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Sample records for burns chemical

  1. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on ... the burned area from pressure and friction. Minor chemical burns will generally heal without further treatment. However, if ...

  2. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  4. Deaths related to chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelites, Joseph J; Kemp, Walter L; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2011-12-01

    The authors present a series of 6 deaths due to the uncommon cause of chemical burns. Of the 6 deaths due to chemical burns, 4 deaths were due to ingestion of a chemical, 1 death was caused by chemical burns of the skin, and 1 death resulted from rectal insufflation of a chemical. Seven additional cases where chemical burns may have been a contributing factor to the death or an incidental finding are also presented. Four cases are related to an incident involving chemical exposure during an industrial explosion. Three cases involve motor fuel burns of the skin. Two cases concern a plane crash incident, and 1 case involved a vehicular collision. Cases are derived from the records of the Dallas County Medical Examiner's Office and those of the authors' consultation practices. Each of the cases is presented, followed by a discussion of the various mechanisms of chemical injury.

  5. Chemical burns: Diphoterine untangled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, K Skaria; Wasiak, Jason; Cleland, Heather

    2017-10-10

    Diphoterine is a hypertonic, amphoteric, polyvalent and chelating decontamination solution used in the treatment of cutaneous and ocular chemical burns. Due to infrequent use by emergency physicians along with the small number of available studies, its debate in the literature as to its efficacy and safety remains inconclusive. A structured literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and TOXNET to June 2016 for original English-language studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of Diphoterine. Methodological and reporting quality of pre-clinical animal studies was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) risk of bias tool and Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Clinical studies were assessed using Chambers' criteria. 13 studies (seven in the pre-clinical, five in the clinical setting and one mixed) met the study inclusion criteria. Pre-clinical studies showed a faster resolution of pH and reduced tissue necrosis with Diphoterine. Clinical studies showed reduced tissue necrosis/severity of symptoms, faster pH resolution and a reduction in pain when using Diphoterine. No adverse events were attributable to Diphoterine. Reporting and methodology of the studies was poor or showed a high risk of bias. Diphoterine appears to be safe to use and is probably superior to other rinsing solutions. However, immediate decontamination is imperative and if Diphoterine is not available a different rinsing solution should be used. The methodology of the published literature for Diphoterine is generally poor and future publications should use the frameworks given as templates. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palao, R; Monge, I; Ruiz, M; Barret, J P

    2010-05-01

    Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical and Common Burns in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  8. Ocular burns in eye traumatology emphatically on chemical burns

    OpenAIRE

    Farský, Lukáš

    2008-01-01

    Burns to the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, and eyelid are considered ocular burns. Ocular burn injuries are classified by etiologic agents as either chemical injuries (ie, acid, alkali) or radiant energy injuries (ie, thermal, ultraviolet). Chemical injuries to the eye represent one of the true ophthalmic emergencies. While almost any chemical can cause ocular irritation, serious damage generally results from either strongly basic (alkaline) compounds or acidic compounds. Alkali injuries are m...

  9. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Medi Eslani; Alireza Baradaran-Rafii; Asadolah Movahedan; Djalilian, Ali R.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts wit...

  10. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical burns in children: Aetiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Rachel; Pang, Tony C Y; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-06-01

    Chemical burns account for a small proportion of total burns in children, but may require specific first aid and different modes of prevention. A retrospective study between 2006 and 2012 of children ≤16 years treated with chemical burns at a specialist paediatric burn centre. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. 56 episodes of chemical burns occurred during the study period. The majority (54%) occurred in boys. There were 39 (72%) patients chemical burns occurred in the domestic setting, especially in the chemicals by an unattended child accounted for half of all (n=22, 49%) chemical burns burns in patients ≥10 years resulted from self-harm. The most common aetiological agents were household cleaners and aerosols in the younger and older age groups respectively. Chemical burns remain infrequent but potentially preventable. These burns mainly occur in the domestic setting due to non-intentional exposure of household chemicals in children burns in children <10. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The ocular surface chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslani, Medi; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Movahedan, Asadolah; Djalilian, Ali R

    2014-01-01

    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients' needs.

  13. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  14. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the skin ...

  15. Chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Jakob; Engfeldt, Malin; Svedman, Cecilia; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne; Hindsén, Monica; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-09-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid is a very strong carboxylic acid. The acid has been suspected to have similar toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid on skin contact. Hydrofluoric acid is highly toxic, owing to skin penetration by fluoride ions. A spill of hydrofluoric acid on the skin may be fatal. As trifluoroacetic acid contains fluorine, patients with chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid have been given particular attention when treated in the hospital. To gather the known cases of trifluoroacetic acid burns from our department to give an overview of how they were exposed, the clinical presentation, and treatment. Five patients with chemical skin burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid were reviewed with regard to the extent of the burn, treatment, blood samples taken, and systemic effects. The chemical burns reported were limited (burns healed as expected for chemical burns caused by acids. None of the patients showed any symptoms or signs that are typical for hydrofluoric acid burns. Localized chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid should be regarded as being similar to burns from other acids, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid. To our knowledge, there are no indications that trifluoroacetic acid causes the same toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pediatric hand burns: thermal, electrical, chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mark; Armstrong, Milton B; Panthaki, Zubin J

    2009-07-01

    Young children often use their hands for exploration of their surroundings, and this often leads to the hand being the primary site of injury. Because of this and many associated factors, burns of the pediatric hands are relatively common, with thermal injuries being the most frequent. Electrical and chemical etiologies contribute a minor portion of the burn injuries in the pediatric population. Some key differences should be considered in the management of hand burns in a pediatric patient versus an adult. In general, minor superficial burns will heal satisfactorily only with topical care. Deeper partial-thickness and full-thickness burns, however, require surgical interventions. Special care should always be taken in the management of electrical and chemical burns because the pathophysiology of these injuries are unique. Treatment of pediatric hand burns should also involve close and thorough follow-up to assess not only for healing and restoration of function of the injury but also for psychologic and emotional trauma.

  17. [Chemical and Thermal Eye Burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, H-G

    2016-11-01

    Background: This review gives a therapeutic approach for the early treatment of chemical and thermal burns of the ocular surface (CTOS). Method: Based on a review of international literature, the experiences of University Hospital Aachen and Halle/Saale, Eye Clinic Cologne as well as experimental data of the research institute (An-Institut) at RWTH Aachen University are considered and discussed. Results: As the risk depends on the stage of CTOS, recommendations are given for acute treatment for different stages. Pathophysiological considerations will be discussed. Special treatment options for exceptional situations and for late phase CTOS are demonstrated. Conclusion: According to the latest data, the most important clinical recommendation for the acute phase of CTOS is the application of a suitable rinsing solution. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory treatment is of central importance. For the therapy of severe CTOS, approved and advanced surgical methods need to be applied. In this way, anti-inflammatory and tissue-protecting mechanisms are activated simultaneously. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Cutaneous chemical burns: assessment and early management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Eshini; Perera, Marlon; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-03-01

    Chemical burns are common and may cause significant physical, psychological, social and economic burden. Despite a wide variety of potentially harmful chemicals, important general principals may be drawn in the assessment and initial management of such injuries. Early treatment of chemical burns is crucial and may reduce the period of resulting morbidity. This article reviews the assessment and management of cutaneous chemical burns. Assessment of the patient should be rapid and occur in conjunction with early emergency management. Rapid history and pri-mary and secondary survey may be required to exclude systemic side effects of the injury. Depth of wound assessment is difficult given that necrosis caused by various chemicals can continue despite cessation of exposure. Early management should be conducted with consideration of clinician's safety, and appropriate precautions should be taken. Excluding specific situations and chemical exposure, copious irrigation with water remains the mainstay of early management. Referral to a centre of higher acuity may be required for expert evaluation.

  19. A standard experimental 'chemical burn'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Weibel, T J; Carter, E J; Calobrace, M B; Foldi, J F; Zawacki, B E

    1994-06-01

    To establish a standard method for producing experimental cutaneous injuries caused by contact with corrosive liquids, we modified an apparatus and method recommended by Walker and Mason in 1967 to produce experimental thermal burns. The resulting procedure proved to be safe, reproducible, humane and efficient and can be used with a wide variety of corrosive liquids.

  20. Management of electrical and chemical burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Hanna; Tarkowski, Amanda; Dehmer, Jeffrey J; Kays, David W; St Peter, Shawn D; Islam, Saleem

    2014-07-01

    Pediatric electrical and chemical burns are rare injuries, and the care of these patients varies significantly. We reviewed our experience in management of electrical and chemical burns to analyze the clinical course, management, and outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted on children with chemical and electrical burns presenting to two large regional pediatric burn centers over a 10-y period (2002-2012). Clinical data including patient demographics, nature of burns, management, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. There were 50 cases, 25 chemical and electrical burns each. Overall, the mean±standard deviation age was 6.2±5.6 y, and the mean total body surface area burn was 4.3±3.2%. Chemical burns were larger, had less depth, and shorter length of stay, whereas electrical burns were smaller, deeper, and had a longer length of stay. Two chemical burns and six electrical burns required grafting. Twelve percent of electrical burns required rehabilitation, and 20% required compression garments for hypertrophic scars. Six percent required late surgeries. Pediatric electric and chemical burns are rare and require specialized care. Graft rates are not high but are mostly noted in electrical burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1 in Chemical Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Culla, Borja; Kolovou, Paraskevi E; Arzeno, Linnette; Martínez, Santiago; López, Miguel A

    2016-06-01

    To describe and further analyze the long-term results in visual acuity (VA), anatomical retention, and rate of complications from patients who underwent Boston keratoprosthesis (B-Kpro) type 1 after ocular chemical burns in the Dominican Republic. A retrospective review of 42 eyes (22 OD:20 OS) of 36 patients who underwent B-Kpro type 1 implantation after severe ocular burn at Hospital Elías Santana in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, between April 2006 and October 2014, were included. Demographics, VA, anatomical retention, and the rates of postoperative complications and concurrent surgeries were evaluated. The excellent anatomical retention rates and visual outcomes presented in this study support the remarkable capability of B-Kpro type 1 to restore functional VA in eyes with severe chemical injuries. However, strict control of the postoperative complications is necessary for long-term success. In conclusion, the use of a B-Kpro type 1 after severe chemical burn is a viable option in patients otherwise condemned to the high risk of failure associated with conventional corneal grafts.

  2. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment...

  3. Glaucoma in patients with ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michelle P; Ekşioğlu, Ümit; Mudumbai, Raghu C; Slabaugh, Mark A; Chen, Philip P

    2012-09-01

    To examine the development and management of glaucoma in patients with ocular chemical burns. Retrospective, observational case series. setting: University of Washington Eye Clinics. patient population: Twenty-nine eyes (18 patients) with ocular chemical burns seen between 1997 and 2010 with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up. observation procedure: Eyes were graded using the Roper-Hall scale. main outcome measures: Long-term use of glaucoma medications (3 months or more) and need for glaucoma surgery. The mean age was 45 ± 17 years, with a mean follow-up of 75 ± 47 months (median, 66 months). Roper-Hall grade III or IV eyes (n = 20) had significantly higher intraocular pressure at presentation (35.9 vs 16.4 mm Hg; P = .001) and over follow-up were more likely to require long-term glaucoma medications (P = .003) or to undergo glaucoma surgery (P = .016) than Roper-Hall grade I or II eyes. Thirteen eyes (12 Roper-Hall grade III or IV) underwent glaucoma surgery. Eight eyes underwent glaucoma tube implant surgery; 4 required at least 1 revision. Seven eyes underwent diode laser cyclophotocoagulation; 4 required repeat treatment. Most (89%) eyes had controlled intraocular pressure at the last follow-up. However, 76% of eyes with visual acuity of 20/200 or worse at initial evaluation did not have improved vision at the last follow-up. Eyes with Roper-Hall grade III or IV ocular chemical burns were more likely to have glaucoma and to require surgery for it. Outcomes of glaucoma management generally were good, although tube implant surgeries often had complications requiring revision. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Kaur, Manpreet; Agarwal, Tushar; Sangwan, Virender S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2017-09-19

    Ocular chemical burns are an ophthalmic emergency and are responsible for 11.5%-22.1% of ocular injuries. Immediate copious irrigation is universally recommended in acute ocular burns to remove the offending agent and minimize damage. Conventional medical therapy consists of the use of agents that promote epithelialization, minimize inflammation, and prevent cicatricial complications. Biological fluids such as autologous serum, umbilical cord blood serum, platelet-rich plasma, and amniotic membrane suspension are a rich source of growth factors and promote healing when used as adjuncts to conventional therapy. Surgical treatment of acute ocular burns includes the debridement of the necrotic tissue, application of tissue adhesives, tenoplasty, and tectonic keratoplasty. Amniotic membrane transplantation is a novel surgical treatment that is increasingly being used as an adjunct to conventional treatment to promote epithelial healing, minimize pain, and restore visual acuity. Various experimental treatments that aim to promote wound healing and minimize inflammation are being evaluated such as human mesenchymal and adipose stem cells, beta-1,3 glucan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cultivated fibroblasts, zinc desferrioxamine, antifibrinolytic agents, antioxidants, collagen cross-linking, and inhibitors of corneal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Myths on Chemical Burns in the Diaper Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kara

    2017-05-01

    Over the past several years, a number of articles and online posts have circulated on the Internet associating use of disposable and cloth diapers with chemical burns on babies' skin. Because both mild chemical burns and diaper dermatitis (diaper rash) can cause skin redness and peeling, it is not surprising that some confusion has arisen regarding the association between these two conditions. However, diapers cannot cause chemical burns because they are made of inert materials. Diaper rash and chemical burns are distinct conditions that require different evaluation and treatment, which is why it is important for pediatricians to help parents understand the difference.

  6. Accidental Chemical Burns of Oral Mucosa by Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Deo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate (GlySH is a broad spectrum, nonselective herbicide, widely used in agriculture. This case report describes a 25-year-old man presenting with extensive chemical burns and ulceration of the oral cavity as a result of accidental exposure to GlySH. This paper aims to illustrate the typical appearance of GlySH related chemical mucosal burn and to demonstrate the severity of the corrosive effect of GlySH which need team approach to prevent unfavorable sequelae such as microstomia. Keywords: Chemical burns, corrosive injury, glyphosate poisoning, herbicide, microstomia, oral mucosal burn.

  7. Epidemiologic Trends of Chemical Ocular Burns in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, R Sterling; Sheffield, Isaac D; Channa, Roomasa; Canner, Joseph K; Schneider, Eric B

    2016-10-01

    Determining the national epidemiologic trends of chemical ocular burns can assist physicians and policy makers in appropriate allocation of resources for treatment and prevention. To describe the epidemiologic trends and risk factors for chemical burns of the eye. Between August 1, 2015, and April 25, 2016, data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample were analyzed from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2013. A sample of 900 emergency departments (EDs) across the United States was used. Patients presenting to EDs with a diagnosis of alkali or acid ocular burn, chemical conjunctivitis, or a combination of nonspecific ocular chemical burn and chemical poisoning or toxic effects were eligible for inclusion. Injured patients' age, sex, primary health care insurance, income quartile, and other demographics were described. A subset consisting of those injuries identified as alkaline or acidic burns was further characterized. Age-specific rates of ED presentation for chemical ocular burn injuries, independent factors associated with all, alkali, and acid injuries, and total ED-associated charges. From January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2013, a total of 144 149 chemical ocular burns were diagnosed at EDs nationwide. Men represented 56.6% of all cases (n = 81 496). Median age was 32 years, with female patients presenting at a younger age than male patients (median of 32 vs 34 years; P ocular chemical injuries. Education and other interventions concerned with preventing these injuries will be most effective if used accordingly.

  8. Cutaneous chemical burns in children - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Bechar, Janak; Bella, Husam; Moiemen, Naiem

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals is an unusual causation of cutaneous burns in children. The aim of this study is to look at childhood chemical burns and compare this to adult chemical burns from the same population. A total of 2054 patients were referred to the pediatric burns unit during the study period. This included 24 cutaneous chemical burns, equating to an incidence of 1.1%. Over half of the injuries occurred in the domestic setting. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) affected was 1.9%. When compared to a cohort of adult patients from the same population with cutaneous chemical burns, the TBSA affected was identical (1.9%) but distribution favored the buttock and perineum in children, rather than the distal lower limb in adults. Children presented earlier, had lower rates of surgical intervention and had a shorter length of stay in hospital (p Chemical burns in children are rare, but are becoming more common in our region. It is important to be aware of the characteristic distribution, etiology and need to identify children at risk of child protection issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Amniotic membrane extraction solution for ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lingyi; Li, Wei; Ling, Shiqi; Sheha, Hosam; Qiu, Weiqiang; Li, Chaoyang; Liu, Zuguo

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane extract (AME) for ocular chemical burns. Prospective non-comparative interventional case series study. Consecutive 14 eyes of 11 patients with acute or chronic chemical burns, being recruited in one referral centre, received AME topically in combination with traditional treatment. Ocular discomfort, visual acuity, ocular surface inflammation, re-epithelialization, corneal thickness, corneal neovascularization and symblepharon were evaluated. Symptom relieved and ocular surface inflammation reduced dramatically in all eyes. Epithelial defect healed in all eyes with acute burns, in which less than 7 clock hours of limbus was involved, after 16.6 days (1-44 days) AME treatment. AME failed to close the epithelial defect in all eyes with chronic chemical burn coexisting diffuse limbal stem cell deficiency; however, the area of epithelial defect decreased to 58% (11.1%-68.2%) at final visit. During a follow-up period of 8.2 months (6-11 months), visual acuity improved in 12 eyes (86%). There was mild neovascularization in three eyes with grade III and IV acute burns, and slow progress of neovascularization in chronic burns. Mild symblepharon developed in two eyes with grade III and IV acute burns, whereas there was no significant progress of symblepharon in chronic cases. Although it is a preliminary and uncontrolled study, topical application of AME is effective in reducing inflammation, promoting reepithelization in the treatment of chemical burns, especially for mild to moderate acute cases.

