (76%) contained burrowing owl DNA. The assay did not detect vertebrate DNA in unfed fleas exposed to owl or mouse pelts and is therefore unlikely to detect DNA in fleas from vertebrates that have served exclusively as phoretic hosts. We conclude that P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls. We discuss the potential implications of this finding for burrowing owl conservation and enzootic plague dynamics. PMID:26545716

  17. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin S VanBuren

    Full Text Available Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination. Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  18. Metabolism of dinosaurs as determined from their growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2015-09-01

    A model based on cellular properties is used to analyze the mass growth curves of 20 dinosaurs. This analysis yields the first measurement of the average cellular metabolism of dinosaurs. The organismal metabolism is also determined. The cellular metabolism of dinosaurs is found to decrease with mass at a slower rate than is observed in extant animals. The organismal metabolism increases with the mass of the dinosaur. These results come from both the Saurischia and Ornithischia branches of Dinosauria, suggesting that the observed metabolic features were common to all dinosaurs. The results from dinosaurs are compared to data from extant placental and marsupial mammals, a monotreme, and altricial and precocial birds, reptiles, and fish. Dinosaurs had cellular and organismal metabolisms in the range observed in extant mesotherms.

  19. Piscivory in the feathered dinosaur Microraptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Persons, W Scott; Bell, Phil R; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Jianping; Miyashita, Tetsuto; Wang, Fengping; Currie, Philip J

    2013-08-01

    The largest specimen of the four-winged dromaeosaurid dinosaur Microraptor gui includes preserved gut contents. Previous reports of gut contents and considerations of functional morphology have indicated that Microraptor hunted in an arboreal environment. The new specimen demonstrates that this was not strictly the case, and offers unique insights into the ecology of nonavian dinosaurs early in the evolution of flight. The preserved gut contents are composed of teleost fish remains. Several morphological adaptations of Microraptor are identified as consistent with a partially piscivorous diet, including dentition with reduced serrations and forward projecting teeth on the anterior of the dentary. The feeding habits of Microraptor can now be understood better than that of any other carnivorous nonavian dinosaur, and Microraptor appears to have been an opportunistic and generalist feeder, able to exploit the most common prey in both the arboreal and aquatic microhabitats of the Early Cretaceous Jehol ecosystem.

  20. Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dennis R.

    1999-01-01

    Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs is a scholarly yet accessible biography--the first in a generation--of a pioneering dinosaur hunter and scholar. Gideon Mantell discovered the Iguanodon (a famous tale set right in this book) and several other dinosaur species, spent over twenty-five years restoring Iguanodon fossils, and helped establish the idea of an Age of Reptiles that ended with their extinction at the conclusion of the Mesozoic Era. He had significant interaction with such well-known figures as James Parkinson, Georges Cuvier, Charles Lyell, Roderick Murchison, Charles Darwin, and Richard Owen. Dennis Dean, a well-known scholar of geology and the Victorian era, here places Mantell's career in its cultural context, employing original research in archives throughout the world, including the previously unexamined Mantell family papers in New Zealand.

  1. Plumage color patterns of an extinct dinosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanguo; Gao, Ke-Qin; Vinther, Jakob; Shawkey, Matthew D; Clarke, Julia A; D'Alba, Liliana; Meng, Qingjin; Briggs, Derek E G; Prum, Richard O

    2010-03-12

    For as long as dinosaurs have been known to exist, there has been speculation about their appearance. Fossil feathers can preserve the morphology of color-imparting melanosomes, which allow color patterns in feathered dinosaurs to be reconstructed. Here, we have mapped feather color patterns in a Late Jurassic basal paravian theropod dinosaur. Quantitative comparisons with melanosome shape and density in extant feathers indicate that the body was gray and dark and the face had rufous speckles. The crown was rufous, and the long limb feathers were white with distal black spangles. The evolution of melanin-based within-feather pigmentation patterns may coincide with that of elongate pennaceous feathers in the common ancestor of Maniraptora, before active powered flight. Feathers may thus have played a role in sexual selection or other communication.

  2. Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recently,a Chinese-German science fieldwork investigation team,composed of staff from the SinoGerman Paleontology and Geography Joint Lab and the Xinjiang Geological Work Station,announced that they discovered a batch of dinosaur footprint fossils in the dessert 20 kilometers to the east of Shanshan County in the Turpan Basin,Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.These fossils spread around an area of 100 square meters and scientists believed that these footprints were left behind by carnivore dinosaurs.This major discovery has been published in Global Geology,an English journal published by the NorthEast Asia Geology Center.

  3. Geochemical and mineralogical studies of dinosaur bone from the Morrison Formation at Dinosaur Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dinosaur bones first discovered in 1877 in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation at Morrison, Colorado were the first major find of dinosaur skeletons in the western U.S. and led to the recognition of four new dinosaur genera (Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, Diplodocus, and Stegosaurus). Eight articles dealing with these bones which appeared as research reports in the annual reports of the Friends of Dinosaur Ridge from 1990-1999 are condensed and summarized with some additional comments. Two of the articles are about the mineralogy and preservation of the bones; two are about the physical description of the bone occurrence; two are about the history of the site, and two are about use of novel instrumental methods (ground-penetrating radar and a directional scintillometer) to search for new bones.

  4. Den naturfaglige evalueringskultur i folkeskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Krogh, Lars Brian

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med denne rapport er at etablere et grundlag for at kunne vurdere, hvorvidt PISAs testformat og tilgang til testning svarer til den evalueringskultur, der er fremherskende i naturfagene i de ældste klasser i den danske folkeskole.   Rapporten indledes med en kortfattet oversigt over nogl...... at tage PISA-science testen.   Rapporten slutter med en konklusion over de vigtigste resultater, hvor PISA-science testen sammenholdes med den danske evalueringskultur....

  5. Den ulige sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen rummer en række bidrag fra forskellige udviklings- og samarbejder, bl.a. med CVU Nordjylland om skolens og læreruddannelses rolle i arbejdet med 'Ulighed i sundhed. Social ulighed i sundhed ? både i samfundet generelt og også blandt børn og unge ? udgør et væsentligt samfundsproblem, som...... skolen bør forholde sig til. Bogen, der bl.a. udspringer af et samarbejde mellem Aalborg Lærerseminarium, Nordjyllands CVU og DPU?s Forskningsprogram for Miljø- og Sundhedspædagogik, giver en nuanceret fremstilling af de perspektiver, skolen ? og uddannelsen af lærere - kan tage fat i. På den ene side må...... det erkendes, at problematikken om social ulighed i sundhed skyldes en lang række forhold i samfundet, der ligger uden for skolens rammer, og det vil derfor være naivt at forestille sig, at skolen kan skabe større lighed i sundhed på kort sigt. Imidlertid er det på den anden side nødvendigt, at skolen...

  6. New horned dinosaurs from Utah provide evidence for intracontinental dinosaur endemism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Sampson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During much of the Late Cretaceous, a shallow, epeiric sea divided North America into eastern and western landmasses. The western landmass, known as Laramidia, although diminutive in size, witnessed a major evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs. Other than hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs, the most common dinosaurs were ceratopsids (large-bodied horned dinosaurs, currently known only from Laramidia and Asia. Remarkably, previous studies have postulated the occurrence of latitudinally arrayed dinosaur "provinces," or "biomes," on Laramidia. Yet this hypothesis has been challenged on multiple fronts and has remained poorly tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe two new, co-occurring ceratopsids from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of Utah that provide the strongest support to date for the dinosaur provincialism hypothesis. Both pertain to the clade of ceratopsids known as Chasmosaurinae, dramatically increasing representation of this group from the southern portion of the Western Interior Basin of North America. Utahceratops gettyi gen. et sp. nov.-characterized by short, rounded, laterally projecting supraorbital horncores and an elongate frill with a deep median embayment-is recovered as the sister taxon to Pentaceratops sternbergii from the late Campanian of New Mexico. Kosmoceratops richardsoni gen. et sp. nov.-characterized by elongate, laterally projecting supraorbital horncores and a short, broad frill adorned with ten well developed hooks-has the most ornate skull of any known dinosaur and is closely allied to Chasmosaurus irvinensis from the late Campanian of Alberta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Considered in unison, the phylogenetic, stratigraphic, and biogeographic evidence documents distinct, co-occurring chasmosaurine taxa north and south on the diminutive landmass of Laramidia. The famous Triceratops and all other, more nested chasmosaurines are postulated as descendants of forms previously

  7. The Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Predicting the Tidal Flushing of Animal Burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, S. F.; Ridd, P. V.

    2001-04-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic modelling has been used extensively over the last few decades to simulate flow in the ocean, bays and estuaries; however, modelling of much smaller scale phenomena is less common. In this work a commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics package (FIDAP), normally used for industrial applications, was used to simulate tidally-induced flow in multi-opening animal burrows. U-shaped burrows of varying complexities were modelled to determine the effect of different surface characteristics and burrow geometries on surface water velocities, burrow velocities and burrow flushing times. The turbulent 2D model showed the slope of the surface water was proportional to the square of both the surface and burrow velocities. The effect of placing a root in the surface flow was to reduce the surface water velocity; however, the burrow flow depended upon the root position. For the root location either upstream or downstream of the burrow, the burrow velocity was reduced by 50%. With the root located between the burrow openings the burrow velocity increased by 200%, due to the increase in pressure difference across the burrow openings. A buttress root placed in the flow immediately downstream of the upstream burrow, caused the burrow flushing rate to increase significantly with increasing buttress height. Flushing times for burrows of varying depth were determined computationally by use of a tracer for the burrow water. For a burrow of depth 1·2 m, the flushing times were 5 and 28 min for root location between the burrow openings and downstream of the burrow, respectively. Animal burrows often consist of multiply-connected loops. A second burrow was added to the primary burrow and flushing times were found to be 15 and 38 min, respectively. A burrow system of four connected burrows was modelled which had corresponding flushing times up to 24 and 47 min, respectively. The calculated times are consistent with the hypothesis that a significant flushing

  8. Fossil Dinosaur Slept Like a Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Hopkin; 王伟

    2004-01-01

    @@ The angst①-ridden Prince Hamlet described death as an eternal② sleep,fearfully wondering what dreams may come during the everlasting slumber③. So perhaps he would have empathized④ with a dinosaur newly unearthed in China: it seems to have been preserved in the act of sleeping.

  9. Scaling in Theropod Dinosaurs: Femoral Bone Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Finding topics that inspire students is an important aspect of any physics course. Virtually everyone is fascinated by "Tyrannosaurus rex," and the excitement of the class is palpable when we explore scaling effects in "T. rex" and other bipedal theropod dinosaurs as part of our discussion of mechanics and elasticity. In this…

  10. Den Smarte Fabrik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    De mindre og mellemstore virksomheder - MMVer spiller en stor rolle i dansk og europæisk industri. MMVer er måske underleverandører, som er pressede på det globale marked i forhold til pris, levering, service og ikke mindst kravet om at kunne levere færdige systemløsninger til deres større OEM...... kunder. MMVer med egne produkter kæmper med at forblive entreprenante med innovation af produkter og markeder. Industriens Fond har støttet et projekt ”Den Smarte Fabrik”, hvor samarbejde skal være vejen frem for MMVer i Danmark. I denne artikel vil vi gøre rede for projektets erfaringer indtil videre og...

  11. Den medicinal-industrielle logik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Et kig på medicinalindustrien og den logik der styrer udviklingen af nye lægemidler. Antagelsen er, at der også eksisterer et medicinalindustrielt kompleks, bestående af ledende industrifolk, læger, forskere og regeringsembedsmænd, der alle har kommercielle interesser i den herskende lægemiddeltæ...

  12. Stordriftsfordele i den danske banksektor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    Dette er en empirisk undersøgelse af skalaegenskaber (economies of scale) i den danske banksektor baseret på cross-section data. Banksektorens omkostningsfunktion er estimeret vha. en translogomkostningsfunktion og OLS-regression. Ud fra den estimerede omkostningsfunktion er skalaegenskaberne...

  13. Litteratur i den argumentative ret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine

    2007-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i den litterære rett, slik som denne er udviklet af den amerikanske retsfilosof Martha Nussbaum, argumentere de for, at litteraturen er velegnet som en metode til at opnå menneskelig forståelse. Som led i denne problemstillingen behandles følelsenes plads i retsvidenskaben. Endelig...

  14. Use of Artificial Burrows by Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) at the HAMMER Facility on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Amanda K.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2005-09-30

    In 2003 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed an Emergency Vehicle Operations Course (EVOC) at the Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) in the southern portion of the Hanford Site. Preliminary surveys during 2001 identified an active burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) burrow and three burrowing owls within the proposed development area. Burrowing owls were classified as a federal species of concern, a Washington State ?candidate? species, a Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife priority species, and a Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan Level III resource. Therefore, the mitigation action plan for the project included the installation of twenty artificial burrows around EVOC in the spring of 2003. The mitigation plan established a success criterion of five percent annual use of the burrows by owls. In July 2005, a field survey of the EVOC burrow complex was conducted to determine use and demography at each site. Burrow locations were mapped and signs of activity (feces, owl tracks, castings, feathers) were recorded. Out of the twenty burrows, twelve were found to be active. Of the eight inactive burrows three appeared to have been active earlier in the 2005 breeding season. A total of nineteen owls were counted but demography could not be determined. It appears that the EVOC mitigation exceeded burrow use goals during 2005. Continued site monitoring and maintenance, according to mitigation plan guidelines should be conducted as prescribed.

  15. The origin and early evolution of dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Max C; Ezcurra, Martin D; Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Novas, Fernando E

    2010-02-01

    The oldest unequivocal records of Dinosauria were unearthed from Late Triassic rocks (approximately 230 Ma) accumulated over extensional rift basins in southwestern Pangea. The better known of these are Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis, Pisanosaurus mertii, Eoraptor lunensis, and Panphagia protos from the Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina, and Staurikosaurus pricei and Saturnalia tupiniquim from the Santa Maria Formation, Brazil. No uncontroversial dinosaur body fossils are known from older strata, but the Middle Triassic origin of the lineage may be inferred from both the footprint record and its sister-group relation to Ladinian basal dinosauromorphs. These include the typical Marasuchus lilloensis, more basal forms such as Lagerpeton and Dromomeron, as well as silesaurids: a possibly monophyletic group composed of Mid-Late Triassic forms that may represent immediate sister taxa to dinosaurs. The first phylogenetic definition to fit the current understanding of Dinosauria as a node-based taxon solely composed of mutually exclusive Saurischia and Ornithischia was given as "all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of birds and Triceratops". Recent cladistic analyses of early dinosaurs agree that Pisanosaurus mertii is a basal ornithischian; that Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis and Staurikosaurus pricei belong in a monophyletic Herrerasauridae; that herrerasaurids, Eoraptor lunensis, and Guaibasaurus candelariensis are saurischians; that Saurischia includes two main groups, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda; and that Saturnalia tupiniquim is a basal member of the sauropodomorph lineage. On the contrary, several aspects of basal dinosaur phylogeny remain controversial, including the position of herrerasaurids, E. lunensis, and G. candelariensis as basal theropods or basal saurischians, and the affinity and/or validity of more fragmentary taxa such as Agnosphitys cromhallensis, Alwalkeria maleriensis, Chindesaurus bryansmalli, Saltopus elginensis, and

  16. The second Jurassic dinosaur rush and the dawn of dinomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-09-01

    During the second Jurassic dinosaur rush museum paleontologists raced to display the world's first mounted sauropod dinosaur. The American Museum of Natural History triumphed in 1905 when its Brontosaurus debuted before an admiring crowd of wealthy New Yorkers. The Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, the Field Columbian Museum in Chicago and other institutions were quick to follow with their own sauropod displays. Thereafter, dinomania spread far and wide, and big, showpiece dinosaurs became a museum staple. This brief but intensely competitive period of acquisitiveness fostered important Jurassic dinosaur revisions and crucial innovations in paleontological field and lab techniques.

  17. Stable-isotope analyses of dinosaur eggshells: Paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Mohabey, D. M.

    1991-11-01

    Well-preserved clutches of dinosaur (sauropod) eggshells and skeletal remains have been discovered in the Upper Cretaceous Lameta limestones of the Kheda district, Gujarat, India, indicating a dinosaur nesting site. Oxygen-isotope analyses of the eggs show that the dinosaurs drank from a variety of freshwater bodies such as rivers and small evaporative pools, whereas the carbon-isotope values indicate that the reptiles were consuming plants that utilize the C3 photosynthetic pathway, e.g., small palms, shrubs, conifers, etc. Similar analyses of the host limestones suggest that they were deposited in a freshwater environment that provided the niche for large-scale breeding and nesting of the dinosaurs.

  18. Collection of mammal manure and other Debris by nesting Burrowing Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) routinely collect and scatter dry manure of mammals around their nesting burrows. Recent studies have suggested this behavior attracts insect prey to the nesting burrow. However, some Burrowing Owls do not use manure, but instead, collect and scatter other materials (e.g., grass, moss, paper, plastic) around their nesting burrow in a similar fashion. Use of these materials seemingly contradicts the prey-attraction hypothesis. Using observational and experimental methods, we tested whether Burrowing Owls preferred manure to other materials commonly found at nesting burrows in eastern Washington. We found a wide variety of materials at nests, but grass and manure were the most common materials. The amount of manure present at nests was negatively correlated with the amount of other materials, and with the distance to the nearest source of manure. Burrowing Owls showed no preference between horse manure and grass divots at experimental supply stations that we placed near nesting burrows. They did prefer these two materials to carpet pieces and aluminum foil (both materials that are often found at Burrowing Owl nests). Our results did not support the premise that Burrowing Owls specifically seek out manure when lining their nesting burrows. The unusual behavior of collecting and scattering mammal manure and other debris at Burrowing Owl nests may serve functions other than (or in addition to) prey attraction and alternative hypotheses need further testing before the function of this behavior is certain. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  19. Den iscenesatte folkelighed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Garcia Canclini

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Hvad er "det folkelige" og hvad er "folkekultur"? Néstor Garcia Canclini har i denne artikel sat sig for at dekonstruere begrebet "det folkelige" og beskrive den måde, forskellige grupper bruger og misbruger begrebet på. Han analyserer tre fremherskende idéer om folkelighed: folkloristernes romantiske idé om det oprindelige, der blev ødelagt af massekulturen, massemediernes popularitetsbegreb og endelig populisternes - både de højre- og venstreorienteredes - iscenesættelse af folkeligheden. Desuden ser han på to marxistiske skolers opfattelse af forholdet mellem de dominerende og undertrykte klasser og forskellige definitioner af folkelig- hed. Ligesom Anamaria Fadul argumenterer Canclini for nødvendigheden af en ny, tværdiciplinær forskning, som opfanger kompleksitet og flerty- digheder i forholdet mellem de undertrykte og dominerende og ser "det folkelige" som en tragisk komedie med modsætninger og flertydighed snarere end en evigt fremadskrivende episk fortælling. Artiklen er en forkortet udgave af kapitel 5 i Canclinis bog fra 1989: "Culturas Hibridas - Estrategias para entrat y salir de la modernidad. Mexico: Grijalbo.

  20. Den distribuerede vold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2013-01-01

    sådan kausalitets retning og dermed også fænomenernes afgrænsning i forhold til hinanden. For det andet synes hele undersøgelsesfeltet at blive begrænset på en måde, der måske kan vise sig uhensigtsmæssigt, hvis man vil forstå, hvad der foregår i børns hverdagsliv med virtuelle spil, vold og aggression....... Min indgang til feltet vil derfor i højere grad vægte spørgsmål, der har at gøre med, hvordan virtuelle spil og fiktionsuniverser med også voldeligt indhold bliver relevante for børnene i deres konkrete hverdagsliv – ikke mindst når dette hverdagsliv er præget af mobning og aggression – og hvordan...... i to drenges beretninger fra tilværelsen som henholdsvis 3. og 5. klassere reflekterer jeg over voldens placering og bevægelser i deres liv, og over hvilken vold og aggression, det for voksne synes muligt og nærliggende at adresse med bekymring. I sidste del af artiklen ser jeg på, hvordan den...

  1. Artificial and Modified Burrows Establishment for the Atlantic Puffin on Petit Manan Island, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An attempt to establish a breeding population of Atlantic puffin colony using artificial and modified burrows on Petit Manan Island resulted in 3 of 17 burrows...

  2. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  3. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2 landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  4. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence. PMID:23874409

  5. On the probability of dinosaur fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Katharina; Zhu, Qiyun; Hastriter, Michael W; Whiting, Michael F

    2016-01-11

    Recently, a set of publications described flea fossils from Jurassic and Early Cretaceous geological strata in northeastern China, which were suggested to have parasitized feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and early birds or mammals. In support of these fossils being fleas, a recent publication in BMC Evolutionary Biology described the extended abdomen of a female fossil specimen as due to blood feeding.We here comment on these findings, and conclude that the current interpretation of the evolutionary trajectory and ecology of these putative dinosaur fleas is based on appeal to probability, rather than evidence. Hence, their taxonomic positioning as fleas, or stem fleas, as well as their ecological classification as ectoparasites and blood feeders is not supported by currently available data.

  6. Den Blå Drage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    Denne publikation i serien Læselyst tjener tre formål. Den evaluerer læseprojektet Den blå drage i efteråret 2004 på Byskolen i Svendborg ? et projekt ledet af forfatteren Josefine Ottesen. Desuden gøres der rede for nogle af de teorier der støtter og begrunder arbejdsmåde og resultater i projektet...

  7. Events i den globale bykonkurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Katrine

    2005-01-01

    Paper til ph.d. workshop, d. 9. december 2005. Dette paper beskriver, hvorfor og hvordan events kan bruges som strategi for byplanlægning og byudvikling i den globale bykonkurrence.......Paper til ph.d. workshop, d. 9. december 2005. Dette paper beskriver, hvorfor og hvordan events kan bruges som strategi for byplanlægning og byudvikling i den globale bykonkurrence....

  8. Dinosaur egg structure investigated by MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Mcjury, M; Clark, N.D.L.; Liston, J; Condon, B

    1994-01-01

    In July 1993, the Hunterian Museum of the University of Glasgow was offered a sandstone block with a clutch of intact dinosaur eggs, from Hunan Province, China. Later, a number of single eggs were also acquired. An inter-disciplinary project began to investigate the structure of these eggs. Investigations carried out included egg shell structure analysis, protein analysis, and a program of imaging including CT|, neutron radiography, and MRI. In this poster, the results of imaging the ...

  9. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  10. A basal dinosaur from the dawn of the dinosaur era in southwestern Pangaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ricardo N; Sereno, Paul C; Alcober, Oscar A; Colombi, Carina E; Renne, Paul R; Montañez, Isabel P; Currie, Brian S

    2011-01-14

    Upper Triassic rocks in northwestern Argentina preserve the most complete record of dinosaurs before their rise to dominance in the Early Jurassic. Here, we describe a previously unidentified basal theropod, reassess its contemporary Eoraptor as a basal sauropodomorph, divide the faunal record of the Ischigualasto Formation with biozones, and bracket the formation with (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages. Some 230 million years ago in the Late Triassic (mid Carnian), the earliest dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial carnivores and small herbivores in southwestern Pangaea. The extinction of nondinosaurian herbivores is sequential and is not linked to an increase in dinosaurian diversity, which weakens the predominant scenario for dinosaurian ascendancy as opportunistic replacement.

  11. Ny bog: Den farvede franske general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af: Tom Reiss: 'Den sorte greve. Napoleons rival og den virkelige greve af Monte Cristo', Informations Forlag, 517 s.......Anmeldelse af: Tom Reiss: 'Den sorte greve. Napoleons rival og den virkelige greve af Monte Cristo', Informations Forlag, 517 s....

  12. Den litterære blog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Martin Glaz; Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    2012-01-01

    Hvad er en litterær blog og hvordan arbejder den som en aktiv del af den litterære offentlighed.......Hvad er en litterær blog og hvordan arbejder den som en aktiv del af den litterære offentlighed....

  13. Dinosaur energetics: setting the bounds on feasible physiologies and ecologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The metabolic status of dinosaurs has long been debated but remains unresolved as no consistent picture has emerged from a range of anatomical and isotopic evidence. Quantitative analysis of dinosaur energetics, based on general principles applicable to all vertebrates, shows that many features of dinosaur lifestyle are compatible with a physiology similar to that of extant lizards, scaled up to dinosaur body masses and temperatures. The analysis suggests that sufficient metabolic scope would have been available to support observed dinosaur growth rates and allow considerable locomotor activity, perhaps even migration. Since at least one dinosaur lineage evolved true endothermy, this study emphasizes there was no single dinosaur physiology. Many small theropods were insulated with feathers and appear to have been partial or full endotherms. Uninsulated small taxa, and all juveniles, presumably would have been ectothermic, with consequent diurnal and seasonal variations in body temperature. In larger taxa, inertial homeothermy would have resulted in warm and stable body temperatures but with a basal metabolism significantly below that of extant mammals or birds of the same size. It would appear that dinosaurs exhibited a range of metabolic levels to match the broad spectrum of ecological niches they occupied.

  14. "Dinosaurs." Kindergarten. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, Trisha, Ed.

    This unit contains 15 lessons on dinosaurs for kindergarten children. It provides a materials list, supplementary materials list, use of process skill terminology, unit objectives, vocabulary, six major dinosaurs, and background information. Lessons are: (1) "Webbing"; (2) "Introduction to the Big Six"; (3) "Paleontology and Fossils"; (4) "How Big…

  15. Artificially evolved functional shell morphology of burrowing bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, D. P.; Schatz, W.; Hotz, Peter Eggenberger

    2014-01-01

    The morphological evolution of bivalves is documented by a rich fossil record. It is believed that the shell shape and surface sculpture play an important role for the burrowing performance of endobenthic species. While detailed morphometric studies of bivalve shells have been done, there are alm...

  16. The oldest dinosaur? A Middle Triassic dinosauriform from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Barrett, Paul M; Werning, Sarah; Sidor, Christian A; Charig, Alan J

    2013-02-23

    The rise of dinosaurs was a major event in vertebrate history, but the timing of the origin and early diversification of the group remain poorly constrained. Here, we describe Nyasasaurus parringtoni gen. et sp. nov., which is identified as either the earliest known member of, or the sister-taxon to, Dinosauria. Nyasasaurus possesses a unique combination of dinosaur character states and an elevated growth rate similar to that of definitive early dinosaurs. It demonstrates that the initial dinosaur radiation occurred over a longer timescale than previously thought (possibly 15 Myr earlier), and that dinosaurs and their immediate relatives are better understood as part of a larger Middle Triassic archosauriform radiation. The African provenance of Nyasasaurus supports a southern Pangaean origin for Dinosauria.

  17. Advection around ventilated U-shaped burrows: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Andreas; Lewandowski, JöRg; Hamann, Enrico; Nützmann, Gunnar

    2013-05-01

    Advective transport in the porous matrix of sediments surrounding burrows formed by fauna such as Chironomus plumosus has been generally neglected. A positron emission tomography study recently revealed that the pumping activity of the midge larvae can indeed induce fluid flow in the sediment. We present a numerical model study which explores the conditions at which advective transport in the sediment becomes relevant. A 0.15 m deep U-shaped burrow with a diameter of 0.002 m within the sediment was represented in a 3-D domain. Fluid flow in the burrow was calculated using the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible laminar flow in the burrow, and flow in the sediment was described by Darcy's law. Nonreactive and reactive transport scenarios were simulated considering diffusion and advection. The pumping activity of the model larva results in considerable advective flow in the sediment at reasonable high permeabilities with flow velocities of up to 7.0 × 10-6 m s-1 close to the larva for a permeability of 3 × 10-12 m2. At permeabilities below 7 × 10-13 m2 advection is negligible compared to diffusion. Reactive transport simulations using first-order kinetics for oxygen revealed that advective flux into the sediment downstream of the pumping larva enhances sedimentary uptake, while the advective flux into the burrow upstream of the larvae inhibits diffusive sedimentary uptake. Despite the fact that both effects cancel each other with respect to total solute uptake, the advection-induced asymmetry in concentration distribution can lead to a heterogeneous solute and redox distribution in the sediment relevant to complex reaction networks.

  18. 76 FR 7232 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Dinosaur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Service, Dinosaur National Monument, Dinosaur, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Dinosaur National Monument, Dinosaur... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact Dinosaur National Monument. Disposition of the...

  19. Den Hemmelige (medie) Krig - repolitisering af den danske trykte presse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gindin, Lea Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    Specialet sætter ud for at undersøge, om Stig Hjarvards tese om repolitisering af den danske trykte presse, kan siges at være underbygget i dækningen af dokumentarfilmen "Den Hemmelige Krig" The media - ever changing – play a key role in democratic societies. Not least, because they serve as a line of communication between politicians and citizens. Thus, it is of great interest how the media function and to what standard they hold themselves. Professor and media scientist Stig Hjarvard p...

  20. Predatory behaviour of carnivorous dinosaurs: Ecological interpretations based on tooth marked dinosaur bones and wear patterns of theropod teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    Predation marks on bones are a source on information on the feeding behaviour of the carnivores involved. Although predator damaged bone is common in the fossil record, published reports of such marks on dinosaur bones are rare. Patterns of bone modification by mammalian carnivores overlap patterns...... left by theropod dinosaurs.Differences in tooth morphology can also be correlated with characteristics of the marks left by the teeth. In a study of tooth marks on dinosaur bones from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, it was possible to identify the feeding theropods to family, generic...... different taxa and different skeletal elements produced some interesting results. The frequency of tooth marked dinosaur bones is higher than expected. Up to 14 % of the observed hadrosaur bones were predator damaged. The lower incidence of damage in ceratopsian bones can be explained by the fact...

  1. Multiscale habitat selection by burrowing owls in black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, S.J.; Conway, C.J.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Some populations of western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) have declined in recent decades. To design and implement effective recovery efforts, we need a better understanding of how distribution and demographic traits are influenced by habitat quality. To this end, we measured spatial patterns of burrowing owl breeding habitat selection within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in northeastern Wyoming, USA. We compared burrow-, site-, colony-, and landscape-scale habitat parameters between burrowing owl nest burrows (n = 105) and unoccupied burrows (n = 85). We sampled 4 types of prairie dog colonies: 1) owl-occupied, active with prairie dogs (n = 16); 2) owl-occupied, inactive (n = 13); 3) owl-unoccupied, active (n = 14); and 4) owl-unoccupied, inactive (n = 14). We used an information-theoretic approach to examine a set of candidate models of burrowing owl nest-site selection. The model with the most support included variables at all 4 spatial scales, and results were consistent among the 4 types of prairie dog colonies. Nest burrows had longer tunnels, more available burrows within 30 m, and less shrub cover within 30 m, more prairie dog activity within 100 m, and were closer to water than unoccupied burrows. The model correctly classified 76% of cases, all model coefficients were stable, and the model had high predictive ability. Based on our results, we recommend actions to ensure persistence of the remaining prairie dog colonies as an important management strategy for burrowing owl conservation in the Great Plains of North America.

  2. Seasonal changes in burrow geometry of the common mole rat (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H. G.; Scantlebury, M.; Swanepoel, D.; Bateman, P. W.; Bennett, N. C.

    2013-11-01

    Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group.

  3. Den naturlige tillid og tilknytning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    2008-01-01

    responsivitet og af sociale relationers sammenhængskraft. Tilliden tematiseres som grundlæggende og som en naturlig del af interaktionen. I udgangspunktet møder vi andre med tillid, lige så vel som mennesker generelt forudsætter andres tillid, og at de tager hånd om den tillid, der vises dem. Via Anthony...... Giddens og Johan Bowlbys forståelser af den fundamentale tillid eller sikker base kædes tilliden sammen med det spæde barns tilknytning til sine primære omsorgspersoner, da det er her fundamentet for senere tilknytningsadfærd og tillidsrelationer etableres som en integreret del af den naturlige...

  4. Flensborg den 24. maj 1943

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Merete Bo

    2014-01-01

    Et bombardement af Flensborg 19. maj 1943 kostede mange ofre på både tysk og dansk side. Artiklen sammenligner det danske mindretals begravelsesceremoni med den nazistiske med særligt vægt på de forskellige indslags signalværdi over for det omgivende samfund.......Et bombardement af Flensborg 19. maj 1943 kostede mange ofre på både tysk og dansk side. Artiklen sammenligner det danske mindretals begravelsesceremoni med den nazistiske med særligt vægt på de forskellige indslags signalværdi over for det omgivende samfund....

  5. den i Dantes Den guddommelige Komedie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2007-01-01

    Denne artikel koncentrerer sig om det guddommelig spil i Dantes store prosadigt Den guddommelige Komedie,samt om dets teologi og nærmere bestemt dets eskatologi (læren om de sidste ting eller de sidste tider). Artiklen følger fortællerjeg'ets rejse gennem de tre "dødsriger" (helvede...

  6. A palaeoequatorial ornithischian and new constraints on early dinosaur diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paul M; Butler, Richard J; Mundil, Roland; Scheyer, Torsten M; Irmis, Randall B; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-09-22

    Current characterizations of early dinosaur evolution are incomplete: existing palaeobiological and phylogenetic scenarios are based on a fossil record dominated by saurischians and the implications of the early ornithischian record are often overlooked. Moreover, the timings of deep phylogenetic divergences within Dinosauria are poorly constrained owing to the absence of a rigorous chronostratigraphical framework for key Late Triassic-Early Jurassic localities. A new dinosaur from the earliest Jurassic of the Venezuelan Andes is the first basal ornithischian recovered from terrestrial deposits directly associated with a precise radioisotopic date and the first-named dinosaur from northern South America. It expands the early palaeogeographical range of Ornithischia to palaeoequatorial regions, an area sometimes thought to be devoid of early dinosaur taxa, and offers insights into early dinosaur growth rates, the evolution of sociality and the rapid tempo of the global dinosaur radiation following the end-Triassic mass extinction, helping to underscore the importance of the ornithischian record in broad-scale discussions of early dinosaur history.

  7. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade, yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew, a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs. When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  8. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals) are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew), a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs). When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  9. Were sauropod dinosaurs responsible for the warm Mesozoic climate?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.J.(Tom); van; Loon

    2012-01-01

    It was recently postulated that methane production by the giant Mesozoic sauropod dinosaurs was larger than the present-day release of this greenhouse gas by nature and man-induced activities jointly, thus contributing to the warm Mesozoic climate. This conclusion was reached by correct calculations, but these calculations were based on unrealistic assumptions:the researchers who postulated this dinosaur-induced warm climate did take into account neither the biomass production required for the sauropods’ food, nor the constraints for the habitats in which the dinosaurs lived, thus neglecting the palaeogeographic conditions. This underlines the importance of palaeogeography for a good understanding of the Earth’s geological history.