  10. [Evidence for emergency treatment of chemical eye burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Jonas Vejvad Nørskov; Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the existing evidence on emergency treatment of chemical eye burns. Clinical studies show that patients receiving prompt eye irrigation after chemical burns had a significantly better clinical outcome. This is further collaborated in animal studies where prompt irrigation with diphoterine or borate buffer significantly lowered pH in the eye after alkali burns. Two of three studies showed that tap water significantly lowered pH as well, but only if it was administered within 60 seconds after exposure. Saline, however, did not cause any significant decrease in pH at all.

  11. [FUNCTIONING PROTEASES IN THE ESOPHAGUS MUCOSA AFTER CHEMICAL BURNS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, T V; Savchuk, O M; Raetska, Ya B; Vereschaka, V V; Ostapchenko, L I

    2015-01-01

    The main result of esophagus burn is the formation of scars, that caused by excessive synthesis of collagen and changes the balance of metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors. It was studied the activity of proteolytic enzymes, participation of MMP (metalloproteinase) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) in alkali burns of the esophagus 1st and 2nd degrees. We have shown a significant increase of TIMP level in homogenate after alkali burns of the esophagus (an average of 31-56% depend on of burn degree). We observed a reduced activity of serine proteinase after 1st degree burns on 15th, 21st day 35 and 18% respectively, after burns 2nd degree on 15th, 21st day 54 and 50%. The decrease of activity MMP after 1st degree burns on 15th and 21st day 30, 19%, respectively, in conditions of chemical burns 2nd degree on 15th and 21st day 30, 37%. These data may indicate the development of scarring after burn simulation of 2nd degree. Further investigation of the MMP and TIMP in the process of wound healing can be useful in creating effective approaches to prevent formation of post scarring of the esophagus.

  12. Epidemiology of 377 patients with chemical burns in Guangdong province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youfu; Tan, Yanyan; Tang, Shuze

    2004-09-01

    A total of 377 patients with chemical burns from all over Guangdong province were admitted to the Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital during the period from January 1987 to December 2001. There were 296 males and 81 females with a male to female ratio of 3.65:1. The mean age of the patients was 26 years. The majority of patients (89.2%) were in the age range of 15-60 years. Professionally, 244 patients (64.7%) were workers, of whom, 232 (95%) of patients were peasant workers. Most of the chemical burns occurred at places away from home (94.4%), especially in the working environment (67.8%). Only 20 patients (5.5%) were injured at home. Chemical burns by accident and by criminal assault were 337 (88.5%) and 40 (10.5%). Strong acids (60.8%), mainly sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, alkali (33.9%), mainly lime and sodium hydroxide were common causative agents. There was a relationship between the incidence of chemical burns and the season, with more patients in July-September and October-December. There were 215 (57.1%) patients who washed the burnsite with water immediately, but the volumes of water and time of washing were not adequate. Patients with total burn surface area (TBSA) of less than 10% comprised the majority of patients (72.7%), with 188 (65.7%) deep partial thickness burns, 116 (40.6%) with full thickness burns, and 60 (21%) with superficial burns. Extremities (lower limb 56.6% and upper limb 51.4%) were the most frequent area of injury. Ocular burns were the most common accompanying injury (14.7%). Operations of autografts and conjunctival flap were carried out on 159 (42.2%) patients. The average period of hospitalization was 22 days. Only 2 (0.7%) deaths occurred in this study. Counter measures to improve this situation must include safety productive education and professional training, use of protective clothing at work, enhancing the concept of legal responsibility, and restricting management and use of corrosive chemicals. Irrigation of the

  13. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.

    2013-10-15

    Biomass burning has lately started to attract attention because there is a need to decrease the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Biomass is considered as CO{sub 2} neutral fuel. However, the burning of biomass is one of the major sources of fine particles both at the local and global scale. In addition to the use of biomass as a fuel for heat energy production, biomass burning emissions can be caused, e.g. by slash-and-burn agriculture and wild open-land fires. Indeed, the emissions from biomass burning are crucially important for the assessment of the potential impacts on global climate and local air quality and hence on human health. The chemical composition of fine particles has a notable influence on these impacts. The overall object of this thesis was to gain knowledge on the chemistry of fine particles that originate from biomass burning as well as on the contribution of biomass burning emissions to the ambient fine particle concentrations. For this purpose novel analytical methods were developed and tested in this thesis. Moreover, the thesis is based on ambient aerosol measurements that were carried out in six European countries at 12 measurement sites during 2002-2011. Additionally, wood combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory. The measurements included a wide range of techniques: filter and impactor samplings, offline chemical analyses (chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques, thermal-optical method), and online measurements of particles' physical properties and chemical composition (incl. particle number and mass concentrations and size distributions, concentrations of carbonaceous components, water-soluble ions, and tracer compounds). This thesis presents main results of different studies aimed towards chemical characterisation of fine particle emissions from biomass burning. It was found that wood combustion had a significant influence on atmospheric fine particle concentrations in

  14. Partial-thickness corneal tissue restoration after a chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galan A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Galan, Anton Giulio Catania, Giuseppe Lo Giudice San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy Purpose: We describe a case of full-thickness corneal restoration after an acute corneal burn with an acid agent. Methods: A 32-year-old male reported painful discomfort, redness, photophobia, and a decrease in visual acuity in the left eye after a unilateral burn with an acid agent. Slit-lamp examination revealed massive corneal melting involving necrotic sequestrum of the entire corneal surface. Surgical approach was carried out in order to preserve residual ocular tissues. Results: Extensive corneal–conjunctival layer curettage of the necrotic tissue was performed showing perfectly clear undamaged deep lamellar corneal layers. The patient underwent multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation and total capsular–conjunctival flap in order to preserve ocular tissue from further melting or corneal perforation. A complete and spontaneous “restitutio ad integrum” of the corneal layers was shown during the follow-up. The cornea was perfectly clear with restored normal anatomical architecture. Conclusion: In this case, a spontaneous full-thickness corneal tissue restoration occurred after an acute chemical burn. Studies about the mechanisms whereby different cells interact and replicate within the stroma may unveil the biology behind corneal regeneration and transparency. Keywords: amniotic membrane, chemical burn, corneal healing

  15. Current scenario in chemical burns in a developing country: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, K.M.; Mathivanan, T.; Jayaraman, V.; Babu, M.; Shankar, J

    2012-01-01

    Summary Chemical burns are not uncommon in India. Both accidental and non-accidental chemical burns are encountered in our setting. In the paediatric age group, chemical burns are mainly accidental. Analysis of chemical burn admissions to the Burn Units of a medical college hospital, and to an exclusively tertiary care children's hospital in Chennai, India, from 2001 to 2010 is described. A total number of 75 adults and 38 children are included in the study. Detailed analysis of age, sex, percentage of burn total body surface area (TBSA %), causative agents, aetiology (accidental or non-accidental), treatment instituted, mortality, and outcome are reported. PMID:23012609

  16. Chemical characterisation of particle emissions from burning leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, Christoph; Bauer, Heidi; Dattler, Astrid; Hitzenberger, Regina; Weissenboeck, Gerlinde; Marr, Iain L.; Puxbaum, Hans

    Particulate matter emissions (PM10) from open-air burning of dry leaves were sampled and analysed for a series of organic and inorganic species, including carbon fractions, anhydrosugars, humic-like substances (HULIS), water-soluble ions, metals and organic trace components. The study was performed to investigate whether open-air burning of leaves in rural areas is a potential source of high amounts of unexplained organic matter (OM) in ambient PM. Results of the carbon analysis indicated that the amount of OM, more than 90% of emitted PM10, is significantly higher in smoke from leaves than from wood burning [Schmidl, C., Marr, I.L., Caseiro, A., Kotianova, P., Berner, A., Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Puxbaum, H., 2008. Chemical characterization of fine particle emissions from wood stove combustion of common woods growing in mid-European Alpine regions. Atmospheric Environment 42, 126-141, till now considered as the main combustion source of organic PM used in source apportionment. While the proportion of total carbon (TC), 67% of PM10, is very similar to that in wood smoke, the make-up of the total carbon is different. In wood smoke, levels of elemental carbon (EC) equivalent to soot, of around 20% were found, however in leaf smoke EC was very low, between 0 and 10% depending on the analytical methodology. In addition chemical markers were identified that permit the discrimination of wood smoke from leaf smoke in ambient PM samples. In particular the levels of anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, PAH and n-alkanes in leaf smoke differ significantly from those in wood smoke. The ratios of levoglucosan to galactosan and benzo[a]pyrene to tetracosane differ by an order of magnitude between smoke of leaf burning and that of typical mid-European firewood (Schmidl et al., 2008). Furthermore sugar alcohols were found in notable concentrations in leaf burning samples, which were not found in wood smoke. Complete chemical profiles for leaf burning as a particulate matter source

  17. Factors associated with chemical burns in Zhejiang province, China: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Rui M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Methods Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. Results In this study, 417 victims (87.61% got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58% worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Conclusions Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns.

  18. Factors associated with chemical burns in Zhejiang province, China: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan H; Han, Chun M; Chen, Guo X; Ye, Chun J; Jiang, Rui M; Liu, Li P; Ni, Liang F

    2011-09-30

    Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. In this study, 417 victims (87.61%) got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58%) worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns.

  19. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y

    2016-02-01

    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  20. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  1. Ten-year epidemiology of chemical burns in western Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chunjiang; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Han, Chunmao

    2016-05-01

    Chemical burns occur frequently in western Zhejiang Province. This study documents the epidemiology of chemical burns in the region using burn data from a local specialized hospital. Results from this analysis will assist in the planning of prevention strategies for high-risk occupations and groups. A 10-year retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients with chemical burns admitted to the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery from January 2004 to December 2013. Information obtained for each patient included demographics (gender, age, occupation and education), location of the burn, cause of the burn, and categories of chemicals. Data regarding the season of admittance, prehospital treatment, wound site/size (area, region, and depth), accompanying injuries, operations, length of hospital stay and mortality were also assessed. A total of 690 patients (619 males, 71 females; average age: 30.6±12.4 years) were admitted to the department for chemical burns. Over the 10-year period, the incidence of chemical burns showed an increasing tendency. Chemical burns occurred most frequently in patients aged 20-59 years (94.79%). Most of the chemical burns were work-related, primarily in private enterprises (47.97%) and state-owned enterprises (24.93%). Operations (68.99%) and machine problems (17.26%) were the main causes of chemical burns in the workplace. With regard to burns caused by chemicals, most were caused by acids (72.01%), with hydrofluoric acid and sulphuric acid causing 51.45%. Most chemical burns occurred in the summer and autumn seasons (61.02%). The burn size was burns covering >40% TBSA. The most common burn sites were the upper extremities (31.57%), lower extremities (19.86%), and head and neck (28.83%). Most patients (581 (84.20%)) received water washing treatment on site immediately after exposure. The most common accompanying injuries included inhalation injury, ocular burns and digestive tract injury. The average hospital stay was 17.0±23

  2. Chemical burns--an historical comparison and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Hunter, Thomas; Staruch, Robert; Moiemen, Naiem

    2012-05-01

    Chemical burns represent a small proportion of cutaneous burn with an incidence of up to 10.7%, but have been reported to account for up to 30% of all burn deaths. A review of the literature shows incidences ranging from 2.4% to 10.7%, with a substantial predominance in males. Adult patients with a burn referred to our Regional Burns Centre, over an eight-year period, were identified. 185 chemical burns were recorded (7.9%). The mean age of patient was 40 years (range 16-81 years) and male to female ratio was 6.4:1. Over three-quarters of chemical injuries occurred in the domestic or industrial setting. Acids caused 26% of all chemical burns and alkalis caused 55%. A previous study from the same centre highlights a change in the demographics of chemical burn over the last 25 years. The proportion of chemical burns has risen from 2.7% to 7.9%. Chemical burns occurring in an industrial setting, have dropped, whilst the number of domestic chemical burns has increased by over three times. This change reflects the improved industrial health and safety policy in recent years. The move from the industrial setting to the domestic has implications for future regulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. [Chemical burns caused by the shrub nerium oleander].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali, H; Ababou, M; Nassim Sabah, T; Moussaoui, A; Ennouhi, A; Fouadi, F Z; Siah, S; Ihrai, H

    2010-09-30

    Nerium Oleander is a shrub that grows naturally in the Mediterranean regions. In Morocco it is found in wet places. It is famous for its risk of systemic toxicity in cases of poisoning because of the presence of two alkaloids, especially oleandrine. The literature describes cases of local use of leaves of this plant against scabies, haemorrhoids, and boils. We report two cases of chemical burns of different gravity due to Nerium Oleander. This should lead to more widely diffused information for the general population and strict regulation of its marketing.

  4. Chemical Burn Injury in Kumasi: The Trend and Complications following and Their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbenorku, Pius; Akpaloo, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Aboah, Ken; Klutsey, Ellen; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Farhat, Boutros; Turkson, Edmund; Yorke, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Ametih, Richard; Hussey, Romeo

    2015-10-01

    A chemical burn refers to irritation and destruction of human tissue caused by exposure to a chemical, usually by direct contact with the chemical or its fumes. The study investigated the trend and complications following chemical burns and their management. The study involved a retrospective review of Burns Registry at the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital on patients who were admitted for burns from May 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. Chemical burns admissions accounted for 3.5% (n = 17) out of the total 487 burns cases, consisting of 12 males (70.6%) and 5 females (29.4%). Mean total burns surface area was 21.9%; mean length of stay in Burns Intensive Care Unit was 9.5 days. The etiological agents for the chemical burns included the following: hot caustic soda 1 (5.9%); acid 9 (53.9%)-the most common; hot ethanol 3 (17.6%); and other chemicals such as other bases, oxidizers, solvents, etc. accounted for 4 (23.5%) etiological agents. Outcome included 11 discharges (64.7%), 6 transferred out to other wards (35.3%), and 0 deaths (0.0%). The complications included severe scar contractures in 5 patients (29.4%), loss of vision: partial/total = 2 (11.8%), gross keloidal/hypertrophic scars = 10 (58.8%). Chemical burns are severe and often cause severe debilitating sequelae including partial/total loss of vision. But the current study showed that only a small population (3.5%) were affected by chemical burns and no death was recorded; society has to be continually conscious of chemicals, especially caustic agents, and hence take the necessary precautions so as to prevent these avoidable complications.