  10. Visualization System for Burrowing Organisms in Granular Substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Amos G

    2008-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video demonstrates the capabilities of an experimental setup to visualize organisms burrowing in granular substrates. The setup consists of a tank filled with 1mm soda-lime glass beads, backlit by halogen lights. The walls can be moved such that the space bound by them can expand or contract to fit various organisms. A recirculation system oxygenates and cools the salt water that flows through the substrate. The video shows the burrowing behavior of a razor clam (Ensis directus) and a quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria). Both animals inflate their foot with blood, making the foot a terminal anchor against which they pull their shell downwards. Deformation of the granular substrate can be seen around the animals as they advance downwards.

  11. Den tidslogiske analyse af determinismeproblemet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den filosofiske tidslogik med særligt henblik på A.N. Priors bidrag hertil. Det logiske determinismeproblem benyttes som gennemgående eksempel. Det vises endvidere, hvordan tidslogikken kan udnyttes til at analysere de logisk mulige positioner i en videnskabelig eller videnska...

  12. Tillid i den finansielle sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr; Nielsen, Sara Møller; Benediktsdottir, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    , der er i kommunikation med kunden, eksempelvis at videreudvikle på definerede Touch-Points i CEM og opbyggelsen/vedligeholdelsen af kundeoplysninger i CRM systemer således, at den samlede kvalitet af ydelsen bliver så personlig som mulig, hvilket falder godt i tråd med Spar Nords værdigrundlag om dels...

  13. RELIGION EFTER DEN SPROGLIGE VENDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen repræsenterer min opposition mod Lars Albinus’ doktorafhandling om forståelsen af religion på postmetafysiske betingelser som disse er angivet af Habermas og Foucault. Efter en præsentation af afhandlingens hovedtanker tages der kritisk stilling til den religionsfilosofiske position...

  14. Etikken i den maskerede by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen problematiserer Zygmunt Baumans argument om, at æstetiseringen iden postmoderne by er uforenelig med en virksom etisk ansvarlighed for denfremmede i byen. Denne forståelse er kraftigt inspireret af Emmanuel Lévinas’fænomenologiske nærhedsetik, der forstår æstetik og etik som...... antagonistiskefænomener. Med afsæt i denne forståelse anser Bauman æstetiseringen af denAnden, som en maskering af det nøgne ansigt, der ifølge Lévinas er den etiskefordrings kilde. Hermed mødes den Anden ikke som et unikt menneske, mensnarere som et overfladisk objekt, der nydes uden etisk ansvar. Artiklen pegerpå......, at Knud E. Løgstrups fænomenologiske nærhedsetik – som Bauman fejlagtigtjævnfører med Levinas’ – tilbyder en interessant alternativ forståelse af forholdetimellem æstetik og etik: Ifølge Løgstrup har æstetikken nemlig forrang foretikken. Artiklens afgørende argument bliver i lyset heraf, at den etiske...

  15. den og morderen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    forskellige versioner af Forbrydelsen: DR's oprindelige udgave, AMC's udgave The Killing og David Hewsons roman Forbrydelsen, der er baseret på manuskriptet til DR-serien. Grundfortællingen under disse tre versioner relaterer jeg til H.C. Andersens "Historien om en Moder" og tilskrivningen af mening til døden....

  16. Professionalisering af den eksterne ekspert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Susanne

    Masterafhandling, der bearbejder problemstillingen, som den eksterne ekspert kommer ud for, når han/hun skal bidragge til udvikling af uddannelsessystemet i et andet land. Afhandlingen har et pædagogisk-antropologisk udgangspunkt og tager udgangspunkt i et konkret udviklingsprojekt i Letland i pe...

  17. Urbaniteten og den urbane transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer behovet for et mere præcist urbanitetsbegreb i lyset af de forandringer, som byerne undergår i 'den anden modernitet' med globalisering, individualisering og ukontrollable risici. Forfatteren har forsket i urbanitetsbegrebet og urbaniteten i nye bydele siden begyndelsen af 199...

  18. Mosaics For Burrow Detection in Underwater Surveillance Video

    OpenAIRE

    Sooknanan, K.; Doyle, J.; Kokaram, A.; Corrigan, D.; Wilson, J.; Harte, N.

    2013-01-01

    Harvesting the commercially significant lobster,Nephrops norvegicus, is a multimillion dollar industry in Europe. Stock assessment is essential for maintaining this activity but it is conducted by manually inspecting hours of underwater surveillance videos. To improve this tedious process, we propose the use of mosaics for the automated detection of burrows on the seabed. We present novel approaches for handling the difficult lighting conditions that cause poor video quality in this kin...

  19. Determination of the burrow shapes of Cardisoma guanhumi on Vieques, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Sample

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the burrow morphology of Cardisoma guanhumi and to determine if a battery-powered fiber optic camera could be used to investigate these burrows. Methods: A portable fiber optic camera was used to investigate 116 active burrows. All burrows were categorized according to shape. The diameter of each burrow was also recorded and biomass calculations were completed at each study site. Results: Analysis showed that different study sites were more likely to have particular burrow shapes than expected. Three main types of burrows were classified as horizontal slide, short and shallow, and inverted-S. A Pearson Chi-square analysis revealed that burrow shape was not equally distributed across study sites (χ2 = 61.05, df = 18, P < 0.000 1. Biomass calculations showed that different sized animals inhabited different study sites (ANOVA; df = 7, MS = 158.3, F = 13.9, P < 0.000 1. The fiber optic camera was useful in determining burrow morphology and occupancy non-destructively. Conclusions: As the locations of juvenile individuals of this species are poorly known, and the species is both ecologically and economically important where it occurs, a greater understanding of burrow morphology and size segregation may help agencies be responsible for managing this natural resource to do so effectively.

  20. Rodent burrows in late Pleistocene paleosols at Korean Palaeolithic sites and their implications for paleoclimate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H.; Park, S.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Rodent burrows are commonly found at many Paleolithic archaeological sites in Korea. They are nearly straight in horizontal view and gently inclined in lateral view. Burrow diameters are mostly 7 - 10cm, and burrow length may reach a few meters. Vertical penetration depths are generally about 1 m from the surface, and the thickness of the burrow-bearing layer is about 1-2 m. Although no remains (bones, teeth, claws, and coprolites) were found within burrows, they are interpreted to have been produced by rodent-like mammals (probably ground squirrels) based on the size and architecture. According to the previous study, the age of these burrows was constrained to be between ca. 40,000 and 25,000 yr BP by tephrochronology, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating results (Lim et al., 2007). However, little is known about the reason why these burrows have disappeared after late Pleistocene time. For this question, two explanations can be considered: extinction or migration. Since same kinds of burrows are still found in the high-latitude regions, such as Mongolia and North America, the possibility of extinction can be ruled out. Therefore, migration seems to be the most likely explanation. Our results show that the destruction of habitat caused by climate change during this period is the main reason for the northward migration of burrowing animals. This study suggests that rodent burrows found in the late Pleistocene paleosols can provide useful information on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental changes.

  1. Artificial Crab Burrows Facilitate Desalting of Rooted Mangrove Sediment in a Microcosm Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pülmanns

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water uptake by mangrove trees can result in salt accumulation in sediment around roots, negatively influencing growth. Tidal pumping facilitates salt release and can be enhanced by crab burrows. Similarly, flushing of burrows by incoming tidal water decreases sediment salinity. In contrast to burrows with multiple entrances, the role of burrows with one opening for salinity reduction is largely unknown. In a microcosm experiment we studied the effect of artificial, burrow-like macro-pores with one opening on the desalting of mangrove sediment and growth of Rhizophora mangle L. seedlings. Sediment salinity, seedling leaf area and seedling growth were monitored over six months. Artificial burrows facilitated salt release from the sediment after six weeks, but seedling growth was not influenced. To test whether crab burrows with one opening facilitate salt release in mangrove forests, sediment salinities were measured in areas with and without R. mangle stilt roots in North Brazil at the beginning and end of the wet season. In addition, burrows of Ucides cordatus were counted. High crab burrow densities and sediment salinities were associated with stilt root occurrence. Precipitation and salt accumulation by tree roots seem to have a larger effect on sediment salinity than desalting by U. cordatus burrows.

  2. Extended amplification of acoustic signals by amphibian burrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Matías I; Penna, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Animals relying on acoustic signals for communication must cope with the constraints imposed by the environment for sound propagation. A resource to improve signal broadcast is the use of structures that favor the emission or the reception of sounds. We conducted playback experiments to assess the effect of the burrows occupied by the frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini and E. calcaratus on the amplitude of outgoing vocalizations. In addition, we evaluated the influence of these cavities on the reception of externally generated sounds potentially interfering with conspecific communication, namely, the vocalizations emitted by four syntopic species of anurans (E. emiliopugini, E. calcaratus, Batrachyla antartandica, and Pleurodema thaul) and the nocturnal owls Strix rufipes and Glaucidium nanum. Eupsophus advertisement calls emitted from within the burrows experienced average amplitude gains of 3-6 dB at 100 cm from the burrow openings. Likewise, the incoming vocalizations of amphibians and birds were amplified on average above 6 dB inside the cavities. The amplification of internally broadcast Eupsophus vocalizations favors signal detection by nearby conspecifics. Reciprocally, the amplification of incoming conspecific and heterospecific signals facilitates the detection of neighboring males and the monitoring of the levels of potentially interfering biotic noise by resident frogs, respectively. PMID:27209276

  3. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  4. Diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  5. Distribution of burrowing owls in east-central South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Jill A; Thiele, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) populations have declined across much of western North America, particularly at the northern and eastern edges of the species’ breeding range (Martell et al. 2001, Murphy et al. 2001, Shyry et al. 2001, Skeel et al. 2001, Klute et al. 2003). In South Dakota, the burrowing owl is a summer resident that historically was relatively common throughout the state, but its range has decreased in recent decades, especially in the eastern half of the state (Whitney et al. 1978, South Dakota Ornithologists’ Union [SDOU] 1991, Peterson 1995). Tallman et al. (2002) described the species as uncommon to locally common in western South Dakota, uncommon in the north-central part of the state, and casual (i.e., not within the species’ normal range, but with 3–10 records in the past 10 years) elsewhere in the eastern half. The burrowing owl is a Species of Greatest Conservation Need (South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks [SDGFP] 2006) and a Level I Priority Species in South Dakota (Bakker 2005).

  6. Variation of Sediment Properties among the Radial Profiles of Fiddler Crab Burrows in Mangrove Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mokhtari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiddler crabs burrow creates oxic-anoxic interfaces on the burrow walls. Accordingly burrow walls represent the transitions site between oxic and anoxic condition where the sediment properties varied significantly across it. In this study the burrows of three species of fiddler crabs including Uca rosea, Uca forcipata and Uca pardussumieri were sampled at three depth layers. Sediment properties of burrow walls including; temperature, redox potential, pH, density, porosity, water content, organic content, chlorophyll content and solid phase iron pools were measured to determine the magnitude of burrow effects on mangrove sediments. The results indicated that U. paradussumieri effectively reduced the sediment porosity of surrounding sediments down to 45%. Oxidized layer was more extended around U. paradussumieri burrows. Burrow walls of U. forcipata and U. paradussumieri contain higher water content than ambient sediment and burrows of U. rosea efficiently decreased the organic content of sediment. The PCA biplots indicated that the burrow walls of the all three species of fiddler crabs at 3 and 8 cm depth were correlated with oxidized iron. Ambient sediments of U. forcipata habitat were correlated with reduced iron and organic content. At 20 cm depth, burrow walls of U. paradussumieri were highly correlated with water content, while ambient sediment was correlated with reduced iron. The results of this study revealed that the thickness of oxidized layer varied according to sediment depth and burrow volume. Consequently the burrow effect varied significantly among different species of fiddler crabs as results of different habitat characteristics, sediment types and crab size.

  7. Folkelig gymnastik i den moderne motionskultur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Bjarne; Vestergård Madsen, Bo

    Rapporten analyserer de udfordringer den folkelige gymnastiktradition i Danmark står overfor med fremvæksten af en ny motionskultur. Analysen bygger på et flerårigt forskningsprojekt om den folkelige gymnastik....

  8. The taphonomy of dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania based on field sketches of the German tendaguru expedition (1909–1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-D. Heinrich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendaguru is one of the most important dinosaur localities in Africa. The Tendaguru Beds have produced a diverse Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian dinosaur assemblage, including sauropods (Brachiosaurus, Barosaurus, Dicraeosaurus, Janenschia, theropods (e.g., Elaphrosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Allosaurus, and ornithischians (Kentrosaurus, Dryosaurus. Contrary to the well studied skeletal anatomy of the Tendaguru dinosaurs, the available taphonomic information is rather limited, and a generally accepted taphonomic model has not yet been established. Assessment of unpublished excavation sketches by the German Tendaguru expedition (1909–1913 document bone assemblages of sauropod and ornithischian dinosaurs from the Middle Saurian Bed, Upper Saurian Bed, and the Transitional Sands above the Trigonia smeei Bed, and shed some light on the taphonomy of the Tendaguru dinosaurs. Stages of disarticulation range from incomplete skeletons to solitary bones, and strongly argue for carcass decay and post-mortem transport prior to burial. The sauropod bone accumulations are dominated by adult individuals, and juveniles are rare or missing. The occurrence of bones in different superimposed dinosaur-bearing horizons indicates that skeletal remains were accumulated over a long time span during the Late Jurassic, and the majority of the bone accumulations are probably attritional. These accumulations are likely to have resulted from long-term bone imput due to normal mortality events caused by starvation, seasonal drought, disease, old age and weakness. The depositional environment of the Middle and Upper Saurian Bed was mainly limnic to brackish in origin, while the palaeoenvironment of the Transitional Sands was marginal marine. Tendaguru zählt zu den bedeutendsten Dinosaurier-Lagerstätten Afrikas. Aus den Tendaguru-Schichten sind zahlreiche Skelettreste von Sauropoden (Brachiosaurus, Barosaurus, Dicraeosaurus, Janenschia, Theropoden (z.B. Elaphrosaurus

  9. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  10. Dens in dente of maxillary third molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Dens in dente,′ also known as dens invaginatus, is a developmental anomaly resulting from deepening or invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla, which begins at the crown and often extends to the root before calcification of the dental tissues. Dens in dente commonly occur in the maxillary lateral incisor. This article reports a case of dens in dente in the maxillary third molar.

  11. Limb swinging in elephants and giraffes and implications for the reconstruction of limb movements and speed estimates in large dinosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christian

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Speeds of walking dinosaurs that left fossil trackways have been estimated using the stride length times natural pendulum frequency of the limbs. In a detailed analysis of limb movements in walking Asian elephants and giraffes, however, distinct differences between actual limb movements and the predicted limb movements using only gravity as driving force were observed. Additionally, stride frequency was highly variable. Swing time was fairly constant, but especially at high walking speeds, much shorter than half the natural pendulum period. An analysis of hip and shoulder movements during walking showed that limb swinging was influenced by accelerations of hip and shoulder joints especially at high walking speeds. These results suggest an economical fast walking mechanism that could have been utilised by large dinosaurs to increase maximum speeds of locomotion. These findings throw new light on the dynamics of large vertebrates and can be used to improve speed estimates in large dinosaurs. Geschwindigkeiten gehender Dinosaurier, die fossile Fährten hinterlassen haben, wurden als Produkt aus Schrittlänge und natürlicher Pendelfrequenz der Beine abgeschätzt. Eine detaillierte Analyse der Beinbewegungen von gehenden Asiatischen Elefanten und Giraffen offenbarte allerdings klare Unterschiede zwischen den tatsächlichen Extremitätenbewegungen und den Bewegungen, die zu erwarten wären, wenn die Gravitation die einzige treibende Kraft darstellte. Zudem erwies sich die Schrittfrequenz als hochgradig variabel. Die Schwingzeit der Gliedmaßen war recht konstant, aber besonders bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten viel kürzer als die halbe natürliche Pendelperiode der Extremitäten. Eine Analyse der Bewegungen der Hüft- und Schultergelenke während des Gehens zeigte, daß das Schwingen der Gliedmaßen durch Beschleunigungen dieser Gelenke beeinflußt wurde, insbesondere bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten. Die Resultate legen einen ökonomischen Mechanismus

  12. Ikke den type som gifter sig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Myong

    2009-01-01

    Selvom magasinerne bugner af romantiske bryllupsreportager, er det ikke alle kvinder, der deler drømmen. Og det provokerer omgivelserne, når kvinder ikke vil hænge deres liv op på den eneste ene placeret i et ægteskab. Det viser den svenske antropolog Anna Adenijis nye ph.d. afhandling Inte den t...

  13. Large Mesozoic Mammals Found to Feed on Young Dinosaurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mammals in the Mesozoic era (280 million to 65 million years ago)are commonly pictured as tiny shrew-like creatures that were mainly insectivorous, probably nocturnal and lived in the shadow of the dinosaurs.

  14. Brief review of dinosaur studies and perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDER W. A. KELLNER

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaur research is developing at very high rates around the world resulting in several new discoveries that are improving our understanding of this terrestrial reptilian clade. Except for the last couple years, the studies of Brazilian dinosaurs have not followed this expansive trend, despite the high potential of several dinosaur localities. So far there are only eight described taxa, four in the last year, representing theropod, sauropod, and one possible prosauropod taxa. Except for footprints, there are no records of ornithischian dinosaurs in the country what is at least partially explainable by the lack of continuous vertebrate fossil collecting program in the country. More funding is necessary to improve the research activities in this field.

  15. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  16. A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhlich, Ursula B; Chiappe, Luis M

    2006-03-16

    Small Late Jurassic theropod dinosaurs are rare worldwide. In Europe these carnivorous dinosaurs are represented primarily by only two skeletons of Compsognathus, neither of which is well preserved. Here we describe a small new theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Schamhaupten in southern Germany. Being exquisitely preserved and complete from the snout to the distal third of the tail, the new fossil is the best-preserved predatory, non-avian dinosaur in Europe. It possesses a suite of characters that support its identification as a basal coelurosaur. A cladistic analysis indicates that the new taxon is closer to maniraptorans than to tyrannosauroids, grouping it with taxa often considered to be compsognathids. Large portions of integument are preserved along its tail. The absence of feathers or feather-like structures in a fossil phylogenetically nested within feathered theropods indicates that the evolution of these integumentary structures might be more complex than previously thought.

  17. 36 CFR 7.63 - Dinosaur National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.63 Dinosaur National Monument. (a) Commercial.... The Harpers Corner Road section extends from the Plug Hat Overlook to the Echo Park Road Turnoff....

  18. Spatial Vegetation Data for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Dinosaur National Monument. The polygons were delineated following guidelines set by the...

  19. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2005-01-01

    with the measuring of water pumping and the analysis of flow generated by burrowing deposit- and filter-feeding zoobenthos in order to determine the type of pump and mechanisms involved, flow rate, pump pressure, and pumping power. The practical use of fluid mechanical principles is examined, and it is stressed...... that not only the pump pressure that a burrowing animal can apply is of interest for assessing the energy cost of pumping, but also the distribution of excess pressure along its burrow is of importance for assessing the seepage flow of oxygen-rich water into the sediment surrounding the burrow because......Burrowing animals maintain contact with the water above the sediment by pumping water through a tube system and therefore measurements of water pumping rate of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This review deals...

  20. Burrow casts from the Lystrosaurus-Procolophon Assemblage-zone, Karoo Sequence, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Groenewald

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Five types of burrow casts from the Lystrosaurus- Procolophon Assemblage-zone (Palingkloof Member and Katberg Formation, Triassic, Karoo sequence. South Africa are associated with casts of desiccation cracks and red mudstone. Vertebrate remains of Lystrosaurus sp. and Procolophon sp. indicate that these animals probably made the burrows during the Triassic. It is possible that burrowing was an adaptive advantage during periods of severe and unfavourable climatic conditions. Similar burrow casts were found in the Dicynodon-Theriognathus Assemblage-zone, suggesting a burrowing habit for fauna represented in this zone. In structure, the burrow casts resemble those of Scoyenia, Thalassinoides, Histioderma, Gyrolithes and Planolites reported from Germany, France, Asia, Ireland, Spain and the United States of America.

  1. Fossilized melanosomes and the colour of Cretaceous dinosaurs and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fucheng; Kearns, Stuart L.; Patrick J Orr; Benton, Michael J.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Johnson, Diane; Xu, Xing; Wang, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Spectacular fossil remains from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Group of northeastern China have greatly expanded our knowledge of the diversity and palaeobiology of early birds and dinosaurs, and contributed to understanding of the origin of birds, of flight, and of feathers. Pennaceous (vaned) feathers and integumentary filaments are preserved in birds and non-avian theropod dinosaurs, but little is known of their microstructure. Here we report that melanosomes (colour-bearing organelles) are ...

  2. Dinosaur: A Refined Open-Source Peptide MS Feature Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Johan; Chawade, Aakash; Sandin, Marianne; Levander, Fredrik; Malmström, Johan

    2016-07-01

    In bottom-up mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, peptide isotopic and chromatographic traces (features) are frequently used for label-free quantification in data-dependent acquisition MS but can also be used for the improved identification of chimeric spectra or sample complexity characterization. Feature detection is difficult because of the high complexity of MS proteomics data from biological samples, which frequently causes features to intermingle. In addition, existing feature detection algorithms commonly suffer from compatibility issues, long computation times, or poor performance on high-resolution data. Because of these limitations, we developed a new tool, Dinosaur, with increased speed and versatility. Dinosaur has the functionality to sample algorithm computations through quality-control plots, which we call a plot trail. From the evaluation of this plot trail, we introduce several algorithmic improvements to further improve the robustness and performance of Dinosaur, with the detection of features for 98% of MS/MS identifications in a benchmark data set, and no other algorithm tested in this study passed 96% feature detection. We finally used Dinosaur to reimplement a published workflow for peptide identification in chimeric spectra, increasing chimeric identification from 26% to 32% over the standard workflow. Dinosaur is operating-system-independent and is freely available as open source on https://github.com/fickludd/dinosaur . PMID:27224449

  3. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.

  4. Melanosome evolution indicates a key physiological shift within feathered dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanguo; Clarke, Julia A; Gao, Ke-Qin; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Meng, Qingjin; Li, Daliang; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2014-03-20

    Inference of colour patterning in extinct dinosaurs has been based on the relationship between the morphology of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) and colour in extant bird feathers. When this relationship evolved relative to the origin of feathers and other novel integumentary structures, such as hair and filamentous body covering in extinct archosaurs, has not been evaluated. Here we sample melanosomes from the integument of 181 extant amniote taxa and 13 lizard, turtle, dinosaur and pterosaur fossils from the Upper-Jurassic and Lower-Cretaceous of China. We find that in the lineage leading to birds, the observed increase in the diversity of melanosome morphologies appears abruptly, near the origin of pinnate feathers in maniraptoran dinosaurs. Similarly, mammals show an increased diversity of melanosome form compared to all ectothermic amniotes. In these two clades, mammals and maniraptoran dinosaurs including birds, melanosome form and colour are linked and colour reconstruction may be possible. By contrast, melanosomes in lizard, turtle and crocodilian skin, as well as the archosaurian filamentous body coverings (dinosaur 'protofeathers' and pterosaur 'pycnofibres'), show a limited diversity of form that is uncorrelated with colour in extant taxa. These patterns may be explained by convergent changes in the key melanocortin system of mammals and birds, which is known to affect pleiotropically both melanin-based colouration and energetic processes such as metabolic rate in vertebrates, and may therefore support a significant physiological shift in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  5. Dinosaur: A Refined Open-Source Peptide MS Feature Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Johan; Chawade, Aakash; Sandin, Marianne; Levander, Fredrik; Malmström, Johan

    2016-07-01

    In bottom-up mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, peptide isotopic and chromatographic traces (features) are frequently used for label-free quantification in data-dependent acquisition MS but can also be used for the improved identification of chimeric spectra or sample complexity characterization. Feature detection is difficult because of the high complexity of MS proteomics data from biological samples, which frequently causes features to intermingle. In addition, existing feature detection algorithms commonly suffer from compatibility issues, long computation times, or poor performance on high-resolution data. Because of these limitations, we developed a new tool, Dinosaur, with increased speed and versatility. Dinosaur has the functionality to sample algorithm computations through quality-control plots, which we call a plot trail. From the evaluation of this plot trail, we introduce several algorithmic improvements to further improve the robustness and performance of Dinosaur, with the detection of features for 98% of MS/MS identifications in a benchmark data set, and no other algorithm tested in this study passed 96% feature detection. We finally used Dinosaur to reimplement a published workflow for peptide identification in chimeric spectra, increasing chimeric identification from 26% to 32% over the standard workflow. Dinosaur is operating-system-independent and is freely available as open source on https://github.com/fickludd/dinosaur .

  6. Genome Similarity Implies that Citrus-Parasitic Burrowing Nematodes do not Represent a Unique Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, D. T.; Opperman, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    Burrowing nematodes from Central America, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were characterized for their ability to parasitize citrus, but citrus parasites were found only in Florida. Sequence tag sites originally amplified from a citrus-parasitic burrowing nematode were polymorphic among 37 burrowing nematode isolates and were not correlated with citrus parasitism, nematode isolate collection site, or amplification of a 2.4-kb sequence tag site (DK#1). Results ...

  7. Eighteen microsatellite loci developed from western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    OpenAIRE

    Faircloth, Brant C; Title, Alexandra; Tan, Kevin; Welty, Justin; Belthoff, James R.; Gowaty, Patricia Adair

    2010-01-01

    Western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are ground-dwelling owls distributed throughout western North America. Because of population declines, this species is considered endangered in Canada, and burrowing owls are listed as a species of conservation concern in states of the western USA. Korfanta et al. (2002) previously presented primers for seven microsatellite loci in burrowing owls. Parentage and relatedness studies require a larger number of markers for accuracy and precisio...

  8. Da den moderne jazz kom til Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Ole Izard; Nielsen, Anders H.U.

    som tog over, deriblandt Erik Moseholm, Bent Axen og Jørn Elniff. Denne bog forklarer, hvordan den moderne jazz kom til Danmark, og hvordan den udviklede det danske jazzmiljø. Den inddrager faktorer som udenlandske musikeres besøg, koncerter og efterfølgende jazzsessions. Hvilken betydning havde disse...... for den danske jazzudvikling? Hvor blev musikken spillet, og hvordan blev den behandlet af medierne og af samfundet? Sammen med beskrivelser af de vigtigste moderne jazzmusikere fra perioden, analyseres og beskrives en række indspilninger af moderne dansk jazz for at undersøge hvornår, og hvilke af de nye...

  9. Kunsten i den kulturpolitiske forskning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    2011-01-01

    spørgsmål inden for den klturpolitiske forskning. Således ikke mindst spørgsmålet om kunstens samfundsmæssige værdi. Det gælder Belfiore og Bennett, der i deres The Social Impact of the Arts (Hampshure/New York, 2008) peger på idehistorien og en æstetikteoretisk refleksion over spørgsmålet om kunstens værdi...... vidende, at der er masser af problemer knyttet til denne tilgang. Jeg vil imidlertid argumentere for, at det er væsentligt ikke at lade de metodiske problemer overskygge fordelene ved en analytisk, indholds- og formmæssig tilgang til kunstværker som et væsentligt element i den kulturpolitiske forskning....

  10. Den sociale fantasilegs forandrende potentialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    kapitlet argumenterer for en legebaseret pædagogisk tilgang og de voksnes vigtige rolle for børns leg i børnehaven. forskellige former for leg præsenteres og sammenhæng med førskolebarnets udvikling. den sociale fantasileg i børnehaven præsenteres ud fra analysen af en seksuelt overskridende leg ...

  11. Reformerne i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm

    Der er gennemført mere end 15 reformer i den offentlige sektor på få år. Disse analyseres i bogen med udgangspunkt i følgende tre spørgsmål. Reformernes konsekvenser for produktionen og leveringen af velfærdsydelserne til borgerne? Årsagen til og drivkraften bag reformerne? Reformernes krav til d...

  12. Den onde eller det onde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen handler om brugen af billeder for den onde (djævelen) og det onde i moderne salmer. Der er en klar tendens til at foretrække et naturbillede som mørket frem for personbilleder. Mørket kan som billede bruges forholdsvis nuanceret og vil i mange tilfælde ikke forudsætte et dybere kendskab ...

  13. Determination of the burrow shapes of Cardisoma guanhumi on Vieques, Puerto Rico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Sample; MarcAlbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the burrow morphology of Cardisoma guanhumi and to determine if a battery-powered fiber optic camera could be used to investigate these burrows. Methods: A portable fiber optic camera was used to investigate 116 active burrows. All burrows were categorized according to shape. The diameter of each burrow was also recorded and biomass calculations were completed at each study site. Results: Analysis showed that different study sites were more likely to have particular burrow shapes than expected. Three main types of burrows were classified as horizontal slide, short and shallow, and inverted-S. A Pearson Chi-square analysis revealed that burrow shape was not equally distributed across study sites (χ2 = 61.05, df = 18, P Conclusions: As the locations of juvenile individuals of this species are poorly known, and the species is both ecologically and economically important where it occurs, a greater understanding of burrow morphology and size segregation may help agencies be responsible for managing this natural resource to do so effectively.

  14. Semiaquatic adaptations in a giant predatory dinosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Sereno, Paul C; Dal Sasso, Cristiano; Maganuco, Simone; Fabbri, Matteo; Martill, David M; Zouhri, Samir; Myhrvold, Nathan; Iurino, Dawid A

    2014-09-26

    We describe adaptations for a semiaquatic lifestyle in the dinosaur Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. These adaptations include retraction of the fleshy nostrils to a position near the mid-region of the skull and an elongate neck and trunk that shift the center of body mass anterior to the knee joint. Unlike terrestrial theropods, the pelvic girdle is downsized, the hindlimbs are short, and all of the limb bones are solid without an open medullary cavity, for buoyancy control in water. The short, robust femur with hypertrophied flexor attachment and the low, flat-bottomed pedal claws are consistent with aquatic foot-propelled locomotion. Surface striations and bone microstructure suggest that the dorsal "sail" may have been enveloped in skin that functioned primarily for display on land and in water.

  15. Scientists Drill for Clues to Dinosaur Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一

    2001-01-01

    @@ [选注者言:20世纪70年代,墨西哥的Yucatan半岛的石油勘探发现了著名的Chicxulub大坑.直到20世纪90年代,科学家才认定,此大坑是由6千5百万年的一颗小行星撞击地球而形成,这次撞击导致地球上的恐龙灭绝.现在,科学家拟再次对此大坑作一番发掘研究,旨在:to determine once andfor all(一劳永逸的;彻底地)whatled to the global extinction(消灭)of the dinosaurs(恐龙)millions of years ago.

  16. Scientists Drill for Clues to Dinosaur Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一

    2001-01-01

    20世纪70年代,墨西哥的Yucatan半岛的石油勘探发现了著名的Chicxulub大坑。直到20世纪90年代,科学家才认定,此大坑是由6千5百万年的一颗小行星撞击地球而形成,这次撞击导致地球上的恐龙灭绝。现在,科学家拟再次对此大坑作一番发掘研究,旨在:to determine once andfor all(一劳永逸的;彻底地)what led to the global extinction(消灭)of the dinosaurs(恐龙)millions of years ago。 本文为读者描绘了当年地球遭受此灭顶之灾时的可怕情景: Millions of years before humans even existed,a huge meteorite(陨星)measuring about 6 miles across and weighing perhaps billions of tons crashed intothe planet in a ball of fire,shrouding the Earth in a dense cloud of dust that blocked out sunlight and sent temperatures plummeting(垂直落下). 文中有一句话颇能引起读者的共鸣: It’s a 100 million-year event—they don’t occur that often,thank God. 文中的一个成语的使用却值得商榷: …hoping to determine once and for all(一劳永逸的;彻底地)what led to theglobal extinction(消灭)of the dinosaurs(恐龙)millions of years ago.在科学探索的道路上,once and for all也许只是一种良好

  17. The effect of water density variations on the tidal flushing of animal burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, S. F.; Ridd, P. V.

    2003-09-01

    Animal burrows in mangrove swamps play an important role in the transport of various soluble materials, including salt. Flushing of burrows by inundating tides provides an efficient mechanism for the exchange of these materials. The density increase in the burrow, due to salt diffusion from pore water into the burrow, causes a greater resistance to the flushing. As the salinity difference between surface and burrow waters increases, the burrows no longer flush, and hydrostatic equilibrium exists between the different density waters. A flume experiment was conducted to compare burrow flushing characteristics with theoretical predictions. The results were consistent with a simple analytical theory in predicting whether burrows would flush. When equilibrium was attained, the difference between the interface depths was 10% greater than the theoretical prediction, which was within the experimental error. In addition, a comparison between a two-opening and a three-opening burrow showed that there was no benefit to the flushing capability due to additional openings. Computational fluid dynamic models were undertaken to compare with the experimental and theoretical flushing characteristics. These were also consistent with the flushing prediction theory. When equilibrium was attained, the difference between the interface depths in the model was 33% greater than the theoretical prediction. The computational study with an additional opening supported the experimental evidence that there is no advantage to the flushing. Insight into small-scale processes unable to be accurately observed could be obtained from the models, e.g. oscillations of density interfaces and turbulent scales at the burrow openings. The consistency in prediction of flushing between the theoretical, experimental and computational methods, now allows modelling of more complex burrow structures with great confidence.

  18. DinoViz: Exploring the History and Nature of Science through the Progression of Dinosaur Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Dinosaurs in the middle school classroom can be exciting. These extinct reptiles are both an exotic subject and familiar to our students. Because students are inherently interested, dinosaurs can serve as an effective portal for the integration of biology, geology, ecology, and the history and nature of science. The field of dinosaur study is…

  19. Intraspecific variation in reproductive traits of burrowing owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Meaghan; Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews of hatching asynchrony in birds recommended more studies on intraspecific variation in the extent of hatching asynchrony. We examined intraspecific variation in clutch size, laying chronology, onset of incubation, incubation period, and hatching asynchrony in burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Imperial Valley of California. Mean clutch size was 7.4 eggs and owls averaged 0.5 eggs laid per day. Females varied considerably in laying interval and onset of incubation (range = 1st to 9th egg in the clutch). The mean incubation period was 21.9 days. Hatching interval also varied greatly among females (x = 0.8, range 0.1-2.0 days between successively hatched eggs). Past burrowing owl studies have largely overlooked the substantial intraspecific variation in these traits or have reported estimates that differ from ours. Future studies designed to identify the environmental factors that explain the large intraspecific variation in these traits will likely provide insights into the constraints on local abundance.