  5. Chemical Burn Injury in Kumasi: The Trend and Complications following and Their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpaloo, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Aboah, Ken; Klutsey, Ellen; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Farhat, Boutros; Turkson, Edmund; Yorke, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Ametih, Richard; Hussey, Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: A chemical burn refers to irritation and destruction of human tissue caused by exposure to a chemical, usually by direct contact with the chemical or its fumes. The study investigated the trend and complications following chemical burns and their management. Methods: The study involved a retrospective review of Burns Registry at the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital on patients who were admitted for burns from May 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. Results: Chemical burns admissions accounted for 3.5% (n = 17) out of the total 487 burns cases, consisting of 12 males (70.6%) and 5 females (29.4%). Mean total burns surface area was 21.9%; mean length of stay in Burns Intensive Care Unit was 9.5 days. The etiological agents for the chemical burns included the following: hot caustic soda 1 (5.9%); acid 9 (53.9%)—the most common; hot ethanol 3 (17.6%); and other chemicals such as other bases, oxidizers, solvents, etc. accounted for 4 (23.5%) etiological agents. Outcome included 11 discharges (64.7%), 6 transferred out to other wards (35.3%), and 0 deaths (0.0%). The complications included severe scar contractures in 5 patients (29.4%), loss of vision: partial/total = 2 (11.8%), gross keloidal/hypertrophic scars = 10 (58.8%). Conclusions: Chemical burns are severe and often cause severe debilitating sequelae including partial/total loss of vision. But the current study showed that only a small population (3.5%) were affected by chemical burns and no death was recorded; society has to be continually conscious of chemicals, especially caustic agents, and hence take the necessary precautions so as to prevent these avoidable complications. PMID:26579354

  6. [Epidemiological investigation of 615 patients with chemical burns in eastern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yuan-dang

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiological factors in the first aid, early management, and treatment of chemical burns. Medical records of 615 inpatients with chemical burns out of 2682 burn patients hospitalized from January 2001 to December 2010 were screened to retrospectively analyze the clinical data, including gender, age, burn area and depth, occurrence regularity, injury cause, injury-causing chemicals, wound site, complications, pre-hospital management, treatment and prognosis. Annual number of burn patients and annual number of patients with chemical burns were statistically analyzed with linear trend test. (1) Among all the chemical burn patients, 562 (91.4%) were male and 53 (8.6%) female. The mean age of patients was (32 ± 12) years. Burn area ranged from 1% to 95%, with mean area of (30 ± 25)% TBSA. Full-thickness burn area ranged from 0 to 85%, with mean area of (18 ± 24)% TBSA. (2) The annual number of burn patients showed a slow trend of increase during the last decade (χ(2) = 4.009, P chemical burns among the last decade (χ(2) = 0.060, P > 0.05). Chemical burns mainly occurred in summer and autumn, and the incidence gradually increased in April, peaked in August, and then gradually decreased. (3) Five hundred and seventy-two cases (93.0%) were injured while working, among these patients 70.8% (405/572) were injured in private enterprises. (4) Acid was the most common injury-causing chemical (299 patients, accounting for 48.6%). (5) The extremities and head were the most involved areas. (6) Among 615 patients with chemical burns, 47 cases (7.6%) were complicated by inhalation injury, 94 cases (15.3%) by ocular burns, 51 cases (8.3%) by combined injury, and 67 cases (10.9%) by poisoning. (7) Most patients did not receive (30.4%, 187/615) or only insufficient (61.1%, 376/615) immediate irrigation after injury in pre-hospital management. (8) Two hundred and twelve patients (34.5%) underwent skin grafting or flap transplantation after early total or

  7. Complex chemical burns following a mass casualty chemical plant incident: how optimal planning and organisation can make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tomás B; Rawlins, Jeremy; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona

    2012-08-01

    Four employees at a chemical plant sustained extensive chemical burns following the explosion of a pipeline containing 100% sulphuric acid. We describe the management of these patients from the initial ED triage through to discharge from hospital in life and limb threatening chemical burns. Four patients who sustained chemical burns to the torso and extremities are reviewed. Data was retrieved from patient case notes and operating theatre logbooks. Four patients sustained chemical burns during the blast and were immediately transferred to a local ED where a prompt referral was made to the burns service. All patients were male aged 25-59 years (mean 46.5). Burn size was 2-50% BSA (mean 22.5). Following RFDS transfer to the state burns service two patients required immediate excisional surgery. In these patients the chemical burn involved full thickness skin loss with extensive underlying muscle and neurovascular damage. One patient required immediate above knee amputation of one leg and fascial burn excision of the other. The other patient required fascial burn excision of both legs followed by Integra placement 24h later. Both patients had prolonged hospital stays due to the complex nature of their injuries requiring multiple trips to theatre and lengthy rehabilitation. The two patients with smaller burns had straightforward surgery and an unremarkable recovery. Early communication following this mass casualty incident allowed for organisation of tertiary services and early radical surgery which was life saving. Management lessons were learnt following this mass casualty chemical burn incident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreasing incidence of cutaneous chemical burns in a resource limited burn centre: is this a positive effect of modernization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnabuko, R E E; Okoye, C P; Ogbonnaya, I S; Isiwele, Egi

    2017-01-01

    Burns present a devastating injury to patients. Burns caused by chemical agents, present a worse scenario. In a resource limited country like Nigeria, readily available sources of these corrosive agents are mainly from lead-acid battery vendors and to some extent local small scale soap manufacturers who use caustic soda. We hypothesized that with the reduction in small scale soap manufacturing and increasing trend towards modernization in the use of dry cell batteries, chemical burns may be on the decline, and we sought to investigate this. The records of all acute burn patients seen at the Burns and Plastic Department of the National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu Nigeria between January 2011 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The results were compared to similar studies carried out at the same centre. A questionnaire was administered to corrosive chemical (sulphuric and caustic soda) vendors to assess the trends in product sales and use in recent times. A total of 624 acute burn cases were treated during the period; among which, 12 cases (1.9%) were chemical burns. When compared with previous studies at the centre, Chemical burn cases were  recorded as the lowest rate. The median age of patients was 24 years. There were eight males and four females. Interpersonal assault was the commonest mechanism of injury with sulphuric acid suspected to be the commonest agent in 83.3% of the cases, while 16.7% of the cases were from accidental use of caustic soda. The head and neck as well as the upper limbs were the most affected (30%). Twenty-six questionnaires to lead-acid vendors were analyzed and revealed that all respondents noticed a marked downward trend in the sale of either sulphuric acid or caustic soda, and they attributed this to the ready availability of imported alternatives to locally manufactured soap or wet lead-acid batteries. Ease of use, durability and convenience of the dry cell batteries were cited as principal reasons. There appears to be

  9. Garlic burn of the oral mucosa: A case report and review of self-treatment chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Richard J; Warner, Blake M; Potluri, Anitha; Prasad, Joanne L

    2017-10-01

    Inappropriate self-treatment with topically applied therapeutic or nontherapeutic agents frequently results in mucosal burns. Although such chemical burns typically are associated with misuse of analgesics, investigators also have reported them in conjunction with topical application of a variety of other agents. The authors report an unusual case of a 49-year-old man seeking care for maxillary tooth pain who had an oral mucosal burn of the maxillary vestibule caused by topical application of crushed raw garlic. The patient believed this treatment would alleviate his dental pain. Localized tissue necrosis was visible at the site of application. The authors instructed the patient to cease self-treatment with raw garlic but deemed treatment was otherwise unnecessary. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the second reported case of a garlic burn of the oral mucosa. The authors discuss the history of garlic as a naturopathic remedy, as well as the development of chemical burns associated with its topical use. The authors also review the literature on chemical burns caused by inappropriate self-treatment. Dentists should consider the possibility of an oral chemical burn when a patient has a destructive or necrotic mucosal lesion located near a painful tooth. In this report, the authors highlight the importance of obtaining a detailed clinical history to establish a proper diagnosis and proper patient education to prevent future mucosal injury from inappropriate self-treatment. Awareness and early recognition of this condition also will help diminish the probability of overtreatment. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Epidemiological investigation of 605 patients with chemical burns in northeastern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua; Liu, Feng-bin; Tian, Bao-xiang; Yang, Xiong; Lin, Hai-long; Liu, Yang; Wei, Chun-lin

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the pathogenic and clinical characteristics of chemical burns in recent years, so as to provide reference for its prevention and treatment. Medical records of patients with chemical burns out of 6299 burn patients admitted to our unit from January 1992 to December 2011 were screened and retrospectively analyzed, including gender, age, onset time of the injury, pre-hospital management, injury cause, injury-causing chemicals, body site of wound, burn area and depth, complications, treatment and follow-up results. The data of age distribution and incidence of complications were processed with chi-square test. Investigation showed that 605 out of 6299 burn patients (accounting for 9.60%) were chemically injured. (1) Among the patients with chemical burns, the ratio of male to female was 5.11:1.00, with the mean age of 37.6 years, and the highest incidence occurred in patients aged from 20 to 29 years (29.42%, 178/605). The difference in the numbers of patients among different age groups was statistically significant (χ(2) = 207.298, P Chemical burns mainly occurred in summer (28.43%, 172/605) and autumn (38.35%, 232/605). About 72.07% (436/605) of patients received irrigation before admission. (3) In 453 (74.88%) patients, injury occurred during industrial production. The main injury-causing chemicals were acid (46.61%, 282/605) and alkali (20.66%, 125/605), and among them the sulfuric acid accounted for the highest ratio (18.18%, 110/605). (4) The main wound positions of chemical burns were the limbs (289 patients) and the head, face, and neck region (263 patients). The mean burn area was 5.98% TBSA. The depth ranged from superficial partial-thickness to full-thickness. (5) Three hundred and forty-eight patients with chemical burns suffered common complications, including inhalation injury (154, 44.25%), ocular burns (113, 32.47%), and poisoning (81, 23.28%). There was statistically significant difference in the incidence of the three complications (

  11. Ten-year epidemiological study of chemical burns in Jinshan, Shanghai, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gao, Chengjin

    2013-11-01

    The epidemiological pattern of chemical burns varies widely in different areas of the world. To analyse effective preventive approaches, an insight into the pattern of injury is desirable. However, our data are only limited to Shanghai area, China. A 10-year retrospective review includes all patients with chemical burns admitted to the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery from January 2001 to December 2010; those who were admitted to the ophthalmologic department or other departments were excluded. The data collected included age, gender, injury pattern, patient workplaces, aetiological agents, incidence by month and year, burn size, burn depth and site, time for immediate irrigation, length of hospital stay and outcome. A total of 615 patients admitted to our department for in-hospital treatment of chemical burn injury were included in the study. The mean age was 32.1±12.3 years with a range of 2-66 years. A total of 562 cases (91.4%) were male and 53 cases (8.6%) female. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 30.3±24.7% with a mean full-thickness burn area of 17.5±23.8%. Most chemical burns took place in summer and fall. The majority of chemical burns were work related (93.0%); among them accidents that happened in private factories were predominant (70.8%). Although caustic soda was the leading cause of all chemical burns (15.8%), acid burn was the most common (45.2%). The extremities were the most frequent areas of injuries, followed by head and neck. Most cases had none (30.4%) or insufficient (61.1%) immediate irrigation after injury. In all patients, 47 cases had inhalation injuries, 94 cases accompanying ophthalmologic burns, 51 cases accompanying other associated injuries and 67 cases chemical toxicity. A total of 212 cases (34.5%) underwent early total or tangential excision and skin or skin flap grafting in the first week after injury. The mean length of hospital stay was 44.1±24.7 days. Sixteen cases died of respiratory failure, sepsis or

  12. An atypical cause of alkali chemical burn: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutefnouchet, T; Moiemen, N; Papini, R

    2010-12-31

    It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe.

  13. An Atypical Cause of Alkali Chemical Burn: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Boutefnouchet, T; Moiemen, N.; Papini, R.

    2010-01-01

    It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe.

  14. Pattern Of First Aid Treatment In Chemical Burns Of The Face In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the applications end up infecting the wound and converts partial thickness to full thickness burns, thereby worsening morbidity / mortality figures. A retrospective study was done on the pattern of first aid given in all chemical burns cases to the face presenting at National Orthopaedic Hospital (NOH ) Enugu between ...

  15. Methyl Iodide Exposure Presenting as Severe Chemical Burn Injury with Neurological Complications and Prolonged Respiratory Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Medved, Fabian; Rothenberger, Jens; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard

    Methyl iodide (iodomethane) is a monohalomethane that is mainly used as an intermediate in the manufacturing of different pharmaceuticals and pesticides. Until now, only 13 cases of methyl iodide poisoning have been described in the literature. The authors present the first case of severe chemical burn injury due to methyl iodide exposure in a 36-year-old Caucasian man who suffered superficial to partial-thickness burn injuries over 75% of his BSA and developed neurological malfunctions and prolonged respiratory insufficiency. Human poisoning with methyl iodide is very rare. In addition to the already described neurological symptoms and respiratory insufficiency, severe chemical burn injury can cause a life-threatening medical emergency.

  16. Eyelid reconstruction with acellular human dermal allograft after chemical and thermal burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaqi, Chen; Zheng, Wang; Jianjun, Gu

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of eyelid reconstruction with acellular dermal allograft in patients with eyelid defect after chemical and thermal burns. Eyelid reconstruction was performed in 15 eyelids of 13 patients during the period of June 2001-October 2004 by a single senior surgeon (Chen). Among them five patients had thermal burns, and eight patients had chemical burns. The acellular dermal allograft was used as a tarsus substitute that was sutured into the place between the levator aponeurosis in upper lid or retractor in lower eyelid and the remaining tarsus. After a mean follow-up of 9 months, satisfactory function and cosmesis were obtained. No implant rejection or severe complications were observed. Acellular dermal allograft may be used safely as a posterior lamellar spacer graft after chemical and thermal burns; the allograft appears to be biocompatible and does not aggravate the inflammation in the injured eyelid.

  17. Chemical burns revisited: What is the most appropriate method of decontamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of decontamination by immediate surgical debridement in the acute management of chemical burns as compared to conventional dilutional approaches by irrigation or wetting. A retrospective review of the medical records of patients admitted to the Burns Centre of the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, between 2001 and 2012, was performed. The time to recovery as reflected by the hospital stay for patients who had received immediate debridement, continuous irrigation, and wet packs was calculated and compared. A total of 99 patients were admitted for chemical burns (3.3% of total admissions). There were three mortalities. Immediate surgical debridement failed to achieve a faster recovery than irrigation or wet packs. Continuous water irrigation was better than wet packs in achieving earlier recovery. Continuous water irrigation remains the most preferred method of decontamination in acute chemical burn management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Infectious Keratitis in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Versus Chemical Burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byeong Soo; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Oh, Joo Youn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the incidence, clinical and microbiological characteristics, risk factors, and therapeutic outcome of infectious keratitis in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) related to Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and corneal chemical burn. Medical records of 90 eyes of 59 patients who were diagnosed with LSCD resulting from SJS (52 eyes of 29 patients) or corneal chemical burn (38 eyes of 30 patients) were reviewed. Infectious keratitis developed in 35% of LSCD patients with SJS (18 eyes, 14 patients) and in 18% of those with chemical burn (7 eyes, 7 patients). The development of infectious keratitis in SJS was significantly associated with the severity of chronic ocular surface complications in the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelids and with the use of topical corticosteroids during the disease course. All cases of infectious keratitis following chemical burn occurred in patients with grade III or IV burn by Roper-Hall classification. Approximately 83% of culture-proven cases of infectious keratitis were bacterial infection, most of which (80%) were caused by Gram-positive bacteria. For resolution of infection, 17 eyes (68%) received surgery in addition to medical treatment, whereas 8 eyes (32%) received medical treatment alone. After infection resolution, the final visual acuity was decreased in 10 eyes (40%) compared with before infection. Infectious keratitis is a common complication of LSCD associated with SJS or severe chemical burn to the cornea. Despite medical and surgical treatments, the visual outcome is poor.

  19. [Endoscopic treatment of chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandova, D A; Sogreshilin, S S; Pinchuk, T P; Klokova, T V; Il'iashenko, K K

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of acute poisoning with caustic substances in Russia is higher than in other countries and is reported by different authors as accounting for 10-32% cases among the patients admitted to acute poisoning treatment centres. Especially unfavorable prognosis is considered for necrotizing burns to the stomach that increase the risk of severe complications leading to disability of patients. The study aimed at improving the treatment of necrotizing chemical burn to the stomach by the infusion of a 5% Mexidole solution into the edges of a burn lesion at different stages of the treatment course. The paper presents the outcomes of patients who sustained chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis, and provides an assessment of early endoscopic treatment effect.

  20. Amniotic membrane traps and induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells in ocular surface chemical burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhai, Hualei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Dong, Yanling; Sun, Yajie; Zang, Xinjie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Severe chemical burns can cause necrosis of ocular surface tissues following the infiltration of inflammatory cells. It has been shown that amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) is an effective treatment for severe chemical burns, but the phenotypes of cells that infiltrate the amniotic membrane and the clinical significance of these cellular infiltrations have not previously been reported. The present work studies the inflammation cell traps and apoptosis inducing roles of the amniotic membrane after AMT in patients with acute chemical burns. Methods A total of 30 patients with acute alkaline burns were classified as having either moderate or severe burns. In all participants, AMT was performed within one week of his/her injury. After 7–9 days, the transplanted amniotic membranes were removed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques were used for the examination and detection of infiltrating cells, and tests for the expression of CD (cluster of differentiation)15, CD68, CD3, CD20, CD57, CD31, CD147, and CD95 (Fas) were performed. A TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) assay was used to confirm apoptosis of the infiltrating cells. Three patients with herpes simplex-induced keratitis who had undergone AMT to treat persistent epithelium defects were used as a control group. Amniotic membrane before transplantation was used as another control. Results After amniotic membrane transplantation, the number of infiltrating cells in patients with severe burns was significantly higher than in patients with moderate burns or in control patients (pburns patients, CD15 and CD68 were widely expressed in the infiltrating cells, and CD3, CD20, and CD57 were only found in a small number of cells. Occasionally, CD31-positive cells were found in the amniotic membranes. More cells that were CD147, Fas, and TUNEL positive were found in patients with severe burns than in patients with moderate burns or in control patients. Conclusions Neutrophils and

  1. [The experimental application of chitosan membrane for treating chemical burns of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorielov, M; Kalinkevich, O; Gortinskaya, E; Moskalenko, R; Tkachenko, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The basic method for skin damage treatment, including chemical wounds, is a topical application of different agents. Their objective is to repair structure of the skin and its functions. All dressings for treating wounds are classified as biological, artificial and composites containing both synthetic and natural materials. There are many studies concerning application of chitosan, which is a derivate of natural polymer chitin, as a basis for topical materials to treat burns. However, data are rather limited about application of chitosan for treating acid burns. Thus, the aim of research is to study the morphological futures of skin regeneration after the chemical burn applying chitosan membranes. We performed the experiment on 60 young rats (3 months old) with the chemical burns of third-degree (IIIA degree) to study the morphofunctional features of skin regeneration. Later we applied the chitosan membranes on the burns. We carried out a histologic investigation on the biopsy specimens of wound to determine the morphological features of wound regeneration. The results confirmed that earlier granulation and epithelialization of the skin surface happened as the chitosan membrane was applied on the acid effected surface. The final result of the application of chitosan film is to achieve full epithelialization, preserve the structure of tissues beneath the burn and prevent getting scars.

  2. [Eye irritation and chemical eye burns. Review of experimental and clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, A K; Frentz, M; Schrage, N F

    2011-10-01

    Chemical burns of the eye are becoming rare due to improvements in occupational protection. Effective decontamination is the foundation for good clinical results of this ophthalmological emergency. The toxicological aspect focuses on classifying the specific toxicity of a chemical substance by evaluating the degree of eye irritation and eye burns. Chemical substances are classified into defined risk levels by specific tests. The traditional ophthalmological approach is based on the clinical presentation of eye burns as a result of contact with a specific toxic substance. In an integral approach it is shown that substance-specific characteristics, such as concentration and specific reactivity as well as individual features, such as mode and duration of exposition have an influence on the clinical appearance of the tissue damage. The decontamination is dependent on the mode of action and the effectiveness of the decontamination solution. Amphoteric substances have the best effectiveness for decontamination of the eye due to their specific characteristics.