  20. The vibrational signals that male fiddler crabs ( Uca lactea) use to attract females into their burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Fumio; Murai, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    In some fiddler crab species, males emit vibrations from their burrows to mate-searching females after they have attracted a female to the burrow entrance using a waving display. Although the vibrations are considered acoustic signals to induce mating, it has not been demonstrated whether the vibrations attract the females into the burrow and, consequently, influence females' mating decisions. We investigated the structures and patterns of the vibrations using a dummy female and demonstrated experimentally a female preference for male vibrations in Uca lactea in the field. The acoustic signals consisted of repetitions of pulses. The dominant frequency of the pulses decreased with male carapace width. The pulse length decreased slightly with an increasing number of vibrational repetitions, and the pulse interval increased with increasing repetitions. These factors imply that the vibrations convey information on male characteristics, such as body size and stamina. In the experiment on female mate choice, the females significantly preferred males with higher pulse repetition rates when they were positioned at the entrance of the burrow, indicating that the females use the male vibrational signals to decide whether to enter the burrow. However, females showed no preference for the vibrations once they were inside a burrow, i.e., whether they decided to copulate, suggesting that the vibrations do not independently affect a female's final decision of mate choice. The vibrations inside the burrow might influence a female's decision by interaction with other male traits such as the burrow structure.

  1. Development of earthworm burrow systems and the influence of earthworms on soil hydrology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, T.N.

    1996-01-01

    Inoculation of earthworms can help to restore or ameliorate land qualities. Earthworms create burrows and alter the structure of the soil matrix, which influence the water infiltration, drainage, water retention and the aeration of the soil. The way and rate of the development of earthworm burrow sy

  2. Burrow ventilation and associated porewater irrigation by the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Cintia Organo; Hansen, Tanja; Delefosse, Matthieu;

    2011-01-01

    presented muscular pumping in time averaged rates of 0.15 ml min−1. Oxygen needle electrodes positioned above the burrow openings revealed that muscular undulation of the worm body pumps anoxic water out of the burrow. On the other hand, microscope observations of the animal showed that ventilation...

  3. Effects of Fiddler Crab Burrows on Sediment Properties in the Mangrove Mudflats of Sungai Sepang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mohammad; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan; Usup, Gires; Che Cob, Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    In mangrove ecosystems, litter fall accumulates as refractory organic carbon on the sediment surface and creates anoxic sediment layers. Fiddler crabs, through their burrowing activity, translocate oxygen into the anoxic layers and promote aerobic respiration, iron reduction and nitrification. In this study, the effects of four species of fiddler crabs (Uca triangularis, Uca rosea, Uca forcipata and Uca paradussumieri) on organic content, water content, porosity, redox potential and solid phase iron pools of mangrove sediments were investigated. In each crab's habitat, six cores down to 30 cm depth were taken from burrowed and non-burrowed sampling plots. Redox potential and oxidized iron pools were highest in surface sediment, while porosity, water and organic content were higher in deeper sediment. Reduced iron (Fe (II)) and redox potential were significantly different between burrowed and non-burrowed plots. Crab burrows extend the oxidized surface layer down to 4 cm depth and through the oxidation effect, reduce the organic content of sediments. The effects of burrows varied between the four species based on their shore location. The oxidation effect of burrows enhance the decomposition rate and stimulate iron reduction, which are processes that are expected to play an important role in biogeochemical properties of mangrove sediments. PMID:26797647

  4. Effects of Fiddler Crab Burrows on Sediment Properties in the Mangrove Mudflats of Sungai Sepang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mokhtari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mangrove ecosystems, litter fall accumulates as refractory organic carbon on the sediment surface and creates anoxic sediment layers. Fiddler crabs, through their burrowing activity, translocate oxygen into the anoxic layers and promote aerobic respiration, iron reduction and nitrification. In this study, the effects of four species of fiddler crabs (Uca triangularis, Uca rosea, Uca forcipata and Uca paradussumieri on organic content, water content, porosity, redox potential and solid phase iron pools of mangrove sediments were investigated. In each crab’s habitat, six cores down to 30 cm depth were taken from burrowed and non-burrowed sampling plots. Redox potential and oxidized iron pools were highest in surface sediment, while porosity, water and organic content were higher in deeper sediment. Reduced iron (Fe (II and redox potential were significantly different between burrowed and non-burrowed plots. Crab burrows extend the oxidized surface layer down to 4 cm depth and through the oxidation effect, reduce the organic content of sediments. The effects of burrows varied between the four species based on their shore location. The oxidation effect of burrows enhance the decomposition rate and stimulate iron reduction, which are processes that are expected to play an important role in biogeochemical properties of mangrove sediments.

  5. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of water pumping rates of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This short review deals with water pumping and analysis of flow, including available techniques and bio-fluid mechanical theory, in burrowing deposit...

  6. A double test of the parasite manipulation hypothesis in a burrowing bivalve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Drent, J; de Goeij, P

    2003-01-01

    The parasite manipulation hypothesis predicts that parasites should be selected to manipulate host behaviour to facilitate transmission to the next host. The bivalve Macoma balthica burrows less deep when parasitized by the trematode Parvatrema affinis. Shallow burrowing increases the likelihood of

  7. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  8. Fra dinosaur til fugl - autentisk undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora

    2014-01-01

    Undervisning med fokus på hands-on metoder, hvor elevernes resultater er baseret på deres egne aktive undersøgelser, har længe været sat højt indenfor den naturfaglige pædagogik. Men kommer eleverne frem til de samme argumenter og konklusioner som forskerne, når de arbejder med de samme effekter?...

  9. The first Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian dinosaur footprints from Transylvania (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Vremir

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Uppermost Cretaceous (Maastrichtian site exposing dinosaur footprints is reported from the Sebes̡ area (Transylvanian Depression. This is the first dinoturbated layer discovered in our country, containing also numerous bones belonging to various dinosaurs. The track-site is located near Lancrăm village and provides only two quite well preserved footprints (one track. The medium sized (FL = 23,3 cm; FW = 17,8 cm; pace = 103 cm; ST = 200 cm plantigrad-tridactyle footprints belong to Ornithopedoidei, according to their morphology. An assignment to the Iguanodontichnus CASAMIQUELA & FASOLA, 1968 group seems to be appropriate (tentatively, associated to the “Rhabdodon” iguanodontian dinosaur. The importance of this discovery lies in the stratigraphical significance, confirming the Uppermost Cretaceous age of these dinosaur-bearing continental deposits exposed between Sebes̡ and Alba-Iulia (as well as the autochthon/ paraautochon status of some vertebrate assemblages identified there, which previously were considered Oligocene or even Miocene. Additional data regarding size, speed and locomotion of the Transylvanian Iguanodontian ”Rhabdodon” dinosaurs are added.

  10. Mountain building triggered late cretaceous North American megaherbivore dinosaur radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A Gates

    Full Text Available Prior studies of Mesozoic biodiversity document a diversity peak for dinosaur species in the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, yet have failed to provide explicit causal mechanisms. We provide evidence that a marked increase in North American dinosaur biodiversity can be attributed to dynamic orogenic episodes within the Western Interior Basin (WIB. Detailed fossil occurrences document an association between the shift from Sevier-style, latitudinally arrayed basins to smaller Laramide-style, longitudinally arrayed basins and a well substantiated decreased geographic range/increased taxonomic diversity of megaherbivorous dinosaur species. Dispersal-vicariance analysis demonstrates that the nearly identical biogeographic histories of the megaherbivorous dinosaur clades Ceratopsidae and Hadrosauridae are attributable to rapid diversification events within restricted basins and that isolation events are contemporaneous with known tectonic activity in the region. SymmeTREE analysis indicates that megaherbivorous dinosaur clades exhibited significant variation in diversification rates throughout the Late Cretaceous. Phylogenetic divergence estimates of fossil clades offer a new lower boundary on Laramide surficial deformation that precedes estimates based on sedimentological data alone.

  11. Berlusconi og den moderne fyrste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gert

    Da Berlusconi dannede sin første regering tilbage i 1994, gav han indtryk af at repræsentere noget tiltrængt nyt, efter den gamle korruptionsramte politiske klasse havde måttet trække sig. Dette billede har ændret sig markant siden, men alligevel blev han valgt igen i 2001, hvor han dannede den...... anden Berlusconi-regering. Ved valget i 2006 var det lige ved at ske igen. Hvad har fået så mange italienere til at støtte Berlusconi? Og hvordan har han formået at fastholde denne støtte? Det er bl.a. disse spørgsmål, bogen prøver at give et svar på. Der er ikke tale om en traditionel biografi om...... Berlusconi. Interessen samler sig om Berlusconi som katalysator for nogle grundlæggende forandringer i italienernes politiske adfærd. Bogen skal ses som en slags tilstandsrapport over en aktuel tidsepoke med rødder tilbage i det Italien, der opstod i 1945 efter fascismens endelige sammenbrud. Bogens første...

  12. Burrowing behavior as an indicator of post-laparotomy pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin Jirkof

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of persistent pain of a mild-to-moderate degree in laboratory mice is difficult because mice do not show unambiguous symptoms of pain or suffering using standard methods of short-term observational or clinical monitoring. This study investigated the potential use of burrowing performance — a spontaneous and highly motivated behavior — as a measure of post-operative pain in laboratory mice. The influence of minor surgery on burrowing was investigated in adult C57BL/6J mice of both genders in a modified rodent burrowing test (displacement of food pellets from a pellet-filled tube within the animal’s home cage. Almost all (98% healthy mice burrowed (mean latency 1.3 h, SEM 0.5 h. After surgery without pain treatment, latency of burrowing was significantly prolonged (mean ∆ latency 10 h. Analgesic treatment using the anti-inflammatory drug carprofen (5 mg/kg bodyweight decreased latency of burrowing after surgery (mean ∆ latency 5.5 h to the level found in mice that had been anaesthetised (mean ∆ latency 5.3 h or had received anaesthesia and analgesia (mean ∆ latency 4.6 h. Analgesia during surgery was associated with a significantly earlier onset of burrowing compared to surgery without pain treatment. A distinct gradation in burrowing performance was found ranging from the undisturbed pre-operative status to the intermediate level following anaesthesia/analgesia and surgery with analgesia, to the pronounced prolongation of latency to burrow after surgery without pain relief. In conclusion, post-surgical impairment of general condition, probably mainly attributable to pain, can be conveniently assessed in laboratory mice on the basis of the burrowing test.

  13. Die grossen Physiker und ihre Entdeckungen von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Segrè, Emilio

    1998-01-01

    Von Galileo Galilei bis zu Richard Feynman und Murray Gell-Mann - von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks: Der Physiknobelpreisträger Emilio Segre hat seine ganz persönliche Geschichte der Physik geschrieben. Er erzählt von den großen Gestalten und deren wichtigen Entdeckungen mit großer Anschaulichkeit und Lebendigkeit.

  14. Bird embryos uncover homology and evolution of the dinosaur ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Mpodozis, Jorge; Vargas, Alexander O

    2015-11-13

    The anklebone (astragalus) of dinosaurs presents a characteristic upward projection, the 'ascending process' (ASC). The ASC is present in modern birds, but develops a separate ossification centre, and projects from the calcaneum in most species. These differences have been argued to make it non-comparable to dinosaurs. We studied ASC development in six different orders of birds using traditional techniques and spin-disc microscopy for whole-mount immunofluorescence. Unexpectedly, we found the ASC derives from the embryonic intermedium, an ancient element of the tetrapod ankle. In some birds it comes in contact with the astragalus, and, in others, with the calcaneum. The fact that the intermedium fails to fuse early with the tibiale and develops an ossification centre is unlike any other amniotes, yet resembles basal, amphibian-grade tetrapods. The ASC originated in early dinosaurs along changes to upright posture and locomotion, revealing an intriguing combination of functional innovation and reversion in its evolution.

  15. Epidermal and dermal integumentary structures of ankylosaurian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Burns, Michael E; Bell, Phil R; Currie, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosaurian dinosaurs are most notable for their abundant and morphologically diverse osteoderms, which would have given them a spiky appearance in life. Isolated osteoderms are relatively common and provide important information about the structure of the ankylosaur dermis, but fossilized impressions of the soft-tissue epidermis of ankylosaurs are rare. Nevertheless, well-preserved integument exists on several ankylosaur fossils that shows osteoderms were covered by a single epidermal scale, but one or many millimeter-sized ossicles may be present under polygonal, basement epidermal scales. Evidence for the taxonomic utility of ankylosaurid epidermal scale architecture is presented for the first time. This study builds on previous osteological work that argues for a greater diversity of ankylosaurids in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta than has been traditionally recognized and adds to the hypothesis that epidermal skin impressions are taxonomically relevant across diverse dinosaur clades.

  16. Biomechanics (Communication arising): prey attack by a large theropod dinosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzetta, T H; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2002-03-28

    Prey-capture strategies in carnivorous dinosaurs have been inferred from the biomechanical features of their tooth structure, the estimated bite force produced, and their diet. Rayfield et al. have used finite-element analysis (FEA) to investigate such structure-function relationships in Allosaurus fragilis, and have found that the skull was designed to bear more stress than could be generated by simple biting. They conclude that this large theropod dinosaur delivered a chop-and-slash 'hatchet' blow to its prey, which it approached with its mouth wide open before driving its upper tooth row downwards. We argue that this mode of predation is unlikely, and that the FEA results, which relate to an 'overengineered' skull, are better explained by the biomechanical demands of prey capture. Understanding the mechanics of predation is important to our knowledge of the feeding habits of carnivorous dinosaurs and for accurate reconstruction their lifestyles.

  17. Bird embryos uncover homology and evolution of the dinosaur ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Mpodozis, Jorge; Vargas, Alexander O

    2015-01-01

    The anklebone (astragalus) of dinosaurs presents a characteristic upward projection, the ‘ascending process' (ASC). The ASC is present in modern birds, but develops a separate ossification centre, and projects from the calcaneum in most species. These differences have been argued to make it non-comparable to dinosaurs. We studied ASC development in six different orders of birds using traditional techniques and spin–disc microscopy for whole-mount immunofluorescence. Unexpectedly, we found the ASC derives from the embryonic intermedium, an ancient element of the tetrapod ankle. In some birds it comes in contact with the astragalus, and, in others, with the calcaneum. The fact that the intermedium fails to fuse early with the tibiale and develops an ossification centre is unlike any other amniotes, yet resembles basal, amphibian-grade tetrapods. The ASC originated in early dinosaurs along changes to upright posture and locomotion, revealing an intriguing combination of functional innovation and reversion in its evolution. PMID:26563435

  18. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  19. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  20. Dynamics of dental evolution in ornithopod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickson, Edward; Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Benton, Michael J.; Stubbs, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Ornithopods were key herbivorous dinosaurs in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems, with a variety of tooth morphologies. Several clades, especially the ‘duck-billed’ hadrosaurids, became hugely diverse and abundant almost worldwide. Yet their evolutionary dynamics have been disputed, particularly whether they diversified in response to events in plant evolution. Here we focus on their remarkable dietary adaptations, using tooth and jaw characters to examine changes in dental disparity and evolutionary rate. Ornithopods explored different areas of dental morphospace throughout their evolution, showing a long-term expansion. There were four major evolutionary rate increases, the first among basal iguanodontians in the Middle-Late Jurassic, and the three others among the Hadrosauridae, above and below the split of their two major clades, in the middle of the Late Cretaceous. These evolutionary bursts do not correspond to times of plant diversification, including the radiation of the flowering plants, and suggest that dental innovation rather than coevolution with major plant clades was a major driver in ornithopod evolution. PMID:27412496

  1. Global aspects of dinosaur distribution and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sues, H.

    1988-02-01

    Late Jurassic dinosaurian assemblages show close taxonomic correspondence over wide geographical ranges. Presently available if meager evidence suggests that this is also the case for Early Cretaceous communities. Cretaceous dinosaurian assemblages of Campanian and Maastrichtian age show considerable geographical differentiation but also some wide-ranging genera. Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems were dominated by hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, both herbivores with advanced capabilities for oral food-processing, whereas Southern Hemisphere biota were characterized by the abundance of titanosaurid sauropods, which relied on gut processing. Very close taxonomic similarities exist between the Campanian and early Maastrichtian dinosaurian assemblages of Mongolia and western North America, which, in part, is matched by similarities among other tetrapods such as mammals. Endemic dinosaurs in the Southern Hemisphere appear to reflect major changes in continental configuration. Some evidence exists for interchange of fuanal elements between North and South America. In absence of late Maastrichtian dinosaurian assemblages from most regions, scenarios concerning the terminal Cretaceous extinction of the Dinosauria should be regarded with caution because they are exclusively based on the conditions in western North America.

  2. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  3. Broad-scale patterns of late jurassic dinosaur paleoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Noto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been numerous studies on dinosaur biogeographic distribution patterns. However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs. Fewer studies have sought to determine if the ecological structure of fossil assemblages is preserved and, if so, how dinosaur communities varied. Climate is a major component driving differences between communities. If the ecological structure of a fossil locality is preserved, we expect that dinosaur assemblages from similar environments will share a similar ecological structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study applies Ecological Structure Analysis (ESA to a dataset of 100+ dinosaur taxa arranged into twelve composite fossil assemblages from around the world. Each assemblage was assigned a climate zone (biome based on its location. Dinosaur taxa were placed into ecomorphological categories. The proportion of each category creates an ecological profile for the assemblage, which were compared using cluster and principal components analyses. Assemblages grouped according to biome, with most coming from arid or semi-arid/seasonal climates. Differences between assemblages are tied to the proportion of large high-browsing vs. small ground-foraging herbivores, which separates arid from semi-arid and moister environments, respectively. However, the effects of historical, taphonomic, and other environmental factors are still evident. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to show that the general ecological structure of Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages is preserved at large scales and can be assessed quantitatively. Despite a broad similarity of climatic conditions, a degree of ecological variation is observed between assemblages, from arid to moist. Taxonomic differences between Asia and the other regions demonstrate at

  4. The first record of a sauropod dinosaur from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Ignacio A.; Paulina Carabajal, Ariana; Salgado, Leonardo; Coria, Rodolfo A.; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Tambussi, Claudia P.; Moly, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Sauropoda is one of the most diverse and geographically widespread clades of herbivorous dinosaurs, and until now, their remains have now been recovered from all continental landmasses except Antarctica. We report the first record of a sauropod dinosaur from Antarctica, represented by an incomplete caudal vertebra from the Late Cretaceous of James Ross Island. The size and morphology of the specimen allows its identification as a lithostrotian titanosaur. Our finding indicates that advanced titanosaurs achieved a global distribution at least by the Late Cretaceous.

  5. Den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    tværfaglig lektorgruppe fra social og sundhedssektoren.’Learning by doing’, selvevaluering og sparring følger herefter som bud på, hvordan man kan leve op til de tilsyneladende ret utopiske krav til en god facilitator. At kunne skabe det tillidsfulde refleksionsrum og at kunne stille gode...... præsenteres i det følgende afsnit, og forfatteren argumenterer for begrebet facilitator af refleksionsarbejde. Herefter udfoldes rollen som facilitator ifølge Ghay og Lillyman. De har fokus på positive praksisoplevelser og tillidsfulde relationer. Gillie Boltons teoretiske og praktiske referenceramme...... for facilitatorrollen beskrives herefter. Bolton beskriver refleksionsarbejde som en fysisk (ikke ren kognitiv), passioneret (ikke ren intellektuel) kontekstbunden kunstnerisk proces, som kræver flair, stil og intuition. I de følgende afsnit beskrives den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde detaljeret af en...

  6. Den kontraktstyrede og kontraktstyrende offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Christiane; Greve, Carsten

    Kontraktbaseret styring har været på den politiske agenda i OECD landene siden de tidlige 1980’erne og i dag er kontrakter et helt centralt element i den moderne regering ((Ejersbo & Greve 2005: 62, Greve 2008a: 4). Internationalt var det især med Reagon-regeringen i USA og Thatcher-regeringen i...

  7. Digital kommunikation med den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Jesper Bull; Andersen, Kim Normann

    Udgangspunktet for vores undersøgelse om digital kommunikation med det offentlige er et positivt ståsted for så vidt angår den fremadrettede anvendelse af digitalisering. Vi deler således den normative målsætning udtrykt bl.a. i Regeringens, KLs og Danske Regioners 2015 - digitaliseringsstrategi...

  8. Statistik in den Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Walter

    2000-01-01

    In den Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften wird die Statistik einmal als Datenlieferant und einmal als Dateninterpretierer wahrgenommen. Während die erste Rolle in Zukunft an Bedeutung eher zunehmen wird, scheint sich die Statistik als Dateninterpretierer von den Bedürfnissen der Sachwissenschaften zunehmend abzukoppeln.

  9. koncernbegrebet og tilbudspligtens indtræden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul; sørensen, karsten engsig

    2010-01-01

      Med den nye selskabslov og de hertil knyttede ændringer i værdipapirhandelslovens regler om tilbudspligt har man fastholdt ønsket om parallelitet mellem det selskabsretlige koncernbegreb og kriterierne for tilbudspligtens indtræden. Det drøftes, om koncernbegrebet reelt er overført til tilbudsp...

  10. Den lange vej mod 9. april

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Michael Hesselholt

    resultat af en pludselig indskydelse, men den logiske kulmination af årtiers udvikling, hvor Tysklands flåde febrilsk havde søgt veje til at yde et effektivt bidrag til sejren. Også den britiske minering af norsk farvand, der blev gennemført samtidig med at de tyske transporter nærmede sig norske kystbyer...

  11. Den barokke lov i Kafkas "Processen"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer barokke aspekter af loven hos Kafka, idet den inddrager erkendelser fra den historiske barok, blandt andet dobbeltheden af labyrintisk ornamentik og vertikal magt, og inddrager diskussioner af hhv. Gilles Deleuzes, Jacques Derridas og Tzvetan Todorovs læsninger af Kafka....

  12. Kaolin gegen den Gemeinen Birnenblattsauger C. pyri

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Durch Vorblüteapplikationen mit Kaolin kann der Gemeine Birnenblattsauger das ganze Jahr unter der Schadensschwelle gehalten werden.Da Kaolin für nützliche Insekten nicht toxisch ist und eine vergleichbar gute Wirkung wie die herkömmlichen Insektizide hat, stellt es eine Alternative für den integrierten und den ökologischen Anbau dar.

  13. De stijl van de rechter: Lord Denning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    De uitspraak van rechter Lord Denning in de zaak Miller v Jackson [1977] QB 966 werd door sommigen als partijdig beoordeeld. Mijn oordeel is anders. Door de feiten op een bepaalde wijze in te kleuren vergroot Lord Denning de overtuigingskracht van zijn uitspraak. Kan onze rechter dit ook?

  14. Luftstaub über den Meeren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko; Kacunko, Sabine; Gorbushina, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Staub umgibt uns überall und alles wird auch irgendwann zu Staub - ob wir wollen oder nicht. Staub nicht nur zu bekämpfen, sondern zu untersuchen, bildet den Ausgangspunkt zahlreicher Forschungen in den Natur-, Ingenieur- und Kulturwissenschaften. Der vorliegende Band verbindet solche Beiträge au...

  15. Planer for den andens liv II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breumlund, Anne; Hansen, Inger Bruun

    Undersøgelsen viser, hvordan den socialpædagogiske indsats på botilbuddet Højskolebakken skaber forandringer i hveragslivet for en gruppe unge med autisme, som har tillægsdiagnoser, udfordrende adfærd, misbrug eller har udøvet kriminalitet. Anden rapport fra forskningsprojektet: "Den pædagogiske ...

  16. The Hornless Australian Burrowing Mayfly Ulmerophlebia (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jae Bae

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hornless Australian burrowing mayfly genus Ulmerophlebia Demoulin (Leptophlebiidae is revised based on comprehensive examinations of adult and larval material collected throughout Australia. Two new species [Ulmerophlebia deani n. sp. and U. minuta n. sp.] and three named species [U. annulata (Harker, U. mjobergi (Ulmer and U. pipinna Suter] are included. The larva of U. deani can be distinguished by the moderately developed apicomedial expansion of gills and W-shaped markings on the abdominal terga. The male adult of U. minuta can be easily distinguished by the greatly reduced penes. Descriptions, diagnoses, line-drawings of key characters, material and distributional data, taxonomic remarks and adult and larval keys are provided.

  17. On Bijective Variants of the Burrows-Wheeler Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Kufleitner, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    The sort transform (ST) is a modification of the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT). Both transformations map an arbitrary word of length n to a pair consisting of a word of length n and an index between 1 and n. The BWT sorts all rotation conjugates of the input word, whereas the ST of order k only uses the first k letters for sorting all such conjugates. If two conjugates start with the same prefix of length k, then the indices of the rotations are used for tie-breaking. Both transforms output the sequence of the last letters of the sorted list and the index of the input within the sorted list. In this paper, we discuss a bijective variant of the BWT (due to Scott), proving its correctness and relations to other results due to Gessel and Reutenauer (1993) and Crochemore, Desarmenien, and Perrin (2005). Further, we present a novel bijective variant of the ST.

  18. Self-burrowing seeds: drag reduction in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wonjong; Choi, Sung Mok; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of drag reduction of self-burrowing seeds in granular media. In response to environmental changes in humidity, the awn (a tail-like appendage of seed) of Pelargonium carnosum exhibits coiling-uncoiling deformation which induces the thrust and rotary motions of the head of the seed against the surface of the soil. Using various sizes of glass beads that mimic the granular soil, we measure the thrust forces required for the seed of Pelargonium carnosum to penetrate into granular media with and without rotation. Our quantitative measurements show that the rotation of the seed remarkably reduces the granular drag as compared to the drag against the non-spinning seed. This leads us to conclude that the hygroscopically active awns of Pelargonium carnosum enables its seed to dig into the relatively coarse granular soils.

  19. Den kulturelle dimension af virksomhedens internationalisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Tine

    1994-01-01

    at udnytte muligheder i foranderlige og kulturelt set heterogene omgivelser, så de succe kan påvirke og tilpasse sig disse? (2): Hvorledes forsøger virksomheder at håndtere kulturel heterogenitet på deres eksportmarkeder? Undersøgelsen identificerer tre dimensioner i virksomheders strategifastlæggelse, der......Artiklen omhandler den kulturelle dimensions indvirkning på virksomhedens internationalisering og diskuterer mulige internationalisieringsstrategier for virksomheder, der konfronteres med kulturforskelle. Med udgangspunkt i en kritik af den hidtidige forskning på området, hvor det såkaldte psykiske...... er herved, at den kulturelle dimension påvirker virksomheden og dens fortsatte udvikling. En empirisk analyse i den danske fødevarebranche afdækker virksomheders interkulturelle kompetence ved hjælp af to spørgsmål: (1) Hvorledes formår virksomheder med begrænsede ressourcer til deres disposition...

  20. Leadership pipeline i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Aagaard; Molly-Søholm, Thorkil

    enkelte lederniveauer og udvikle ledertalenter. Teorien byder på et detaljeret ledelsesgrundlag, hvorudfra den offentlige organisation kan bygge en professionel værdikæde for ledelse ved at forme lederprofiler, -rekruttering, -uddannelse, -evaluering m.m. Leadership Pipeline i den offentlige sektor er......en rejse ind i hjertet af offentlig ledelse med fokus på lederniveauerne: topchef, funktionel chef, leder af ledere og leder af medarbejdere. Med afsæt i righoldige eksempler og fortællinger fra virkeligheden introduceres læseren for ledelsesteorien den Offentlige Leadership Pipeline, som giver...... unik indsigt i: - hvad der kendetegner offentlige ledere, der lykkes - og ledere, der får fiasko - hvilke mekanismer, der får lederkarrieren til at køre af sporet - og hvilke, der får karrieren til at tage fart - hvordan den offentlige organisation bedst muligt kan understøtte den rette ledelse på de...

  1. Synchrotron Reveals Early Triassic Odd Couple: Injured Amphibian and Aestivating Therapsid Share Burrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fernandez

    Full Text Available Fossorialism is a beneficial adaptation for brooding, predator avoidance and protection from extreme climate. The abundance of fossilised burrow casts from the Early Triassic of southern Africa is viewed as a behavioural response by many tetrapods to the harsh conditions following the Permo-Triassic mass-extinction event. However, scarcity of vertebrate remains associated with these burrows leaves many ecological questions unanswered. Synchrotron scanning of a lithified burrow cast from the Early Triassic of the Karoo unveiled a unique mixed-species association: an injured temnospondyl amphibian (Broomistega that sheltered in a burrow occupied by an aestivating therapsid (Thrinaxodon. The discovery of this rare rhinesuchid represents the first occurrence in the fossil record of a temnospondyl in a burrow. The amphibian skeleton shows signs of a crushing trauma with partially healed fractures on several consecutive ribs. The presence of a relatively large intruder in what is interpreted to be a Thrinaxodon burrow implies that the therapsid tolerated the amphibian's presence. Among possible explanations for such unlikely cohabitation, Thrinaxodon aestivation is most plausible, an interpretation supported by the numerous Thrinaxodon specimens fossilised in curled-up postures. Recent advances in synchrotron imaging have enabled visualization of the contents of burrow casts, thus providing a novel tool to elucidate not only anatomy but also ecology and biology of ancient tetrapods.

  2. Spatial and social organization in a burrow-dwelling lizard (Phrynocephalus vlangalii) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yin; Noble, Daniel W A; Fu, Jinzhong; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Shared ecological resources such as burrow complexes can set the stage for social groupings and the evolution of more complex social behavior such as parental care. Paternity testing is increasingly revealing cases of kin-based groupings, and lizards may be a good system to inform on the early evolution of sociality. We examined spatial and social organization in the lizard Phrynocephalus vlangalii from China and tested genetic relatedness (based on eight microsatellite DNA loci) between offspring and parents that shared burrow complexes. Adult males and females had similar spatial patterns: they overlapped most with members of the opposite sex and least with their own sex. Males in better body condition overlapped with more females, and both sexes showed high site fidelity. Most lizards used a single burrow, but some individuals used two or three burrows. While high site fidelity is consistent with sociality in lizards, juveniles did not preferentially share burrows with parents, and we documented only a few cases of parent-offspring associations through burrow sharing. We suggest that P. vlangalii conforms to a classical polygynous mating system in which the burrow forms the core of the male's territory and may be offered as an important resource for females, but this remains to be determined.

  3. Spatial and social organization in a burrow-dwelling lizard (Phrynocephalus vlangalii from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Qi

    Full Text Available Shared ecological resources such as burrow complexes can set the stage for social groupings and the evolution of more complex social behavior such as parental care. Paternity testing is increasingly revealing cases of kin-based groupings, and lizards may be a good system to inform on the early evolution of sociality. We examined spatial and social organization in the lizard Phrynocephalus vlangalii from China and tested genetic relatedness (based on eight microsatellite DNA loci between offspring and parents that shared burrow complexes. Adult males and females had similar spatial patterns: they overlapped most with members of the opposite sex and least with their own sex. Males in better body condition overlapped with more females, and both sexes showed high site fidelity. Most lizards used a single burrow, but some individuals used two or three burrows. While high site fidelity is consistent with sociality in lizards, juveniles did not preferentially share burrows with parents, and we documented only a few cases of parent-offspring associations through burrow sharing. We suggest that P. vlangalii conforms to a classical polygynous mating system in which the burrow forms the core of the male's territory and may be offered as an important resource for females, but this remains to be determined.

  4. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan

  5. Chemically mediated burrow recognition in the Mexican tarantula Brachypelma vagans female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Ariane; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; Legal, Luc; Williams, Trevor; Hénaut, Yann

    2008-12-01

    Chemically mediated communication is common in spiders but has been poorly studied in burrowing tarantulas. This study aimed to determine whether chemical cues influence the behaviour of females of Brachypelma vagans, a Mexican species of tarantula, during encounters with previously inhabited burrows or with extracts from the silk of conspecific females. In laboratory choice tests, female tarantulas entered a burrow that had previously been inhabited by a conspecific female significantly more frequently than a burrow that had never been inhabited. The identity of the previous inhabitant also affected the number of spiders that chose to enter a burrow. Spiders were quicker to choose and enter a burrow previously inhabited by themselves than a burrow previously inhabited by a conspecific or a burrow that had not been previously inhabited. Hexane, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of conspecific silk elicited different responses from female tarantulas when extracts were placed on filter paper disks at one end of an experimental arena with a control filter paper disk, on to which the corresponding solvent alone had been pipetted, placed on the other end of the arena. Spiders showed the strongest responses to hexane extracts of silk, with a significant preference to move towards the hexane extract and a significantly greater period of time spent in proximity to the hexane extract compared to the control disk. Overall and in contrast to expectations, tarantulas were most strongly attracted to the cues left by other conspecific females. As encounters between B. vagans females usually lead to aggression and mortality of one of the participants, we conclude that chemical cues are not signals that are deliberately released by burrow-inhabiting females but may inadvertently escape and cannot be easily suppressed.

  6. River bank burrowing by invasive crayfish: Spatial distribution, biophysical controls and biogeomorphic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Matej; Harvey, Gemma L; Henshaw, Alexander J; Bertoldi, Walter; Bruno, Maria Cristina; England, Judy

    2016-11-01

    Invasive species generate significant global environmental and economic costs and represent a particularly potent threat to freshwater systems. The biogeomorphic impacts of invasive aquatic and riparian species on river processes and landforms remain largely unquantified, but have the potential to generate significant sediment management issues within invaded catchments. Several species of invasive (non-native) crayfish are known to burrow into river banks and visual evidence of river bank damage is generating public concern and media attention. Despite this, there is a paucity of understanding of burrow distribution, biophysical controls and the potential significance of this problem beyond a small number of local studies at heavily impacted sites. This paper presents the first multi-catchment analysis of this phenomenon, combining existing data on biophysical river properties and invasive crayfish observations with purpose-designed field surveys across 103 river reaches to derive key trends. Crayfish burrows were observed on the majority of reaches, but burrowing tended to be patchy in spatial distribution, concentrated in a small proportion (bank biophysical properties than by reach-scale properties, and burrowed banks were more likely to be characterised by cohesive bank material, steeper bank profiles with large areas of bare bank face, often on outer bend locations. Burrow excavation alone has delivered a considerable amount of sediment to invaded river systems in the surveyed sites (3tkm(-1) impacted bank) and this represents a minimum contribution and certainly an underestimate of the absolute yield (submerged burrows were not recorded). Furthermore, burrowing was associated with bank profiles that were either actively eroding or exposed to fluvial action and/or mass failure processes, providing the first quantitative evidence that invasive crayfish may cause or accelerate river bank instability and erosion in invaded catchments beyond the scale of

  7. Similar burrow architecture of three arid-zone scorpion species implies similar ecological function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Amanda M.; Marais, Eugene; Turner, J. Scott; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pinshow, Berry

    2016-08-01

    Many animals reside in burrows that may serve as refuges from predators and adverse environmental conditions. Burrow design varies widely among and within taxa, and these structures are adaptive, fulfilling physiological (and other) functions. We examined the burrow architecture of three scorpion species of the family Scorpionidae: Scorpio palmatus from the Negev desert, Israel; Opistophthalmus setifrons, from the Central Highlands, Namibia; and Opistophthalmus wahlbergii from the Kalahari desert, Namibia. We hypothesized that burrow structure maintains temperature and soil moisture conditions optimal for the behavior and physiology of the scorpion. Casts of burrows, poured in situ with molten aluminum, were scanned in 3D to quantify burrow structure. Three architectural features were common to the burrows of all species: (1) a horizontal platform near the ground surface, long enough to accommodate the scorpion, located just below the entrance, 2-5 cm under the surface, which may provide a safe place where the scorpion can monitor the presence of potential prey, predators, and mates and where the scorpion warms up before foraging; (2) at least two bends that might deter incursion by predators and may reduce convective ventilation, thereby maintaining relatively high humidity and low temperature; and (3) an enlarged terminal chamber to a depth at which temperatures are almost constant (±2-4 °C). These common features among the burrows of three different species suggest that they are important for regulating the physical environment of their inhabitants and that burrows are part of scorpions' "extended physiology" ( sensu Turner, Physiol Biochem Zool 74:798-822, 2000).