  3. "Tetracycline hydrochloride chemical burn" as self-inflicted mucogingival injury: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to oral soft tissue can be accidental, iatrogenic, and factitious trauma. Chemical, thermal, and physical agents are the main causative agents for oral soft-tissue burns. The present case describes the chemical burn of oral mucosa caused by tetracycline hydrochloride and its management. Diagnosis was made on the basis of definitive history elicited from the patient. The early detection of the lesion by the patient and immediate institution of therapeutic measures ensure a rapid cure and possible prevention of further mucogingival damage. In addition, we believe that proper guidance and education of the patient is an important prophylactic measure in preventing this self-inflicting injury.

  4. A unique case presentation of recurrent self-inflicted chemical burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kesey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old man was admitted to multiple burn facilities five years after an initial work-related chemical burn to his hand, with the claim of a non-healing burn. Further investigation identified characteristics of self-inflicted burn for primary and secondary gain. A literature review of clinically relevant case studies is presented to aid in the identification and diagnosis of suspected factitious illness. Factitious disorders of the hand are frequently under-reported due to variability in presentation, difficulty in detection, and the need for repeat observations necessary for psychological diagnosis. This case serves to highlight key techniques in clinical approach and management for malingering disorders of the upper extremity.

  5. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  6. A systematic review of methods of eye irrigation for adults and children with ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Janita P C; Lee, Diana T F; Lo, Suzanne H S

    2012-08-01

    To present the best available research evidence on eye irrigation methods for ocular chemical burns to facilitate better-informed clinical decisions. Randomized, quasi-randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing the effectiveness of eye irrigation methods among adults or children as an active form of emergency treatment for ocular chemical burns were reviewed. Electronic databases in English and Chinese were searched from inception to June 2010. Two reviewers made independent decisions on whether to include each publication in the review and critically appraised the study quality independently. Given the clinical and methodological diversity among the studies, the review findings are presented in a narrative form. Four studies involving 302 adults and children were identified. The results of this review indicate that patients who underwent irrigation with tap water immediately following alkali burns at the scene of injury had significantly better clinical and ocular outcomes. The evidence also suggests that in hospital settings, more patients preferred balanced saline solution (BSS) plus than other irrigation fluids. Irrigation with diphoterine was found in one study that resulted in better ocular outcomes following grade 1 and 2 ocular burns. With regard to duration of eye irrigation, patients with ocular chemical burns treated with prolonged irrigation reported shorter duration of treatment at hospital and absence from work. The results should be treated with caution, as there were significant differences between the comparison groups in some studies. As prompt eye irrigation with tap water immediately after alkali burns had better outcomes, it would be important to commence eye irrigation immediately after burns are sustained. In this review, irrigating fluids including normal saline, lactated Ringer's, normal saline with sodium bicarbonate added, BSS Plus, and diphoterine solutions all yielded positive ocular outcomes suggesting for its use

  7. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the ninth story in a series of chemical mysteries with emphasis on forensic chemistry, physical properties, and qualitative organic analysis. The mystery centers around the adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (DDR)

  8. Clinical and forensic signs related to chemical burns: a mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Félix; Moreira, Roxana; Proença, Jorge Brandão; Santos, Agostinho; Duarte, José Alberto; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Magalhães, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript highlights and critically analyses clinical and forensic signs related to chemical burns. Signs that may lead to suspicion of a particular chemical are thoroughly discussed regarding its underlying mechanisms. Burns due to sulfuric, hydrofluoric, nitric, hydrochloric (muriatic) and acetic (including derivatives) acids, hydrogen sulphide, sodium (caustic soda) and calcium (cement) hydroxides, paraquat, burns after inflation and rupture of airbags, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine/alcohol (in preterm infants), laxatives, and vesicants (warfare agents), will be reviewed since these are the most common agents found in daily practice, for which relevant and timed information may be helpful in formulating an emergency treatment protocols and toxicological analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidence of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Chemical Burns to the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michelle L; Chodosh, James; Jang, Jisun; Dohlman, Claes

    2015-12-01

    This population-based observational study was designed to estimate the incidence and distribution of SJS-spectrum (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and toxic epidermal Necrolysis/Stevens-Johnson syndrome overlap) and chemical burns (alkali or acid burn of the cornea/conjunctiva) in the United States and extrapolate these numbers to the world. All patients evaluated in 961 hospital-based US emergency departments between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012 were identified retrospectively using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. SJS-spectrum and chemical burn cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes. A mean of 3834 new SJS-spectrum cases per year were identified in the United States, resulting in an incidence rate of 12.35 new cases per million per year. Similarly, a mean of 15,865 new chemical burn cases per year were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 51.10 new cases per million per year. If the incidence of SJS-spectrum is approximately uniform the world-over, extrapolation from the US figure would amount to approximately 86,500 new cases per year in the world. Extrapolation of ocular chemical burns to the world is difficult because the incidence and severity are anticipated to be higher in the developing world than in the United States. Still, using a US incidence rate, a minimum of 357,710 burn accidents would be expected to occur worldwide every year; there are presently too few data available to calculate the degree of severity and bilaterality.

  10. A cause of severe chemical burn: topical application of herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacor-Altuntas, Z; Ince, B; Dadaci, M; Altuntas, M

    2014-09-30

    We report a 73-year-old male patient with progressive chemical burn on his lower extremities following topical application of a mixture of the oils derived from Rosmarinus officinalis, Brassica nigra alba and Laurus nobilis. It should be kept in mind that herbal medicines which seem harmless can sometimes be dangerous and life-threatening, especially in elderly and diabetic patients.

  11. Pattern of chemical burns injuries to the face in Enugu, Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The face lends itself readily to attack, being the most accessible to an assailant. These injuries leave in their wake, formidable functional and aesthetic challenges to the victim and the surgeon. The pattern of chemical burns injuries to the face is hereby highlighted. Objective: The objective is to highlight the ...

  12. Chlorhexidine-Induced Chemical Burns in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Iria; Ravaioli, Giulia Maria; Faldella, Giacomo; Capretti, Maria Grazia; Arcuri, Santo; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2017-12-01

    Skin disinfection with chlorhexidine gluconate has not been standardized in preterm infants. We present 5 cases of chemical burns that occurred within the first 2 days of life in very low birth weight neonates after skin disinfection with aqueous and alcohol-based chlorhexidine solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pattern Of First Aid Treatment In Chemical Burns Of The Face In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When burns occur in Nigeria, the first reaction is panic by relations and neighbours. All manner of suggestions are made to the victim and his relations by by-standers. Local applications of groundnut oil, palm oil, engine oil, kerosene and other forms of chemicals are usually made in a bid to attenuate the damage as well as ...

  14. [Combination of a universal antidote and temporary skin substitute for chemical burns: Extended case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, E; Schopp, B E; Lindert, J; Krämer, R; Kisch, T; Mailänder, P; Stang, F

    2015-09-01

    In this article we describe our experiences in the treatment of chemical burns with Diphoterine(®) solution and Suprathel(®) as a temporary skin substitute material, a treatment which in the past was not commonly used for this pattern of injuries. In the study period from October 2012 to December 2013 we treated five patients (four male and one female including two children and three adults) with chemical burns by decontamination with Diphoterine(®) and wound covering with Suprathel(®). The control group included five patients with similar injury patterns who were treated with Diphoterine(®) and occlusive wound dressings. No wound infections occurred in any of the five cases and no interactions were observed between Suprathel(®) and the chemical substance involved. In four cases the skin areas with IIa-IIb degree damage showed good wound healing and only slight scarring in the follow-up after 3 months and one of the five patients had to be treated surgically. Suprathel(®) can be used as a temporary skin substitute for the treatment of skin burns and is also available for the treatment of chemical burns.

  15. Size and chemical characterization of individual particles resulting from biomass burning of local southern California species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip J. Silva; Don-Yuan Liu; Christopher A. Noble; Kimberly A. Prather

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition and size of individual particles derived from combustion products of several species found in Southern California were obtained using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The major inorganic species observed in >90% of all biomass burning particles is potassium, indicated by the atomic ion, as well as clusters containing chloride,...

  16. Treatment of corneal chemical alkali burns with a crosslinked thiolated hyaluronic acid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Gina L; Wirostko, Barbara; Lee, Hee-Kyoung; Cornell, Lauren E; McDaniel, Jennifer S; Zamora, David O; Johnson, Anthony J

    2018-02-08

    The study objective was to test the utilization of a crosslinked, thiolated hyaluronic acid (CMHA-S) film for treating corneal chemical burns. Burns 5.5mm in diameter were created on 10 anesthetized, male New Zealand white rabbits by placing a 1N NaOH soaked circular filter paper onto the cornea for 30s. Wounds were immediately rinsed with balanced salt solution (BSS). CMHA-S films were placed in the left inferior fornix of five injured and five uninjured animals. Five animals received no treatment. At 0h, 48h, 96h, and on day 14 post chemical burn creation, eyes were evaluated by white light imaging, fluorescein staining, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Corneal histology was performed using H&E and Masson's Trichrome stains. Image analysis indicated biocompatible CMHA-S treatment resulted in significant decreases in the areas of corneal opacity at 48h, 96h, and on day 14 postoperatively. A significant increase in re-epithelialization was seen 14days post injury. CMHA-S treated corneas showed significantly less edema than untreated burns. No pathological differences were observed in corneal histological samples as a result of CMHA-S treatment. CMHA-S films facilitate re-epithelialization and decrease the area of corneal opacity in our corneal alkali burn rabbit model. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass chemical casualties: treatment of 41 patients with burns by anhydrous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zheng, Xing-Feng; Ma, Bing; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Guang-Yi; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a chemical burn incident that occurred on 31 August 2013 in Shanghai. We describe situations at the scene, emergency management, triage, evacuation, and follow-up of the victims. The scene of the incident and information on the 41 victims of this industrial chemical incident were investigated. The emergency management, triage, evacuation, and hospitalization data of the patients were summarized. At the time of the incident, 58 employees were working in a closed refrigerator workshop, 41 of whom sustained burns following the leakage of anhydrous ammonia. Ten victims died of severe inhalation injury at the scene, and another five victims died during the process of evacuation to the nearest hospital. After receiving information on the incident, a contingency plan for the burn disaster was launched immediately, and a first-aid group and an emergency and triage group were dispatched by the Changhai Hospital to the scene to aid the medical organization, emergency management, triage, and evacuation. All casualties were first rushed to the nearest hospital by ambulance. The six most serious patients with inhalation injuries were evacuated to the Changhai Hospital and admitted to the burn intensive care unit (BICU) for further treatment, one of whom died of respiratory failure and pulmonary infection. This mass casualty incident of anhydrous ammonia leakage caused potential devastating effects to the society, especially to the victims and their families. Early first-aid organization, emergency management, triage, and evacuation were of paramount importance, especially rapid evaluation of the severity of inhalation injury, and subsequent corresponding medical treatment. The prognosis of ammonia burns was poor and the sequelae were severe. Management and treatment lessons were drawn from this mass casualty chemical burn incident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical Characterization of Pineapple Leaf Residue Chars generated by Controlled Combustion and by open burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng L.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare the chemical characteristics of pineapple leave residues (PLRs char generated by controlled combustion and by open burning. The properties of char generated by control combustion (CC and open burning (OB varied, due to differences in the production process. The total N, K and surface area of the char generated by CC were significantly higher than the OB. The results indicate that the CC process was better to be applied as a soil amendment than was the OB process.

  19. Management of ocular conditions in the burn unit: thermal and chemical burns and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Patel, Neha; Yoo, David; DeMartelaere, Sheri; Bouchard, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Patients in burn intensive care units suffer from potentially life-threatening conditions including thermal or chemical burns and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. There is often involvement of the ocular surface or adnexal structures which may be present at the time of hospital admission or may develop later in the hospital course. This article will describe the types of ocular burns, the mechanisms and manifestations of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, the circumstances that may influence outcome, and acute and long-term treatment strategies, including new and evolving options.

  20. Epidemiology and outcome of chemical burn patients admitted in burn unit of JNMC hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India: A 5-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sohaib Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical variable of chemical burns, and their outcomes to prevent or reduce the frequency and morbidity of such injuries. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all the patients with chemical burns admitted at author′s center between November 2008 and December 2013. All the patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, total body surface area, etiology, treatment given, morbidity, mortality, final outcome, and then educated regarding specific preventive measures. Results: A total of 96 patients (2.4% of total burn admissions (42 males and 54 females were admitted to our hospital with chemical burn injuries. Most of the patients were in the age group of 16-30 years. Incidence in females was slightly higher than in males. Acid was found to be the most common cause of injury. We found 55% patients admitted had 30% TBSA. Morbidity was noticed in the form of skin defect in 80% of cases, soft tissue defect with exposed tendon, bone, or vessels in 16% of cases, and 4% of patients developed contracture and hypertrophic scar. Eighty-six percent of patients required operative intervention. A total of three deaths (3% were recorded. Conclusion: It was found that chemical burns, though not very common, are deeper burns and can be accidental or non-accidental, and the high-risk age group is 16-25 years. Chemical burns are largely preventable and if properly managed have a good outcome.

  1. [Preliminary study of Boston keratoprosthesis in treatment of severe late stage ocular chemical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-qi; Zhai, Jia-jie; Gu, Jian-jun; Shao, Ying-feng; Liu, Yong-min; Yuan, Jin; Zhou, Shi-you

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate preliminary clinical outcome of Boston type I keratoprosthesis in ocular chemical burn patients. Six keratoprosthesis were implanted into 6 patients of bilateral blindness. Visual acuity in these patients before the operation was light perception and all of them were unsuitable for standard penetrating corneal transplantation. The causes for corneal opacity were alkali burn in 2, sulfate acid burn in 3 and ethanol injury in 1 patient. Shirmer's test revealed severe dry eye in 3 patients, only one eye had normal lacrimal secretion. All patients were male, with follow-up period ranged from 17 to 26 months (mean 24 months). The postoperative visual acuity ranged from 0.05 to 0.5, 5 of them was better than 0.1. The retention rate within the follow-up period was 100%. Intraocular pressure was in normal limit, no retinal detachment was detected by type B ultrasonic examination. Postoperatively, retro-keratoprosthestic membrane occurred in 2 cases and was treated with YAG laser membranectomy, one eye complicated with elevated intraocular pressure and treated with shunt implantation. The Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis is a viable option for patients with obsolete chemical burns.

  2. Tenonplasty Combined With Free Oral Buccal Mucosa Autografts for Repair of Sclerocorneal Melt Caused by Chemical Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyong; Tian, Ying; Zhu, Haifeng; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    To describe a surgical technique for repair of an intractable sclerocorneal melt caused by a serious chemical burn. This study includes a technique description and review of 3 representative cases. The combination of tenonplasty with a free oral buccal mucosa autograft was used in 3 patients with sclerocorneal melts caused by chemical burns. Promising results were found in each of them. The area of the sclerocorneal melt healed successfully after surgery, and the integrities of the eyeballs were salvaged. This technique provides a new method for surgical repair of an intractable sclerocorneal melt caused by a chemical burn.

  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and chemical burns after exposure to chlorine-containing bleach: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hong-Joon; Chang, Jin-Sun; Ahn, Seong; Kim, Tae-Ok; Park, Cheol-Kyu; Lim, Jung-Hwan; Oh, In-Jae; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Kim, Young-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Chlorine-containing bleach can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and chemical burns. However, simultaneous occurrence of the two conditions caused by this agent is very rare. We describe the case of a 74-year-old female who presented with shortness of breath and hemoptysis following accidental exposure to chlorine-containing bleach. She had second- to third-degree chemical burns on both buttocks and thighs, and received mechanical ventilation because of the development of ARDS. Mechanical ventilation was discontinued on day 6 of hospitalization because of the rapid improvement of hypoxemia, and the patient was transferred to another hospital for further management of the chemical burns on day 18.

  4. [Late complications after chemical burns of the ocular surface. Surgical strategies for ocular surface reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Cursiefen, C

    2011-10-01

    Severe chemical burns of the ocular surface frequently result in long-standing and ongoing disorders of the conjunctiva and the cornea including conjunctival scarring with shortening of the fornix, cicatricial entropion, complications caused by trichiasis and scarring or chronic ulceration of the cornea. Advanced destruction of limbal stem cells leads to limbal stem cell deficiency with conjunctivalization of the cornea. Surgical therapy aims at the correction of malpositioning of the lids, the reconstruction of the conjunctiva and the fornix utilizing applicable tissue grafts and the reestablishment of a stable, avascular and transparent corneal epithelium by e.g. transplantation of epithelial stem cells. Progressive corneal ulcerations unresponsive to medical therapy can be treated by amniotic membrane transplantation, corneal transplantation or by conjunctival covering depending on the extent of damaged tissue. The surgical therapy of patients after severe chemical burns of the ocular surface is generally performed in specialized centers and occasionally requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  5. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular chemical burns in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikachalam, S; Kaliaperumal, Subashini; Srinivasan, Renuka; Sahu, Pramod Kumar

    2011-08-01

    An ocular burn injury with calcium hydroxide with opaque cornea and limbal ischaemia of more than 270 degrees which was treated byamniotic membrane transplantation on the 6th day following injury is reported. Postoperatively the ocular surface remained stable with no inflammation, vascularisation or infection. Amniotic membrane restored conjunctival surface much earlier than corneal surface and prevented symblepharon formation. We believe that amniotic membrane transplantation may be considered in acute phase of severe chemical injury for a more favourable prognosis.