  8. Ectoparasites of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) wintering in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoruppa, M.K.; Pearce, B.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) were captured over two winters (2001-2003) in southern Texas and examined for ectoparasites. Four of the 15 owls (27%) harbored feather lice, and the maximum number of lice found on any individual was ??? three. Two species of feather lice were found: Colpocephalum pectinatum occurred on three of the owls, and Strigiphilus speotyti was found on four owls. No fleas or other ectoparasites were found on any of the Burrowing Owls. The low diversity and numbers of ectoparasites suggest that ectoparasites are not threatening the health of wintering Burrowing Owls in southern Texas.

  9. The first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution: macroevolutionary pattern and morphological disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2008-12-23

    The evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic was a pivotal event in the Earth's history but is poorly understood, as previous studies have focused on vague driving mechanisms and have not untangled different macroevolutionary components (origination, diversity, abundance and disparity). We calculate the morphological disparity (morphospace occupation) of dinosaurs throughout the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and present new measures of taxonomic diversity. Crurotarsan archosaurs, the primary dinosaur 'competitors', were significantly more disparate than dinosaurs throughout the Triassic, but underwent a devastating extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. However, dinosaur disparity showed only a slight non-significant increase after this event, arguing against the hypothesis of ecological release-driven morphospace expansion in the Early Jurassic. Instead, the main jump in dinosaur disparity occurred between the Carnian and Norian stages of the Triassic. Conversely, dinosaur diversity shows a steady increase over this time, and measures of diversification and faunal abundance indicate that the Early Jurassic was a key episode in dinosaur evolution. Thus, different aspects of the dinosaur radiation (diversity, disparity and abundance) were decoupled, and the overall macroevolutionary pattern of the first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution is more complex than often considered.

  10. Structural extremes in a cretaceous dinosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Paul C; Wilson, Jeffrey A; Witmer, Lawrence M; Whitlock, John A; Maga, Abdoulaye; Ide, Oumarou; Rowe, Timothy A

    2007-11-21

    Fossils of the Early Cretaceous dinosaur, Nigersaurus taqueti, document for the first time the cranial anatomy of a rebbachisaurid sauropod. Its extreme adaptations for herbivory at ground-level challenge current hypotheses regarding feeding function and feeding strategy among diplodocoids, the larger clade of sauropods that includes Nigersaurus. We used high resolution computed tomography, stereolithography, and standard molding and casting techniques to reassemble the extremely fragile skull. Computed tomography also allowed us to render the first endocast for a sauropod preserving portions of the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum and inner ear, the latter permitting us to establish habitual head posture. To elucidate evidence of tooth wear and tooth replacement rate, we used photographic-casting techniques and crown thin sections, respectively. To reconstruct its 9-meter postcranial skeleton, we combined and size-adjusted multiple partial skeletons. Finally, we used maximum parsimony algorithms on character data to obtain the best estimate of phylogenetic relationships among diplodocoid sauropods. Nigersaurus taqueti shows extreme adaptations for a dinosaurian herbivore including a skull of extremely light construction, tooth batteries located at the distal end of the jaws, tooth replacement as fast as one per month, an expanded muzzle that faces directly toward the ground, and hollow presacral vertebral centra with more air sac space than bone by volume. A cranial endocast provides the first reasonably complete view of a sauropod brain including its small olfactory bulbs and cerebrum. Skeletal and dental evidence suggests that Nigersaurus was a ground-level herbivore that gathered and sliced relatively soft vegetation, the culmination of a low-browsing feeding strategy first established among diplodocoids during the Jurassic.

  11. Structural extremes in a cretaceous dinosaur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available Fossils of the Early Cretaceous dinosaur, Nigersaurus taqueti, document for the first time the cranial anatomy of a rebbachisaurid sauropod. Its extreme adaptations for herbivory at ground-level challenge current hypotheses regarding feeding function and feeding strategy among diplodocoids, the larger clade of sauropods that includes Nigersaurus. We used high resolution computed tomography, stereolithography, and standard molding and casting techniques to reassemble the extremely fragile skull. Computed tomography also allowed us to render the first endocast for a sauropod preserving portions of the olfactory bulbs, cerebrum and inner ear, the latter permitting us to establish habitual head posture. To elucidate evidence of tooth wear and tooth replacement rate, we used photographic-casting techniques and crown thin sections, respectively. To reconstruct its 9-meter postcranial skeleton, we combined and size-adjusted multiple partial skeletons. Finally, we used maximum parsimony algorithms on character data to obtain the best estimate of phylogenetic relationships among diplodocoid sauropods. Nigersaurus taqueti shows extreme adaptations for a dinosaurian herbivore including a skull of extremely light construction, tooth batteries located at the distal end of the jaws, tooth replacement as fast as one per month, an expanded muzzle that faces directly toward the ground, and hollow presacral vertebral centra with more air sac space than bone by volume. A cranial endocast provides the first reasonably complete view of a sauropod brain including its small olfactory bulbs and cerebrum. Skeletal and dental evidence suggests that Nigersaurus was a ground-level herbivore that gathered and sliced relatively soft vegetation, the culmination of a low-browsing feeding strategy first established among diplodocoids during the Jurassic.

  12. TeV scale gravity, mirror universe, and ... dinosaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Silagadze, Z K

    2001-01-01

    This is somewhat extended version of the talk given at the Gran Sasso SummerInstitute: Massive Neutrinos in Physics and Astrophysics. It describes generalideas about mirror world, extra spatial dimensions and dinosaur extinction.Some suggestions are made how these seemingly different things can be relatedto each other.

  13. Metric-Asaurus: Conceptualizing Scale Using Dinosaur Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyna, Lisa; West, Sandra; Martin, Patti; Browning, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    For middle school students who have seen only pictures of dinosaurs in books, in the movies, or on the internet, trying to comprehend the size of these gargantuan animals can be difficult. This lesson provides a way for students to visualize changing scale through studying extinct organisms and to gain a deeper understanding of the history of the…

  14. Dinosaur Eggs Escape Sale as Smuggling Claims Unearthed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rex Dalton; 孟春花

    2004-01-01

    @@ An outcry among palaeontologists①-and a little help from US federal agents-has saved some dinosaur embryo② fossils from disappearing into the living room of a wealthy patron. But questions remain as to how the half-dozen specimens,thought to have been smuggled out of Argentina, will be repatriated③ for study.

  15. Studie af den amerikanske doktrin for Counterinsurgency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    2006-01-01

    interesseområde. Dette leder frem til dette speciales hovedspørgsmål: ” I hvor høj grad tager den amerikanske COIN doktrin højde for de gængse teorier for oprørsbevægelsers kamp?”, som skal give mulighed for at vurdere udviklingen i den nye doktrin ift. den klassiske COIN doktrin, og anvendeligheden ift. den...... videre danske studie-og udviklingsvirksomhed. Den amerikanske doktrin synes at være endog meget fokuseret på imødegåelsen af maoistisk inspirerede oprørsbevægelser ved en fokusering på COIN som en samlet pakke bestående af fysisk tilstedeværelse, INFO-OPS og CIMIC. Der er dog konstateret, at doktrinen...... aspekt synes svært at imødegå pga. COIN enheder normalt er inviteret af en specifik HN. Der er relativt store krav til snæver sammenhæng mellem opgaveløsning i HN og på det operative/strategiske niveau pga. den løse struktur og den transnationale appel. Behovet for en effektiv interagency koordination...

  16. Behavioural adaptations to moisture as an environmental constraint in a nocturnal burrow-inhabiting Kalahari detritivore Parastizopus armaticeps Peringuey (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A.E. Rasa

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal desert detritivore Parastiz.opus armaticeps shows differences in surface activity patterns and burrow fidelity depending on surface humidity. After rain approximately half of the beetle population, independent of sex, is highly vagile and disperses over long distances. During drought, beetles are more sedentary and show higher burrow fidelity. They also inhabit burrows that are longer and deeper than non-inhabited ones, such burrows being relatively scarce. Burrow fidelity and the adoption of a more sedentary habit during drought are considered strategies to avoid the risks of not locating a suitable burrow before sunrise and subsequent desiccation in shallow burrows.

  17. Den Afrikanske Union - regional sikkerhed i Afrika

    OpenAIRE

    Munch, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Projektet undersøger om den Afrikanske Union (AU) formår, at samle dens medlemslande om et kontinentalt sikkerhedsarbejde. Projektet tager udgangspunkt i AU’s panafrikanske vision om et samlet Afrika og undersøger gennem unionens konstitution og unionens fire fredsmissioner i hhv. Burundi, Sudan, Comoros og Somalia, hvordan AU formår, at overføre den panafrikanske vision til sine medlemslande. Undersøgelsen af sikkerhed bygger på tre analyseniveauer; det globale, regionale og domestiske, som ...

  18. Documenting Western Burrowing Owl Reproduction and Activity Patterns Using Motion-Activated Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [NSTec; Greger, Paul D. [NSTec

    2014-08-01

    We used motion-activated cameras to monitor the reproduction and patterns of activity of the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) above ground at 45 burrows in south-central Nevada during the breeding seasons of 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2005. The 37 broods, encompassing 180 young, raised over the four years represented an average of 4.9 young per successful breeding pair. Young and adult owls were detected at the burrow entrance at all times of the day and night, but adults were detected more frequently during afternoon/early evening than were young. Motion-activated cameras require less effort to implement than other techniques. Limitations include photographing only a small percentage of owl activity at the burrow; not detecting the actual number of eggs, young, or number fledged; and not being able to track individual owls over time. Further work is also necessary to compare the accuracy of productivity estimates generated from motion-activated cameras with other techniques.

  19. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Burrowing Owl

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of burrowing owl, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  20. Reform af reformen - den nye ellov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess

    2005-01-01

    Konkurrence i dansk elforsyning blev i første omgang i 1999 kun gennemført halvhjertet. Den miljøvenlige energi blev holdt uden for og selskabsstrukturen låst fast. Det skabte problemer, som den nye lov fra 2004 har søgt at råde bod på.......Konkurrence i dansk elforsyning blev i første omgang i 1999 kun gennemført halvhjertet. Den miljøvenlige energi blev holdt uden for og selskabsstrukturen låst fast. Det skabte problemer, som den nye lov fra 2004 har søgt at råde bod på....

  1. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: Influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories

    OpenAIRE

    Daryl Codron; Chris Carbone; Marcus Clauss

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and co...

  2. For Flåden og Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren; Seerup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Den danske flåde kunne i 2010 markere 500året for dets grundlæggelse. Det er det ældste af Forsvarets tre værn, og måske også det mest traditionsrige. Historierne om flåden mange sejre og nederlag er også Danmarks historie og et centralt element i søværnets identitet. Historierne har altid spille...

  3. Planer for den andens liv I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breumlund, Anne; Hansen, Inger Bruun

    Undersøgelsen viser, hvordan den socialpædagogiske indsats på botilbuddet Højskolebakken må udvikles i mødet med en gruppe unge med autisme, som har tillægsdiagnoser, udfordrende adfærd, misbrug eller har udøvet kriminalitet. Første rapport fra forskningsprojektet: "Den pædagogiske og sociale ind...

  4. A phylogenetic study of the section moduli of the humerus in bipedal theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Richards, Zachary

    The section modulus of a bone is a measure of its ability to resist bending torques. Carnivorous dinosaurs including Tyrannosauroidea and Allosauroidea had strong humeri, presumably to hold struggling prey during hunting. The herbivorous dinosaurs of Ornithomimosauria had weak arm bones. This is believed to reflect the fact that their arms were never subjected to large bending torques. The unusual dinosaurs of Therizinosauria had arms as strong as found in the carnivorous dinosaurs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that their manus suggests a digging lifestyle. Other groups including Oviraptorosauria, Troodontidae, Dromaeosauridae and Compsognathidae are also examined.

  5. Paleobiological implications of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, In Sung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Huh, Min

    2010-05-01

    Dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in Korea is described in taphonomic aspect, their paleoenvironments are interpreted, and geobiological implications of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the world and Korea are analyzed in geographic occurrences, geological ages, paleoenvironments, and lithology. Dinosaur eggs with spheroolithids, faveoloolithid, and elongatoolithid structural types occur in several stratigraphic formations of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in South Korea, and most of the egg-bearing formations are the Late Cretaceous. The dinosaur eggs usually occur as clutches in purple sandy mudstone of floodplain deposits preserved as calcic paleosol with association of vertic paleosol features in places. Most of the eggs are top-broken and filled with surrounding sediments. The general depositional environment of dinosaur egg deposits in the Gyeongsang Supergroup are interpreted as a dried floodplain where volcanic activity occurred intermittently in the vicinity of the nesting sites. Their depositional settings on which floodplains developed are diverse from fluvial plain with meandering rivers to alluvial plain with episodic sheet flooding. The nesting areas in the Gyeongsang Basin are deemed to have been under semi-arid climate, which resulted in formation of calcic soils facilitating preservation of the dinosaur eggs. The geochronologic occurrences of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits are mostly restricted to the Late Cretaceous in the world as well as in Korea. If it has not been resulted from biased discoveries and reports of dinosaur eggs, biological rather than physical and chemical conditions for preservation of dinosaur eggs might be related with the restricted occurrences in the Late Cretaceous. Two hypotheses are suggested for probable biological causes to the geochronologically restricted occurrences of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits. One is related with the appearance of angiosperms in the Late Jurassic and the spreading

  6. Dens in dente: A minimally invasive nonsurgical approach!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vivek; Morawala, Abdul; Gupta, Abhilasha; Khandwawala, Naqiyaa

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus, also known as dens in dente, is a rare anomaly affecting human dentition. The condition results in invagination of an amelodental structure within the pulp. This case report discusses the current management protocol of dens invaginatus using a minimally invasive and nonsurgical treatment option. As with most conditions, early diagnosis and preventive measures help minimize complications in dens invaginatus cases. PMID:27656073

  7. Use of mammal manure by nesting burrowing owls: a test of four functional hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Animals have evolved an impressive array of behavioural traits to avoid depredation. Olfactory camouflage of conspicuous odours is a strategy to avoid depredation that has been implicated only in a few species of birds. Burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, routinely collect dried manure from mammals and scatter it in their nest chamber, in the tunnel leading to their nest and at the entrance to their nesting burrow. This unusual behaviour was thought to reduce nest depredation by concealing the scent of adults and juveniles, but a recent study suggests that manure functions to attract arthropod prey. However, burrowing owls routinely scatter other materials in the same way that they scatter manure, and this fact seems to be at odds with both of these hypotheses. Thus, we examined the function of this behaviour by testing four alternative hypotheses. We found no support for the widely cited olfactory-camouflage hypothesis (manure did not lower the probability of depredation), or for the mate-attraction hypothesis (males collected manure after, not before, pair formation). Predictions of the burrow-occupied hypothesis (manure indicates occupancy to conspecifics and thereby reduces agonistic interactions) were supported, but results were not statistically significant. Our results also supported several predictions of the prey-attraction hypothesis. Pitfall traps at sampling sites with manure collected more arthropod biomass (of taxa common in the diet of burrowing owls) than pitfall traps at sampling sites without manure. Scattering behaviour of burrowing owls appears to function to attract arthropod prey, but may also signal occupancy of a burrow to conspecifics. ?? 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  8. The burrows of Parastacus defossus (Decapoda: Parastacidae, a fossorial freshwater crayfish from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa K. Noro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parastacus defossus Faxon, 1898 is a fossorial crayfish species, which constructs its burrows in swampy areas in southeast Uruguay and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The present field study was carried out in Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May 2003 through August 2005. Environmental measurements (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water-table depth of the water in the galleries were made monthly. Burrow morphology was analyzed by means of resin and gypsum casts. The spatial distribution and changes in the number and shape of the surface openings over time were observed in a 100 m² area. To estimate the spatial distribution of the openings, the observed distribution was compared with the expected distribution predicted by the Poisson and Negative Binomial frequency-distribution models. The adult population density was estimated by direct observation of burrows and counts in the study area. Inside the burrows of P. defossus, the water temperature ranged between 16.6°C (autumn 2004 and 23°C (spring 2003. The water was hypoxic and slightly acidic, and the dissolved oxygen content was very low (mean 1.43 mg/l (18.2% saturation. The soil with burrows had higher percentages of coarse sand, fine sand, and silt. The spatial distribution of the openings showed a significant fit to the Negative Binomial distribution, indicating that the distribution of the openings is aggregated, as confirmed from the burrow morphology. The galleries are always formed by a central tunnel with multiple branchings that connect the underground water to the soil surface by one or more openings, which can be recognized by the chimneys. From knowledge of the burrow morphology, the population density was estimated to be about 120 individuals/100 m².

  9. An abelisauroid theropod dinosaur from the Turonian of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available Geophysical evidence strongly supports the complete isolation of India and Madagascar (Indo-Madagascar by ∼100 million years ago, though sparse terrestrial fossil records from these regions prior to ∼70 million years ago have limited insights into their biogeographic history during the Cretaceous. A new theropod dinosaur, Dahalokely tokana, from Turonian-aged (∼90 million years old strata of northernmost Madagascar is represented by a partial axial column. Autapomorphies include a prominently convex prezygoepipophyseal lamina on cervical vertebrae and a divided infraprezygapophyseal fossa through the mid-dorsal region, among others. Phylogenetic analysis definitively recovers the species as an abelisauroid theropod and weakly as a noasaurid. Dahalokely is the only known dinosaur from the interval during which Indo-Madagascar likely existed as a distinct landmass, but more complete material is needed to evaluate whether or not it is more closely related to later abelisauroids of Indo-Madagascar or those known elsewhere in Gondwana.

  10. A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the lower cretaceous of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Kebai; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Qingyu; Xing, Lida; Sullivan, Corwin; Hu, Dongyu; Cheng, Shuqing; Wang, Shuo

    2012-04-04

    Numerous feathered dinosaur specimens have recently been recovered from the Middle-Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northeastern China, but most of them represent small animals. Here we report the discovery of a gigantic new basal tyrannosauroid, Yutyrannus huali gen. et sp. nov., based on three nearly complete skeletons representing two distinct ontogenetic stages from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Y. huali shares some features, particularly of the cranium, with derived tyrannosauroids, but is similar to other basal tyrannosauroids in possessing a three-fingered manus and a typical theropod pes. Morphometric analysis suggests that Y. huali differed from tyrannosaurids in its growth strategy. Most significantly, Y. huali bears long filamentous feathers, thus providing direct evidence for the presence of extensively feathered gigantic dinosaurs and offering new insights into early feather evolution.

  11. An Early Cretaceous heterodontosaurid dinosaur with filamentous integumentary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Ting; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Xing; Dong, Zhi-Ming

    2009-03-19

    Ornithischia is one of the two major groups of dinosaurs, with heterodontosauridae as one of its major clades. Heterodontosauridae is characterized by small, gracile bodies and a problematic phylogenetic position. Recent phylogenetic work indicates that it represents the most basal group of all well-known ornithischians. Previous heterodontosaurid records are mainly from the Early Jurassic period (205-190 million years ago) of Africa. Here we report a new heterodontosaurid, Tianyulong confuciusi gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Cretaceous period (144-99 million years ago) of western Liaoning Province, China. Tianyulong extends the geographical distribution of heterodontosaurids to Asia and confirms the clade's previously questionable temporal range extension into the Early Cretaceous period. More surprisingly, Tianyulong bears long, singular and unbranched filamentous integumentary (outer skin) structures. This represents the first confirmed report, to our knowledge, of filamentous integumentary structures in an ornithischian dinosaur.

  12. Orange carotenoid protein burrows into the phycobilisome to provide photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dvir; Tal, Ofir; Jallet, Denis; Wilson, Adjélé; Kirilovsky, Diana; Adir, Noam

    2016-03-22

    In cyanobacteria, photoprotection from overexcitation of photochemical centers can be obtained by excitation energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS), the cyanobacterial antenna, induced by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP). A single photoactivated OCP bound to the core of the PBS affords almost total energy dissipation. The precise mechanism of OCP energy dissipation is yet to be fully determined, and one question is how the carotenoid can approach any core phycocyanobilin chromophore at a distance that can promote efficient energy quenching. We have performed intersubunit cross-linking using glutaraldehyde of the OCP and PBS followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) to identify cross-linked residues. The only residues of the OCP that cross-link with the PBS are situated in the linker region, between the N- and C-terminal domains and a single C-terminal residue. These links have enabled us to construct a model of the site of OCP binding that differs from previous models. We suggest that the N-terminal domain of the OCP burrows tightly into the PBS while leaving the OCP C-terminal domain on the exterior of the complex. Further analysis shows that the position of the small core linker protein ApcC is shifted within the cylinder cavity, serving to stabilize the interaction between the OCP and the PBS. This is confirmed by a ΔApcC mutant. Penetration of the N-terminal domain can bring the OCP carotenoid to within 5-10 Å of core chromophores; however, alteration of the core structure may be the actual source of energy dissipation. PMID:26957606

  13. Map-based repowering and reorganization of a wind resource area to minimize burrowing owl and other bird fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S. [Research Ecologist, 3108 Finch Street, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Neher, L. [Gis Specialist, Neher Consulting, 7241 34th Street, North Highlands, CA 95660 (United States); Bell, D. A. [East Bay Regional Park District, 2950 Peralta Oaks Court, Oakland, CA 94605-0381 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 x 10 m{sup 2} grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California's 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard. (author)

  14. Effect of particle size frequency distribution of the substratum on the burrowing ability of Chiridota rigida (semper) (Echinodermata: holothuroidea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.M.; Murdoch, J.

    1977-01-01

    Chiridota rigida (Semper) burrows easily into well-sorted substrata, moving between particles in coarse substrata and pushing aside particles in fine substrata. Chiridota rigida does not burrow easily into poorly sorted substrata because spaces which can be penetrated are not available and because the particles cannot be moved as a result of increased stability of the substratum. In poorly sorted substrata, burrowing ability increases with increases in the proportion of fine particles. It would appear that the distribution and abundance of chiridota rigida and other chiridotids would be affected by the effect of the substratum on their ability to burrow.

  15. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  16. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, L C; Rothschild, B M; Martin, L D

    2007-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  17. CONCOMITANT DENS EVAGINATUS & DENS INVAGINATUS IN A MAXILLARY LATERAL INCISOR: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kiswani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dens evaginatus also referred to as a talon's cusp, is a developmental anomalycharacterized by formation of a well - delineated additional cusp that extends from thecementoenamel junction to the incisal edge. Dens invaginatus is a developmentalanomaly caused by invagination of the surface of the tooth crown before calcificationhas occurred. Dens evaginatus and dens invaginatus are usually present in isolationand many cases have been reported. But, their concomitance is highly rare and unusualand requires documentation. A case report of a 9 year old child with a combination ofthe talon cusp and dens invagination in the right maxillary lateral incisor is presentedhere. Such a tooth due to its unusual morphology is susceptible to food lodgmentleading to carious invasion. Hence early diagnosis and prophylactic therapy isimportant.

  18. A second look at the colors of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Derek D

    2016-02-01

    In earlier work, I predicted that we would probably not be able to determine the colors of the dinosaurs. I lost this epistemic bet against science in dramatic fashion when scientists discovered that it is possible to draw inferences about dinosaur coloration based on the microstructure of fossil feathers (Vinther et al., 2008). This paper is an exercise in philosophical error analysis. I examine this episode with two questions in mind. First, does this case lend any support to epistemic optimism about historical science? Second, under what conditions is it rational to make predictions about what questions scientists will or will not be able answer? In reply to the first question, I argue that the recent work on the colors of the dinosaurs matters less to the debate about the epistemology of historical science than it might seem. In reply to the second question, I argue that it is difficult to specify a policy that would rule out the failed bet without also being too conservative.

  19. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  20. Observations on the use of tarantula burrows by the anurans Leptodactylus bufonius (Leptodactylidae and Rhinella major (Bufonidae in the Dry Chaco ecoregion of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Schalk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some species of anurans have been observed utilizing burrows of other animals, such as rodents and tarantulas. Here we report the observations of two anuran species, Leptodactylus bufonius and Rhinella major, utilizing the burrows of tarantulas (Acanthoscurria sp.; Family Theraphosidae in the dry Chaco ecoregion of Bolivia. Both species of anurans never co-occurred with tarantulas in the burrows and used burrows that were wider in diameter and closer to breeding ponds as compared to the total available tarantula burrows in the area. These burrows may serve as refuges from predators, especially for conspicuous, calling males.

  1. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  2. Transnational organisatorisk innovation i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger tre problemstillinger: 1) Hvor udbredt er forskellige former for transnational organisatorisk innovation i den danske offentlige sektor? 2) Hvordan er disse organisatoriske innovationer relateret til hinanden? 3) Er forskelle i deres udbredelse relateret til forskelle mellem den...... statslige og kommunale del af den offentlige sektor? Ved transnational organisatorisk innovation forstås nyere organisationsformer, som kan genfindes i ganske mange landes offentlige sektor. Analysens fokus er dels på forskelle og ligheder mellem forskellige former for organisatorisk innovation, dels på...... forskelle og ligheder mellem statslige og kommunale organisationer. 11 former for organisatorisk innovation, hvoraf mange ofte forbindes med New Public Management (NPM), er inkluderet i de empiriske analyser: privatisering/udlicitering, Bestiller-Udfører-model, kontraktstyring, mål- og rammestyring...

  3. Jamie Oliver i den gode smags tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    klassestereotyper og hierarkier, ligesom den bruges til at legitimere Jamies disciplinering af personer med dårlige madkompetencer, særligt arbejderklassemødre. Der er med andre ord grund til at forholde sig kritisk til strategien i Jamie Olivers opbyggelige kogebogsprojekt og stille spørgsmålet, om ikke kampen i...... den gode sags tjeneste først og fremmest tjener til at skabe et positivt billede af tv-kokken/kogebogsforfatteren som etisk individ (og brand) på bekostning af de gastronomisk nødstedte. Det skal nævnes, at jeg i min læsning af Jamies kogebogs-kampskrift har ladet mig inspirere af den russisk...

  4. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, S.; Gardner, C.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is circumpolar in the NOrthern Hemisphere, but known locations of maternal dens are concentrated in relatively few, widely scattered locations. Denning is either uncommon or unknown within gaps. To understand effects of industrial development and propose increases in hunting, the temporal and spatial distribution of denning in the Beaufort Sea must be known. We caputred and radiocollared polar bears between 1981 and 1991 and determined tht denning in the Beaufort Sea region was sufficient to account for the estimated population there. Of 90 dend, 48 were on drifting pack ice, 38 on land, and 4 on land-fast ice. The portions of dens on land was higher (P= 0.029) in later compared with earlier years of the study. Bears denning on pack ice drifting as far as 997 km (x=385km) while in dens. there was no difference in cun production by bears denning on land and pack ice (P =0.66). Mean entry and exit dates were 11 November and 5 April for land dens and 22 November and 26 March for pack-ice dens. Female polar bears captured in the Beaufort Sea appeared to be isolated from those caught eat of Cape Bathurst in Canada. Of 35 polar bears that denned along the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada 80% denned between 137 00'W snf 146 59'W. Bears followed to >1 den did not reuse sites and consecutive dens were 20-1,304 km apart. However radio-collared bears are largely faithful to substrate (pack-ice, land, and land-fast ice) and the general geographic area of previous dens. Bears denning on land may be vunerable to human activities such as hunting and industrial development. However, predictable denning chronology and alck of site fidelity indicate that many potential impacts on denning polar bears could be mitigated.

  5. Der westliche Blick auf den Orient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Schrupp

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Angesichts der aktuellen Debatten über den Islam zeigen Christina von Braun und Bettina Mathes die viele Jahrhunderte alte Interpretationsgeschichte des Orients aus westlicher Perspektive auf. In ihrem materialreichen Band schildern sie die historische und geografische Vielfalt des Phänomens „Islam“ und zeigen, wie westliches Selbstverständnis und Projektionen das Bild des Okzidents vom Orient seit langem und bis heute prägen – auch da, wo man es auf den ersten Blick nicht vermuten würde.

  6. De frygtsomme og den smalle palet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skude, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    Om den konventionelle modernismes bandlysning af alle farver på nær hvid - og om bl.a. Luis Barragan som et vellykket eksempel på at farver kan bringe arkitektur op i et højere perceptionsniveau.......Om den konventionelle modernismes bandlysning af alle farver på nær hvid - og om bl.a. Luis Barragan som et vellykket eksempel på at farver kan bringe arkitektur op i et højere perceptionsniveau....

  7. Farvel til globaliseringen som vi kendte den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Vi er endt med en krise, som rækker langt ud over det globale monetære system, fordi den ideologiske ortodoksi, der skabte den, har ført til udflytning af millioner af arbejdspladser, tæring af nationalstaternes sammenhængskraft og overgreb på naturen. Kronikken refererer bl.a. til John Maynard K...... Keynes og en artikel af økonomen Robert Skidelsky i The American Prospect. Udgivelsesdato: 12. januar 2009...

  8. Evidence for and geomorphologic consequences of a reptilian ecosystem engineer: The burrowing cascade initiated by the Gopher Tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinlaw, A.; Grasmueck, M.

    2012-07-01

    Physical ecosystem engineers often make major, durable physical constructs that can provide living space for other species and can structure local animal communities over evolutionary time. In Florida, a medium sized chelonian, the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) will excavate extensive subterranean chambers that can endure for long periods of time. The tortoise starts a 'burrowing cascade', by first excavating a larger burrow that may extend 10 m, which is then re-engineered by Florida Mice (Podomys floridanus) and other rodents that dig smaller side-burrows and pockets. This sequence is often followed by an invertebrate, the camel cricket (Ceuthophilus labibuli) which is reported to excavate even smaller chambers. Our first aim was to quantify the zoogeomorphic impact of this burrowing cascade by measuring the amount of soil excavated in a large sample of burrows in two communities. Secondly, we hypothesized that the high biodiversity reported for these structures might be related to the quasi-fractal nature of the geometry, following the work of Frontier (1987). To visualize this underground geometry, we used high-resolution 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), which provided images and insights previously unobtainable using excavations or 2D GPR. Our images verified that the active tortoise burrow had a spiraling shape, but also showed splits in the larger burrow apparently dug by tortoises. For the first time, the smaller Florida Mouse burrows were imaged, showing side loops that exit and re-renter the tortoise burrow. This study also presents new information by making the discovery of numerous remnants of past tortoise burrows underground in the sampling grid surrounding the active burrow. Our third aim was to interpret our field results with previous ecological field studies to evaluate the strength of evidence that this species ranks as an ecosystem engineer.

  9. Olympia og Den ioniske Renæssance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Om den senklassiske kulturepoke i Vestlilleasien kaldet Den ioniske Renæssance og om to fremtrædende monumenter, som blev opført i denne epokes arkitekturstil i Olympia den græske Helligdom for Zeus og for de olympiske lege.......Om den senklassiske kulturepoke i Vestlilleasien kaldet Den ioniske Renæssance og om to fremtrædende monumenter, som blev opført i denne epokes arkitekturstil i Olympia den græske Helligdom for Zeus og for de olympiske lege....

  10. Breeding-season food habits of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in southwestern Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Diet data from 20 Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) nests were collected in southwestern Dominican Republic in 1976, 1982, and 1996. Invertebrates (53.3%) comprised the most numerous prey items (N = 396) delivered to nests by adult owls, but vertebrates (46.7%) were much better represented than in other studies of Burrowing Owl diet. Among vertebrates, birds (28.3% of all items) and reptiles (14.9%) were most important, whereas mammals (1.0%) and amphibians (2.5%) were less commonly delivered to nests. Vertebrates, however, comprised more than twice (69.2%) of the total biomass as invertebrates (30.8%), with birds (50.4%) and reptiles (12.8%) the most important of the vertebrate prey classes. A positive relationship was observed between bird species abundance and number of individuals taken as prey by Burrowing Owls.

  11. Influence of vegetation on the nocturnal foraging behaviors and vertebrate prey capture by endangered Burrowing Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Marsh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions in technology have limited past habitat selection studies for many species to the home-range level, as a finer-scale understanding was often not possible. Consequently, these studies may not identify the true mechanism driving habitat selection patterns, which may influence how such results are applied in conservation. We used GPS dataloggers with digital video recorders to identify foraging modes and locations in which endangered Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia captured prey. We measured the coarse and fine-scale characteristics of vegetation at locations in which owls searched for, versus where they caught, vertebrate prey. Most prey items were caught using hover-hunting. Burrowing Owls searched for, and caught, vertebrate prey in all cover types, but were more likely to kill prey in areas with sparse and less dense vegetative cover. Management strategies designed to increase Burrowing Owl foraging success in the Canadian prairies should try to ensure a mosaic of vegetation heights across cover types.

  12. Habitat requirements and burrowing depths of rodents in relation to shallow waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature and summarize information on factors affecting habitat selection and maximum recorded burrowing depths for representative small mammals that we consider most likely to inhibit waste burial sites in arid and semi-arid regions of the West. The information is intended for waste management designers who need to know what to expect from small mammals that may be present at a particular site. Waste repositories oculd be designed to exclude the deep burrowing rodents of a region by creating an unattractive habitat over the waste. Summaries are given for habitat requirements of each group along with generalized modifications that could be employed to deter habitation. Representatives from the major groups considered to be deep burrowers are discussed. Further, detailed information about a particular species can be obtained from the references cited

  13. DENSITY-DEPENDENT IMPACTS OF BIOIRRIGATION BY THE BURROWING SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS ON BENTHIC FLUXES AND POREWATER SOLUTE DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowing thalassinid shrimp are major ecosystem engineering species of Pacific estuaries and can structure the physical, chemical, and biotic properties of sediments. Feeding and burrow irrigation by benthic organisms can increase the remineralization rates of organic material (...

  14. Guide til evaluering af Den motiverende samtale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Douw, Karla

    , den er forståelig, overskuelig og nem at gå til SEG mangler en bedre beskrivelse af konteksten (eksempelvis hvilken type borger og om samtalen var planlagt) og har tendens til at virke overfladisk Boksen om samtalens struktur i SEG giver store problemer, idet der ofte vil svares nej på trods af...

  15. Flaskevand - den rene vare i brandingens tidsalder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2008-01-01

    At tappe vand på flasker er blevet den mest udbredte globale virksomhed overhovedet, og forbruget af flaskevand stiger fortsat hurtigt - især i lande hvor man kan få rent drikkevand direkte fra hanen gratis eller til en meget billig penge. Hvorfor er vi havnet i sådan et tilsyneladende paradoksal...

  16. Tre teorier om den moralske udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind; Andreasen, Brian Kjær

    I artiklen gennemgås tre forskellige men teorihistorisk relaterede perspektiver på forståelsen af moralsk udvikling: Piaget, Kohlberg og Gilligan. I den efterfølgende diskussion af disse teoretikeres respektive positioner påpeges såvel forskelle som ligheder i deres betoning af moralens karakter...

  17. Den danske kodeks for integritet i forskning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller Pedersen, Hans; Frøkjær, Sven; Bach, Lise Wogensen;

    forskningsinstitutioner, herunder universiteterne, forskningsrådssystemet, fonde og virksomheder. Den er tænkt som en fælles ramme, der skal implementeres og udvikles på tværs af fagområder. Kodeksen Danish Code of Conduct for Research Integrity er udarbejdet af en arbejdsgruppe nedsat af Uddannelses- og...

  18. Læring og den kulturhistoriske skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2007-01-01

    Vygotskys forståelse og kredsen omkring ham, bl.a. Leontjev, Luria, Levinia, Slavinia, Zaporozhets, Elkonin m.fl., samt en række nyere overvejende amerikanske Vygotskys-forskeres arbejder, medlemmer af den såkaldte CHAT-gruppen (Cultural Historical Activity Theory), bl.a. Michael Cole, Yrjö Engeström, Loiz...

  19. The Oscars og den klassiske Hollywoodfilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer, hvorvidt Oscaruddelingen har været med til at konsolidere de normer og traditioner, der kendetegner den klassiske Hollywoodfilm som et (fortællemæssigt) paradigme. Der tages afsæt i Oscarvindere fra Wings (1927) og frem til It Happened One Night (1934). Artiklen konkluderer...

  20. E-kvarter, den virtuelle markedsplads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Den vituelle markedsplads er et led i det igangværende forskningsprojekt:det elektroniske kvarter. Formålet med at etablere en virtuel markedsplads var at eksperimentere med et offentligt mødested på internettet, hvor besøgende samtidigt kunne gå rundt og blive informeret om forskellige projektgr...

  1. Evidensbaseret viden i den klinske sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Emilie Marie; Larsen, Bente Malig

    2008-01-01

    University College Lillebælt, Sygeplejerskeuddannelsen i Svendborg og Odense har i efteråret 2007 og foråret 2008 arbejdet med projekt ’Uddannelse af kliniske vejledere i anvendelse af evidensbaseret viden i den kliniske sygepleje’. Projektet slutter efter planen i efteråret 2008. Projektet går ud...

  2. Den skrøbelige sandhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Ole

    2010-01-01

    dokumentationer. Denne udvikling kan også spores til den aktivistiske dokumentar, hvor filmene på samme tid fungerer som politiske argumenter og kritiske collager af mediernes overvældende informationsstrøm. Hensigten er, at fremvise hvordan denne type produktioner indgår i en subjektivistisk orienteret diskurs...

  3. Stephen Schwartz og den folkelige lyd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Schwartz døde i foråret 2013. I denne artikel forsøger Jacob Kreutzfeldt, der gennemførte en række interviews med Schwartz gennem hans sidste år, at indkredse den æstetiske grundholdning, der prægede hans arbejde med radiomontagen i DR....

  4. Den autoritære fristelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Fonnesbæk

    2014-01-01

    Der er ikke grund til at frygte demokratiet i Danmark eller til at prise eller acceptere dets fravær i Singapore. Snarere viser begge tilfælde, at frie markeder kombineret med et effektivt og ukorrupt bureaukrati giver høje levestandarder. Og den kombination er mere sandsynlig under et liberalt...

  5. Demokratiseringen af den politiske diskurs i Polen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfast, Juni Søderberg

    1999-01-01

    Gennem en analyse af brugen af personlige pronominer i politiske tekster fra udvalgte, polske medier diskuteres forandringerne i den polske, politiske diskurs gennem 1980'erne. Det påvises at det kommunistiske styres anvendelse af pronominet 'vi' skifter konnotationer i retning af en mindre ideol...

  6. Regionale Einflussfaktoren auf den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien

    OpenAIRE

    Keppler, Dorothee

    2007-01-01

    First published in GAIA: Keppler, Dorothee: Regionale Einflussfaktoren auf den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien : Ergebnisse einer Fallstudie in der Brandenburger Energieregion Lausitz. - In: GAIA : ökologische Perspektiven für Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft. - ISSN: 0940-5550. - 16 (2007), 4, pp. 289–296.

  7. Den professionelle kommunikations renæssance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Chr. Nielsen

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Mens hovedparten af den nyere PR-litteratur bevæger sig "på kommu- nikations niveau", og blot beskriver fremtidens virksomhedskommuni- kation i forhold til fortidens og nutidens kommunikationsformer, så gra- ver Niels Chr. Nielsen i denne artikel et par spadestik dybere. Han beskriver kort den igangværende erhvervsstrukturelle og teknologiske udvikling og trækker dernæst paralleller til kravene til virksomhedernes professionelle kommunikationsarbejde. Det er hans tese, at den tekno- logiske og erhvervsstukturelle udvikling ikke, som ofte påstået, fører til mere og mere sofistikeret manipulation med modtagerne; tværtimod vil det der ske en forskydning i argumentets og den ægte dialogs retning. Niels Chr. Nielsen, der er cand.mag i filosofi og idehistorie, skriver fra en position som udviklingsdirektør ved Dansk Teknologisk Institut. Artiklen er et bearbejdet oplæg fra konferencen "Excellent Public Relations", 18. marts 1993.

  8. Dr. Bakhuizen van den Brink retires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1976-01-01

    On 11 September 1976 dr. Reinier Cornelis Bakhuizen van den Brink will reach the age of 65 and so he must retire from his position as a senior botanist at the Rijksherbarium. He has worked in our institute since December 1943, after having obtained his doctor’s degree in Utrecht. At the Rijksherbari

  9. Burrows of the semi-terrestrial crab Ucides cordatus enhance CO2 release in a North Brazilian mangrove forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pülmanns

    Full Text Available Ucides cordatus is an abundant mangrove crab in Brazil constructing burrows of up to 2 m depth. Sediment around burrows may oxidize during low tides. This increase in sediment-air contact area may enhance carbon degradation processes. We hypothesized that 1 the sediment CO2 efflux rate is greater with burrows than without and 2 the reduction potential in radial profiles in the sediment surrounding the burrows decreases gradually, until approximating non-bioturbated conditions. Sampling was conducted during the North Brazilian wet season at neap tides. CO2 efflux rates of inhabited burrows and plain sediment were measured with a CO2/H2O gas analyzer connected to a respiration chamber. Sediment redox potential, pH and temperature were measured in the sediment surrounding the burrows at horizontal distances of 2, 5, 8 and 15 cm at four sediment depths (1, 10, 30 and 50 cm and rH values were calculated. Sediment cores (50 cm length were taken to measure the same parameters for plain sediment. CO2 efflux rates of plain sediment and individual crab burrows with entrance diameters of 7 cm were 0.7-1.3 µmol m(-2 s(-1 and 0.2-0.4 µmol burrows(-1 s(-1, respectively. CO2 released from a Rhizophora mangle dominated forest with an average of 1.7 U. cordatus burrows(-1 m(-2 yielded 1.0-1.7 µmol m(-2 s(-1, depending on the month and burrow entrance diameter. Laboratory experiments revealed that 20-60% of the CO2 released by burrows originated from crab respiration. Temporal changes in the reduction potential in the sediment surrounding the burrows did not influence the CO2 release from burrows. More oxidized conditions of plain sediment over time may explain the increase in CO2 release until the end of the wet season. CO2 released by U. cordatus and their burrows may be a significant pathway of CO2 export from mangrove sediments and should be considered in mangrove carbon budget estimates.

  10. Burrows of the semi-terrestrial crab Ucides cordatus enhance CO2 release in a North Brazilian mangrove forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pülmanns, Nathalie; Diele, Karen; Mehlig, Ulf; Nordhaus, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Ucides cordatus is an abundant mangrove crab in Brazil constructing burrows of up to 2 m depth. Sediment around burrows may oxidize during low tides. This increase in sediment-air contact area may enhance carbon degradation processes. We hypothesized that 1) the sediment CO2 efflux rate is greater with burrows than without and 2) the reduction potential in radial profiles in the sediment surrounding the burrows decreases gradually, until approximating non-bioturbated conditions. Sampling was conducted during the North Brazilian wet season at neap tides. CO2 efflux rates of inhabited burrows and plain sediment were measured with a CO2/H2O gas analyzer connected to a respiration chamber. Sediment redox potential, pH and temperature were measured in the sediment surrounding the burrows at horizontal distances of 2, 5, 8 and 15 cm at four sediment depths (1, 10, 30 and 50 cm) and rH values were calculated. Sediment cores (50 cm length) were taken to measure the same parameters for plain sediment. CO2 efflux rates of plain sediment and individual crab burrows with entrance diameters of 7 cm were 0.7-1.3 µmol m(-2) s(-1) and 0.2-0.4 µmol burrows(-1) s(-1), respectively. CO2 released from a Rhizophora mangle dominated forest with an average of 1.7 U. cordatus burrows(-1) m(-2) yielded 1.0-1.7 µmol m(-2) s(-1), depending on the month and burrow entrance diameter. Laboratory experiments revealed that 20-60% of the CO2 released by burrows originated from crab respiration. Temporal changes in the reduction potential in the sediment surrounding the burrows did not influence the CO2 release from burrows. More oxidized conditions of plain sediment over time may explain the increase in CO2 release until the end of the wet season. CO2 released by U. cordatus and their burrows may be a significant pathway of CO2 export from mangrove sediments and should be considered in mangrove carbon budget estimates. PMID:25313661

  11. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  12. Christian Birch - den korrupte konferensråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2005-01-01

      http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf......  http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf...

  13. Den første kunsthistorie var romersk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isager, Jacob Erik

    2013-01-01

    Plinius den Ældres afsnit om skulptur og maleri som inspiration for senere kunsthistorier og kunstnere......Plinius den Ældres afsnit om skulptur og maleri som inspiration for senere kunsthistorier og kunstnere...

  14. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas S. Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.O registro osteológico de dinossauros no Mesozóico brasileiro está restrito a rochas triássicas do Rio Grande do Sul e estratos cretáceos de várias partes do país. Isto inclui 21 espécies nominais, sendo duas referidas como nomina dubia, e 19 consensualmente classificadas como dinossauros. Oito táxons supraespecíficos adicionais baseados em material fragmentado e diversas pegadas são conhecidos no Brasil. De fato, a maior parte dos espécimes é composta de dentes isolados e vértebras. Apesar do aumento em trabalhos de campo na última

  15. Deccan volcanism, the KT mass extinction and dinosaurs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Keller; A Sahni; S Bajpai

    2009-11-01

    Recent advances in Deccan volcanic studies indicate three volcanic phases with the phase-1 at 67.5 Ma followed by a 2 m.y. period of quiescence. Phase-2 marks the main Deccan volcanic eruptions in Chron 29r near the end of the Maastrichtian and accounts for ∼80% of the entire 3500 m thick Deccan lava pile. At least four of the world’s longest lava flows spanning 1000 km across India and out into the Gulf of Bengal mark phase-2. The final phase-3 was smaller, coincided with the early Danian Chron 29n and also witnessed several of the longest lava flows. The KT boundary and mass extinction was first discovered based on planktic foraminifera from shallow marine intertrappean sediments exposed in Rajahmundry quarries between the longest lava flows of the main volcanic phase-2 and smaller phase-3. At this locality early Danian (zone P1a) planktic foraminiferal assemblages directly overlie the top of phase-2 eruptions and indicate that the masse extinction coincided with the end of this volcanic phase. Planktic foraminiferal assemblages also mark the KT boundary in intertrappean sediments at Jhilmili, Chhindwara, where freshwater to estuarine conditions prevailed during the early Danian and indicate the presence of a marine seaway across India at KT time. Dinosaur bones, nesting sites with complete eggs and abundant eggshells are known from central India surrounding the hypothesized seaway through the Narmada-Tapti rift zone. A Maastrichtian age is generally assigned to these dinosaur remains. Age control may now be improved based on marine microfossils from sequences deposited in the seaway and correlating these strata to nearby terrestrial sequences with dinosaur remains.

  16. Continental Ecosystem Instability During the Late Triassic Rise of Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Dunlavey, M.; Lindström, S.; Irmis, R. B.; Kasprak, A. H.; Glasspool, I.; Nesbitt, S.; Smith, N.; Turner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Our assessment of the Earth system response to future global climate change requires the characterization of feedbacks that occur at temperatures significantly warmer than modern. Patterns derived from hothouse intervals in Earth's past can inform process-based models to better understand and predict such feedbacks. pCO2 values exceeded 1000 ppm during the Late Triassic (~235 million to 201.5 million years ago), one of the warmest - and one of the most climatically dynamic - intervals in Earth history. This long period of warmth saw rare and species-poor assemblages of early dinosaurs and their relatives at low-paleolatitudes. Here we present new records of palynology, charcoal, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biomarkers of regional wildfires, and the bulk carbon isotopic composition of organic matter (δ13Corg) from fluvial and overbank sediments of the Chinle Formation of the Chama Basin in north-central New Mexico from low paleolatitude Pangea. These data illuminate the climatic and ecological drivers of low dinosaur diversity. Our data suggest that strongly fluctuating but generally very hot and periodically arid environmental conditions prevailed at low paleolatitudes in the Late Triassic. Strong variations in δ13Corg and xerophytic palynomorph abundance are highly correlated, suggesting these proxies responded to fluctuating arid conditions with intermittent wildfires, some burning at temperatures reaching at least 680°C. The abundant, reliable food source required by an extensive, diverse community of large-bodied, herbivorous, fast-growing tachymetabolic dinosaurs did not develop until climatic changes in the Early Jurassic. Despite this, the basic structure of this pseudosuchian archosaur-dominated community remained stable over ~10-15 million years.

  17. Deccan volcanism, the KT mass extinction and dinosaurs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Keller; A Sahni; S Bajpai

    2010-03-01

    Recent advances in Deccan volcanic studies indicate three volcanic phases with the phase-1 at 67.5 Ma followed by a 2 m.y. period of quiescence. Phase-2 marks the main Deccan volcanic eruptions in Chron 29r near the end of the Maastrichtian and accounts for ∼80% of the entire 3500 m thick Deccan lava pile. At least four of the world’s longest lava flows spanning 1000 km across India and out into the Gulf of Bengal mark phase-2. The final phase-3 was smaller, coincided with the early Danian Chron 29n and also witnessed several of the longest lava flows. The KT boundary and mass extinction was first discovered based on planktic foraminifera from shallow marine intertrappean sediments exposed in Rajahmundry quarries between the longest lava flows of the main volcanic phase-2 and smaller phase-3. At this locality early Danian (zone P1a) planktic foraminiferal assemblages directly overlie the top of phase-2 eruptions and indicate that the masse extinction coincided with the end of this volcanic phase. Planktic foraminiferal assemblages also mark the KT boundary in intertrappean sediments at Jhilmili, Chhindwara, where freshwater to estuarine conditions prevailed during the early Danian and indicate the presence of a marine seaway across India at KT time. Dinosaur bones, nesting sites with complete eggs and abundant eggshells are known from central India surrounding the hypothesized seaway through the Narmada-Tapti rift zone. A Maastrichtian age is generally assigned to these dinosaur remains. Age control may now be improved based on marine microfossils from sequences deposited in the seaway and correlating these strata to nearby terrestrial sequences with dinosaur remains.

  18. Human disturbances of denning polar bears in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth in dens of snow and ice. The altricial neonates cannot leave the den for >2 months post-partum and are potentially vulnerable to disturbances near dens. The coastal plain (1002) area of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) lies in a region of known polar bear denning and also may contain >9 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Polar bears in dens could be affected in many ways by hydrocarbon development. The distribution of dens on ANWR was documented between 1981 and 1992 and responses of bears in dens to various anthropogenic disturbances were observed. Of 44 dens located by radiotelemetry on the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada, 20 (45%) were on ANWR and 15 (34%) were within the 1002 area. Thus, development of ANWR will increase the potential that denning polar bears are disturbed by human activities. However, perturbations resulting from capture, marking, and radiotracking maternal bears did not affect litter sizes or stature of cubs produced. Likewise, 10 of 12 denned polar bears tolerated exposure to exceptional levels of activity. This tolerance and the fact that investment in the denning effort increases through the winter indicated that spatial and temporal restrictions on developments could prevent the potential for many disruptions of denned bears from being realized. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Der Einfluss von Rekrutiererverhaltensweisen auf den Bewerber: Ein mediierter Prozess

    OpenAIRE

    Eberz, Lisa-Marie; Baum, Matthias; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    In dieser Studie wird die Wirkung der Rekrutiererfreundlichkeit und -kompetenz auf den Bewerber und dessen Absicht, den Bewerbungsprozess weiter zu verfolgen, empirisch analysiert. Als theoretisches Fundament dienen das Signaling und die Theory of Reasoned Action. Unter Zuhilfenahme eines Strukturgleichungsmodells kann gezeigt werden, dass die wahrgenommene Freundlichkeit und Kompetenz des Rekrutierers entgegen bisheriger Annahmen keine direkten Auswirkungen auf den Bewerbungsprozess haben, s...

  20. Det lille land før den store krig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Michael Hesselholt

    Krige i Nordafrika og på Balkan. Den Store Krig truede. Den tyske marine brugte danske farvande som sine egne, men den unge, aggressive britiske marineminister Churchill ville nu presse sin flåde ind i Kattegat, uden hensyn til dansk og svensk neutralitet, i risikable operationer, der kunne udløse...

  1. Premolarized double dens in dente in albinism - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprabha B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dens in dente are known to be associated with many dental abnormalities such as taurodontism microdontia, gemination, and dens evaginatus. This paper describes a rare case of double dens in dente in a lateral incisor with crown morphology similar to a premolar present in a patient with features of albinism. Problems associated with this condition and their management is discussed.

  2. [Von den Restgütern zu den Sowchosen in Estland 1939-1953. Dokumentensammlung] / Olev Liivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivik, Olev, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Von den Restgütern zu den Sowchosen in Estland 1939-1953 : Dokumentensammlung / Hrsg. von David Feest, Karsten Brüggemann. Berlin : Lit Verlag, 2010. (Schriften der Baltischen historischen Kommission ; Bd. 15)

  3. Dinosaur egg deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup, Korea: Diversity and paleobiological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, In Sung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Huh, Min

    2012-08-01

    The taphonomy and depositional environments of dinosaur-egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, Korea, are described and their paleobiological implications are discussed in the context of global geographic occurrences, geological ages, paleoenvironments, and lithology. The general depositional environment of dinosaur egg deposits in the Gyeongsang Supergroup is interpreted as dry floodplains with a semi-arid climate and intermittent volcanic activity. The diverse floodplain paleoenvironments include fluvial plains with meandering rivers to alluvial plains with episodic sheet-flooding. Both global and Korean dinosaur-egg-bearing deposits are generally restricted to the Late Cretaceous, a phenomenon for which two possible explanations are proposed. The first possible explanation for the temporal limitation of dinosaur egg preservation involves the appearance of angiosperms in the Late Jurassic, the Late Cretaceous ecological dispersion of angiosperm trees into swamps and floodplains, and the attendant change in herbivorous dinosaurs' diets. The second possible reason is related to nesting behavior in the Cretaceous. By contrast to the temporally limited occurrence of dinosaur eggs, paleoenvironments of nesting areas are diverse, ranging from inland areas to coastal areas. These hypotheses may provide new directions for the study and understanding of dinosaur egg distribution in the context of geologic time.

  4. The history of dinosaur footprint discoveries in Wyoming with emphasis on the Bighorn basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Mickelson, D.L.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Johnson, G.D.

    2003-01-01

    Dinosaur traces are well known from the western United States in the Colorado Plateau region (Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona). Utah contains the greatest abundance of known and documented dinosaur footprints and trackways. Far less well known, however, is the occurrence and distribution of dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons in Wyoming. Scientific studies over the past 10 years have shown that three of the four Middle and Upper Jurassic formations in northern Wyoming contain dinosaur footprints. Two of the footprint-bearing horizons are located in geologic intervals that were once thought to have been deposited in offshore to nearshore marine settings and represent rare North American examples of Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur remains. Some of these new Wyoming sites can be correlated to known dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons or intervals in Utah. Wyoming has a great potential for additional discoveries of new dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons, and further prospecting and study is warranted and will ultimately lead to a much better understanding of the geographic distribution and behavior of the potential footprint-makers. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

  5. Endolithic fungi: A possible killer for the mass extinc-tion of Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG YiMing; XU Ran; HU Bi

    2008-01-01

    Mycelium-like structures found under ESEM within radial sections of fragmental dinosaur eggshells would be the endolithic fungi coexistent with dinosaur eggs in the upper part of the Late Cretaceous Hugang Formation from the Wenjiaping section of Wenxian, Danjiangkou, northwestern Hubei, Central China. The endolithic fungi selectively occurred in the bad biomineral zone within the columnar layer of the eggshells, where the crowded endolithic fungi penetrated the columnar layer at near-vertical or near-horizontal angles. The endolithic fungi are needle-like, ribbon-like and silk-like, and 5-18 μm long, 0.3-0.5 μm wide at their base, with pointed tip, and are unbranched. The hyphae are mainly composed of oxygen, carbon and calcium, and are with minor sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulfur. The en-dolithic fungi and host have the same characters in lithification, fracture and main chemical composi-tion. We suggested that the episode endolithic fungi invading dinosaur eggs may have taken place in the interval between after formation of dinosaur eggshells and before their petrifaction and that dino-saur eggs invaded by endolithic fungi would not be normally incubated or would only be incubated into venerable and pathologic baby dinosaurs to be easily to aborted and contributed to the mass extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of Cretaceous.

  6. Endolithic fungi: A possible killer for the mass extinction of Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mycelium-like structures found under ESEM within radial sections of fragmental dinosaur eggshells would be the endolithic fungi coexistent with dinosaur eggs in the upper part of the Late Cretaceous Hugang Formation from the Wenjiaping section of Wenxian, Danjiangkou, northwestern Hubei, Central China. The endolithic fungi selectively occurred in the bad biomineral zone within the columnar layer of the eggshells, where the crowded endolithic fungi penetrated the columnar layer at near-vertical or near-horizontal angles. The endolithic fungi are needle-like, ribbon-like and silk-like, and 5-18 μm long, 0.3-0.5 μm wide at their base, with pointed tip, and are unbranched. The hyphae are mainly composed of oxygen, carbon and calcium, and are with minor sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulfur. The en-dolithic fungi and host have the same characters in lithification, fracture and main chemical composi-tion. We suggested that the episode endolithic fungi invading dinosaur eggs may have taken place in the interval between after formation of dinosaur eggshells and before their petrifaction and that dino-saur eggs invaded by endolithic fungi would not be normally incubated or would only be incubated into venerable and pathologic baby dinosaurs to be easily to aborted and contributed to the mass extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of Cretaceous.

  7. Texture analyses of Sauropod dinosaur bones from Tendaguru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyzalla, A.R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria) and MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail: pyzalla@mpie.de; Sander, P.M. [University of Bonn, Institute of Palaeontology, Nusseallee, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Hansen, A. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ferreyro, R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Yi, S.-B. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Stempniewicz, M. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Brokmeier, H.-G. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2006-11-10

    The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly <0 0 0 1>-fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large.

  8. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  9. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  10. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Codron

    Full Text Available Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record, in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora. Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods, in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey

  11. Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise) and Crotalus ruber (red diamond rattlesnake). Burrow co-occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    I observed an adult Desert Tortoise and an adult Red Diamond Rattlesnake (sexes unknown) in a shallow tortoise burrow on 6 January 1997 at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, USA (33.9599°N, 116.6613°W).

  12. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  13. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis...

  14. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T,

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  15. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  16. The Potential Use of Electricity to Control Burrowing Shrimp in Oyster Aquaculture Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalassinid shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA) where oysters succumb to the physical disruption of the sediment by the burrowing activity of these animals. While electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates i...

  17. [Suicidal burrowing behavior--a special kind of the "hide-and-die-syndrome"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Tsokos, Michael

    2007-01-01

    When the situation at a death scene is unusual, this may suggest the involvement of another person. On the other hand, one also has to consider the possibility of a conscious or unconscious behavior in connection with extreme stress situations or suicidal acts. The forensic findings and criminalistic reconstruction of two cases of suicidal burrowing behavior are presented and discussed. PMID:18260568

  18. Burrowing dragonfly larvae as biosentinels of methylmercury in freshwater food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Roger J; Bailey, Sean W; Northwick, Reid M; Rolfhus, Kristofer R; Sandheinrich, Mark B; Wiener, James G

    2013-08-01

    We assessed the utility of larval burrowing dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera: Gomphidae) as biosentinels of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination. Gomphids were the most abundant family of dragonflies sampled during 2008-2010 from 17 lakes in four national parks of the northwestern Laurentian Great Lakes region. Ten species of burrowing gomphids were sampled; 13 lakes contained 3 or more species, and 2 species of Gomphus co-occurred in 12 lakes. Most of the total Hg (THg) in whole, late-instar larvae was MeHg, with mean percent MeHg exceeding 60% in 16 lakes. Mean MeHg in larvae of a given species varied greatly among lakes, ranging from 4 to 109 ng g(-1) dry weight. Methylmercury levels in larvae, however, were much less variable within a given lake and species. The mean concentration of MeHg in burrowing gomphids was positively correlated with mean MeHg concentration in unfiltered lake water. Mean concentrations of THg and MeHg in multispecies assemblages of Gomphus were also positively correlated with mean THg in coexisting prey fish and game fishes. We recommend-and provide guidance on-the application of burrowing gomphids as biosentinels of MeHg contamination, which can extend the bioassessment of MeHg to fishless fresh waters.

  19. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  20. Feeding strategies as revealed by the section moduli of the humerus bones in bipedal theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Richards, Zachary

    2015-03-01

    The section modulus of a bone is a measure of its ability to resist bending torques. Carnivorous dinosaurs presumably had strong arm bones to hold struggling prey during hunting. Some theropods are believed to have become herbivorous and such animals would not have needed such strong arms. In this work, the section moduli of the humerus bones of bipedal theropod dinosaurs (from Microvenator celer to Tyrannosaurus rex) are studied to determine the maximum bending loads their arms could withstand. The results show that bending strength is not of uniform importance to these magnificent animals. The predatory theropods had strong arms for use in hunting. In contrast, the herbivorous dinosaurs had weaker arms.

  1. Globale Entwikclung als Lernbereich in den Naturwissenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Härtig, Hendrik; Bernholt, Sascha; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Mit dem Orientierungsrahmen für den Lernbereich Globale Entwicklung wurden Anregungen gegeben, die Themen nachhaltige Entwicklung und globale Entwicklung im Unterricht in allen Schulfächern aufzugreifen. Die drei naturwissenschaftlichen Schulfächer Biologie, Chemie und Physik haben sich bislang sehr unterschiedlich auf das Thema eingelassen. In der Biologiedidaktik finden sich sowohl Forschungsarbeiten als auch Unterrichtsvorschläge; für Chemie und insbesondere Physik existieren hingegen nur ...

  2. Eisenablagerungen in den Basalganglien bei Morbus Huntington

    OpenAIRE

    Leske, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Diese Arbeit untersucht mittels MRT nachgewiesene Eisenablagerungen in den Basalganglien bei Patienten mit Chorea Huntington. Diese werden besonders im Putamen und Nucleus caudatus gefunden. Das erste Ziel war es, nachzuweisen, wie objektiv dieses Verfahren bei der Diagnostik von Patienten mit Chorea Huntington ist. Dazu legten wir getrennt zwei Neuroradiologen die Bilder von 40 Patienten mit genetisch nachgewiesener Chorea Huntington vor. Dabei ergab sich in fast allen Fällen eine sehr gute ...

  3. Dialog trotz Terror: Kaschmir nach den Landtagswahlen

    OpenAIRE

    Reifeld, Helmut

    2002-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag, der zuerst 2002 in der Zeitschrift "KAS-Auslandsinformationen" veröffentlicht wurde, befasst sich mit den Landtagswahlen im indischen Teil von Kaschmir, die Ende September bzw. Anfang Oktober 2002 stattfanden. Das Kaschmirproblem kann zweifellos als eines der für demokratische Lösungsmodelle kompliziertesten regionalen Probleme der internationalen Politik angesehen werden. Einige stufen es sogar als "unlösbar" ein. Dennoch können die Landtagswahlen in Jammu and Kashmir als die...

  4. BURROW ARCHITECTURE OF RED GHOST CRAB OCYPODE MACROCERA (H. MILNE-EDWARDS, 1852 : A CASE STUDY IN INDIAN SUNDARBANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Kumar Dubey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on burrow architecture and burrow morphology of the red ghost crab (Ocypode macrocera was carried out at the southern proximity of the Sagar island (21°37.973' N, to E 88° 04.195', western sector of Indian Sundarbans that faces the regular tidal influences of Bay of Bengal. Ocypode macrocera constructs burrows that are highly species specific and used by single individual. Four types of burrow patterns were observed like ‘I’, ‘J’ ‘U’ and ‘semi-U’ type with different sizes as revealed by POP casting. Important physic-chemical parameters like air temperature, temperature and salinity of the water were significantly varied (P < 0.05 throughout seasons in the Ocypode zone. Burrow sand column temperature were also significantly varied from ambient air temperature thus exhibiting preference for cooler subterranean residential compartment. The digging behaviour of Ocypodes enhances oxygenation in the ground soil and facilitates decomposition of organic materials, nutrient recycling, entrapping the sediments and mangrove seedlings and helps the process of bioturbation. As per the preliminary observations it was suggested that burrow shape is directly related to tidal action and metabolic activities of the crab are strongly correlated with burrow microenvironment. They are adapted to the different sediment conditions, tidal fluctuations, varying salinity gradients, air and water temperatures and other environmental fluctuations.

  5. Evaluation of insecticide impregnated baits for control of mosquito larvae in land crab burrows on French Polynesian atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frederic; Sechan, Yves; Faaruia, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Land crab burrows are larval mosquito habitats of major significance in the Pacific region. They are constituted by a sinuous tunnel leading to a chamber in contact with the water table, where mosquito larvae proliferate. Controlling larvae in these sites is difficult, because the configuration of burrows prevents the use of standard techniques. An experiment was carried out in French Polynesia to control Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex spp. breeding in burrows of the land crab Cardisoma carnifex (Herbst). The technique was based on the crab's behavior, which involves the crab carrying food into its burrow. It was shown that appetizing baits impregnated with an insecticide were carried by crabs into the flooded chamber of their burrows. A field treatment of burrows was carried out by sowing insecticide impregnated baits on the ground. The treatment coverage was almost perfect and the easy implementation of the technique enabled large areas to be treated in a short time. The bait was developed by compacting various flours, which easily incorporate a large variety of insecticide formulations. Although the baits can be easily stocked, a reliable insecticide is still to be found. The results indicate that our technique could be a method of choice for treating crab burrows.

  6. Construindo um Densímetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricetti Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para fins didáticos, é apresentada uma maneira de construir um densímetro, aparelho utilizadopara medir a densidade de fluidos. um aparato fácil de ser construído e muito simples de serutilizado. Sua principal vantagem sobre os densímetros que comercialmente encontramos, é a suacapacidade de medir a densidade de quaisquer líquidos, operando em qualquer faixa de densidade. Outra vantagem que apresenta, é a possibilidade de fazer uma medição relativa entre quaisquerlíquidos, não fazendo apenas a medição relativa à densidade da água. Desta maneira, pode-semedir, por exemplo, a densidade do mercúrio em relação ao éter, com este instrumento. Nota-seque, desta maneira, com apenas um instrumento determina-se a densidade de qualquer líquido, nãosendo necessário dispor-se de densímetros que operem em diversas faixas de densidade, como é ocaso dos instrumentos encontrados comercialmente.

  7. Digital kommunikation med den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Jesper Bull; Andersen, Kim Normann

    Denne rapport sammenfatter hovedresultaterne for styrelser og statslige organisationer af en undersøgelse gennemført i sommeren 2013 om besvarelse af e-mail og digital post i den statslige, regionale og kommunale sektor. Allerede med eDag3 1. nov. 2010 skulle alle myndigheder have oprettet en...... digital postkasse, som borgerne kunne skrive til. I denne undersøgelse sættes der fokus på myndighedernes besvarelse af den digitale post. Digital post blev bl.a. etableret som et alternativ til almindelig e-mail for at det offentlige kan kommunikere med borgere og virksomheder på en sikker måde, dvs....... uden at uvedkommende kan få adgang til følsomme oplysninger. Fokus for undersøgelsen er hvordan håndterer myndighederne besvarelserne i den digitale postkasse: svarer de på digital post og e-mail, hvor hurtigt svarer de og er svarene brugbare? Vi har også undersøgt besvarelse af e-mail, dels...

  8. Digital kommunikation med den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Jesper Bull; Andersen, Kim Normann

    Denne rapport sammenfatter hovedresultaterne af en undersøgelse gennemført i juni måned 2013 om besvarelse af e-mail og digital post i den statslige, regionale og kommunale sektor. Allerede med eDag3 1. nov. 2010 skulle alle myndigheder have oprettet en digital postkasse, som borgerne kunne skrive...... til. I denne undersøgelse sættes der fokus på myndighedernes besvarelse af den digitale post. Digital post blev bl.a. etableret som et alternativ til almindelig e-mail for at det offentlige kan kommunikere med borgere og virksomheder på en sikker måde, dvs. uden at uvedkommende kan få adgang til...... følsomme oplysninger. Fokus for undersøgelsen er hvordan håndterer myndighederne besvarelserne i den digitale postkasse: svarer de på digital post og e-mail, hvor hurtigt svarer de og er svarene brugbare? Undersøgelsen medtager myndighedernes besvarelse af digital post og e-mail, dels for at kunne...