  6. Chemical Burn from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2015-06-01

    "Natural home remedies" for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar.

  7. Size-resolved chemical composition, effective density, and optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jinghao; Lu, Xiaohui; Li, Ling; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ci; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-06-01

    Biomass burning aerosol has an important impact on the global radiative budget. A better understanding of the correlations between the mixing states of biomass burning particles and their optical properties is the goal of a number of current studies. In this work, the effective density, chemical composition, and optical properties of rice straw burning particles in the size range of 50-400 nm were measured using a suite of online methods. We found that the major components of particles produced by burning rice straw included black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and potassium salts, but the mixing states of particles were strongly size dependent. Particles of 50 nm had the smallest effective density (1.16 g cm-3) due to a relatively large proportion of aggregate BC. The average effective densities of 100-400 nm particles ranged from 1.35 to 1.51 g cm-3 with OC and inorganic salts as dominant components. Both density distribution and single-particle mass spectrometry showed more complex mixing states in larger particles. Upon heating, the separation of the effective density distribution modes confirmed the external mixing state of less-volatile BC or soot and potassium salts. The size-resolved optical properties of biomass burning particles were investigated at two wavelengths (λ = 450 and 530 nm). The single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed the lowest value for 50 nm particles (0.741 ± 0.007 and 0.889 ± 0.006) because of the larger proportion of BC content. Brown carbon played an important role for the SSA of 100-400 nm particles. The Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) values for all particles were above 1.6, indicating the significant presence of brown carbon in all sizes. Concurrent measurements in our work provide a basis for discussing the physicochemical properties of biomass burning aerosol and its effects on the global climate and atmospheric environment.

  8. The clinical efficacy of Diphoterine® in the management of cutaneous chemical burns: a 2-year evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack-Williams, S D L; Ahmad, Z; Moiemen, N S

    2015-03-31

    Diphoterine(®) is an amphoteric irrigating agent for the treatment of chemical burns and rapidly neutralises both acids and alkalis faster than water alone. Diphoterine(®) is widely used as a first aid agent in a wide range of industries globally. This is a retrospective review of the clinical use of Diphoterine(®) on chemical burns in an adult tertiary referral burn centre, often with a delay of several hours after the injury. patients admitted with chemical burns within 24 hours of the incident with an abnormal wound pH or in pain, were treated with Diphoterine(®) spray. Over a 32-month period, 1,875 burn referrals were admitted of which 131 (7%) were chemical burns. Diphoterine(®) was used in 47 patients (36%). The male to female ratio for the 131 patients was 4:1. Alkaline burns were the commonest (55%). patients who received Diphoterine(®) were significantly younger (38 vs 43 years; p=0.05) and presented earlier (0.5 vs 2.55 days; p=0.004). There was a significant change in the wound pH pre- and post-application of Diphoterine(®), compared to patients who were treated with water irrigation only, with a pH change of 1.076 vs 0.4 (p burns.

  9. Oxygen therapy for acute ocular chemical or thermal burns: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifipour, Farideh; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Idani, Esmaeil; Zamani, Mitra; Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of systemic oxygen therapy in the management of acute ocular chemical and thermal burns. Prospective, nonrandomized, comparative, interventional case series. Twenty-four eyes of 22 patients with grade III to IV acute ocular chemical and thermal burns received conventional medical therapy. The oxygen therapy group (13 eyes) additionally received 100% oxygen using a simple mask at a flow rate of 10 L/minute for 1 hour twice daily. Main outcome measures were time for healing of the corneal epithelial defect and improvement in perilimbal ischemia. Secondary outcome measures included visual acuity, corneal transparency and vascularization, and complications. Corneal epithelial defects healed within 15.23 ± 3.94 days (range, 10 to 21 days) in the oxygen group versus 59.9 ± 23.33 days (range, 28 to 95 days) in controls (P ocular chemical or thermal burns, oxygen therapy improves limbal ischemia, accelerates epithelialization, increases corneal transparency, and decreases corneal vascularization. It also may improve visual acuity and reduce complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Absorptivity of brown carbon in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saleh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to investigate light absorption of organic aerosol (OA in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions. The experiments considered residential hardwood fuel (oak and fuels commonly consumed in wild-land and prescribed fires in the United States (pocosin pine and gallberry. Photo-chemical aging was performed in an environmental chamber. We constrained the effective light-absorption properties of the OA using conservative limiting assumptions, and found that both primary organic aerosol (POA in the fresh emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by photo-chemical aging contain brown carbon, and absorb light to a significant extent. This work presents the first direct evidence that SOA produced in aged biomass-burning emissions is absorptive. For the investigated fuels, SOA is less absorptive than POA in the long visible, but exhibits stronger wavelength-dependence and is more absorptive in the short visible and near-UV. Light absorption by SOA in biomass-burning emissions might be an important contributor to the global radiative forcing budget.

  11. Vision-related quality of life in patients with ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Qihua; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xin; Li, Yimin; Hong, Jiaxu; Xu, Jianjiang

    2011-11-21

    To assess vision-related quality of life in patients with ocular chemical burns by the application of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Eighty-seven patients with ocular chemical burns were enrolled in the study from January 1 through May 31, 2010. Apart from the collection of sociodemographic and clinical data, NEI VFQ-25 with an additional appendix question, being translated to Chinese, was administered to all subjects. Main outcome measures were comparison of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores among subgroups and multivariate analysis of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale scores. Fifty-five subjects were bilaterally burned and the rest were unilaterally injured. The mean age of enrolled subjects was 39.4 ± 11.6 years, with the majority being male (98.9%) and worker (77.0%); the mean composite score of all subjects was 40.4 ± 23.8. The composite score and majority subscale scores of binocularly injured patients were significantly lower than those of monocularly injured patients. Further comparisons among groups divided by either clinical severity classification or best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) produced similar results. The BCVA of both the better-seeing eye and the worse-seeing eye strongly correlated with the NEI VFQ-25 composite score (ρ = 0.664 and 0.498, both P = 0.000). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the VFQ-25 composite score correlated significantly with the following independent variables: BCVA of the better-seeing eye and the worse-seeing eye, the injury classification of the less severely injured eye, and correct and immediate irrigation after injury as well. Ocular chemical burns have a significant and extensive impact on patients' visual function outcomes and vision-related quality of life.

  12. Prophylactic effect of topical silica nanoparticles as a novel antineovascularization agent for inhibiting corneal neovascularization following chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: SiNPs is an effective modality for inhibiting corneal neovascularization following chemical burn in an experimental model. Further investigations are suggested for evaluation of its safety and efficacy in human eyes.

  13. Boston Keratoprosthesis Outcomes in Severe Ocular Chemical Burns in Southern China: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianjun; Zhai, Jiajie; Zhou, Sheng; Chen, Jiaqi

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to report clinical outcomes (functional and anatomic) of Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) after severe chemical burns in Southern China. Nineteen patients (19 eyes) that sustained severe chemical injuries in Southern China were enrolled in this retrospective study in our hospital between May 2009 and June 2015. KPro implantation in these patients was performed by a single experienced surgeon (Jiaqi Chen). The parameters evaluated in this study included diagnosis, comorbidity, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity (VA), complications, KPro retention, histological and immunohistochemical results of retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) and mucous membrane over the optic cylinder. The mean age of the patients was 42.7 ± 11.3 years (range 29-62 years). All patients were male. Of the 19 included eyes, nine had acid burns, and 10 had alkali burns. Ten patients had previously undergone failed penetrating keratoplasty. The mean follow-up time was 41.3 ± 5.5 months (range 36-56 months). Preoperatively, the VA of the patients ranged from hand movement to light perception. Postoperatively, 17 patients (89.4%) achieved at least 20/200 once, and 7 patients (36.8%) achieved at least 20/200 and maintained this acuity until the last follow-up. The initial KPro was retained in 14 (73.6%) eyes and successfully replaced in one eye. Postoperative complications included RPM in 10 eyes, glaucoma in 6 eyes, retinal detachment in 2 eyes, corneal melting in 5 eyes, ischemic optic neuropathy in 1 eye, and overgrowth of the mucous membrane over the optical cylinder in 2 eyes. The histological and immunohistochemical results of the RPM showed granulomatous disorders and mucous membrane over the optic cylinder of conjunctival origin. KPro surgery can restore useful vision in patients suffering from severe chemical burns. However, postoperative VA declined with the development of complications, and ocular surface disorders caused by the chemical burns

  14. Efficacy of amniotic membrane patching for acute chemical and thermal ocular burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhasawat, Pinnita; Tesavibul, Nattaporn; Prakairungthong, Nauljira; Booranapong, Wipawee

    2007-02-01

    To study the efficacy of amniotic membrane patching (AMP) for acute chemical and thermal ocular burns and compare the results with a control group. Fifteen patients (21 eyes) with acute ocular burn severity grading of II to IV were retrospectively reviewed. Thirteen eyes were treated with preserved AMP while eight eyes were treated with conventional treatment. Outcomes and complications were evaluated and compared between eyes in the AMP group and the control group with the same severity of burn. In the AMP group, the mean age was 36.9 +/- 11.7 years (range, 20-58). The mean follow-up time was 8.0 +/- 6.8 months (range, 1-20). Complete epithelialization was achieved in 69.2% (9/13 eyes) in total, 100% (5/5 eyes), 100% (3/3 eyes) and 20% (1/5 eyes) in grade II, III and IV respectively. Mean epithelial healing time in the AMP group was 10.4 +/- 5.8 days (range, 4-20). Comparison of grade 2 and 3 burns showed that the AMP group in which patching was performed within 5 days resulted in faster epithelial healing, less corneal haze and limbal deficiency than in the group in which patching was performed after 5 days, and the control group (mean epithelial defect 7.0 +/- 2.0, 19.5 +/- 0.7, 9.9 +/- 10.8 days respectively). Adjunctive treatment of ocular burns with AMP promoted rapid epithelial healing and reduced corneal complication. Surgery performed in the early stage tended to yield a better outcome.

  15. Correlation analysis of inflammatory cytokine concentrations of patients' tears with chemical burns of the ocular surface and its prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Hua Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the correlation of inflammatory cytokine(TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6concentrations of patients' tears with chemical burns of the ocular surface and its severity and prognosis.METHODS: Totally, 66 cases(80 eyesof chemical burns of the ocular surface were divided to 4 degrees according to Roper-Hall classificatory criteria, with 35 cases(44 eyesof degree I and II, 22 cases(25 eyesof degree III, 9 cases(11 eyesof degree IV. The concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in tears was detected by ELISA, and there were 12 healthy people as control group.RESULTS: The concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in patients with chemical burns of the ocular surface was higher than control group(P degree III > degree I and II(PPCONCLUSION: The concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in patients with chemical burns of the ocular surface rises dramatically, with the increase of Roper-Hall classificatory criteria. With the increase of concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, the blinding rate rises. There would be of great significance of inflammatory cytokine concentrations for judging the severity and prognosis of patients with chemical burns of ocular burn.

  16. Iatrogenic Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic burns are rare complications that can occur after using medical devices and chemicals in hospitals. Usually, these burns are deep and cause additional morbidity to patients. In this article, 6 iatrogenic burn patients referred to our department are presented, and predisposing factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  17. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols from a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-RES-TOF-AMS was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While these types of extensive BB events are not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS. The average EBRI for a mixed population of aerosols dominated by open fires was m = 1.53(±0.03 + 0.07i(±0.03, during the smoldering phase of the fires we found the EBRI to be m = 1.54(±0.01 + 0.04i(±0.01 compared to m = 1.49(±0.01 + 0.02i(±0.01 of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  18. Multiphase chemical kinetics of NO3 radicals reacting with organic aerosol components from biomass burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Pöschl, Ulrich; Knopf, Daniel A

    2012-06-19

    Multiphase reactions with nitrate radicals are among the most important chemical aging processes of organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere especially at nighttime. Reactive uptake of NO(3) by organic compounds has been observed in a number of studies, but the pathways of mass transport and chemical reaction remained unclear. Here we apply kinetic flux models to experimental NO(3) exposure studies. The model accounts for gas phase diffusion within a cylindrical flow tube, reversible adsorption of NO(3), surface-bulk exchange, bulk diffusion, and chemical reactions from the gas-condensed phase interface to the bulk. We resolve the relative contributions of surface and bulk reactions to the uptake of NO(3) by levoglucosan and abietic acid, which serve as surrogates and molecular markers of biomass burning aerosol (BBA). Applying the kinetic flux model, we provide the first estimate of the diffusion coefficient of NO(3) in amorphous solid organic matrices (10(-8)-10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)) and show that molecular markers are well-conserved in the bulk of solid BBA particles but undergo rapid degradation upon deliquescence/liquefaction at high relative humidity, indicating that the observed concentrations and subsequent apportionment of the biomass burning source could be significantly underestimated.

  19. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  20. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Johnson; R.J. Yokelson; S.K. Akagi; I.R. Burling; D.R. Weise; S.P. Urbanski; C.E. Stockwell; J. Reardon; E.N. Lincoln; L.T.M. Profeta; A. Mendoza; M.D.W. Schneider; R.L. Sams; S.D. Williams; C.E. Wold; D.W.T. Griffith; M. Cameron; J.B. Gilman; C. Warneke; J.M. Roberts; P. Veres; W.C. Kuster; J de Gouw

    2014-01-01

    Project RC-1649, "Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns" was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement...

  1. Blood and Tissue Silver Levels Following Application of Silver-Based Dressings to Sulfur Mustard Chemical Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, David J; Croutch, Claire R; Reid, Frances; Culley, Tara; Sosna, William; Roseman, Julie

    Silver-based dressings are commonly used in burn care. Silver sulfadiazine use is associated with elevated blood, urine, and tissue levels of silver ion. We examined wound and tissue levels of silver ion in a two-species model of sulfur mustard chemical burn injury treated with two different silver-based dressings. Superficial dermal and moderate thickness dermal chemical burns were induced in 16 hairless guinea pigs and in 16 Gottingen minipigs by exposure to sulfur mustard vapor. After debridement, silver-nylon burn dressings or silver-calcium alginate dressings were applied and changed every 7 days until wound healing or a maximum of 60 days post exposure. At autopsy, liver, spleen, and wound samples were harvested. Silver ion was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrography with a lower level of detection of 0.02 parts per billion. Negligible silver ion levels were found in the liver (mean burn wound dressings than with silver-calcium alginate dressings. Silver ion could be detected in some wounds 40 days after dressings were removed. In a chemical burn model, application of silver-nylon or silver-calcium alginate dressings is associated with elevated wound levels but negligible tissue levels of silver ion.

  2. Eye irrigation for patients with ocular chemical burns: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Janita Pc; Lee, Diana Tf; Lo, Suzanne Hs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to present the best available research evidence on eye irrigation methods for ocular chemical burns. Randomized, quasi-randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing the effectiveness of methods of eye irrigation among adults or children as an active form of emergency treatment for ocular chemical burns were considered for review. Studies were eligible for inclusion if methods of eye irrigation were examined within the following comparison categories: time to commence first eye irrigation; types, volumes, durations, flow rates and temperature of eye irrigating fluids; and comfort measures during eye irrigation. The types of outcome measures include immediate ocular outcomes and complications, clinical outcomes, self-reported outcomes, length of hospital stay and working days lost. Electronic bibliographic databases in English and Chinese were searched from inception to June 2010 and yield 8,999 citations. Other sources were searched by hand to identify studies or additional relevant source materials. The reference lists and bibliographies of all articles retrieved were scrutinized to identify further studies and added a further 22 articles. A forward search on the authors of the studies identified was also performed. A study eligibility verification form was developed for the assessment and two reviewers made independent decisions on whether to include each publication in the systematic review. Critical appraisals of study quality were undertaken independently by two reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools. Any disagreement that arose between the two reviewers was resolved by discussion. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer using a data extraction form developed for the systematic review. Another reviewer checked for accuracy. Given the clinical and methodological diversity among the studies included in this review, the review findings are presented in a narrative form and

  3. Evaluation of umbilical cord serum therapy in acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Goel, Manik; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Tandon, Radhika; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2011-02-25

    To evaluate the role of umbilical cord serum therapy in cases of acute ocular chemical burns. In a double-blind prospective randomized controlled clinical study, 33 eyes of 32 patients with acute ocular chemical burns of grade III, IV, and V severity were randomized into three groups: umbilical cord serum (n = 12), autologous serum (n = 11), and artificial tears (0.5% HPMC+0.3% glycerin; n = 10). In addition, all eyes received standard medical therapy. The parameters evaluated were pain score, size, and area of epithelial defect, extent of limbal ischemia, corneal clarity, and symblepharon formation. The patients were followed up at day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. Mean time to complete epithelialization was 21.16 ± 26.81, 56.6 ± 35.5, and 40.13 ± 35.79 days in cord serum, autologous serum, and artificial tears groups respectively (P = 0.02). By day 21, the mean percentage decrease in epithelial defect diameter was 94.63 ± 11.99 with cord serum compared with 53.17 ± 34.81 and 64.22 ± 42.43 with autologous serum and artificial tears, respectively (P = 0.01). By month 3, the extent of limbal ischemia with cord serum showed a mean percentage decrease of 73.43 ± 25.51 compared with 35.64 ± 25.60 and 43.71 ± 28.71 with autologous serum and artificial tears, respectively (P = 0.008). More patients had clear corneas with cord serum compared with autologous serum and artificial tears (P = 0.048). No significant difference was seen between the groups with regard to symblepharon formation (P = 0.07). Umbilical cord serum therapy is more effective than autologous serum eye drops or artificial tears in ocular surface restoration after acute chemical injuries. (www.controlled-trials.com number, ISRCTN08131903.).

  4. A case of chemical scalp burns after hair highlights: experimental evidence of oxidative injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Roberta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Pendolino, Flavio; Facchin, Giangiacomo; Snenghi, Rossella

    2016-12-01

    Hair highlights are quite common procedures carried out in hair salons by using a mixture of a lightening powder containing persulfates with a suspension containing hydrogen peroxide: a representative case of chemical scalp burns is described as a consequence of this treatment. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the strict relationship between the scalp damage and the commercial products used in a case of hair highlighting. The results of some chemical analyses have been reported, showing, in particular, that the chemical reactivity of the mixture changes in the time, thus strongly suggesting that the procedure for the application of the mixture is critical for the occurrence of possible accidents. The presence in the powder of chemical compounds bearing aliphatic chains as surfactants explains the appearance of dramatic symptoms after days due to a slow dissolution of the oxidant compounds in the stratum corneum of skin with no effect in reducing injury of palliative treatments. Safety suggestions and recommendations for producers and workers are also included.

  5. Comparison of umbilical cord serum and amniotic membrane transplantation in acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Lathi, Shiv Shankar; Sehra, Sri Vatsa; Agarwal, Tushar; Sinha, Rajesh; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Tandon, Radhika; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2015-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of umbilical cord serum (UCS) with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in cases of acute ocular chemical burns. In a retrospective, interventional, comparative case series, 55 eyes with grades III, IV and V chemical burns (Dua's classification) who presented within 3 weeks of injury were evaluated. Patients were treated with conventional medical (CM group, 20 eyes) management alone or combined with either UCS (UCS group, 17 eyes) or AMT (AMT group, 18 eyes). The parameters evaluated were time to epithelialisation, epithelial defect diameter, epithelial defect area, corneal clarity, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test and best-corrected vision. UCS and AMT groups showed early epithelialisation as compared with the CM group (Kaplan-Meier analysis=0.01). Mean time for healing of epithelial defect was 57.7±29.3, 27.4±19.0, 41.1±28.9 days in the CM, UCS and AMT groups, respectively (p=0.02). Mean TBUT at the last follow-up was 8.6±0.7, 10.3±1.1, 9.4±1.2 s in the CM, UCS and AMT groups, respectively (p=0.02). The mean Schirmer value at the last follow-up was 13.7±1.0, 16.9±3.0 and 13.2±1.5 mm in the CM, UCS and AMT groups, respectively (p=0.01). The visual outcomes and the occurrence of corneal vascularisation, symblepheron, ectropion and entropion were comparable in between the groups. Our study suggests that the UCS therapy may be a better alternative to AMT in acute moderate to severe (grades III, IV and V) ocular chemical burns, as it avoids surgical manoeuvre in already inflamed eyes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Midterm outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty after cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation in chemical burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Delfazayebaher, Siamak; Aghdami, Nasser; Taghiabadi, Ehsan; Bamdad, Shahram; Roshandel, Danial

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the midterm outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) after cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET) in patients with bilateral total limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) due to chemical burn. In this prospective interventional nonrandomized case series, optical PKP was performed in patients with severe stromal opacity after successful COMET. Main outcome measures were stability of the ocular surface, visual acuity improvement and corneal graft survival. Fourteen eyes of 14 patients with successful COMET were included. Time interval between PKP and COMET was 7.6 ± 1.3 months (6-9 months). Mean follow-up period was 28.2 ± 8 months (14-40 months, median 30 months). Epithelial healing was complete after 7 days in all eyes. Thirteen eyes had stable ocular surface without epithelial defect at final examination. The corneal surface had been covered by a transparent epithelium without significant neovascularization. Persistent epithelial defect developed in one eye 3 months after PKP which was considered as graft failure. Best-corrected visual acuity increased from 2.67 ± 0.08 LogMAR preoperatively to 0.64 ± 0.27 LogMAR after PKP (P < 0.001). Endothelial rejection occurred in four patients and was successfully managed by systemic and topical corticosteroids. Overall and rejection-free graft survival rates were 92.9 and 69.2%, respectively. PKP after COMET is a successful procedure which can be used to restore visual function in cases with bilateral total LSCD associated with severe stromal opacity due to chemical burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is it time for a change in the approach to chemical burns? The role of Diphoterine® in the management of cutaneous and ocular chemical injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C J; Al-Mousawi, A; Jha, A; Allison, K P

    2017-05-01

    A multitude of household and occupational compounds have the potential to induce chemical burns to the eye and skin. Without prompt intervention, irreversible visual loss and disfigurement may prevail. Diphoterine® and Hexafluorine® are amphoteric and hypertonic chelating solutions used in the management of general chemical and hydrofluoric acid burns, respectively. They rapidly neutralise both acid and alkali agents without heat release and limit diffusion, making them superior to water irrigation alone. However, although Diphoterine® and Hexafluorine® uptake is slowly increasing in industrial workplaces, there is a paucity of education and use in both emergency departments and plastic surgery units worldwide. Herein, we present a case report of combined ocular and cutaneous acid burn treated with Diphoterine®, together with a review of the current supporting literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties ofBiomass Burn Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Lewis, K.; Desyaterik, Yury; Wang, Z.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Arnott, W.P.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, M.K.

    2008-01-29

    Aerosols generated from burning different plant fuels were characterized to determine relationships between chemical, optical and physical properties. Single scattering albedo ({omega}) and Angstrom absorption coefficients ({alpha}{sub ap}) were measured using a photoacoustic technique combined with a reciprocal nephelometer. Carbon-to-oxygen atomic ratios, sp{sup 2} hybridization, elemental composition and morphology of individual particles were measured using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion of X-rays (SEM/EDX). Particles were grouped into three categories based on sp2 hybridization and chemical composition. Measured {omega} (0.4-1.0 at 405 nm) and {alpha}{sub ap} (1.0-3.5) values displayed a fuel dependence. The category with sp{sup 2} hybridization >80% had values of {omega} (<0.5) and {alpha}{sub ap} ({approx}1.25) characteristic of light absorbing soot. Other categories with lower sp2 hybridization (20 to 60%) exhibited higher {omega} (>0.8) and {alpha}{sub ap} (1.0 to 3.5) values, indicating increased absorption spectral selectivity.

  9. The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in ocular surface disease pathogenesis after chemical burn in the murine eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sei Yeul; Choi, Jong-Sun; Kim, Eo-Jin; Chuck, Roy S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the wound healing process following severe chemical burns to the ocular surface. Methods Chemical burning of the ocular surface was induced in mice (C57BL/6) via the application of 0.1 M NaOH. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression in the ocular surface and lacrimal gland was evaluated via real-time reverse transcription PCR on days 2, 7, and 30 after induction of the chemical burn. The expression of MIF protein in the ocular surface and lacrimal gland was evaluated via western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to detect MIF and vasculoendothelial growth factor in the cornea during the wound healing process. The angiogenic role of MIF was further evaluated using an 8–0 polyglactin suture technique to induce corneal neovascularization. Results MIF, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNA expression were elevated significantly in the ocular surface up to day 30 after chemical burn induction. TNF-α alone was elevated in the lacrimal gland. MIF protein elevation was confirmed via western blot analysis, and the spatial similarity of MIF and VEGF expression in the cornea was noted during the wound healing process. 8–0 polyglactin sutures soaked in MIF induced significantly higher numbers of new vessels on the mouse cornea after 7 days (p=0.003, Mann–Whitney test). Conclusions These findings indicate that MIF performs a crucial role in wound healing on the ocular surface after the induction of chemical burns. PMID:21152395

  10. Effectiveness of a chemical herder in association with in-situ burning of oil spills in ice-infested water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-02-15

    The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2) and an intermediate scale (19m2) setup with open water and 3/10, 5/10 and 7/10 brash ice coverages. The herded slick thicknesses (3-8mm) were ignitable in each experiment. The presence of ice caused fracturing of the oil during the herding process, which reduced the size of the herded slicks and, as a consequence, their ignitability, which in turn decreased the burning efficiency. Burning efficiencies relative to the ignited fraction of the oil were in the expected range (42-86%). This shows that the herder will be an effective tool for in-situ burning of oil when the ignitability issues due to fracturing of the oil are resolved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of therapeutic deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Singh Bhinder, H

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the role of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in acute ocular chemical burns. The study was conducted in 50 eyes of 50 patients (24 male, 26 female) with average age of 38.3+/-14.3 years. DALK in 5 eyes (10%), DALK with quadrant conjunctivo-limbal graft in 25 eyes (50%), and DALK with amniotic membrane in 20 eyes (40%) were performed along with conventional medical therapy. Controls who were matched in all respects (50 eyes) were given medical therapy only as they refused surgical intervention. Follow-up of cases ranged from 6 to 48 months (mean 21.5+/-14.18 months). Forty-three eyes (86%) could be restored with clear cornea as compared to 6% in control group. The visual acuity improvement was seen in 100% with good score (0.49+/-1.46) in DALK group as compared to 18% with low score (0.03+/-0.01) in control group (pburns of grade IV (pburns.

  12. Rapidly developed squamous cell carcinoma after laser therapy used to treat chemical burn wound: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Rok; Kwon, Soon-Sung; Chung, Seum; Kie, Jeong-Hae

    2015-02-07

    In chronic wounds, especially burn scars, malignant tumors can arise. However, it is rare for a subacute burn injury to change to a malignant lesion within one month. Moreover, a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from HeNe laser therapy after a chemical burn has never been reported. In this report, we examine a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from HeNe laser therapy after a chemical burn. Because pathologic investigations were made from the first operation, both early detection of the squamous cell carcinoma and consideration of the HeNe laser therapy as a risk factor for the skin cancer were possible. The cancer was completely removed and reconstruction of the defect was successfully achieved in a timely manner. Although there has as yet been no reported case of squamous cell carcinoma induced by laser therapy, it is important for clinicians to recognize both the possibility of laser-induced cancer and the rapid change of cancer, so they can provide appropriate and timely treatment.

  13. Effectiveness of a chemical herder in association with in-situ burning of oil spills in ice-infested water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2) and an interm......The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2......) and an intermediate scale (19m2) setup with open water and 3/10, 5/10 and 7/10 brash ice coverages. The herded slick thicknesses (3-8mm) were ignitable in each experiment. The presence of ice caused fracturing of the oil during the herding process, which reduced the size of the herded slicks and, as a consequence...

  14. Successful management of severe unilateral chemical burns in children using simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vikas; Jain, Rajat; Mittal, Ruchi; Vashist, Urvish; Narang, Purvasha

    2016-08-01

    To study the outcomes of simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) for unilateral total limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) secondary to severe ocular surface burns in children. Retrospective interventional case series was performed at a private referral tertiary care centre. Children less than 15 years of age who underwent autologous SLET for total LSCD and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data were recorded in a predesigned form. All patients underwent SLET with a standardised technique. The outcome was defined as complete success (completely epithelialised, avascular corneal surface), partial success (focal recurrence of symblepharon not involving the visual axis) and failure (unstable ocular surface with persistent epithelial defects/symblepharon recurrence involving the visual axis). The mean age was 5.75 years (range 2-12). The male to female ratio was 3:1. All eyes (four) presented in the acute phase, had grade 6 chemical injury (Dua classification) and underwent amniotic membrane transplantation at presentation. The mean interval between initial injury and SLET was 6 months (range 4.5-8). The outcome was complete success and partial success in one-fourth and three-fourths of cases, respectively. The overall follow-up was 12-60 months. Pre-SLET visual acuities were hand motions (one eye) and perception of light (three eyes). Post-SLET visual acuities were counting fingers close to face (one eye), 6/36 (two eyes) and 6/18 (one eye) at final follow-up. Cases with partial success underwent repeat SLET with conjunctival autograft, after which the outcome was complete success in all cases at varied follow-up intervals (13-36 months). SLET appears to be a promising technique for treatment of LSCD secondary to ocular surface burns in children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. A scale-up field experiment for the monitoring of a burning process using chemical, audio, and video sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakakis, P; Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Statheropoulos, M; Pallis, G C; Pappa, A

    2014-01-01

    Fires are becoming more violent and frequent resulting in major economic losses and long-lasting effects on communities and ecosystems; thus, efficient fire monitoring is becoming a necessity. A novel triple multi-sensor approach was developed for monitoring and studying the burning of dry forest fuel in an open field scheduled experiment; chemical, optical, and acoustical sensors were combined to record the fire spread. The results of this integrated field campaign for real-time monitoring of the fire event are presented and discussed. Chemical analysis, despite its limitations, corresponded to the burning process with a minor time delay. Nevertheless, the evolution profile of CO2, CO, NO, and O2 were detected and monitored. The chemical monitoring of smoke components enabled the observing of the different fire phases (flaming, smoldering) based on the emissions identified in each phase. The analysis of fire acoustical signals presented accurate and timely response to the fire event. In the same content, the use of a thermographic camera, for monitoring the biomass burning, was also considerable (both profiles of the intensities of average gray and red component greater than 230) and presented similar promising potentials to audio results. Further work is needed towards integrating sensors signals for automation purposes leading to potential applications in real situations.

  16. Rehabilitation of Nose following Chemical Burn Using CAD/CAM Made Substructure for Implant Retained Nasal Prosthesis: A Clinical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chaturvedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge of medical chemicals and their improper use have destructive effects. Accidental exposure to chemicals on facial tissue may result in large facial defect. For ages the tradition of piercing nose is common but improper use of unknown chemical for piercing has deleterious effect. Mostly rhinectomy defects are acquired caused by trauma or malignant diseases. Prosthetic rehabilitation is the preferred treatment of choice for any large rhinectomy defects as medical and surgical interventions are ineffective in developing esthetics. Main concern with the prosthesis for such defects is retention. This article describes rehabilitation of a patient with large size nasal defect created by chemical burn in childhood during piercing. Implant retained customized silicone nasal prosthesis was fabricated using simple O-ring attachments and innovative modified polyamide acrylic resin substructure acting as skeleton.

  17. Rehabilitation of Nose following Chemical Burn Using CAD/CAM Made Substructure for Implant Retained Nasal Prosthesis: A Clinical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Tushar; Verma, A. K.; Gurumurthy, Vishwanath; Ali, Mariyam; Vadhwani, Preeti

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient knowledge of medical chemicals and their improper use have destructive effects. Accidental exposure to chemicals on facial tissue may result in large facial defect. For ages the tradition of piercing nose is common but improper use of unknown chemical for piercing has deleterious effect. Mostly rhinectomy defects are acquired caused by trauma or malignant diseases. Prosthetic rehabilitation is the preferred treatment of choice for any large rhinectomy defects as medical and surgical interventions are ineffective in developing esthetics. Main concern with the prosthesis for such defects is retention. This article describes rehabilitation of a patient with large size nasal defect created by chemical burn in childhood during piercing. Implant retained customized silicone nasal prosthesis was fabricated using simple O-ring attachments and innovative modified polyamide acrylic resin substructure acting as skeleton. PMID:28702265

  18. Case Report: Use of Self-retained Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane in the Treatment of Acute Chemical Ocular Burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Adam T; Cheng, Anny M S

    2017-11-01

    Ocular chemical injury is a medical emergency in which immediate treatment is critical to prevent visual morbidity. We report a severe ocular burn case that illustrates in-office management to promote rapid re-epithelialization and reduce inflammation to restore ocular surface integrity. To report a case of severe acid burn that was managed successfully with self-retained cryopreserved amniotic membrane (AM). A 43-year-old man presented with complaints of pain, light sensitivity, and blurred vision in both eyes 1 day after ocular exposure to acid. Symptoms and signs were more severe in the left eye. Examination revealed diffuse conjunctival inflammation and extensive corneal, conjunctival, and limbal epithelial defects in the left eye; hence, application of cryopreserved AM was performed. Placement of three self-retained AMs over a 10-day period resulted in resolution of symptoms, reduction in inflammation, complete re-epithelialization of corneal and limbal defects, and improvement of visual acuity from 20/50 to 20/20. Intriguingly, areas of conjunctival inflammation not covered by the AM remained inflamed. In this case of acute chemical burn, application of self-retained AM 24 hours after injury was effective in promoting ocular surface healing, reducing inflammation, and restoring visual acuity.