  9. Digital kommunikation med den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Jesper; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2013-01-01

    Denne rapport sammenfatter hovedresultaterne af en undersøgelse gennemført i juni måned 2013 om besvarelse af e-mail og digital post i den statslige, regionale og kommunale sektor. Allerede med eDag3 1. nov. 2010 skulle alle myndigheder have oprettet en digital postkasse, som borgerne kunne skrive...... til. I denne undersøgelse sættes der fokus på myndighedernes besvarelse af den digitale post. Digital post blev bl.a. etableret som et alternativ til almindelig e-mail for at det offentlige kan kommunikere med borgere og virksomheder på en sikker måde, dvs. uden at uvedkommende kan få adgang til...... følsomme oplysninger. Fokus for undersøgelsen er hvordan håndterer myndighederne besvarelserne i den digitale postkasse: svarer de på digital post og e-mail, hvor hurtigt svarer de og er svarene brugbare? Undersøgelsen medtager myndighedernes besvarelse af digital post og e-mail, dels for at kunne...

  10. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  11. 2004 assessment of habitat improvements in Dinosaur Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, B.G.; Cowie, D.M.

    2005-01-15

    Formed in 1979 after the completion of the Peace Canyon Dam, Dinosaur Reservoir is 21 km long and backs water up to the tailrace of W.A.C. Bennett Dam. BC Hydro has funded studies to evaluate fish stocking programs and assess habitat limitations and potential enhancements as part of a water licence agreement. The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Programs (PWFWCP) have undertaken a number of projects to address fish habitat limitations, entrainment and stocking assessments as a result of recommendations stemming from these studies. It was determined that existing baseline fish data was needed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of these activities. A preliminary boat electro-fishing program which was started in October 2001, noted that a propensity for rainbow trout to concentrate near woody debris. In response, a program was started in 2002 to add woody debris to embayment areas throughout the reservoir. These enhanced woody debris structures are located in small sheltered bays and consist of a series of large trees cabled together and anchored to the shore. The area between the cabled trees and the shoreline is filled with woody debris and root wads collected from along the shoreline. The 2004 assessment of habitat improvements in Dinosaur Reservoir presents the findings from a study that compares the number of fish captured using trap nets, angling, and minnow traps, at the woody debris structures to sites with similar physical characteristics where woody debris had not been added. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Ichnological evidence of Megalosaurid Dinosaurs Crossing Middle Jurassic Tidal Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzolini, Novella L.; Oms, Oriol; Castanera, Diego; Vila, Bernat; Santos, Vanda Faria Dos; Galobart, Àngel

    2016-08-01

    A new dinosaur tracksite in the Vale de Meios quarry (Serra de Aire Formation, Bathonian, Portugal)preserves more than 700 theropod tracks. They are organized in at least 80 unidirectional trackways arranged in a bimodal orientation pattern (W/NW and E/SE). Quantitative and qualitative comparisons reveal that the large tridactyl, elongated and asymmetric tracks resemble the typical Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Megalosauripus ichnogenus in all morphometric parameters. Few of the numerous tracks are preserved as elite tracks while the rest are preserved as different gradients of modified true tracks according to water content, erosive factors, radial fractures and internal overtrack formations. Taphonomical determinations are consistent with paleoenvironmental observations that indicate an inter-tidal flat located at the margin of a coastal barrier. The Megalosauripus tracks represent the oldest occurrence of this ichnotaxon and are attributed to large megalosaurid dinosaurs. Their occurrence in Vale de Meios tidal flat represents the unique paleoethological evidence of megalosaurids moving towards the lagoon, most likley during the low tide periods with feeding purposes.

  13. The first well-preserved coelophysoid theropod dinosaur from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hai-Lu; Azuma, Yoichi; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ya-Ming; Dong, Zhi-Ming

    2014-10-16

    Coelophysoid dinosaurs represent the earliest major radiation of neotheropods. These small-to-medium-sized agile bipeds lived throughout much of Pangaea during the Late Triassic-arly Jurassic. Previously reported coelophysoid material from Asia (excluding the Gondwanan territory of India) is limited to two specimens that comprise only limb fragments. This paper describes a new genus and species of coelophysoid, Panguraptor lufengensis, from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation of Yunnan Province, China. The new taxon is represented by a well-preserved skeleton, including the skull and lower jaw, the presacral vertebral column and partial ribs, the right scapula, a partial forelimb, part of the pelvic girdle, and an almost complete hind limb. It is distinguished from other coelophysoid theropods by the unique combination of the following three character states: 1) diagonal (rostrodorsal-caudoventral) ridge on lateral surface of maxilla, within antorbital fossa, 2) elliptical, laterally facing fenestra caudodorsal to aforementioned diagonal ridge, and 3) hooked craniomedial corner of distal tarsal IV. Cladistic analysis recovers Panguraptor lufengensis deeply nested within Coelophysoidea as a member of Coelophysidae, and it is more closely related to Coelophysis than to "Syntarsus". Panguraptor represents the first well-preserved coelophysoid theropod dinosaur from Asia, and provides fresh evidence supporting the hypothesis that terrestrial tetrapods tended to be distributed pan-continentally during the Early Jurassic.

  14. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Hall, Brian K; Horner, John R

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors. PMID:23418610

  15. Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jürgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tütken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The

  16. Den mångsidiga controllern och dess samverkan med den operativa nivån

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Emma; Larsson, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka hur controllerns roll ser ut i ett stort tjänsteföretag samt hur denna samverkar med chefer på den operativa nivån. Vidare studeras även vilket inflytande controllern har på den operativa nivåns arbete.  Studien bygger på intervjuer med controllern och ekonomidirektören på PayEx Solutions, ett företag som utvecklar elektroniska betalningslösningar. Därutöver har en enkätundersökning besvarats av chefer på den operativa nivån inom företaget. Controllerns upp...

  17. Crayfish fossil burrows, a key tool for identification of terrestrial environments in tide-dominated sequence, Upper Eocene, Sirt Basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouessa, Ashour; Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Pelletier, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The majority of decapod crustaceans are defined as marine organisms. Crayfish are one of the relatively few known exceptions. They are freshwater-environment adapted decapods that build characteristically large, simple and branched cylindrical morphotype traces in fluvial plains. Their burrows bear lots of special features that make them different from other burrows. Consequently, the identification of true crayfish burrows in the sedimentary record is crucial for the interpretation of depositional environment. The studied interval (45 m thick, exposed in the Dur At Talah escarpment southern Sirt Basin; Fig. 1) represents a case-study which is previously believed to be purely tidal. In this interval, the identification of the crayfish burrows provides a reliable tool for distinguishing terrestrial environments. The crayfish burrows of Dur At Talah are characterized by dimensional, morphological, and especially behavioral aspects that combined, cannot be ascribed to another burrow makers. Essential criteria used to attribute these burrows to the crayfish include: Their length (the depth of penetration into the sediments), their regularly circular cross-sectional area, the presence of mid-way enlargement chamber along the burrow vertical axis, as well as the subtle preservation of the burrow chimney. More importantly, these morphological features allow the recognition of some of the crayfish diagnostic behavioral habits. Most significant of these is the one deduced from the interaction of the burrow with the seasonal fluctuation of the paleo groundwater level. Supplementary indications that restrict the studied burrows to terrestrial organism include their occurrences within pedogenically altered strata that bear evident features of prolonged emersion. Of these features, mud cracks and burrows that are filled with continental fossil are the clearest. Few horizons with termite fungus comb are also distinguishable. Although other burrows of the classically known

  18. Dinosaur footprints in the Upper Turonian-Coniacian limestone in the Krnica Bay (NE Istria, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Mauko

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Three isolated footprints and one trackway that can be attributed to bipedal dinosaur, from a limestone bed in vicinity of Požara promontory, Krnica Bay, are described. According to the stratigraphic position the footprints are late Turonian to Coniacian in age.This is the first record of dinosaur remains in the Turonian-Coniacian and the youngest footprint site on the Adriatic-Dinaric Carbonate Platform described thus far.

  19. Dental histology of Coelophysis bauri and the evolution of tooth attachment tissues in early dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Raymond K M; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Berman, David S; Reisz, Robert R

    2016-07-01

    Studies of dinosaur teeth have focused primarily on external crown morphology and thus, use shed or in situ tooth crowns, and are limited to the enamel and dentine dental tissues. As a result, the full suites of periodontal tissues that attach teeth to the jaws remain poorly documented, particularly in early dinosaurs. These tissues are an integral part of the tooth and thus essential to a more complete understanding of dental anatomy, development, and evolution in dinosaurs. To identify the tooth attachment tissues in early dinosaurs, histological thin sections were prepared from the maxilla and dentary of a partial skull of the early theropod Coelophysis bauri from the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian- 209-201 Ma) Whitaker Quarry, New Mexico, USA. As one of the phylogenetically and geologically oldest dinosaurs, it is an ideal candidate for examining dental tissues near the base of the dinosaurian clade. The teeth of C. bauri exhibited a fibrous tooth attachment in which the teeth possessed five tissues: enamel, dentine, cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone. Our findings, coupled with those of more recent studies of ornithischian teeth, indicate that a tripartite periodontium, similar to that of crocodilians and mammals, is the plesiomorphic condition for dinosaurs. The occurrence of a tripartite periodontium in dinosaurs adds to the growing consensus that the presence of these tissues is the plesiomorphic condition for the major amniote clades. Furthermore, this study establishes the relative timing of tissue development and growth directions of periodontal tissues and provides the first comparative framework for future studies of dinosaur periodontal development, tooth replacement, and histology. J. Morphol. 277:916-924, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. New findings of dinosaur remains and considerations on the age of the guichon formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first known dinosaur remains from the Guichon Formation are reviewed herein, demonstrating that they have a limited bio stratigraphic value. New materials (comprising abundant bones and several eggshell fragments) are described, representing the first record of sauropod dinosaurs from the Guichon Formation. The bone belong to a derived titanosaurian (Eutitanosauria) while the eggshells are referred to the oogenus Sphaerovum Mones 1980. Biostratigraphic implications of these materials are discussed, allowing to propose a Late Cretaceous age for this unit

  1. Dental histology of Coelophysis bauri and the evolution of tooth attachment tissues in early dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Raymond K M; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Berman, David S; Reisz, Robert R

    2016-07-01

    Studies of dinosaur teeth have focused primarily on external crown morphology and thus, use shed or in situ tooth crowns, and are limited to the enamel and dentine dental tissues. As a result, the full suites of periodontal tissues that attach teeth to the jaws remain poorly documented, particularly in early dinosaurs. These tissues are an integral part of the tooth and thus essential to a more complete understanding of dental anatomy, development, and evolution in dinosaurs. To identify the tooth attachment tissues in early dinosaurs, histological thin sections were prepared from the maxilla and dentary of a partial skull of the early theropod Coelophysis bauri from the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian- 209-201 Ma) Whitaker Quarry, New Mexico, USA. As one of the phylogenetically and geologically oldest dinosaurs, it is an ideal candidate for examining dental tissues near the base of the dinosaurian clade. The teeth of C. bauri exhibited a fibrous tooth attachment in which the teeth possessed five tissues: enamel, dentine, cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone. Our findings, coupled with those of more recent studies of ornithischian teeth, indicate that a tripartite periodontium, similar to that of crocodilians and mammals, is the plesiomorphic condition for dinosaurs. The occurrence of a tripartite periodontium in dinosaurs adds to the growing consensus that the presence of these tissues is the plesiomorphic condition for the major amniote clades. Furthermore, this study establishes the relative timing of tissue development and growth directions of periodontal tissues and provides the first comparative framework for future studies of dinosaur periodontal development, tooth replacement, and histology. J. Morphol. 277:916-924, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27087142

  2. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  3. Cretaceous anuran and dinosaur footprints from the Patuxent Formation of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, R.E.; Bachman, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Footprints of an anuran (gen. et sp. indet.), a theropod dinosaur (Megalosauropus sp.), and an ornithopod dinosaur (Amblydactylus sp.) have been recovered from the Lower Cretaceous Patuxent Formation in Stafford County, Virginia. These footprints are the first record of terrestrial vertebrates from Cretaceous strata in Virginia, and their discovery suggests that the scarcity of bones and teeth in the Patuxent probably is an artifact of preservation. The anuran trackway provides the oldest known direct evidence for hopping locomotion among these amphibians.

  4. Dens evaginatus and dens invaginatus in a double tooth: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dens invaginatus (DI and dens evaginatus (DE on same tooth is a rare phenomenon. However, when these dental anomalies occur on a double tooth, it becomes an extremely rare phenomenon. The authors report a rare case of DI and DE on fused permanent maxillary central incisor with supernumerary tooth in a 40-year-old male. The present article also focuses on the differentiating fusion from gemination and also reviews preventive and management strategies for tooth with complex dental anatomy.

  5. Mapping Metal Elements of Shuangbai Dinosaur Fossil by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Qun, Y; Ablett, J

    2008-01-01

    The metal elements mapping of Shuangbai dinosaur fossil, was obtained by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Eight elements, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Y and Sr were determined. Elements As and Y were detected for the first time in the dinosaur fossil. The data indicated that metal elements are asymmetrical on fossil section. This is different from common minerals. Mapping metals showed that metal element As is few. The dinosaur most likely belongs to natural death. This is different from Zigong dinosaurs which were found dead from poisoning. This method has been used to find that metals Fe and Mn are accrete, and the same is true for Sr and Y. This study indicated that colloid granule Fe and Mn, as well as Sr and Y had opposite electric charges in lithification process of fossils. By this analysis, compound forms can be ascertained. Synchrotron light source x-ray fluorescence is a complementary method that shows mapping of metal elements at the dinosaur fossil, and is rapid, exact and intuitionist. This study shows that dinosaur fossil mineral imaging has a potential in reconstructing the paleoenvironment and ancient geology.

  6. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  7. 1994 prairie dog burrow mapping with Global Positioning Systems, UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Phillips County, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Holes in the ground are a very important feature of black-footed ferret habitat. The number, distribution, and activity level of prairie dog burrows is related to...

  8. Zu den on Emona und Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Šašel

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Bildungssilbe -ona wurde in übernommenen ON von den Slawen regelmässig auf -in umgebildet (Salona-Solin. Dieser Gruppe wird vom Autor auch die Form Atamine beigezählt (für Emona, Anon. Ravenn. 4.20, die infolge einer Diskontinuität in Vergessenheit geriet. Im Bereich derselben Siedlungsstelle taucht später der ON Ljubljana auf, dessen Bildungssilbe -ana (wie in ON Fažana, Sežana auf lokales Bestehen eines sprachlich vorslawischen Elements hindeutet. Lit. und Beispiele s. im Text oben.

  9. Postupci liječenja Dens Invaginatusa

    OpenAIRE

    Šutalo, Jozo; Knežević, Alena; Negovetić-Mandić, Višnja; Tarle, Zrinka; Pandurić, Vlatko

    2003-01-01

    Dens invaginatus je razvojna anomalija koja se očituje uvlačenjem cakline i dentina u unutrašnjost krune i korijena. Aberacija se može očitovati u širokome spektru morfoloških varijacija of foramen coecum do manjeg ili većeg uvlačenja u korijen, a ponekad sve do vrška korijena. Suvremenu podjelu anomalije ponudio je Oehlers godine 1957. Prema njoj postoje tri tipa abnormalnosti. Najčešće se otkriva radiografskim pregledom. Ako postoji komunikacija invaginacije s pulpom ili periradikularnim...

  10. Fusion og koncentration i den danske svineslagterisektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Strukturudviklingen i den danske slagterisektor er gået hurtig i de seneste ti-år. Koncentrationen steg kraftigt efter midten af 1980‘erne, men i de sidste 10-15 år er udviklingen i et vist omfang stagneret eller endog vendt, og koncentrationen har været faldende. En evt. fusion mellem Danish Crown...... og Tican vil sandsynligvis ikke opveje dette fald i koncentration. De historiske erfaringer fra sektoren viser endvidere, at virksomheder efter en fusion ofte taber markedsandele. Markedet for svinekød er blevet langt mere internationaliseret i de senere år, og dette alene vil øge konkurrencen....

  11. Den danske ROSE-undersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Annemarie Møller; Allerup, Peter; Arnvig, Birgitte;

    ROSE (Relevance of Science Education) er en international komparativ undersøgelse af 15-åriges holdninger til og interesse for naturfagsundervisning, naturvidenskab og teknologi med deltagelse af ca. 40. lande. Dataindsamlingen til den danske del af ROSE-undersøgelsen blev gennemført i 2003....... Antologien giver et overblik over  og forskellige perspektiver på de danske 15-åriges besvarelser af de ca. 280 spørgsmål i det danske ROSE-skema....

  12. Fotogrammetrien efter den 20. ISPRS kongres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Fotogrammetrien har udviklet sig meget i de seneste år og er nu fuldstændig digital fra optagelse til fremstilling af produkter som ortofotos, topografiske databaser og fotorealistiske by- og landskabsmodeller. Dette faktum blev tydeligt ved den seneste internationale kongres for fotogrammetri og...... telemåling, men også ved nye investeringer hos danske kortlægningsinstitutioner. Disse innovationer beskrives. Der fokuseres på kortlægningsopgaver med flybilleder, men nye sensorer og nye metoder ved terrestrisk fotogrammetri og satellitbaseret fotogrammetri og telemåling behandles også. Med det nye udstyr...

  13. Den teoretiske udvikling af Supply Chain Strategimodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvad Johansen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    segmentering via postponement-princippet, har givet mærkbare forbedringer. Det beskrives endvidere, hvordan produkternes livscyklus påvirker valget af supply chain design. Begrebet Demand Chain Management( DCM), hvormed strategimodeller bruger klassiske marketingelementer sammen med Supply Chain Management......Denne artikel beskriver med udgangspunkt i artikler og virksomhedseksempler udviklingen inde for supply chain strategimodeller. Ved hjælp af tidligere udviklede koncepter besvares spørgsmålet: “Hvad er den rette supply chain for mine produkter?”. Virksomhedseksempler beskriver, hvordan supply chain...... (SCM), bliver behandlet og der udvikles en DCM-strategimodel....

  14. Black-footed ferrets and recreational shooting influence the attributes of black-tailed prairie dog burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Ramakrishnan, Shantini; Goldberg, Amanda R.; Eads, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) plug burrows occupied by black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), and they also plug burrows to entomb dead prairie dogs. We further evaluated these phenomena by sampling connectivity and plugging of burrow openings on prairie dog colonies occupied by ferrets, colonies where recreational shooting was allowed, and colonies with neither shooting nor ferrets. We counted burrow openings on line surveys and within plots, classified surface plugging, and used an air blower to examine subsurface connectivity. Colonies with ferrets had lower densities of openings, fewer connected openings (suggesting increased subsurface plugging), and more surface plugs compared to colonies with no known ferrets. Colonies with recreational shooting had the lowest densities of burrow openings, and line-survey data suggested colonies with shooting had intermediate rates of surface plugging. The extent of surface and subsurface plugging could have consequences for the prairie dog community by changing air circulation and escape routes of burrow systems and by altering energetic relationships. Burrow plugging might reduce prairie dogs' risk of predation by ferrets while increasing risk of predation by American badgers (Taxidea taxus); however, the complexity of the trade-off is increased if plugging increases the risk of predation on ferrets by badgers. Prairie dogs expend more energy plugging and digging when ferrets or shooting are present, and ferrets increase their energy expenditures when they dig to remove those plugs. Microclimatic differences in plugged burrow systems may play a role in flea ecology and persistence of the flea-borne bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis).

  15. Impaired burrowing is the most prominent behavioral deficit of aging htau mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiszler, Philippine Camilla; Barron, Matthew Richard; Pardon, Marie-Christine

    2016-08-01

    htau mice are deficient of murine tau but express all six human tau isoforms, leading to gradual tau misprocessing and aggregation in brain areas relevant to Alzheimer's disease. While histopathological changes in htau mice have been researched in the past, we focused here on functional consequences of human tau accumulation. htau mice and their background controls - murine tau knock-out (mtau(-/-)) and C57Bl/6J mice - underwent a comprehensive trial battery to investigate species-specific behavior, locomotor activity, emotional responses, exploratory traits, spatial and recognition memory as well as acquisition, retention and extinction of contextual fear at two, four, six, nine and twelve months of age. In htau mice, tau pathology was already present at two months of age, whereas deficits in food burrowing and spatial working memory were first noted at four months of age. At later stages the presence of human tau on a mtau(-/-) background appeared to guard cognitive performance; as mtau(-/-) but not htau mice differed from C57Bl/6J mice in the food burrowing, spontaneous alternation and object discrimination tasks. Aging mtau(-/-) mice also exhibited increased body mass and locomotor activity. These data highlight that reduced food-burrowing performance was the most robust aspect of the htau phenotype with aging. htau and mtau(-/-) deficits in food burrowing pointed at the necessity of intact tau systems for daily life activities. While some htau and mtau(-/-) deficits overlap, age differences between the two genotypes may reflect distinct functional effects and compared to C57Bl/6J mice, the htau phenotype appeared stronger than the mtau(-/-) phenotype at young ages but milder with aging. PMID:27167086

  16. Razor clam to RoboClam: burrowing drag reduction mechanisms and their robotic adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 cm. By measuring soil deformations around burrowing E. directus, we have found the animal reduces drag by contracting its valves to initially fail, and then fluidize, the surrounding substrate. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be calculated directly from soil properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by two commonly-measured geotechnical parameters: coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle. Calculations using full ranges for both parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1–5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate—characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity—scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For E. directus, this translates to a 10X reduction in the energy required to reach observed burrow depths. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat. (paper)

  17. Effects of pocket gopher burrowing on cesium-133 distribution on engineered test plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very low levels of radionuclides exist on soil surfaces. Biological factors including vegetation and animal burrowing can influence the fate of these surface contaminants. Animal burrowing introduces variability in radionuclide migration that confounds estimation of nuclide migration pathways, risk assessment, and assessment of waste burial performance. A field study on the surface and subsurface erosional transport of surface-applied 133Cs as affected by pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) burrowing was conducted on simulated waste landfill caps at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in north central New Mexico. Surface loss of Cs, adhered to five soil particle size ranges, was measured several times over an 18-mo period while simulated rainfalls were in progress. Gophers reduced Cs surface loss by significant amounts, 43%. Cesium surface loss on plots with only gophers was 0.8 kg totalled for the study period. This compared with 1.4 kg for control plots, 0.5 kg for vegetated plots, and 0.2 kg for plots with both gophers and vegetation. The change in Cs surface loss over time was significant (P -1). Vegetation-bearing plots bad significant more total subsurface Cs (μ = 1.7 g kg-1) than plots without vegetation (μ = 0.8 g kg-1). An average of 97% of the subsurface Cs in plots with vegetation was located in the upper 15 cm of soil (SDR1 + SDR2) compared with 67% for plots without vegetation. Vegetation moderated the influence of gopher activity on the transport of Cs to soil subsurface, and stabilized subsurface Cs by concentrating it in the rhizosphere. Gopher activity may have caused Cs transport to depths below that sampled, 30 cm. The results provide distribution coefficients for models of contaminant migration where animal burrowing occurs. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Morphological and structural analysis of earthworm burrows A methodological approach by X-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbout, A.; Peres, G.; Cluzeau, D.

    2009-04-01

    Earthworms are known to have burrowing activities that affect soil physical properties, generating tubular macroporosity, galleries. These bioturbation, establishing channels of preferential flow in soil, have a major role in the flow of water through percolation process in the profile or diffusion to the soil matrix. Our study had the purpose to propose a new approach to understand the descriptive parameters of earthworm burrows (morphological parameters, structural parameters). 5 Different soil volumes are taken from the field. X-ray tomography has been used for studying the 3D soil architecture. This approach allows us to characterize several morphological parameters (total length, volume, pore surface …) and structural ones (wall gallery density) of galleries extracted from networks, through the X-ray tomography. The wall has been defined in 3 areas (Z1 Z2 and Z3) as concentric ROI cylinders (region of interest) of constant increasing diameters (5mm) around the burrows. A density was measured in these 3 areas and along the gallery, to describe the evolution of the density around the pore and along the gallery, for the 5 different modalities. A wide variability of density was observed along the gallery and from the central zone to the soil matrix: The densities in the 3 zones are significantly different one another, whatever the modality considered (Friedman, 0.05). The density of the wall in Z1 evolves according to the pore surface and diameter. The Spearman's rank correlation test allows us to say that the density in Z1 is significantly and negatively correlated to the diameter and the surface of the pore. Evolution of the density around the pore of the burrow: A growth is noticed in Z1, located between 3 and 8 mm from the center of the pore. Its densities growth from -750Hu to 1100Hu.

  19. Long-term population dynamics of a managed burrowing owl colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John H.; Korfanta, Nicole M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the population dynamics of a burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) colony at Mineta San Jose International Airport in San Jose, California, USA from 1990-2007. This colony was managed by using artificial burrows to reduce the occurrence of nesting owls along runways and within major airport improvement projects during the study period. We estimated annual reproduction in natural and artificial burrows and age-specific survival rates with mark-recapture techniques, and we estimated the relative contribution of these vital rates to population dynamics using a life table response experiment. The breeding colony showed 2 distinct periods of change: high population growth from 7 nesting pairs in 1991 to 40 pairs in 2002 and population decline to 17 pairs in 2007. Reproduction was highly variable: annual nesting success (pairs that raised =1 young) averaged 79% and ranged from 36% to 100%, whereas fecundity averaged 3.36 juveniles/pair and ranged from 1.43 juveniles/pair to 4.54 juveniles/pair. We estimated annual adult survival at 0.710 during the period of colony increase from 1996 to 2001 and 0.465 during decline from 2002 to 2007, but there was no change in annual survival of juveniles between the 2 time periods. Long-term population growth rate (lambda) estimated from average vital rates was lambdaa=1.072 with lambdai=1.288 during colony increase and lambdad=0.921 (DELTA lambda=0.368) during decline. A life table response experiment showed that change in adult survival rate during increasing and declining phases explained more than twice the variation in growth rate than other vital rates. Our findings suggest that management and conservation of declining burrowing owl populations should address factors that influence adult survival.

  20. Influence of vegetation on the nocturnal foraging behaviors and vertebrate prey capture by endangered Burrowing Owls

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Marsh; Troy I. Wellicome; Erin Bayne

    2014-01-01

    Restrictions in technology have limited past habitat selection studies for many species to the home-range level, as a finer-scale understanding was often not possible. Consequently, these studies may not identify the true mechanism driving habitat selection patterns, which may influence how such results are applied in conservation. We used GPS dataloggers with digital video recorders to identify foraging modes and locations in which endangered Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) captured prey...

  1. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Norell, Mark A; Erickson, Gregory M; Eberth, David A; Jia, Chengkai; Zhao, Qi

    2006-02-01

    The tyrannosauroid fossil record is mainly restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Laurasia, although some very fragmentary Jurassic specimens have been referred to this group. Here we report a new basal tyrannosauroid, Guanlong wucaii gen. et sp. nov., from the lower Upper Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. G. wucaii is the oldest known tyrannosauroid and shows several unexpectedly primitive pelvic features. Nevertheless, the limbs of G. wucaii share several features with derived coelurosaurs, and it possesses features shared by other coelurosaurian clades. This unusual combination of character states provides an insight into the poorly known early radiation of the Coelurosauria. Notably, the presumed predatory Guanlong has a large, fragile and highly pneumatic cranial crest that is among the most elaborate known in any non-avian dinosaur and could be comparable to some classical exaggerated ornamental traits among vertebrates.

  2. Complex dental structure and wear biomechanics in hadrosaurid dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M; Krick, Brandon A; Hamilton, Matthew; Bourne, Gerald R; Norell, Mark A; Lilleodden, Erica; Sawyer, W Gregory

    2012-10-01

    Mammalian grinding dentitions are composed of four major tissues that wear differentially, creating coarse surfaces for pulverizing tough plants and liberating nutrients. Although such dentition evolved repeatedly in mammals (such as horses, bison, and elephants), a similar innovation occurred much earlier (~85 million years ago) within the duck-billed dinosaur group Hadrosauridae, fueling their 35-million-year occupation of Laurasian megaherbivorous niches. How this complexity was achieved is unknown, as reptilian teeth are generally two-tissue structures presumably lacking biomechanical attributes for grinding. Here we show that hadrosaurids broke from the primitive reptilian archetype and evolved a six-tissue dental composition that is among the most sophisticated known. Three-dimensional wear models incorporating fossilized wear properties reveal how these tissues interacted for grinding and ecological specialization. PMID:23042891

  3. Lasst den Kühen ihre Hörner!

    OpenAIRE

    Spranger, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren gab es in der Milchviehhaltung eine Entwicklung zum Bau von tiergerechteren Freilaufställen, in denen sich die Kühe im Gegensatz zum Anbindestall frei bewegen können. Jedoch ist diese Entwicklung auch ein Grund dafür, dass man vermehrt den jungen Tieren die Hornansätze und manchmal sogar den Kühen die Hörner mit einem schmerzhaften Eingriff entfernt.

  4. Den keynesianske revolusjonen 70 år etter: Et tilbakeblikk

    OpenAIRE

    Steigum, Erling

    2006-01-01

    For 70 år siden publiserte John Maynard Keynes boken The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, en bok som ble oppstarten til den keynesianske revolusjon i den økonomiske vitenskap og fødselen til makroøkonomi som et nytt og viktig emne for samfunnsøkonomisk forskning og undervisning. Denne artikkelen gir en vurdering av hva som har skjedd med idéene til Keynes under og etter den keynesianske revolusjonen.

  5. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Hutchinson, John R.; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I.; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A.; Allen, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic-Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous.

  6. Project Spaceguard: Will humankind go the way of the dinosaurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, D.

    1997-01-01

    It is an unfortunate fact that the Earth is struck by a massive asteroid or comet from time to time, wreaking havoc on its inhabitants. Astronomical observations indicate that an object at least a kilometre in size strikes our planet about once every 100,000 years, with an explosive power equivalent to about ten million times that of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. The recognition and counting of large impact craters on the Earth and the Moon leads to a derived impact rate in agreement with the above. Theoretical studies of the effect of such large explosions indicate that such an event would lead to a global climatic catastrophe which would cause the death of a large fraction of humankind. Such studies have been validated by our observations of the aftermath of the impacts on Jupiter in 1994, in which small cometary fragments caused damage spread over four times the area of the Earth. It is now well-established that the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago was caused by a massive impact, and there have been many minor and major asteroid and comet impacts since then. While such a calamitous event seems unlikely, the consequences are so enormous that it is a possibility that must be taken seriously; bizarre as it may seem, it is a fact that it is more likely that your gravestone will say that you died due to an asteroid impact than that you died in a jetliner crash. Recognizing the above situation from multi-disciplinary research carried out over the past decade or so, scientists are now urging that the governments of the world group cooperate so that we may determine whether there is some asteroid or comet which is due to strike the Earth within the next century or so: this surveillance programme is called Spaceguard. Unlike the dinosaurs, we are smart enough to spot our potential nemesis coming, and then to shove it out of the way.

  7. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T; Mannion, Philip D; Falkingham, Peter L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Hutchinson, John R; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A; Allen, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic-Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:27069652

  8. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  9. Distribution of the Chuckwalla, Western Burrowing Owl, and Six Bat Species on the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Willis

    1997-05-01

    Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.

  10. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  11. Burrowing, byssus, and biomarkers: behavioral and physiological indicators of sublethal thermal stress in freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Jennifer M.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has elucidated the acute lethal effects of elevated water temperatures to glochidia (larvae), juvenile, and adult life stages of freshwater mussels (Order Unionida), but few studies have focused on sublethal effects of thermal stress. We evaluated the sublethal effects of elevated temperature on burrowing behavior and byssus production in juveniles, and on enzymatic biomarkers of stress in adults in acute (96 h) laboratory experiments in sediment, with two acclimation temperatures (22 and 27 °C) and two experimental water levels (watered and dewatered) as proxies for flow regime. Increasing temperature significantly reduced burrowing in all five species tested, and the dewatered treatment (a proxy for drought conditions) reduced burrowing in all but Amblema plicata. Production of byssal threads was affected most drastically by flow regime, with the probability of byssus presence reduced by 93–99% in the dewatered treatment, compared to the watered treatment (a proxy for low flow conditions); increasing temperature alone reduced byssus by 18–35%. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly affected by treatment temperature in the 27 °C acclimation, watered test (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Our results are important in the context of climate change, because stream temperature and flow are expected to change with increasing air temperature and altered precipitation patterns.

  12. Multiple evolutionary origins of Australian soil-burrowing cockroaches driven by climate change in the Neogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan; Tong, K Jun; Rose, Harley A; Ho, Simon Y W; Beninati, Tiziana; Low, David L T; Matsumoto, Tadao; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-24

    Parallel evolution is the independent appearance of similar derived phenotypes from similar ancestral forms. It is of key importance in the debate over whether evolution is stochastic and unpredictable, or subject to constraints that limit available phenotypic options. Nevertheless, its occurrence has rarely been demonstrated above the species level. Climate change on the Australian landmass over the last approximately 20 Myr has provided conditions conducive to parallel evolution, as taxa at the edges of shrinking mesic habitats adapted to drier biomes. Here, we investigate the phylogeny and evolution of Australian soil-burrowing and wood-feeding blaberid cockroaches. Soil burrowers (subfamily Geoscapheinae) are found in relatively dry sclerophyllous and scrubland habits, whereas wood feeders (subfamily Panesthiinae) are found in rainforest and wet sclerophyll. We sequenced and analysed mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 142 specimens, and estimated the evolutionary time scale of the two subfamilies. We found evidence for the parallel evolution of soil-burrowing taxa from wood-feeding ancestors on up to nine occasions. These transitions appear to have been driven by periods of aridification during the Miocene and Pliocene across eastern Australia. Our results provide an illuminating example of climate-driven parallel evolution among species. PMID:26888035

  13. Characteristics of roost sites used by burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) wintering in Southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, D.L.; Woodin, M.C.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Hickman, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) is threatened in Mexico, endangered in Canada, and declining in most of the western United States. Most previous research has focused on burrowing owl breeding biology, and little is known about its winter ecology. We determined characteristics of roost sites used by western burrowing owls in southern Texas during winter. Data on 46 winter roost sites were collected from 15 November 2001 to 15 February 2002. Of these roost sites, 87% were located on agricultural land, 80% were along roads, and 74% were concrete, steel, or cast-iron culverts. Mean diameter (??SE) of roost site openings was 22 ?? 1.5 cm. Most roost sites (70%) were located on inaccessible private lands. Bare ground comprised 61% of ground cover within a 10-m radius of roost sites. We recommend that landowners and public-land managers should be encouraged to use smaller-diameter culverts when building roads or replacing old or damaged culverts and to graze livestock or mow around these culverts during winter.

  14. Konservatismen og den højreradikale terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Den norske højreekstremist Anders Behring Breiviks terror mod det norske samfund har herhjemme ledt til en voldsom debat om blandt andet forbindelsen mellem tonen i debatten og terrorangrebet og forholdet mellem den siden 2001 meget omtalte kulturkonservatisme og Anders Breiviks terrorhandling....... Essayet Konservatismen og den højreradikale terror forsøger dels at skabe klarhed over fronterne i debatten, dels at rette en kritik mod såvel tendensen til at afskrive handlingen som uforståelig som af tendensen til at slå den bredere højrefløjs kritik af multikulturalismen i hartkorn med Breiviks...