  19. Limbal allografting from living-related donors to treat partial limbal deficiency secondary to ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting; Wang, Yujuan; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Na; Hu, Andina

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate outcomes of limbal allograft transplantation from living-related donors to treat partial limbal deficiency secondary to ocular chemical burns. Retrospective noncomparative case series comprising 17 patients (17 eyes) with partial limbal deficiency (≤50%) secondary to ocular alkali burns (11 eyes) or acid burns (6 eyes). Recipient eyes were treated by removing the conjunctivalized pannus. Superior limbal grafts (mean length, 3-5 clock hours) from HLA antigen-matched living-related donors were transplanted into deficient areas of recipient eyes. No recipients received systemic cyclosporin A therapy. Main outcome measures included corneal reepithelialization, reduction in vascularity, improved corneal clarity, and best-corrected visual acuity. All eyes achieved epithelialization a mean (SD) of 10.1 (1.9) days after surgery. Corneal reepithelialization, reduction in vascularity, and improved corneal opacity were seen in all eyes. No eyes demonstrated recurrent epithelial defects or fibrovascular tissue, but gradual recurrence of peripheral corneal vascularization was observed in 7 eyes during the follow-up period. Allograft rejection developed in 3 eyes (17.6%), all of which were successfully treated. Best-corrected visual acuity improved in all eyes, and 10 eyes (58.8%) had achieved best-corrected visual acuity of 0.5 or better (≥20/10 Snellen) at the last follow-up visit. Transplantation of limbal tissue from live-related donors successfully reconstructed the ocular surface. Long-term graft survival in patients with partial limbal deficiency secondary to ocular chemical burns can be accomplished without the use of systemic immunosuppression.

  20. Open burning of agricultural biomass: Physical and chemical properties of particle-phase emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hays, Michael D; Fine, Philip M; Geron, Christopher D; Kleeman, Michael J; Gullett, Brian K

    2005-01-01

    ... (AFs) of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The O.sub.2 levels and CO/CO.sub.2 ratios of the open burn simulations are typical of the field fires of agricultural residues...

  1. Slash pile burning effects on soil biotic and chemical properties and plant establishment: Recommendations for amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie E. Korb; Nancy C. Johnson; W. W. Covington

    2004-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forest restoration consists of thinning trees and reintroducing prescribed fire to reduce unnaturally high tree densities and fuel loads to restore ecosystem structure and function. A current issue in ponderosa pine restoration is what to do with the large quantity of slash that is created from thinning dense forest stands. Slash piling burning is...

  2. [Ocular burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, H; Gérard, M; Schrage, N

    2008-09-01

    Ocular or thermal burns account for 7.7%-18% of ocular trauma. The majority of victims are young. The burns occur in the setting of accidents at work or in the home, or during a physical attack. Chemical burns by strong acids or bases are responsible for the most serious injuries. Associated with the destruction of limbal stem cells, they present as recurrent epithelial ulcerations, chronic stromal ulcers, deep stromal revascularization, conjunctival overlap, or even corneal perforation. The initial clinical exam is sometimes difficult to perform in the presence of burning symptoms. Nevertheless, it enables the physician to classify the injury, establish a prognosis, and most importantly, guide the therapeutic management. The Roper-Hall modification of the Hughes classification system is the most widely utilized, broken down into stages based on the size of the stromal opacity and the extent of possible limbal ischemia. This classification is now favorably supplemented by those proposed by Dua and Wagoner, which are based on the extent of the limbal stem cell deficiency. The prognosis of the more serious forms of ocular burns has markedly improved over the last decade because of a better understanding of the physiology of the corneal epithelium. Surgical techniques aimed at restoring the destroyed limbal stem cells have altered the prognosis of severe corneal burns. In order to decrease the incidence of burns, prevention, particularly in industry, is essential.

  3. Immediate changes in topsoil chemical properties after controlled shrubland burning in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre-Galarza, Raquel; Fernández Campos, Marta; Badía-Villas, David; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Girona-García, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed fire has recently been adopted as an encroachment-fighting strategy in the Central Pyrenees. Despite relatively large information on wildfire impacts on soil, there is little information on prescribed fire effects, especially in mountain ecosystems (Shakesby et al, 2015). Fire effects are noticeable in the topsoil, particularly in relation to soil organic matter and nutrient contents and quality (Alexis et al, 2012). These components change with time after fire and at the scale of the upper few centimetres of mineral soil (Badía et al, 2014). The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effects of prescribed shrubland burning on soil's nutrients and organic matter content to detect changes at cm-scale, trying to differentiate the heat shock from the subsequent incorporation of ash and charcoal. The study area, densely covered with spiny broom (Echinospartum horridum), is located in Tella (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) at 1900 meters above sea level. Three sites were sampled before burning and immediately after burning just in its adjacent side. The soils belong to the WRB unit Leptic Eutric Cambisol, Soil samples were collected separating carefully the organic layers (litter in unburned soils and ashes and fire-altered organic residues in burned soils) and the mineral horizon at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved to 2 mm. Soil organic C (by the wet oxidation method), total N (Kjeldahl method), water-soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4=, NO3- and NH4+), exchangeable ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+ and Mn2+), total and available P, pH (1:5) and the electrical conductivity (in a 1:10 soil-to-water ratio) were measured. Immediately after the controlled fire, soil organic carbon content on burned topsoil decreases significantly within 0-3 cm of soil depth studied while total N decrease was not significant. Moreover, only a slight increase of the electrical conductivity, water-soluble ions and exchangeable ions was

  4. Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    accept, categorize, and search for arbitrary files, be they files from instruments, spreadsheets, or word processor documents. A straw -man design for...using the DAID (Delayed Aerial Ignition Device) system which drops plastic balls containing potassium permanganate injected with ethylene glycol from...109, D14203, 2004, DATABASE ID: 212 Boubel, Richard W. et al: Emissions from Burning Grass Stubble and Straw , Journal of the Air Pollution

  5. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  6. Comparison of Amniotic Membrane Transplantation and Umbilical Cord Serum in Acute Ocular Chemical Burns: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Singh, Divya; Maharana, Prafulla K; Kriplani, Alka; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of topical umbilical cord serum drops (UCS) and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in acute ocular chemical burns. Randomized controlled trial. setting: Tertiary care hospital. Forty-five eyes with acute chemical burns of grade III, IV, and V (Dua's classification) presenting within the first week of injury were randomized into 3 groups (15 each). Patients with perforation/impending corneal perforation were excluded from the study. Groups 1, 2, and 3 received UCS with medical therapy (MT), AMT with MT, and MT alone, respectively. Time to complete epithelialization. The mean time to complete epithelialization was 56.7 ± 14.9, 22.0 ± 10.2, and 22.9 ± 10.1 days in MT, AMT, and UCS groups, respectively, with a significant difference between MT and AMT (P = .001) and between MT and UCS (P = .001), but not between UCS and AMT (P = .9). Improvement in pain score was better with UCS than AMT (P value: .012, .002, and .012 on days 7, 14, and 21, respectively). Corneal clarity was better in the UCS group at 21 (P = .008) and 30 days (P = .002), but not at 3 months (P = .9). By month 3, visual outcome, symblepharon, tear film status, and lid abnormalities were comparable between the 3 groups. UCS and AMT, as an adjuvant to standard medical therapy in acute chemical injury, are equally efficacious. UCS has the advantage of faster improvement in corneal clarity, better pain control, and avoidance of surgery in an inflamed eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Therapeutic hydrophilic bandage lenses after perforating keratoplasty in severe eye chemical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckelkorn, R; Bertram, B; Redbrake, C; Reim, M

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of penetrating keratoplasty after severe eye burns is uncertain. Beside of immune reactions the outcome is determined by surface problems. Between July 1991 and October 1993 in 15 patients (16 eyes) with grade IV eye burns penetrating keratoplasties with large diameters (11-16 mm) were carried out. Cultured corneas were used with an intact epithelium. In 9 eyes hydrophilic bandage lenses (Geaflex 70, Fa. Wöhlk, Kiel) were applied initially, in the remainder 7 eyes within 7 days postoperatively. The lens radius best suited was found out by trial, because corneal topography was not possible for many weeks. In 12 (75%) eyes the lens had to be fitted steep, with a radius from healing course was rare. The frequent use of artificial tear drops was important, because many eyes showed clinical manifestations of dry eye syndrome. Complications during soft contact lens wearing were rare. In 5 eyes microbiological examination was positive, but successfully treated. Under the protection of soft contact lenses 9 eyes maintained an intact epithelium. In the remainder eyes severe vascularisation with large persistent epithelial defects occurred mostly as a consequence of immune reactions. These keratoplasties developed on growth of inflammatory pannus or progressive ulceration. The average of the follow-up time was 22 months. The use of large diameter keratoplasties in combination with hydrophilic bandage lenses proved to be successful to maintain the integrity of the epithelium in these high-risk keratoplasties. The prognosis of these transplants is, however, determined by immune reactions.

  8. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lincoln, E. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sams, Robert L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cameron, Melanie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veres, Patrick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yokelson, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Urbanski, Shawn [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Profeta, Luisa T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilman, Jessica [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuster, W. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akagi, Sheryl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stockwell, Chelsea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Albert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wold, Cyle E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warneke, Carsten [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); de Gouw, Joost A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burling, Ian R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Reardon, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Matthew D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Griffith, David W.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roberts, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-17

    Objectives: Project RC-1649, “Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns” was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement of need (SON) called for “(1) improving characterization of fuel consumption” and “(2) improving characterization of air emissions under both flaming and smoldering conditions with respect to volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and reactive gases.” The measurements and fuels were from several bases throughout the southeast (Camp Lejeune, Ft. Benning, and Ft. Jackson) and were carried out in collaboration and conjunction with projects 1647 (models) and 1648 (particulates, SW bases). Technical Approach: We used an approach that featured developing techniques for measuring biomass burning emission species in both the laboratory and field and developing infrared (IR) spectroscopy in particular. Using IR spectroscopy and other methods, we developed emission factors (EF, g of effluent per kg of fuel burned) for dozens of chemical species for several common southeastern fuel types. The major measurement campaigns were laboratory studies at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (FSL) as well as field campaigns at Camp Lejeune, NC, Ft. Jackson, SC, and in conjunction with 1648 at Vandenberg AFB, and Ft. Huachuca. Comparisons and fusions of laboratory and field data were also carried out, using laboratory fuels from the same bases. Results: The project enabled new technologies and furthered basic science, mostly in the area of infrared spectroscopy, a broadband method well suited to biomass burn studies. Advances in hardware, software and supporting reference data realized a nearly 20x improvement in sensitivity and now provide quantitative IR spectra for potential detection of ~60 new

  9. Sensitivity of tropospheric ozone to chemical kinetic uncertainties in air masses influenced by anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Cain, M.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S. R.

    2017-07-01

    We use a Lagrangian chemical transport model with a Monte Carlo approach to determine impacts of kinetic rate uncertainties on simulated concentrations of ozone, NOy and OH in a high-altitude biomass burning plume and a low-level industrial pollution plume undergoing long-range transport. Uncertainties in kinetic rate constants yield 10-12 ppbv (5th to 95th percentile) uncertainty in the ozone concentration, dominated by reactions that cycle NO and NO2, control NOx conversion to NOy reservoir species, and key reactions contributing to O3 loss (O(1D) + H2O, HO2 + O3). Our results imply that better understanding of the peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) thermal decomposition constant is key to predicting large-scale O3 production from fire emissions and uncertainty in the reaction of NO + O3 at low temperatures is particularly important for both the anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes. The highlighted reactions serve as a useful template for targeting new laboratory experiments aimed at reducing uncertainties in our understanding of tropospheric O3 photochemistry.

  10. Chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol from the photo-oxidation of open biomass burning emissions in an environmental chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. J. Hennigan; M. A. Miracolo; G. J. Engelhart; A. A. May; A. A. Presto; T. Lee; A. P. Sullivan; G. R. McMeeking; H. Coe; C. E. Wold; W.-M. Hao; J. B. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; J. de Gouw; B. A. Schichtel; J. L. Collett; S. M. Kreidenweis; A. L. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol (OA) during photo-oxidation of open biomass burning emissions. The experiments were carried out at the US Forest Service Fire Science Laboratory as part of the third Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We investigated emissions from 12 different...

  11. Chemical characteristics of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds in PM2.5 during biomass-burning and non-biomass-burning seasons at a rural site of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Chun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chi; Xu, Zufei; Fan, Meiyi; Zhang, Wenqi; Bao, Mengying; Chang, Yunhua; Song, Wenhuai; Liu, Shoudong; Lee, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters during May 2013 to January 2014 at a background rural site (47∘35 N, 133∘31 E) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. A homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11) and related compounds (oxoacids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids) were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS method employing a dibutyl ester derivatization technique. Intensively open biomass-burning (BB) episodes during the harvest season in fall were characterized by high mass concentrations of PM2.5, dicarboxylic acids and levoglucosan. During the BB period, mass concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were increased by up to >20 times with different factors for different organic compounds (i.e., succinic (C4) acid > oxalic (C2) acid > malonic (C3) acid). High concentrations were also found for their possible precursors such as glyoxylic acid (ωC2), 4-oxobutanoic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal as well as fatty acids. Levoglucosan showed strong correlations with carbonaceous aerosols (OC, EC, WSOC) and dicarboxylic acids although such good correlations were not observed during non-biomass-burning seasons. Our results clearly demonstrate biomass burning emissions are very important contributors to dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The selected ratios (e.g., C3/C4, maleic acid/fumaric acid, C2/ωC2, and C2/levoglucosan) were used as tracers for secondary formation of organic aerosols and their aging process. Our results indicate that organic aerosols from biomass burning in this study are fresh without substantial aging or secondary production. The present chemical characteristics of organic compounds in biomass-burning emissions are very important for better understanding the impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Broadband optical properties of biomass-burning aerosol and identification of brown carbon chromophores: OPTICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BROWN CARBON AEROSOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluvshtein, Nir [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Lin, Peng [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Flores, J. Michel [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Segev, Lior [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Mazar, Yinon [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Tas, Eran [The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot Israel; Snider, Graydon [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia Canada; Weagle, Crystal [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia Canada; Brown, Steven S. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder Colorado USA; Laskin, Alexander [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Rudich, Yinon [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel

    2017-05-23

    The radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on regional and global scale is substantial. Accurate modeling of the radiative effects of smoke aerosols require wavelength-dependent measurements and parameterizations of their optical properties in the UV and visible spectral ranges along with improved description of their chemical composition. To address this issue, we used a recently developed approach to retrieve the time- and spectral-dependent optical properties of ambient biomass burning aerosols between 300 and 650 nm wavelength during a regional bonfire festival in Israel. During the biomass burning event, the overall absorption at 400 nm increased by about two orders of magnitude, changing the size-weighted single scattering albedo from a background level of 0.95 to 0.7. Based on the new retrieval method, we provide parameterizations of the wavelength-dependent effective complex refractive index from 350 to 650 nm for freshly emitted and aged biomass burning aerosols. In addition, PM2.5 filter samples were collected for detailed off-line chemical analysis of the water soluble organics that contribute to light absorption. Nitrophenols were identified as the main organic species responsible for the increased absorption at 400-500 nm. These include species such as 4- nitrocatechol, 4-nitrophenol, nitro-syringol and nitro-guaiacol; oxidation-nitration products of methoxyphenols, known products of lignin pyrolysis. Our findings emphasize the importance of both primary and secondary organic aerosol from biomass burning in absorption of solar radiation and in effective radiative forcing.

  13. OPEN BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLE-PHASE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This effort presents the physical and chemical characterization of PM2.5 emissions from simulated agricultural fires of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The O2 levels and CO/CO

  14. Chemical smoke marker emissions during flaming and smoldering phases of laboratory open burning of wildland fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taehyoung Lee; Amy P. Sullivan; Laura Mack; Jose L. Jimenez; Sonia M. Kreidenweis; Timothy B. Onasch; Douglas R. Worsnop; William Malm; Cyle E. Wold; Wei Min Hao; Jeffrey L. Collett

    2010-01-01

    Smoke emitted by prescribed and wild fires can make a substantial contribution to ambient aerosol (McMeeking et al. 2006; Park et al. 2007; Spracklen et al. 2007). Approaches to investigate these contributions have used a variety of different chemical smoke markers, including levoglucosan, produced by thermal degradation of cellulose, and water-soluble potassium (...

  15. Queimaduras oculares químicas: epidemiologia e terapêutica Chemical burns of the eye: epidemiology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana da Cruz Noia

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Queimaduras oculares químicas podem produzir danos importantes à superfície ocular, resultando em incapacidade visual transitória ou permanente. Objetivos: Levantar dados acerca da epidemiologia e do tratamento inicial aplicado aos pacientes vítimas de queimaduras oculares químicas que chegam a um hospital-escola. Métodos: Foi realizado exame oftalmológico em 47 pacientes vítimas de queimaduras oculares químicas no pronto- socorro do Hospital São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina / Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Resultados: A maioria das vítimas era de jovens do sexo masculino e acidentes de trabalho foram bastante freqüentes (46,8%. Agentes de natureza básica (alcalina foram envolvidos em 55,32% dos casos. A córnea foi afetada em 95,7% dos casos. Os graus I (78,8% e II (12,8% da classificação de Hughes foram os mais observados. O tratamento inicial dos pacientes foi realizado em 89,4% dos casos (irrigação copiosa do olho afetado com solução salina e remoção de debris e 21 (44,68% casos receberam medicações tópicas. Conclusões: Foram observados vários erros na abordagem inicial dos pacientes, o que pode ter influenciado o prognóstico de alguns pacientes.Purpose: Chemical injuries of the eye may produce exten-sive damage to the ocular surface, resulting in transient or per-manent visual impairment. Purposes: To obtain data about epidemiology and inicial treatment aplied to patients who have suffered from ocular chemical burns and have arrived at a universitary hospital. Methods: An ocular evaluation was performed 47 patients with ocular chemical burns in the ophthalmological emer-gency room of the Hospital São Paulo -- Escola Paulista de Medicina / Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Results: Most victims were young male adults and industrial accidents were quite frequent (46.8%. Alkaline agents were more often involved (55.32%. The cornea was affected in 95.7% of the cases and grade I and II of

  16. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-01

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed to OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical

  17. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging

  18. Phacoemulsification after penetrating keratoplasty with autologous limbal transplant and amniotic membrane transplant in chemical burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Ritu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient who had earlier penetrating keratoplasty with amniotic membrane transplant and autologous limbal cell transplant for chemical injury who underwent cataract surgery by phacoaspiration. A posterior limbal incision with corneal valve was made superotemporally with extreme caution to avoid damage to the limbal graft. Aspiration flow rates and vacuum were kept low to avoid any turbulence during surgery. A 6.0 mm optic diameter acrylic foldable intraocular lens was inserted in the bag. The patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/12 at 10 months′ follow-up with a clear corneal graft. We conclude that caution during wound construction and phacoaspiration can help preserve corneal and limbal graft integrity in patients undergoing cataract surgery after corneal graft and limbal transplantation.