  15. Mozart, Karl Barth, og den kristne troslæren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    En diskussion af Karl Barths teologiske brug af W.A.Mozart i den kirchliche Dogmatik med kontekstuel inddragelse af en til en vis grad tilsvarende overordnet diskussion af Mozart, skrevet af en samtidig musiker, den fremtrædende Mozart-dirigent Ferenc Fricsay. ......En diskussion af Karl Barths teologiske brug af W.A.Mozart i den kirchliche Dogmatik med kontekstuel inddragelse af en til en vis grad tilsvarende overordnet diskussion af Mozart, skrevet af en samtidig musiker, den fremtrædende Mozart-dirigent Ferenc Fricsay. ...

  16. Vidensledelse og den sociale dimension i deling af viden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    gør vidensbegrebet interessant i forhold til ledelse af virksomheder. - Fokus på de sociale barrierer for deling af viden Jeg vil i det kommende illustrere, hvilke betydninger den sociale dimension i deling af viden kan have for videnledelse. Det vil jeg gøre gennem beskrivelser af to forskellige...... sociale barrierer for vidensdeling - den afgrænsende og den begrænsende. Der bliver ofte ikke taget hensyn til disse barrierer i systemer for videnledelse. I stedet antages det, at den sociale interaktion fungerer tilfredsstillende. Alligevel kan de have en meget stor betydning for vidensintensive...

  17. Immer auf den ersten Rängen : Leibniz-Preis für den Frankfurter Volkswirtschaftler Roman Inderst

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Wenn es um Superlative geht, dann steht der 40-jährige Prof. Roman Inderst immer ganz oben auf dem Treppchen: jung und schon auf den ersten Rängen unter den Top Ten der europäischen Wirtschaftswissenschaftler. Und am 15. März wurde er auch noch als jüngster unter den zehn Preisträgern mit dem wichtigsten deutschen Forschungspreis, dem mit 2,5 Millionen Euro dotierten Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Preis 2010, ausgezeichnet.

  18. Geochemical environmental changes and dinosaur extinction during the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/T) transition in the Nanxiong Basin, South China: Evidence from dinosaur eggshells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ZiKui; MAO XueYing; CHAI ZhiFang; YANG GaoChuang; ZHANG FuCheng; YAN Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The complex patterns of trace elements including Ir and isotope distributions in the three K/T sections of the Nanxiong Basin prove the existence of two environmental events in the latest Cretaceous and earliest Paleocene. The first geochemical environmental event occurred at about 2 Ma prior to the K/T boundary interval, where the dinosaur diversity was hardly reduced, except that a number of patho-logical eggshells appeared. The second one was larger and occurred just at and near the Creta-ceous-Paleogene (K/T) boundary. The extinction of the dinosaurs spread out within 250 ka with major extinction beginning at the boundary interval. This is even later than their extinction in Montana, North America and in India. The cause of the dinosaur extinction may be the result of a complex multiple events brought about by the coincidence of global environment change marked by multiple Ir and δ18O anomalies, and environmental poisoning characterized by other trace elements derived from the local source. Successive short-and long-term conditions of geochemically induced environmental stress negatively affected the reproductive process and thus contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

  19. Fastighetsbolag och deras kassaflöden

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alexander; Magnusson, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Nivå: C-uppsats inom företagsekonomi   Datum: Juni, 2015   Författare: Johan Magnusson och Alexander Smith   Handledare: Hans Lindkvist   Titel: Fastighetsbolag och deras kassaflöden.   Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om vi kan utläsa de fria kassaflödena hos fastighetsbolagen samt försöka skapa en bild över hur fastighetsbolagens årsredovisningar skiljer sig åt rörande benämningen och redovisningen av kostnader.   Metod: Som källor till vår empiriska undersökning använde vi ...

  20. Tegnets tid. Fortid, historie og historicitet efter den sproglige vending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    historieskrivningens sandhedsfordring. Her ud fra forskydes det snævre fokus på tegn, tekst og diskurs i den aktuelle historieteoretiske debat til spørgsmål om tid og “radikal historicitet”. Der indhentes eksempler fra nyere kulturhistorisk forskning, især fra den amerikanske New Historicism....

  1. Empirisme, rationalisme og den moralske følelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2003-01-01

    Sammenlignende diskussion af David Humes og Immanuel Kants syn på følelsernes rolle for den moralske dom......Sammenlignende diskussion af David Humes og Immanuel Kants syn på følelsernes rolle for den moralske dom...

  2. Vildsvin uønsket i den danske natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Brasch; Bald, Caroline; Uttenthal, Åse

    2011-01-01

    Vildsvin ønskes fortsat ikke etableret i den danske natur, da de udgør en smitterisiko for husdyr og mennesker. det er helt essentielt for bekæmpelsen, at lodsejere og jægere deltager aktivt. de skal lokalisere de vildsvin, der allerede findes i den danske natur, og nedlægge dem....

  3. Den alimentære kode - Centralbrasilien, Israel, Helvede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2006-01-01

    Den alimentære kode som centralt antropologisk emne hos Claude Lévi-Strauss og i gammeltestamentlig og senere kristen mytologi......Den alimentære kode som centralt antropologisk emne hos Claude Lévi-Strauss og i gammeltestamentlig og senere kristen mytologi...

  4. Mephisto vor den Richtern – Mephisto before the judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnikow Marie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mephisto before the judges: The Mephisto trials – how the reader was discovered, and then denied any decision‐making capacity Mephisto vor den Richtern – Von der Entdeckung zur Entmündigung des Lesers in den Mephisto‐Prozessen

  5. Samarbejdets betydning i den ’klassiske udlicitering’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2015-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har ’samarbejde’ i kontraktstyringen mellem offentlige myndigheder og private entreprenører inden for de ’klassiske’ udbudsområder? I både den administrative praksis og den politologiske litteratur betragtes en effektiv anvendelse af udlicitering på de klassiske udbudsområder of...

  6. Synteserapport & 1. Indenrigspolitiske forhold i Den Islamiske Republik Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik......Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik...

  7. Margaret Thatcher og afslutningen på Den Kolde Krig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevaldsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Gennemgang af den britiske premierminister (1979-1990) Margaret Thatchers rolle i forbindelse med Murens fald i 1989. Med dansk perspektiv.......Gennemgang af den britiske premierminister (1979-1990) Margaret Thatchers rolle i forbindelse med Murens fald i 1989. Med dansk perspektiv....

  8. Mobilarekin komunikatzen den eskumuturreko erlojuaren disinua eta prototipo baten garapena

    OpenAIRE

    González Bujedo, Asier

    2015-01-01

    GAL honen helburu nagusia Android sistema eragilea daukan telefono mugikor batekin komunikatzen den eskumuturreko erloju baten diseinua eta prototipo baten garapena burutzea da. Prototipoa arduino plataforma irekia erabiliz gauzatuko da. Prototipoak, garatuko den Android aplikazioaren informazioa jaso eta hau bistaratzeko ahalmena izan beharko du.

  9. Do brooding and polygamy behaviors exist on Cretaceous oviraptoroid dinosaurs of China: a paleobiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.-R.; Cheng, Y.-N.; Yang, K.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Brooding, parental care, and polygamy represent three different stages in bird's reproduction. The oringin of these behaviors is still in debate. Several samples excavated from China strengthen the phylogenetic relationship between birds and dinosaurs, for example, feathered dinosaurs, paired-eggs in pelvic region of an oviraptorid dinosaur, and small theropod fossils. Previous studies in past two decades, including an oviraptor sitting on a clutch and comparison of the ratio of clutch-volume to adult-body-size between Aves and Mesozoic dinosaurs, proposed that these behaviors had appeared on some Cretaceous theropods (e.g., oviraptor and troodon). These researches also indicate the possibility of endothermy and male care first. In conclusion, this reproduction strategy might support females having more remnant energy to build a larger clutch contributed eggs from multiple females, and brooded by males only. From our cluster analysis through paleoecological perspectives, the eggs in Cretaceous oviraptor's nest should not be corporately laid by multiple females. In morphological observation, the fossilized clutches from Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Mainland China, are 2-layered interbeded with matrix of reddish-brown siltstone or clays. The inner-layer eggs are hampered from directly contacting with adult dinosaurs body. Furthermore, the blunt ends of the eggs point to the center, and incline away forming a mound-shape nest, which is completely different from those of precocial and male-caring megapode. The ornamentation of eggshell surface and microstructures from thin sections of eggs from oviraptors and ostrich (Struthioniformes) are totally different. Comparison of thickness in different part of oviraptor's egg also reveal possible physiological structure in the egg and ecological behaviors. The detailed comparison implies that the Mesozoic oviraptoroid dinosaurs hold absolutely different incubation and caring behaviors from extant birds. We propose an alternative

  10. Dental microwear reveals mammal-like chewing in the neoceratopsian dinosaur Leptoceratops gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriale, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Extensive oral processing of food through dental occlusion and orbital mandibular movement is often cited as a uniquely mammalian trait that contributed to their evolutionary success. Save for mandibular translation, these adaptations are not seen in extant archosaurs or lepidosaurs. In contrast, some ornithischian dinosaurs show evidence of precise dental occlusion, habitual intraoral trituration and complex jaw motion. To date, however, a robust understanding of the diversity of jaw mechanics within non-avian dinosaurs, and its comparison with other vertebrates, remains unrealized. Large dental batteries, well-developed dental wear facets, and robust jaws suggests that neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs were capable chewers. But, biomechanical analyses have assumed a relatively simple, scissor-like (orthal) jaw mechanism for these animals. New analyses of dental microwear, presented here, show curvilinear striations on the teeth of Leptoceratops. These features indicate a rostral to caudal orbital motion of the mandible during chewing. A rostrocaudal mandibular orbit is seen in multituberculates, haramiyid allotherians, and some rodents, and its identification in Leptoceratops gracilis is the first evidence of complex, mammal-like chewing in a ceratopsian dinosaur. The term circumpalinal is here proposed to distinguish this new style of chewing from other models of ceratopsian mastication that also involve a palinal component. This previously unrecognized complexity in dinosaurian jaw mechanics indicates that some neoceratopsian dinosaurs achieved a mammalian level of masticatory efficiency through novel adaptive solutions.

  11. Bringing dinosaurs back to life: exhibiting prehistory at the American Museum of Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, Lukas

    2012-09-01

    This essay examines the exhibition of dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Dinosaurs provide an especially illuminating lens through which to view the history of museum display practices for two reasons: they made for remarkably spectacular exhibits; and they rested on contested theories about the anatomy, life history, and behavior of long-extinct animals to which curators had no direct observational access. The American Museum sought to capitalize on the popularity of dinosaurs while mitigating the risks of mounting an overtly speculative display by fashioning them into a kind of mixed-media installation made of several elements, including fossilized bone, shellac, iron, and plaster. The resulting sculptures provided visitors with a vivid and lifelike imaginative experience. At the same time, curators, who were anxious to downplay the speculative nature of mounted dinosaurs, drew systematic attention to the material connection that tied individual pieces of fossilized bone to the actual past. Freestanding dinosaurs can therefore be read to have functioned as iconic sculptures that self-consciously advertised their indexical content.

  12. Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Steen

    2003-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)......Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)...

  13. Review: Grigoleit, Grit: Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA (2008) Buchbesprechung: Grigoleit, Grit: Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Bernd Zöllner

    2009-01-01

    Review of the monograph: Grigoleit, Grit (2008), Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA, Passau: Verlag Karl Stutz, ISBN 978-3-88849-183-2, 250 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Grigoleit, Grit (2008), Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA, Passau: Verlag Karl Stutz, ISBN 978-3-88849-183-2, 250 Seiten

  14. Review: Grigoleit, Grit: Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA (2008 Buchbesprechung: Grigoleit, Grit: Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Bernd Zöllner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Grigoleit, Grit (2008, Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA, Passau: Verlag Karl Stutz, ISBN 978-3-88849-183-2, 250 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Grigoleit, Grit (2008, Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA, Passau: Verlag Karl Stutz, ISBN 978-3-88849-183-2, 250 Seiten

  15. Kosmetisk kirurgi og den transformérbare krop -en analyse af den amerikanske tv-serie Nip/Tuck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerslev, Anne

    2009-01-01

    En analyse af krops- og kønsiscenesættelser i den amerikanske tv-serie om kosmetisk kirurgi Nip/Tuck......En analyse af krops- og kønsiscenesættelser i den amerikanske tv-serie om kosmetisk kirurgi Nip/Tuck...

  16. Religionsvetenskapen i övergången från den första till den andra moderniteten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlin, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Den tyske sociolog Ulrich Beck er optaget af overgangen fra den første til den anden modernitet. Han argumenterer for at denne overgang fører til at sociologiske kategorier som klasse og familie bliver zombie-kategorier. Det er kategorier skabt under den første modernitet men som stadigvæk er i...... brug i dag under den anden modernitet, til trods for at de er levende døde kategorier. I denne artikel argumenters for at kategorier, begreber, brugt inden for religionsvidenskaben, primært religionssociologien, også kan betragtes som zombie-kategorier. De begreber der diskuteres er religiøse...

  17. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826

  18. Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Dinosaur evolution. Sustained miniaturization and anatomical innovation in the dinosaurian ancestors of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S Y; Cau, Andrea; Naish, Darren; Dyke, Gareth J

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries have highlighted the dramatic evolutionary transformation of massive, ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs into light, volant birds. Here, we apply Bayesian approaches (originally developed for inferring geographic spread and rates of molecular evolution in viruses) in a different context: to infer size changes and rates of anatomical innovation (across up to 1549 skeletal characters) in fossils. These approaches identify two drivers underlying the dinosaur-bird transition. The theropod lineage directly ancestral to birds undergoes sustained miniaturization across 50 million years and at least 12 consecutive branches (internodes) and evolves skeletal adaptations four times faster than other dinosaurs. The distinct, prolonged phase of miniaturization along the bird stem would have facilitated the evolution of many novelties associated with small body size, such as reorientation of body mass, increased aerial ability, and paedomorphic skulls with reduced snouts but enlarged eyes and brains.

  20. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Phillip L; Egerton, Victoria M; Romano, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire), UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  1. A new long-necked 'sauropod-mimic' stegosaur and the evolution of the plated dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Octávio; Maidment, Susannah C R; Christiansen, Nicolai A

    2009-05-22

    Stegosaurian dinosaurs have a quadrupedal stance, short forelimbs, short necks, and are generally considered to be low browsers. A new stegosaur, Miragaia longicollum gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Jurassic of Portugal, has a neck comprising at least 17 cervical vertebrae. This is eight additional cervical vertebrae when compared with the ancestral condition seen in basal ornithischians such as Scutellosaurus. Miragaia has a higher cervical count than most of the iconically long-necked sauropod dinosaurs. Long neck length has been achieved by 'cervicalization' of anterior dorsal vertebrae and probable lengthening of centra. All these anatomical features are evolutionarily convergent with those exhibited in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs. Miragaia longicollum is based upon a partial articulated skeleton, and includes the only known cranial remains from any European stegosaur. A well-resolved phylogeny supports a new clade that unites Miragaia and Dacentrurus as the sister group to Stegosaurus; this new topology challenges the common view of Dacentrurus as a basal stegosaur.

  2. A New Theropod Dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Lufeng, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-chun; Philip J.CURRIE; DONG Zhiming; PAN Shigang; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    A new theropod dinosaur,Shidaisaurusjinae gen.et sp.nov.,has been described on the basis of an incomplete skeleton.The specimen was found near the base of the Upper Lufeng Formation(early Middle Jurassic)in Yunnan,China.It is the first theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Yunnan.Shidaisaurus jinae is distinguishable from other Jurassic theropods by certain features from the braincase,axis,and pelvic girdle.The absence of any pleurocoels in the axis or in any anterior dorsal vertebrae suggests that the new Lufeng theropod is relatively primitive and more plesiomorphic than most of the Middle to Late Jurassic theropods from China.Most Chinese taxa of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs have not been well described;a further detailed study will be necessary for us to determine their phylogenetic relationships with Shidaisaurus jinae.

  3. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip L Manning

    Full Text Available A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire, UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  4. Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

    2012-11-01

    Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

  5. The importance of burrowing, climbing and standing upright for laboratory rats

    OpenAIRE

    Makowska, I. Joanna; Daniel M. Weary

    2016-01-01

    Standard laboratory cages prevent rats (Rattus norvegicus) from performing many behaviours that they perform in the wild, but little is known about how this may affect their welfare. The aims of this study were (i) to record the propensity to burrow, climb and stand upright in 3-, 8- and 13-month old laboratory rats housed in semi-naturalistic environments and (ii) to compare the frequency of lateral stretching in semi-naturalistic versus standard-housed rats; we predicted standard-housed rat...

  6. Tegn og iagttagelse. At læse Erslev efter den sproglige vending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2001-01-01

    Historie, Historieteori, Historisk metode, Klassisk kildekritik, New Historicism, Den sproglige vending......Historie, Historieteori, Historisk metode, Klassisk kildekritik, New Historicism, Den sproglige vending...

  7. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  8. New developmental evidence clarifies the evolution of wrist bones in the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Francisco; Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-León, Daniel; Salinas-Saavedra, Miguel; Ruiz-Flores, Macarena; Vargas, Alexander O

    2014-09-01

    From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal-anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal-anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur-bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2). The distal-posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as "element x," but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal-posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal-posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological data illuminate

  9. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S Seymour

    Full Text Available Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  10. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John P.; Woodruff, D. Cary; Gardner, Jacob D.; Flora, Holley M.; Horner, John R.; Organ, Chris L.

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not. PMID:27442509

  11. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John P; Woodruff, D Cary; Gardner, Jacob D; Flora, Holley M; Horner, John R; Organ, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  12. Estimating impact forces of tail club strikes by ankylosaurid dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Megan Arbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100 degrees laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both.

  13. Reanalysis of "Raptorex kriegsteini": a juvenile tyrannosaurid dinosaur from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Denver W; Woodward, Holly N; Freedman, Elizabeth A; Larson, Peter L; Horner, John R

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its actual phylogenetic position. These findings are consistent with the original sale description of LH PV18 as a juvenile Tarbosaurus from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Consequently, we suggest that there is currently no evidence to support the conclusion that tyrannosaurid skeletal design first evolved in the Early Cretaceous at small body size.

  14. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L.; Carr, Thomas D.

    2016-02-01

    Tyrannosauroids—the group of carnivores including Tyrannosaurs rex—are some of the most familiar dinosaurs of all. A surge of recent discoveries has helped clarify some aspects of their evolution, but competing phylogenetic hypotheses raise questions about their relationships, biogeography, and fossil record quality. We present a new phylogenetic dataset, which merges published datasets and incorporates recently discovered taxa. We analyze it with parsimony and, for the first time for a tyrannosauroid dataset, Bayesian techniques. The parsimony and Bayesian results are highly congruent, and provide a framework for interpreting the biogeography and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroids. Our phylogenies illustrate that the body plan of the colossal species evolved piecemeal, imply no clear division between northern and southern species in western North America as had been argued, and suggest that T. rex may have been an Asian migrant to North America. Over-reliance on cranial shape characters may explain why published parsimony studies have diverged and filling three major gaps in the fossil record holds the most promise for future work.

  15. Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting key ecological parameters, such as diet, of extinct organisms without the benefit of direct observation or explicit fossil evidence poses a formidable challenge for paleobiological studies. To date, dietary categorizations of extinct taxa are largely generated by means of modern analogs; however, for many species the method is subject to considerable ambiguity. Here we present a refined approach for assessing trophic habits in fossil taxa and apply the method to coelurosaurian dinosaurs--a clade for which diet is particularly controversial. Our findings detect 21 morphological features that exhibit statistically significant correlations with extrinsic fossil evidence of coelurosaurian herbivory, such as stomach contents and a gastric mill. These traits represent quantitative, extrinsically founded proxies for identifying herbivorous ecomorphology in fossils and are robust despite uncertainty in phylogenetic relationships among major coelurosaurian subclades. The distribution of these features suggests that herbivory was widespread among coelurosaurians, with six major subclades displaying morphological evidence of the diet, and that contrary to previous thought, hypercarnivory was relatively rare and potentially secondarily derived. Given the potential for repeated, independent evolution of herbivory in Coelurosauria, we also test for repetitive patterns in the appearance of herbivorous traits within sublineages using rank concordance analysis. We find evidence for a common succession of increasing specialization to herbivory in the subclades Ornithomimosauria and Oviraptorosauria, perhaps underlain by intrinsic functional and/or developmental constraints, as well as evidence indicating that the early evolution of a beak in coelurosaurians correlates with an herbivorous diet. PMID:21173263

  16. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Brassey, Charlotte A; Button, David J; Barrett, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evolution, the acquisition of morphologically similar traits in unrelated taxa due to similar functional demands or environmental factors, is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Consequently, the occurrence of similar form is used routinely to address fundamental questions in morphofunctional research and to infer function in fossils. However, such qualitative assessments can be misleading and it is essential to test form/function relationships quantitatively. The parallel occurrence of a suite of morphologically convergent craniodental characteristics in three herbivorous, phylogenetically disparate dinosaur clades (Sauropodomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda) provides an ideal test case. A combination of computational biomechanical models (Finite Element Analysis, Multibody Dynamics Analysis) demonstrate that despite a high degree of morphological similarity between representative taxa (Plateosaurus engelhardti, Stegosaurus stenops, Erlikosaurus andrewsi) from these clades, their biomechanical behaviours are notably different and difficult to predict on the basis of form alone. These functional differences likely reflect dietary specialisations, demonstrating the value of quantitative biomechanical approaches when evaluating form/function relationships in extinct taxa. PMID:27199098

  17. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Brassey, Charlotte A.; Button, David J.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2016-05-01

    Convergent evolution, the acquisition of morphologically similar traits in unrelated taxa due to similar functional demands or environmental factors, is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Consequently, the occurrence of similar form is used routinely to address fundamental questions in morphofunctional research and to infer function in fossils. However, such qualitative assessments can be misleading and it is essential to test form/function relationships quantitatively. The parallel occurrence of a suite of morphologically convergent craniodental characteristics in three herbivorous, phylogenetically disparate dinosaur clades (Sauropodomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda) provides an ideal test case. A combination of computational biomechanical models (Finite Element Analysis, Multibody Dynamics Analysis) demonstrate that despite a high degree of morphological similarity between representative taxa (Plateosaurus engelhardti, Stegosaurus stenops, Erlikosaurus andrewsi) from these clades, their biomechanical behaviours are notably different and difficult to predict on the basis of form alone. These functional differences likely reflect dietary specialisations, demonstrating the value of quantitative biomechanical approaches when evaluating form/function relationships in extinct taxa.

  18. First diagnosis of septic arthritis in a dinosaur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anné, Jennifer; Hedrick, Brandon P.; Schein, Jason P.

    2016-08-01

    Identification and interpretation of pathologies in the fossil record allows for unique insights into the life histories of extinct organisms. However, the rarity of such finds limits not only the sample size for palaeopathologic studies, but also the types of analyses that may be performed. In this study, we present the first occurrence of a palaeopathology in a vertebrate from the Mesozoic of the East Coast of North America (Appalachia), a pathologic ulna and radius of an indeterminate hadrosaur from the Navesink Formation (New Jersey). X-ray microtomography allowed for both detailed and more accurate diagnosis of the pathologic condition as well as virtual conservation of the specimen. Based on extant archosaurian comparisons, the hadrosaur was diagnosed with severe septic arthritis affecting the proximal ulna and radius. Diagnosis was based on erosion of the joint and highly reactive periosteal bone growth and fusion of the elements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first recorded account of septic arthritis in dinosaurs. The severity of the pathology suggests the animal suffered with this condition for some time before death. Unfortunately, only the ulna and radius were found. Thus, the extent to which the condition spread to other parts of the body is unknown.

  19. A New Gigantic Sauropod Dinosaur with the Deepest Known Body Cavity from the Cretaceous of Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junchang; XU Li; ZHANG Xingliao; HU Weiyong; WU Yanhua; JIA Songhai; JI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    A new species of sauropod dinosaur Huanghetitan ruyangensis is erected based on the following characters: deepest body cavity with a dorsal rib reaching at least 2.93 m long, anterior caudal vertebrae with mushroom-shaped neural spines. Based on this new specimen of Huanghetitan found in the early Late Cretaceous Mangchuan Formation of Ruyang, Henan Province, the family Huanghetitanidae fam. nov. is proposed as a new rank to include only the genus Huanghetitan You et al.2006. At present, Huanghetitan includes two species: H. liujiaxiaensis You et al., 2006 and H.ruyangensis sp. nov. The systematic relationships of Huanghetitan among sauropod dinosaurs are briefly discussed.

  20. Embryos of an early Jurassic prosauropod dinosaur and their evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R; Scott, Diane; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Evans, David C; Raath, Michael A

    2005-07-29

    Articulated embryos from the Lower Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa are referable to the prosauropod Massospondylus carinatus and, together with other material, provide substantial insights into the ontogenetic development in this early dinosaur. The large forelimbs and head and the horizontally held neck indicate that the hatchlings were obligate quadrupeds. In contrast, adult Massospondylus were at least facultatively bipedal. This suggests that the quadrupedal gait of giant sauropods may have evolved by retardation of postnatal negative allometry of the forelimbs. Embryonic body proportions and an absence of well-developed teeth suggest that hatchlings of this dinosaur may have required parental care.

  1. Palynoflora of Wulaga dinosaur site in Jiayin (Zeya-Bureya Basin, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.S. Markevich; E.V. Bugdaeva; SUN Ge

    2009-01-01

    The palynological assemblage from Wulaga dinosaur site in Jiayin from southeastern Zeya-Bureya Basin was studied. The high content of pteridophytes spores is characteristic for this assemblage. The further characters are in decrease of abundance-tricolpate pollen, Ginkgocycadophytus, pollen of Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae (TCT), bisaccate pollen of Pinaceae, and triporate pollen. The bone-bearing burials of Wulaga dinosaur site formed under conditions of vast swampy river valley covered by ferns and taxodialeans. Tricolpate pollen, produced by plants, close to those of Platanaceae, Fagaceae, Betulaceae, and Juglandaceae, counts in favor of valley river open canopy forests.

  2. On a New Genus of Basal Neoceratopsian Dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Gansu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Auroraceratops rugosus, is reported based on material from the Early Cretaceous Xinminpu Group in the Gongpoquan Basin of Gansu Province, China. Auroraceratops is represented by a nearly complete skull and low jaws, and different greatly from all other neoceratopsians by its considerable breadth of the nasals, fungiform expansion of the dorsal end of the lacrimal, highly developed rugosity of the jugal, dentary and surangular, and inflated, striated premaxillary teeth. The finding of Auroraceratops adds diversity and helps elucidate the evolution of basal neoceratopsian dinosaurs.

  3. Dinosaur kinematics: A statistical analysis provides evidence of predation by theropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Dinosaur trackways provide interesting information about the locomotion of these extinct animals. A statistical analysis of the known trackways made by theropods (carnivorous dinosaurs) shows that they usually moved by walking with an average speed of 2.4 ± 1.5 m/s. Fast running, determined by the relative stride length greater than 3, is observed in about 10% of the trackways, with speeds on the order of 10 m/s. These trackways are believed to have been formed during predation.

  4. Estimating animal populations and body sizes from burrows: Marine ecologists have their heads buried in the sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Peterson, Charles H.; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Althaus, Franziska; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Maslo, Brooke; Gilby, Ben L.; Leon, Javier X.; Weston, Michael A.; Lastra, Mariano; Williams, Alan; Schoeman, David S.

    2016-06-01

    Most ecological studies require knowledge of animal abundance, but it can be challenging and destructive of habitat to obtain accurate density estimates for cryptic species, such as crustaceans that tunnel deeply into the seafloor, beaches, or mudflats. Such fossorial species are, however, widely used in environmental impact assessments, requiring sampling techniques that are reliable, efficient, and environmentally benign for these species and environments. Counting and measuring the entrances of burrows made by cryptic species is commonly employed to index population and body sizes of individuals. The fundamental premise is that burrow metrics consistently predict density and size. Here we review the evidence for this premise. We also review criteria for selecting among sampling methods: burrow counts, visual censuses, and physical collections. A simple 1:1 correspondence between the number of holes and population size cannot be assumed. Occupancy rates, indexed by the slope of regression models, vary widely between species and among sites for the same species. Thus, 'average' or 'typical' occupancy rates should not be extrapolated from site- or species specific field validations and then be used as conversion factors in other situations. Predictions of organism density made from burrow counts often have large uncertainty, being double to half of the predicted mean value. Whether such prediction uncertainty is 'acceptable' depends on investigators' judgements regarding the desired detectable effect sizes. Regression models predicting body size from burrow entrance dimensions are more precise, but parameter estimates of most models are specific to species and subject to site-to-site variation within species. These results emphasise the need to undertake thorough field validations of indirect census techniques that include tests of how sensitive predictive models are to changes in habitat conditions or human impacts. In addition, new technologies (e.g. drones

  5. Do leucocytes reflect condition in nestling burrowing parrots Cyanoliseus patagonus in the wild?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masello, Juan F; Choconi, R Gustavo; Helmer, Matthias; Kremberg, Thomas; Lubjuhn, Thomas; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2009-02-01

    The different leucocyte types are an important part of the immune system. Thus, they have been used in ecological studies to assess immune function and physiological stress in wild birds. It is generally assumed that increased stress and decreased condition are associated with an increase in the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes, the H/L ratio. We studied leucocyte profiles in relation to body condition in nestling Burrowing Parrots (Cyanoliseus patagonus) in North-eastern Patagonia, Argentina. As in other wild parrots, heterophils were the most numerous leucocyte type, suggesting strong investment into innate immunity. Leucocyte profiles did not change with the age, while nestlings in better body condition increased the number of heterophils. Because the number of lymphocytes was independent of body condition, as a result we observed a positive correlation between body condition and the H/L ratio. The total number of leucocytes relative to erythrocytes increased in nestlings in better body condition, indicating a larger overall investment into immune function in well-nourished nestlings. The observed heterophilic profiles of nestling Burrowing Parrots together with the positive relationship between H/L ratio and body condition may indicate a favoured investment in a robust innate immunity that reduces the risk of infection taking hold in these long-lived birds.

  6. Genetic adaptations of the plateau zokor in high-elevation burrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yong; Li, Jin-Xiu; Ge, Ri-Li; Zhong, Li; Irwin, David M; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) spends its entire life underground in sealed burrows. Confronting limited oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and complete darkness, they epitomize a successful physiological adaptation. Here, we employ transcriptome sequencing to explore the genetic underpinnings of their adaptations to this unique habitat. Compared to Rattus norvegicus, genes belonging to GO categories related to energy metabolism (e.g. mitochondrion and fatty acid beta-oxidation) underwent accelerated evolution in the plateau zokor. Furthermore, the numbers of positively selected genes were significantly enriched in the gene categories involved in ATPase activity, blood vessel development and respiratory gaseous exchange, functional categories that are relevant to adaptation to high altitudes. Among the 787 genes with evidence of parallel evolution, and thus identified as candidate genes, several GO categories (e.g. response to hypoxia, oxygen homeostasis and erythrocyte homeostasis) are significantly enriched, are two genes, EPAS1 and AJUBA, involved in the response to hypoxia, where the parallel evolved sites are at positions that are highly conserved in sequence alignments from multiple species. Thus, accelerated evolution of GO categories, positive selection and parallel evolution at the molecular level provide evidences to parse the genetic adaptations of the plateau zokor for living in high-elevation burrows. PMID:26602147

  7. Real estate ads in Emei music frog vocalizations: female preference for calls emanating from burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong; Narins, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    During female mate choice, both the male's phenotype and resources (e.g. his nest) contribute to the chooser's fitness. Animals other than humans are not known to advertise resource characteristics to potential mates through vocal communication; although in some species of anurans and birds, females do evaluate male qualities through vocal communication. Here, we demonstrate that calls of the male Emei music frog (Babina dauchina), vocalizing from male-built nests, reflect nest structure information that can be recognized by females. Inside-nest calls consisted of notes with energy concentrated at lower frequency ranges and longer note durations when compared with outside-nest calls. Centre frequencies and note durations of the inside calls positively correlate with the area of the burrow entrance and the depth of the burrow, respectively. When given a choice between outside and inside calls played back alternately, more than 70 per cent of the females (33/47) chose inside calls. These results demonstrate that males of this species faithfully advertise whether or not they possess a nest to potential mates by vocal communication, which probably facilitates optimal mate selection by females. These results revealed a novel function of advertisement calls, which is consistent with the wide variation in both call complexity and social behaviour within amphibians. PMID:22158736

  8. Radiomontagen og dens radiofoniske rødder. Om hørebilledet, den litterære tekstmontage, featuren og den moderne radiomontage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Poulsen

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiomontagen og dens genrevarianter, hørebilledet og featuren har tidligere har tidligere været genstand for interesse fra især den æste- tiske og tekstanalytisk orienterede radioforskning. I denne artikel sæt- tes genren ind i en bredere kontekst, sociokulturelt og medie- og insti- tutionshistorisk. Ledetrådene i den diakrone fremstilling er dels spørgs- målet om genrens historiske og genremæssige rødder, dels en kombi- neret tekstanalytisk og receptionsæstetisk tilgang, der søger at ind- kredse de positioneringer af lytteren, radiomontagen og dens varianter tilbyder. Artiklen er baseret på grundige arkivstudier i DR og på inter- views med nogle af de ’montører’, som har bidraget til udviklingen af montagen, der i kraft af sin radiofoniske spændvidde mest vedholdende og varieret har forsøgt at udforske menneskets livssituation i den moder- ne verden, samtidig med at lytteren er blevet tilbudt en lytteposition, der prioriterer refleksion og eftertanke.

  9. Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

  10. Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

  11. Was den polnischen Klempner in den Norden lockt. Zur heutigen Arbeitsmigration nach Norwegen und Schweden

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Miszczuk

    2011-01-01

    Im Zuge der Verhandlungen um die EU-Osterweiterung 2004 waren Befürchtungen hinsichtlich der Auswirkungen einer sofortigen vollständigen Freizügigkeit von Arbeitnehmern aus den ostmitteleuropäischen Beitrittsländern auf die Arbeitsmärkte und die sozialen Sicherungssysteme der westeuropäischen EU-Länder geäußert worden. Diesen traten die bisherigen Mitgliedstaaten überwiegend durch Übergangsregelungen und Einschränkungen entgegen. Ein Vergleich der liberalen Einwanderungspolitik Schwedens, das...

  12. Polar bear den survey, Arctic National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In conjunction with the Polar Bear Research Project being supervised by Mr. Jack Lentfer of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife two Polar Bear den surveys...

  13. Denning Ecology of Black Bears in the Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Available information on black bear denning ecology in southeastern wetland populations for management and conservation purposes is limited. This researcher...

  14. Auf den Schultern von Riesen und Zwergen Einsteins unvollendete Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Dies ist die Geschichte von Einsteins unvollendeter Revolution, einer tiefgreifenden Veränderung unserer Begriffe von Raum, Zeit, Materie und Strahlung. Diese Revolution begann in Einsteins Wunderjahr 1905, wurde durch seine allgemeine Relativitätstheorie aus dem Jahre 1915 fortgesetzt und wirkt in den heutigen Versuchen der Wissenschaft, die Entstehung und das Schicksal des Universums zu verstehen, weiter. Vor dem Hintergrund einer historischen Theorie des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird Einsteins bis heute nicht abgeschlossene Revolution als das Ergebnis einer langfristigen Entwicklung des Wissens verständlich. Anhand der spannenden Geschichte von Einsteins Entdeckungen wird nachvollziehbar, warum große Denker wie Einstein weiter gesehen haben als ihre Vorgänger. Sie standen nicht nur auf den Schultern von Riesen, also den wissenschaftlichen Leistungen einzelner großer Vorgänger wie Newton, sondern auch auf den Schultern von "Zwergen", dem wissenschaftlichen Wissen, dem technischen Wissen, und d...

  15. Europas Abgrund neu inszeniert - Zwischen den Zeilen Ulrich Halterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Wenger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spätestens seit der in einigen EU-Mitgliedstaaten heiß geführten Debatte um den Maastrichtvertrag (1992 und seine Weiterführung in Amsterdam (1997 hat die Integrationsfrage tiefe Gewässer der Staatsphilosophie erreicht. Was sich zuvor gleichsam abgeschirmt von der Öffentlichkeit in Expertengremien vorwiegend handelstechnischer Vereinfachung widmete, brach in Gestalt erster nationaler Referenden jäh an die politische Oberfläche. Der zumal seit den negativen Verfassungsvoten in Frankreich und den Niederlanden allgegenwärtige Diskurs über eine europäische Identität verdeutlicht auffällig, wie sehr das einstmals so pragmatisch-sachliche Vorgreifen von den vergessenen Gründungsemotionen eingeholt wird. Was man sich nämlich nicht eingestehen will: Die Grundlage der europäischen Union basiert auf einer Niederlage.

  16. Observations on the use of tarantula burrows by the anurans Leptodactylus bufonius (Leptodactylidae) and Rhinella major (Bufonidae) in the Dry Chaco ecoregion of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. Schalk; Marco Sezano

    2014-01-01

    Some species of anurans have been observed utilizing burrows of other animals, such as rodents and tarantulas. Here we report the observations of two anuran species, Leptodactylus bufonius and Rhinella major, utilizing the burrows of tarantulas (Acanthoscurria sp.; Family Theraphosidae) in the dry Chaco ecoregion of Bolivia. Both species of anurans never co-occurred with tarantulas in the burrows and used burrows that were wider in diameter and closer to breeding ponds as compared to the tota...

  17. Malaysia. Kan den politiske fred fortsætte?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Der er valg i det muslimske Malaysia den 8. marts 2008. Et land med klar etnisk opdeling, men også med stor politisk stabilitet. Hvordan hænger det sammen?......Der er valg i det muslimske Malaysia den 8. marts 2008. Et land med klar etnisk opdeling, men også med stor politisk stabilitet. Hvordan hænger det sammen?...

  18. Amerikaniseringen af den danske fagbevægelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Dino

    Koldkrigsdebatten har i de senere år fokuseret på den østlige trussel mod og påvirkning af Danmark. Ikke desto mindre blev Danmark via Marshallhjælpen og NATO-medlemskabet tidligt integreret i den vestlige alliance. Særligt fra USA kom de udenlandske impulser som på afgørende vis var med til at f...

  19. Auswirkungen von Mehrfachmandaten deutscher Vorstands- und Aufsichtsratsvorsitzender auf den Unternehmenserfolg

    OpenAIRE

    Balsmeier, Benjamin; Buchwald, Achim; Peters, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Mehrfachmandatsträger in Vorständen und Aufsichtsräten stehen seit langer Zeit in der öffentlichen Kritik. Anhand eines Paneldatensatzes für die größten deutschen Unternehmen im Zeitraum von 1996 bis 2006 wird der Einfluss von Mehrfachmandaten von Vorstands- und Aufsichtsratsvorsitzenden auf den Unternehmenserfolg untersucht. Die Ergebnisse legen den Schluss nahe, dass zwischen der Anzahl der Aufsichtsratsmandate des Vorstandsvorsitzenden und dem Erfolg seines Unternehmens ein konkaver positi...

  20. CIOs mangler fundamentale egenskaber for at lede den digitale transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    CIOs er dårligt rustet til at gå i spidsen for digital disruption og innovation, advarer den internationale topforsker Joe Peppard med afsæt i analyse af mere end 200 CIO-s personligheder......CIOs er dårligt rustet til at gå i spidsen for digital disruption og innovation, advarer den internationale topforsker Joe Peppard med afsæt i analyse af mere end 200 CIO-s personligheder...

  1. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  2. Von den SSG zu den FID – eine kritische Reflexion von Anspruch und Wirklichkeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Illig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In der überregionalen Literaturversorgung vollzieht sich durch die Transformation der Sondersammelgebiete (SSG in Fachinformationsdienste für die Wissenschaft (FID ein vielschichtiger Wandel. So fordert die DFG in ihren Förderrichtlinien, dass sich die FID nicht nur konsequent an den Bedürfnissen der Wissenschaftler orientieren, sondern sich auch von den Grundaufgaben wissenschaftlicher Bibliotheken abgrenzen und einen Mehrwert gegenüber bestehenden Services anbieten. Dies bedeutet in letzter Konsequenz auch die Abwendung vom Ideal einer größtmöglichen Vollständigkeit der Bestände hin zu einem selektiven Bestandaufbau entlang der e-only-policy der DFG, nach der die elektronische Version eines Werkes gegenüber der gedruckten Form bevorzugt werden soll. Die durch diese Paradigmenwechsel notwendig gewordene Neuorientierung stellt die antragstellenden Bibliotheken jedoch vor große Herausforderungen. Daher soll der vorliegende Beitrag die bisherigen Entwicklungen und Zielsetzungen in der Förderpolitik der DFG analysieren und helfen, die aktuellen Geschehnisse einzuordnen. Darauf aufbauend werden die wesentlichen FID-Richtlinien anhand eines Modells dargestellt und kritisch reflektiert. Abschließend wird eine Maßnahme aufgezeigt, die im Sinne einer Profilierung insbesondere die Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz adressiert und eine Einbindung von Fachreferenten und Fachreferentinnen in die FID-Förderung skizziert.

  3. Language and Social Development in a Multilingual Classroom: A Dinosaur Project Enriched with Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Monique

    2009-01-01

    With the implementation of the natural approach, the dinosaur study and facilitated block play gave dual language learners many opportunities to acquire a new language, develop social skills, and improve communication abilities. Once teachers identified the barriers to children playing and talking together, they created a classroom environment…

  4. A mummified duck-billed dinosaur with a soft-tissue cock's comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Phil R; Fanti, Federico; Currie, Philip J; Arbour, Victoria M

    2014-01-01

    Among living vertebrates, soft tissues are responsible for labile appendages (combs, wattles, proboscides) that are critical for activities ranging from locomotion to sexual display [1]. However, soft tissues rarely fossilize, and such soft-tissue appendages are unknown for many extinct taxa, including dinosaurs. Here we report a remarkable "mummified" specimen of the hadrosaurid dinosaur Edmontosaurus regalis from the latest Cretaceous Wapiti Formation, Alberta, Canada, that preserves a three-dimensional cranial crest (or "comb") composed entirely of soft tissue. Previously, crest function has centered on the hypertrophied nasal passages of lambeosaurine hadrosaurids, which acted as resonance chambers during vocalization [2-4]. The fleshy comb in Edmontosaurus necessitates an alternative explanation most likely related to either social signaling or sexual selection [5-7]. This discovery provides the first view of bizarre, soft-tissue signaling structures in a dinosaur and provides additional evidence for social behavior. Crest evolution within Hadrosaurinae apparently culminated in the secondary loss of the bony crest at the terminal Cretaceous; however, the new specimen indicates that cranial ornamentation was in fact not lost but substituted in Edmontosaurus by a fleshy display structure. It also implies that visual display played a key role in the evolution of hadrosaurine crests and raises the possibility of similar soft-tissue structures among other dinosaurs.

  5. Dynamic locomotor capabilities revealed by early dinosaur trackmakers from southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new investigation of the sedimentology and ichnology of the Early Jurassic Moyeni tracksite in Lesotho, southern Africa has yielded new insights into the behavior and locomotor dynamics of early dinosaurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The tracksite is an ancient point bar preserving a heterogeneous substrate of varied consistency and inclination that includes a ripple-marked riverbed, a bar slope, and a stable algal-matted bar top surface. Several basal ornithischian dinosaurs and a single theropod dinosaur crossed its surface within days or perhaps weeks of one another, but responded to substrate heterogeneity differently. Whereas the theropod trackmaker accommodated sloping and slippery surfaces by gripping the substrate with its pedal claws, the basal ornithischian trackmakers adjusted to the terrain by changing between quadrupedal and bipedal stance, wide and narrow gauge limb support (abduction range = 31 degrees , and plantigrade and digitigrade foot posture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The locomotor adjustments coincide with changes in substrate consistency along the trackway and appear to reflect 'real time' responses to a complex terrain. It is proposed that these responses foreshadow important locomotor transformations characterizing the later evolution of the two main dinosaur lineages. Ornithischians, which shifted from bipedal to quadrupedal posture at least three times in their evolutionary history, are shown to have been capable of adopting both postures early in their evolutionary history. The substrate-gripping behavior demonstrated by the early theropod, in turn, is consistent with the hypothesized function of pedal claws in bird ancestors.

  6. Response to Comment on "A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-10-24

    Lingham-Soliar questions our interpretation of integumentary structures in the Middle-Late Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur Kulindadromeus as feather-like appendages and alternatively proposes that the compound structures observed around the humerus and femur of Kulindadromeus are support fibers associated with badly degraded scales. We consider this hypothesis highly unlikely because of the taphonomy and morphology of the preserved structures.

  7. Radioactive dinosaur fossil bones of Balasinor area, Kheda district, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-thorium (upto 0.4% ThO2) bearing Dinosaur fossil remains are reported from the Infratrappeans of Balasinor area, Kheda district, Gujarat. The thorium enrichment in these fossils is confined to the osseous matter which could be attributed to either isomorphic substitution for Ca2+ or adsorption and colloidal precipitation on the bone surfaces. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  8. Dinosaurs in decline tens of millions of years before their final extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Benton, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    Whether dinosaurs were in a long-term decline or whether they were reigning strong right up to their final disappearance at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event 66 Mya has been debated for decades with no clear resolution. The dispute has continued unresolved because of a lack of statistical rigor and appropriate evolutionary framework. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we apply a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to model the evolutionary dynamics of speciation and extinction through time in Mesozoic dinosaurs, properly taking account of previously ignored statistical violations. We find overwhelming support for a long-term decline across all dinosaurs and within all three dinosaurian subclades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda), where speciation rate slowed down through time and was ultimately exceeded by extinction rate tens of millions of years before the K-Pg boundary. The only exceptions to this general pattern are the morphologically specialized herbivores, the Hadrosauriformes and Ceratopsidae, which show rapid species proliferations throughout the Late Cretaceous instead. Our results highlight that, despite some heterogeneity in speciation dynamics, dinosaurs showed a marked reduction in their ability to replace extinct species with new ones, making them vulnerable to extinction and unable to respond quickly to and recover from the final catastrophic event.

  9. New Evidence from Alashan Area of West Nei Monggol to Reveal Enigma of Dinosaur Extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Dinosaur extinction of the late Cretaceous is an enigma. A scorched earth layer was discovered at the end of the Cretaceous system from drilling cores in west of Nei Monggol in China. And there was a creature interruption for 6-8 million years after that period through fossil analysis of the area and the adjacent area. Just in the same system of scorched earth layer, the Polish scientists found the abnormal geo-chemical phenomena and high-dense universal substances generally contained in meteorite. The authors think, at the end of Cretaceous, many celestial bodies ran into the earth. The collision caused fires all over the world and slowed down the speed of the earth rotation suddenly. The oxygen density decreased sharply. And because of the sudden increase of day length, the biological clock of dinosaur was in the state of chaos. That’s the reason why dinosaurs got extinct. It took a very long time both for the oxygen to return normal for most creatures to live and for the new species fit for new rotation speed of the earth to come into being. That’s why there was the creature interruption after the extinction of the dinosaur.

  10. A new feathered maniraptoran dinosaur fossil that fills a morphological gap in avian origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xing; ZHAO Qi; NORELL Mark; SULLIVAN Corwin; HONE David; ERICKSON Gregory; WANG XiaoLin; HAN FengLu; GUO Yu

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have substantially reduced the morphological gap between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, yet avians including Archaeopteryx differ from non-avian theropods in their limb proportions. In particular, avians have proportionally longer and more robust forelimbs that are capable of supporting a large aerodynamic surface. Here we report on a new maniraptoran dinosaur, Anchiornis huxleyi gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen collected from Iacustrine deposits of uncertain age in western Liaoning, China. With an estimated mass of 110 grams, Anchiornis is the smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. It exhibits some wrist features indicative of high mobility, presaging the wing-folding mechanisms seen in more derived birds and suggesting rapid evolution of the carpus. Otherwise, Anchiornis is intermediate in general morphology between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, particularly with regard to relative forelimb length and thickness, and represents a transitional step toward the avian condition. In contrast with some recent comprehensive phylogenetic analyses, our phylogenetic analysis incorporates subtle morphological variations and recovers a conventional result supporting the monophyly of Avialae.

  11. Tagungsbericht: Gegen den Strich lehren: Herausforderungen für die Lehre qualitativer Methoden in den Gesundheitswissenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Eakin, Joan M.; Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag wird über einen Workshop berichtet, der sich mit dem Charakter und den besonderen Herausforderungen qualitativer Forschung in gesundheitswissenschaftlichen Settings beschäftigte. Hintergrund für die Durchführung des Workshops war das wachsende Interesse an qualitativen Methoden in den Gesundheitswissenschaften bei zugleich ungenügendem pädagogischen Wissen und unzureichender institutioneller Unterstützung für qualitative Forschungsvorhaben. In unserer Perspektive sind mit de...

  12. Comparison of hydraulics and particle removal efficiencies in a mixed cell raceway and burrows pond rearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal eff...

  13. The Effect of Sand Particle Size on the Burrowing Ability of the Beach Mysid Gastrosaccus psammodytes Tattersall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, R.; McLachlan, A.; Winter, D.

    1999-05-01

    Laboratory studies on the burrowing rates of the mysid shrimp, Gastrosaccus psammodytes , in a series of well-sorted sediments, determined whether (1) burial times were dependent on grain size and (2) if natural population distribution may be influenced by grain size on beaches. Burial times were tested in nine well-sorted sediments with grain size ranging from 90 to 2000μm. Large individuals (i.e. gravid females) were used. G. psammodytes burrowed fastest in 125-1000μm sand with mean burial times less than 1·6s. Burial time increased to approximately 2s in 90-125μm sand. G. psammodytes could not burrow in grain sizes coarser than 1000μm. G. psammodytes has been reported to occur on beaches with grain sizes ranging from 90 to 500μm but are uncommon on beaches with coarser sand. It appears that population distribution may be influenced by grain size that is probably not related to the animals' burial time ability, but rather their inability to burrow completely into coarse sand. Indirectly, grain size may also influence the morphodynamic state of a beach and therefore food availability since coarse-grained beaches tend to be reflective with little surf production.

  14. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism"). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  15. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Martin Sander

    Full Text Available Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM. This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism". Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  16. Theropod fauna from southern Australia indicates high polar diversity and climate-driven dinosaur provinciality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B J Benson

    Full Text Available The Early Cretaceous fauna of Victoria, Australia, provides unique data on the composition of high latitude southern hemisphere dinosaurs. We describe and review theropod dinosaur postcranial remains from the Aptian-Albian Otway and Strzelecki groups, based on at least 37 isolated bones, and more than 90 teeth from the Flat Rocks locality. Several specimens of medium- and large-bodied individuals (estimated up to ~8.5 metres long represent allosauroids. Tyrannosauroids are represented by elements indicating medium body sizes (~3 metres long, likely including the holotype femur of Timimus hermani, and a single cervical vertebra represents a juvenile spinosaurid. Single specimens representing medium- and small-bodied theropods may be referrable to Ceratosauria, Ornithomimosauria, a basal coelurosaur, and at least three taxa within Maniraptora. Thus, nine theropod taxa may have been present. Alternatively, four distinct dorsal vertebrae indicate a minimum of four taxa. However, because most taxa are known from single bones, it is likely that small-bodied theropod diversity remains underestimated. The high abundance of allosauroids and basal coelurosaurs (including tyrannosauroids and possibly ornithomimosaurs, and the relative rarity of ceratosaurs, is strikingly dissimilar to penecontemporaneous dinosaur faunas of Africa and South America, which represent an arid, lower-latitude biome. Similarities between dinosaur faunas of Victoria and the northern continents concern the proportional representatation of higher clades, and may result from the prevailing temperate-polar climate of Australia, especially at high latitudes in Victoria, which is similar to the predominant warm-temperate climate of Laurasia, but distinct from the arid climate zone that covered extensive areas of Gondwana. Most dinosaur groups probably attained a near-cosmopolitan distribution in the Jurassic, prior to fragmentation of the Pangaean supercontinent, and some aspects of

  17. Theropod fauna from southern Australia indicates high polar diversity and climate-driven dinosaur provinciality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Hall, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous fauna of Victoria, Australia, provides unique data on the composition of high latitude southern hemisphere dinosaurs. We describe and review theropod dinosaur postcranial remains from the Aptian-Albian Otway and Strzelecki groups, based on at least 37 isolated bones, and more than 90 teeth from the Flat Rocks locality. Several specimens of medium- and large-bodied individuals (estimated up to ~8.5 metres long) represent allosauroids. Tyrannosauroids are represented by elements indicating medium body sizes (~3 metres long), likely including the holotype femur of Timimus hermani, and a single cervical vertebra represents a juvenile spinosaurid. Single specimens representing medium- and small-bodied theropods may be referrable to Ceratosauria, Ornithomimosauria, a basal coelurosaur, and at least three taxa within Maniraptora. Thus, nine theropod taxa may have been present. Alternatively, four distinct dorsal vertebrae indicate a minimum of four taxa. However, because most taxa are known from single bones, it is likely that small-bodied theropod diversity remains underestimated. The high abundance of allosauroids and basal coelurosaurs (including tyrannosauroids and possibly ornithomimosaurs), and the relative rarity of ceratosaurs, is strikingly dissimilar to penecontemporaneous dinosaur faunas of Africa and South America, which represent an arid, lower-latitude biome. Similarities between dinosaur faunas of Victoria and the northern continents concern the proportional representatation of higher clades, and may result from the prevailing temperate-polar climate of Australia, especially at high latitudes in Victoria, which is similar to the predominant warm-temperate climate of Laurasia, but distinct from the arid climate zone that covered extensive areas of Gondwana. Most dinosaur groups probably attained a near-cosmopolitan distribution in the Jurassic, prior to fragmentation of the Pangaean supercontinent, and some aspects of the hallmark

  18. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism"). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size. PMID:24205267

  19. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology.

  20. Effects of radiotransmitter necklaces on behaviors of adult male western burrowing owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, E.D.; McIntyre, N.E.; Ray, J.D.; Wallace, M.C.; Boal, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the behavioral effects of necklace-style radiotransmitters on breeding male western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in 2 areas of northwestern Texas, USA, in 2004 and 2005. We tested the hypothesis that transmittered owls would spend time interacting with their necklaces and as a result spend less time in vigilance and resting activities than would nontransmittered owls. Nontransmittered owls (n = 6) spent significantly more time being vigilant (P = 0.007) than did transmittered owls (n = 3) in 2004, who spent significant amounts of time interacting with their necklaces. In 2005, behaviors of transmittered owls (n = 8) were significantly different (P owls spent a significant amount of time interacting with their necklaces, they appeared to habituate to the presence of the transmitters within a relatively short period (<1 week), and necklaces did not affect survivorship or fitness in the short-term.

  1. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pests).

  2. Linking Microbial Enzymatic Activities and Functional Diversity of Soil around Earthworm Burrows and Casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiec, Jerzy; Frąc, Magdalena; Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Turski, Marcin; Oszust, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on the enzymatic activity and microbial functional diversity in the burrow system [burrow wall (BW) 0-3 mm, transitional zone (TZ) 3-7 mm, bulk soil (BS) > 20 mm from the BW] and cast aggregates of a loess soil under a pear orchard. The dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, protease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and acid phosphomonoesterase enzymes were assessed using standard methods. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using the Average Well Color Development and Richness Index following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog Eco Plates. All measurements were done using soil from each compartment immediately after in situ sampling in spring. The enzymatic activites including dehydrogenase, protease, β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase were appreciably greater in the BW or casts than in BS and TZ. Conversely, acid phosphomonoesterase had the largest value in the BS. Average Well Color Development in both the TZ and the BS (0.98-0.94 A590 nm) were more than eight times higher than in the BWs and casts. The lowest richness index in the BS (15 utilized substrates) increased by 86-113% in all the other compartments. The PC1 in principal component analysis mainly differentiated the BWs and the TZ. Utilization of all substrate categories was the lowest in the BS. The PC2 differentiated the casts from the other compartments. The enhanced activity of a majority of the enzymes and increased microbial functional diversity in most earthworm-influenced compartments make the soils less vulnerable to degradation and thus increases the stability of ecologically relevant processes in the orchard ecosystem. PMID:27625645

  3. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  4. Estimates of density, detection probability, and factors influencing detection of burrowing owls in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, D.E.; Longshore, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    We estimated relative abundance and density of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at two sites in the Mojave Desert (200304). We made modifications to previously established Burrowing Owl survey techniques for use in desert shrublands and evaluated several factors that might influence the detection of owls. We tested the effectiveness of the call-broadcast technique for surveying this species, the efficiency of this technique at early and late breeding stages, and the effectiveness of various numbers of vocalization intervals during broadcasting sessions. Only 1 (3) of 31 initial (new) owl responses was detected during passive-listening sessions. We found that surveying early in the nesting season was more likely to produce new owl detections compared to surveying later in the nesting season. New owls detected during each of the three vocalization intervals (each consisting of 30 sec of vocalizations followed by 30 sec of silence) of our broadcasting session were similar (37, 40, and 23; n 30). We used a combination of detection trials (sighting probability) and double-observer method to estimate the components of detection probability, i.e., availability and perception. Availability for all sites and years, as determined by detection trials, ranged from 46.158.2. Relative abundance, measured as frequency of occurrence and defined as the proportion of surveys with at least one owl, ranged from 19.232.0 for both sites and years. Density at our eastern Mojave Desert site was estimated at 0.09 ?? 0.01 (SE) owl territories/km2 and 0.16 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km2 during 2003 and 2004, respectively. In our southern Mojave Desert site, density estimates were 0.09 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km2 and 0.08 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km 2 during 2004 and 2005, respectively. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  5. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K;

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  6. Cross-centre replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour as an ethologically relevant pain outcome measure in the rat: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, Rachel; Delaney, Ada; Ultenius, Camilla; Morland, Rosie; Andrews, Nick; Baastrup, Catherine; Bryden, Luke A; Caspani, Ombretta; Christoph, Thomas; Gardiner, Natalie J; Huang, Wenlong; Kennedy, Jeffrey D; Koyama, Suguru; Li, Dominic; Ligocki, Marcin; Lindsten, Annika; Machin, Ian; Pekcec, Anton; Robens, Angela; Rotariu, Sanziana M; Vo, Sabrina; Segerdahl, Marta; Stenfors, Carina; Svensson, Camilla I; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Uto, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Rutten, Kris; Rice, Andrew S C

    2016-10-01

    Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1 mg/mL in 100 µL) was evaluated in 11 studies across 8 centres. Following a standard protocol, data from participating centres were collected centrally and analysed with a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. The total population (TP-all animals allocated to treatment; n = 249) and a selected population (SP-TP animals burrowing over 500 g at baseline; n = 200) were analysed separately, assessing the effect of excluding "poor" burrowers. Mean baseline burrowing across studies was 1113 g (95% confidence interval: 1041-1185 g) for TP and 1329 g (1271-1387 g) for SP. Burrowing was significantly suppressed in the majority of studies 24 hours (7 studies/population) and 48 hours (7 TP, 6 SP) after CFA injections. Across all centres, significantly suppressed burrowing peaked 24 hours after CFA injections, with a burrowing deficit of -374 g (-479 to -269 g) for TP and -498 g (-609 to -386 g) for SP. This unique multicentre approach first provided high-quality evidence evaluating suppressed burrowing as robust and reproducible, supporting its use as tool to infer the global effect of pain on rodents. Second, our approach provided important informative value for the use of multicentre studies in the future. PMID:27643836

  7. Cross-centre replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour as an ethologically relevant pain outcome measure in the rat: a prospective multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, Rachel; Delaney, Ada; Ultenius, Camilla; Morland, Rosie; Andrews, Nick; Baastrup, Catherine; Bryden, Luke A.; Caspani, Ombretta; Christoph, Thomas; Gardiner, Natalie J.; Huang, Wenlong; Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Koyama, Suguru; Li, Dominic; Ligocki, Marcin; Lindsten, Annika; Machin, Ian; Pekcec, Anton; Robens, Angela; Rotariu, Sanziana M.; Voß, Sabrina; Segerdahl, Marta; Stenfors, Carina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Uto, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Rutten, Kris; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1 mg/mL in 100 µL) was evaluated in 11 studies across 8 centres. Following a standard protocol, data from participating centres were collected centrally and analysed with a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. The total population (TP—all animals allocated to treatment; n = 249) and a selected population (SP—TP animals burrowing over 500 g at baseline; n = 200) were analysed separately, assessing the effect of excluding “poor” burrowers. Mean baseline burrowing across studies was 1113 g (95% confidence interval: 1041-1185 g) for TP and 1329 g (1271-1387 g) for SP. Burrowing was significantly suppressed in the majority of studies 24 hours (7 studies/population) and 48 hours (7 TP, 6 SP) after CFA injections. Across all centres, significantly suppressed burrowing peaked 24 hours after CFA injections, with a burrowing deficit of −374 g (−479 to −269 g) for TP and −498 g (−609 to −386 g) for SP. This unique multicentre approach first provided high-quality evidence evaluating suppressed burrowing as robust and reproducible, supporting its use as tool to infer the global effect of pain on rodents. Second, our approach provided important informative value for the use of multicentre studies in the future. PMID:27643836

  8. Den ægte vare er det nye sort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Forbrugerne er måske nok dødtrætte af traditionelle reklamer og branding – men tydeligvis ikke af statusræset som sådan, siger Andrew Potter i bogen ”The Authenticity Hoax – How We Got Lost Finding Our Selves”. Nu handler det bare ikke om at flashe reklamesmarte brands, men om at have et forbrug......, der er så ’ægte og uspoleret’ som muligt. Potter er ikke den eneste, der har fået øje på autenticitetsbølgen – men han er nok den sjoveste. Ikke alene har han et skarpt blik for dens naragtigheder, men også en ualmindelig skarp pen. I Potters øjne er trenden simpelthen et udtryk for et statusforbrug...

  9. Vilken kontroll spelar roll? : En förklarande studie om den interna revisionens påverkan för den externa revisionen

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Rasmus; Helmerson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Introduktion Den interna revisorn antas ha bättre insyn i företaget än den externa. Enligt agentteori maximerar internrevisorn sin egen nytta, vilket ifrågasätter dennes oberoende. Dagens forskning är delad i två perspektiv där den interna revisionen och de externa revisionskostnaderna har ett positivt eller negativt samband. Den rådande trenden med ökad intern revision och kontroll i samband med den nya kontext som skapats genom de under 2000-talet införda regelverken motiverar och aktualise...

  10. APEXIFICATION OF A TOOTH WITH DENS INVAGINATUS (A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epita Sarah Pane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth. A successful treatment of a maxillary lateral with dens invaginatus extending to mid root area, incomplete apical closure and large apical radiolucency will be presented. Sixteen months apexification with calcium hydroxide dressing was effective in resolving the problem after ultrasonic debridement, sodium hypochlorite irrigation. A 6-month recall radiograph is presented showing successful healing of the periapical lesion. Conventional endodontic treatment with calcium hydroxide apexification showed a favourable healing and will enhance the prognosis of the tooth.

  11. Inddragelse af ledelses- og organisationsteori i den faglige kliniske argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koustrup, Pia; Karin, Larsen; Lilli, Dam

    2011-01-01

    Når de studerende i klinisk praksis arbejder med ledelses og organisatoriske aspekter af sygeplejen, er det ofte tilfældet, at drøftelserne med klinikken bliver på et common sense niveau, hvor sparsomme faglige argumenter danner baggrund for drøftelserne. På sygeplejerskeuddannelsen VIA UC, Campus...... Aarhus N, satte vi os for at udvikle og kvalificere disse drøftelser, hvorfor et udviklingsarbejde om dette blev sat i gang mellem den teoretiske og den kliniske del af uddannelsen....

  12. Inddragelse af ledelses- og organisationsteori i den faglige kliniske argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Lilli; Koustrup, Pia; Karin, Larsen

    2011-01-01

    Når de studerende i klinisk praksis arbejder med ledelses og organisatoriske aspekter af sygeplejen, er det ofte tilfældet at drøftelserne med klinikken bliver på et common sense niveau, hvor sparsomme faglige argumenter danner baggrund for drøftelserne. På sygeplejerskeuddannelsen VIA UC, Århus...... Campus N, satte vi os for at udvikle og kvalificere disse drøftelser, hvorfor et udviklingsarbejde om dette blev sat i gang mellem den teoretiske og den kliniske del af uddannelsen....

  13. Dommere og den særlige klageret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lennart Lynge

    2011-01-01

    Den Særlige Klageret har for nylig afsagt nogle kendelser om rettens kompetence i forhold til dommere i råd og nævn. Forfatteren finder, at der herved er slået ind på en kurs, der er problematisk.......Den Særlige Klageret har for nylig afsagt nogle kendelser om rettens kompetence i forhold til dommere i råd og nævn. Forfatteren finder, at der herved er slået ind på en kurs, der er problematisk....

  14. Modulation oxidativer Zellschäden bei Hämodialysepatienten

    OpenAIRE

    Spormann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschäftigte sich mit der Modulation oxidativer Zellschäden bei Hämodialysepatienten durch Pro- und Antioxidantien. Im ersten Teil wurden die prooxidativen Auswirkungen der drei zur intravenösen Applikation bestimmten Eisenmedikamente Ferrlecit® (Glukonat) [ältestes Medikament], Venofer® (Saccharat), CosmoFer® (Dextran) in vitro sowie die Modulation des oxidativen Stress durch eine Ferrlecit®-Gabe bei HD-Patienten bestimmt. Die Bestimmungen der DNA-Schäden mittels Comet Assay und...

  15. Radicular Dens Invaginatus: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Beena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly resulting from invagination of a portion of crown forming within the enamel organ during odontogenesis. The invagination ranges from a slight pitting (coronal type to an anomaly occupying most of the crown and root (radicular type. Although a clinical examination may reveal a deep fissure or pit on the surface of an anterior tooth, radiographic examination is the most realistic way to diagnose the invagination. The objective of this case presentation is to report a rare case of radicular dens in dente, which is a rare dental anomaly.

  16. V.S. Naipaul og den postkoloniale kritikken : en motfortelling

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Det er først og fremst opprørere og revolusjonære som befolker V.S. Naipauls romaner og reiseskildringer. Kritikken av disse representasjonene har bidratt til å gi identitet til den mangfoldige og sprikende retningen innen litteraturvitenskapen som samles under betegnelsen postkolonialisme . En rekke av skolens sentrale utøvere har definert sin posisjon gjennom å felle autoritative dommer over Naipauls verk, og det i en slik grad at den postkoloniale teorien langt på vei har kolonisert forfa...

  17. Den niende april 1940 - i dansk og norsk variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Ville modstand efter norsk model have været æren værd? Vi fik ufrihedens brød at smage i fem år, men den store befolkning led ikke nød, og demokratiet slap helskindet igennem.......Ville modstand efter norsk model have været æren værd? Vi fik ufrihedens brød at smage i fem år, men den store befolkning led ikke nød, og demokratiet slap helskindet igennem....

  18. NCP-modellen og den motiverende samtale - et godt match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Nanna Ruengkratok

    2015-01-01

    Det lader til, at NCP-modellen er kommet for at blive – også i Danmark. Men en model kan ikke bruges til meget, hvis ikke den kan omsættes i praksis. Her kommer diætistens relationelle og kommunikative evner i spil. Faglig ekspertise er vigtigt, men det er empati også. Patientinddragelse, evnen til...... at kunne kommunikere præcist, respekt samt forståelse for patientens perspektiv, motivation, ønsker og behov, er centralt for patientens adhærens – og samarbejde. Dette kan indtænkes ved at kombinere NCP med den motiverende samtale....

  19. Wirtschaftswachstum in den Volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnungen: Ein Vergleich Deutschland - USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Nierhaus

    2001-01-01

    In den USA wird seit 1996 die Wachstumsrate des realen BIP auf der Basis eines "chain-type annual-weighted" Fisher-Index ermittelt, d.h. die Wachstumsrate des realen BIP ist zwar unabhängig vom Basisjahr, andererseits ist aber nicht mehr gewährleistet, dass das BIP gleich der Summe seiner Komponenten ist. Trotz dieses Nachteils könnte ein Systemwechsel in den deutschen Volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnungen dann angezeigt sein, wenn auch in Deutschland bei der Messung der Preisentwicklung im ...

  20. A new raptorial dinosaur with exceptionally long feathering provides insights into dromaeosaurid flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Chiappe, Luis M; Ji, Shu-An; Habib, Michael; Turner, Alan H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Liu, Xueling; Han, Lizhuo

    2014-07-15

    Microraptorines are a group of predatory dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaurs with aerodynamic capacity. These close relatives of birds are essential for testing hypotheses explaining the origin and early evolution of avian flight. Here we describe a new 'four-winged' microraptorine, Changyuraptor yangi, from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. With tail feathers that are nearly 30 cm long, roughly 30% the length of the skeleton, the new fossil possesses the longest known feathers for any non-avian dinosaur. Furthermore, it is the largest theropod with long, pennaceous feathers attached to the lower hind limbs (that is, 'hindwings'). The lengthy feathered tail of the new fossil provides insight into the flight performance of microraptorines and how they may have maintained aerial competency at larger body sizes. We demonstrate how the low-aspect-ratio tail of the new fossil would have acted as a pitch control structure reducing descent speed and thus playing a key role in landing.