  19. Water uptake and chemical composition of fresh aerosols generated in open burning of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Carrico

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiments (FLAME in 2006–2007, we examined hygroscopic properties of particles emitted from open combustion of 33 select biomass fuels. Measurements of humidification growth factors for subsaturated water relative humidity (RH conditions were made with a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA for dry particle sizes of 50, 100 and 250 nm. Results were then fit to a single-parameter model to obtain the hygroscopicity parameter, κ. Particles in freshly emitted biomass smoke exhibited a wide range of hygroscopicity (individual modes with 0<κ<1.0, spanning a range from the hygroscopicity of fresh diesel soot emissions to that of pure inorganic salts commonly found in the ambient aerosol. Smoke aerosols dominated by carbonaceous species typically had a unimodal growth factor with corresponding mean κ=0.1 (range of 0<κ<0.4. Those with a substantial inorganic mass fraction typically separated into less- and more-hygroscopic modes at high RH, the latter with mean κ=0.4 (range of 0.1<κ<1. The bimodal κ distributions were indicative of smoke chemical heterogeneity at a single particle size, whereas heterogeneity as a function of size was indicated by typically decreasing κ values with increasing dry particle diameters. Hygroscopicity varied strongly with biomass fuel type and, to a lesser extent, with combustion conditions. Among the most hygroscopic smokes were those from palmetto, rice straw, and sawgrass, while smoke particles from coniferous species such as spruces, firs, pines, and duffs were among the least hygroscopic. Overall, hygroscopicity decreased with increasing ratios of total carbon to inorganic ions as measured in PM2.5 filter samples. Despite aerosol heterogeneity, reconstructions of κ using PM2.5 bulk chemical composition data fell along a 1:1 line with measured ensemble κ values.

  20. A single accidental exposure may result in a chemical burn, primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tarvainen, K; Pinola, A; Leino, T; Granlund, H; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Förström, L

    1994-10-01

    It is known from experimental studies that antigenic potency and the concentration of antigen determine whether exposure to an antigen will result in sensitization. A single accidental exposure to concentrated antigen may therefore induce primary sensitization. The purpose of this report was to collect clinical cases in which a single exposure had resulted in contact dermatitis suspected to be allergic. Only patients without previous relevant skin symptoms were included. Patch testing was used to demonstrate sensitization. 6 patients developed occupational allergic contact dermatitis from accidental exposure. Patch testing revealed allergy to diglycidylether of bisphenol A epoxy resin, polyfunctional aziridine hardener, methyl acrylate, phenol-formaldehyde resin, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (Kathon LX), respectively. Furthermore, 2 patients developed allergic contact dermatitis from their first exposure to tear gas chemicals, namely omega-chloroacetophenone and ortho-chlorobenzylidene malonitrile. A single exposure can therefore induce both sensitization and subsequent allergic contact dermatitis without further exposure. The allergens described must be considered strong allergens. The skin should immediately be cleaned if an accidental splash with such an allergen has taken place.

  1. [Endoscopic diagnosis of local chemical burn of mucous membranes of the stomach, induced with the purpose of simulation of gastric ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzov, N V; Plekhanov, V N

    2013-01-01

    With the purpose of improvement of diagnosis of induced gastric ulcer were examined 11 patients who took aggressive agents for simulation of gastric ulcer and 33 patients who took pseudo-aggressive agents. Observables, conduced diagnosis of local chemical burn of mucous coat of stomach during initial 6 days after taking aggressive agents. Stages of ulcerous process, resulting from local chemical burn of mucous coat of stomach, coressponds to real gactric ulcer. Gelatin capsule using as a container for delivery of aggressive agents, melts in stomach in 5-6 minutes after taking. Independent from body position, mucous coat of greater curvature of the stomach is damaged. It is impossible to simulate duodenal bulb ulcer using the gelatine capsule or ball made of breadcrumb. The last method of delivery of aggressive agent can damage the small intestine because of uncontrollability of the place of breaking the ball.

  2. Risks and possibilities in patch testing with contaminated personal objects: usefulness of thin-layer chromatograms in a patient with acrylate contact allergy from a chemical burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Zimerson, Erik

    2007-08-01

    We report a case of a chemical burn from dipropylene glycol diacrylate (DPGDA) spilt on working shoes, followed by active sensitization, thus giving an occupational allergic contact dermatitis on the patient's dorsal feet. Diagnostic tests included patch testing with acetone extracts made from the different shoe layers and thin-layer chromatograms. An invisible spot on the thin-layer chromatography plate gave a test eczema and was further investigated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DPGDA was detected in the spot.

  3. Chemical characterization and oxidative potential of particles emitted from open burning of cereal straws and rice husk under flaming and smoldering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ono, Keisuke; Fujitani, Yuji; Villalobos, Ana M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Schauer, James J.

    2017-08-01

    Open burning of crop residue is a major source of atmospheric fine particle emissions. We burned crop residues (rice straws, barley straws, wheat straws, and rice husks produced in Japan) in an outdoor chamber and measured particle mass, composition (elemental carbon: EC, organic carbon: OC, ions, elements, and organic species), and oxidative potential in the exhausts. The fine particulate emission factors from the literature were within the range of our values for rice straws but were 1.4-1.9 and 0.34-0.44 times higher than our measured values for barley straw and wheat straw, respectively. For rice husks and wheat straws, which typically lead to combustion conditions that are relatively mild, the EC content of the particles was less than 5%. Levoglucosan seems more suitable as a biomass burning marker than K+, since levoglucosan/OC ratios were more stable than K+/particulate mass ratios among crop species. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol could also be used as markers of biomass burning with levoglucosan or instead of levoglucosan. Correlation analysis between chemical composition and combustion condition suggests that hot or flaming combustions enhance EC, K+, Cl- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions, while low-temperature or smoldering combustions enhance levoglucosan and water-soluble organic carbon emissions. Oxidative potential, measured with macrophage-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, of open burning fine particles per particulate mass as well as fine particulate emission factors were the highest for wheat straws and second highest for rice husks and rice straws. Oxidative potential per particulate mass was in the lower range of vehicle exhaust and atmosphere. These results suggest that the contribution of open burning is relatively small to the oxidative potential of atmospheric particles. In addition, oxidative potential (both ROS and DTT activities) correlated well with water-insoluble organic species

  4. Application of in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy for evaluation of ocular surface diseases: lessons learned from pterygium, meibomian gland disease, and chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Le, Qihua; Zhao, Feng; Hong, Jiaxu; Xu, Jianjiang; Zheng, Tianyu; Sun, Xinghuai

    2011-10-01

    In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) has been widely used to evaluate the alterations caused by ocular surface diseases at a cellular level in the living eye. In this review, we focus on its use in the diagnosis of pterygium, meibomian gland (MG) disease, and chemical burns. Histopathologic changes occurring in pterygium can be examined in situ using in vivo LSCM. Alterations at the junction of the pterygium and the cornea, which cannot be observed in excised tissue samples, can be observed. MGs play an important role in maintaining the health of the ocular surface. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common ocular surface diseases. The use of in vivo LSCM helps in the diagnosis of MGD and provides a way to examine the microstructure of MG acinar units and measure their size. In vivo LSCM also provides a new perspective in understanding the contribution of the MG to the health of the ocular surface. Chemical burns are one of the most common ocular injuries, and in vivo LSCM can provide images of the goblet cells on the corneal surface. This is a hallmark of limbal stem cell deficiency. The application of in vivo LSCM to assessing chemical burns requires extension, allowing for evaluation of the limbus structure and ocular surface changes after reconstructive ocular surgery.

  5. Burning Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Burning feet By Mayo Clinic Staff Burning feet — the sensation that your feet are painfully hot — can be mild or severe. In some cases, your burning feet may be so painful that the pain interferes ...

  6. Nutritional Therapy in Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Durmuş

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A burn is characterized by the damage to one’s body tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. The incidence of burn injuries has recently been decreasing. However, it is a fact that burns constitute a significant problem all over the world, with a few million people being affected by burns each year. A burn is an extensive trauma that affects the whole organism and determines the prognosis through its physiopathology. The case of the burn patient is also characterized by the acute phase response. Since burn patients have a non-functional skin barrier, they experience loss of liquids, minerals, proteins and electrolytes. They can also develop protein, energy and micro-nutrition deficiencies due to intense catabolic processes, infections and increased bodily needs in case of wound healing. Therefore, nutritional therapy is one of the major steps that need to be monitored from the initial moments of the burn injury through to the end of the burn treatment. This study focuses on the significance of nutritional therapy for burn patients in the light of current literature.

  7. Management of Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Irmak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The hand is one of the most frequently affected body parts by burn injuries with a rate of 80% among all burn wounds. Early and effective treatment ensures the best chance of survival as well as a good functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, variation, relationship between etiology and hospital stay, clinical features, and management of hand burns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted the University of Health Sciences; Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Application and Research Center, Departmant of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery and the Intensive Burn Care Unit between April 2009 and April 2014. Burns were assessed based on etiology, anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area affected, and depth of injury. Treatment was categorized as conservative, elective operative, or urgent operative. Results: In the study period, 788 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit. Of these, 240 were females (30.5% and 548 were males (69.5%. The most common type of burn injury in this study was thermal injury (695 cases; 88.2%, followed by electrical injury (67 cases; 8.5%, and chemical, frictional or unknown injuries (26 cases; 3.3%. Majority (more than 85% of the patients had second-degree burns, and some had third-degree burns. Conclusions: Burns commonly affect the hands, and many functional problems may develop if appropriate basic treatments are neglected. The best treatment for burns is prevention. Appropriate indoor arrangement and simple but effective measures that can be taken at home can significantly reduce burn trauma exposure.

  8. Burns dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Helen E; Wood, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    Burn injuries are common and costly; each year, there are more than 200,000 cases, costing the Australian community $150 million. Management of smaller burn injuries in the community can be improved by appropriate first aid, good burn dressings and wound management. This can reduce the risk of the burn becoming deeper or infected, and can potentially reduce the requirement for specialist review or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide healthcare professionals with information about the pathophysiology of burn wound progression. This information includes the aims of burn wound dressings and indications for different types of dressings in different burn depths, advantages of blister debridement, and the reasoning behind advice given to patients after healing of the burn wound. This article provides a framework used by the State Burn Service of Western Australia, by which clinicians can understand the needs of a specific burn wound and apply these principles when choosing an appropriate burn dressing for their patient. Every intervention in the journey of a patient with a burn injury affects their eventual outcome. By managing all burn injuries effectively at every single step, we can reduce burn injury morbidity as a community.

  9. Multiphase chemical kinetics of OH radical uptake by molecular organic markers of biomass burning aerosols: humidity and temperature dependence, surface reaction, and bulk diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arangio, Andrea M; Slade, Jonathan H; Berkemeier, Thomas; Pöschl, Ulrich; Knopf, Daniel A; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2015-05-14

    Multiphase reactions of OH radicals are among the most important pathways of chemical aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Reactive uptake of OH by organic compounds has been observed in a number of studies, but the kinetics of mass transport and chemical reaction are still not fully understood. Here we apply the kinetic multilayer model of gas-particle interactions (KM-GAP) to experimental data from OH exposure studies of levoglucosan and abietic acid, which serve as surrogates and molecular markers of biomass burning aerosol (BBA). The model accounts for gas-phase diffusion within a cylindrical coated-wall flow tube, reversible adsorption of OH, surface-bulk exchange, bulk diffusion, and chemical reactions at the surface and in the bulk of the condensed phase. The nonlinear dependence of OH uptake coefficients on reactant concentrations and time can be reproduced by KM-GAP. We find that the bulk diffusion coefficient of the organic molecules is approximately 10(-16) cm(2) s(-1), reflecting an amorphous semisolid state of the organic substrates. The OH uptake is governed by reaction at or near the surface and can be kinetically limited by surface-bulk exchange or bulk diffusion of the organic reactants. Estimates of the chemical half-life of levoglucosan in 200 nm particles in a biomass burning plume increase from 1 day at high relative humidity to 1 week under dry conditions. In BBA particles transported to the free troposphere, the chemical half-life of levoglucosan can exceed 1 month due to slow bulk diffusion in a glassy matrix at low temperature.

  10. The role of the chemical burns caused by hydroxide ion in the toxicity of dermal exposure to tetramethylammonium ion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Long; Su, Shih-Bin; Lien, Hsiao-Yin; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the role of the chemical burns caused by hydroxide ion in the fatal effects of tetramethylammonium ion (TMA) in dermal exposure to tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), we conducted a rat study consisting of two-step treatments with dermal exposure to NaOH and tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl). In the first step, NaOH or saline was administered in the gauze on the shaved skin for 5 min, and in the second step, TMAH, TMACl, or saline was administered in the same way. The mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), and survival in rats were compared among seven groups. Dermal exposure to saline and then 2.75 M TMACl introduced limited and temporary non-fatal effects. Exposure to 2.75 M NaOH and then saline had almost no effects and caused no deaths. Treatments with more concentrated NaOH or TMACl resulted in suppressions of MBP and HR, and deaths were observed after the dosing of TMACl. The toxicity of dermal exposure to TMA alone is limited, but fatal effects can be introduced by pre-treatment with hydroxide ion. Therefore, the chemical burn caused by hydroxide ion plays an essential role in the toxicity, implicating that effective neutralizing may help decreasing the fatality rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D. K.; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  12. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  13. Physico-chemical characterisation of lipids from Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) and Rapana venosa and their healing properties on skin burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiu, Diana L; Balu, Alina M; Barbes, Lucica; Luque, Rafael; Nita, Roxana; Radu, Marius; Tanase, Ecaterina; Rosoiu, Natalia

    2008-09-01

    Black Sea molluscs and gastropods are the most studied organisms from the Romanian littoral zone. In particular, those from the Mytilidae species are of great interest because biochemical investigations have shown that they can be sources of biological active substances which can have different applications (e.g. food additives). We report here the extraction of lipids from two different species of molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis L., Mediterranean mussel) and gastropods (Rapana venosa, hard-shell clam). The extracts were evaluated in terms of antioxidant and composition properties and their healing properties were tested on skin burns in Wistar rats. Our studies proved that the two lipid extracts contained a relatively complex distribution of compounds, in terms of characteristic indices, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamins E and D. The presence of such compounds rendered the extracts very efficient in healing induced skin burns in Wistar rats. The histological analysis showed a reduction in the time of healing (12-13 and 13-15 days for the Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) Rapana venosa extracts, respectively) compared to 20-22 for untreated animals, based on results from tissues and blood samples. Our investigations have been proved to be promising in terms of future potential applications of the extracts as skin-care products, cosmetics and/or pharmaceutical preparations owing to their dermorestitutive properties.

  14. Burning mouth and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Kustner, Eduardo; Marques-Soares, Maria Sueli

    2002-01-01

    Stomatodynia is the complaint of burning, tickling or itching of the oral cavity, and can be associated with other oral and non-oral signs and symptoms. However, the oral mucosa often appears normal, with no apparent underlying organic cause to account for the symptomatology. The etiology is unknown, though evidence points to the participation of numerous local, systemic and psychological factors. Among the local factors, saliva may play an important role in the symptoms of burning mouth. Saliva possesses specific rheological properties as a result of its chemical, physical and biological characteristics - these properties being essential for maintaining balanced conditions within the oral cavity. Patients with burning mouth present evidence of changes in salivary composition and flow, as well as a probable alteration in the oral mucosal sensory perception related particularly to dry mouth and taste alterations. On the other hand, alterations in salivary composition appear to reflect on its viscosity and symptomatology of burning mouth. Saliva is a field open to much research related to burning mouth, and knowledge of its properties (e.g., viscosity) merits special attention in view of its apparent relationship to the symptoms of burning mouth. The present study describes our clinical experience with burning mouth, and discusses some of the aspects pointing to salivary alterations as one of the most important factors underlying stomatodynia.

  15. THE METHOD FOR SELECTING AN IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY TREATMENT OF PATIENTS AFTER CHEMICAL AND THERMAL EYE BURNS OF THE FIRST OR SECOND DEGREE WITH THE PREDOMINANT LESION OF THE EYELIDS OR CORNEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kovalevskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to develop a multidirectional  model  for detecting hidden  corneal  lesions  in patients after  chemical  and  thermal first or second degree burns  with predominant lesion of eyelid or cornea and  the  timely  emergency help with irrigation  systems.Patients and  methods. 110  patients with thermal and  chemical  eye  burns  were  examined.  All  patients underwent a  detailed  clinical and comprehensive ophthalmological  examination. According  to  results they  were  divided into groups, depending  on  the  cause of the first and  second degree burn.  Group 1:  the  patients with thermal eye burn  (n = 45;  Group 2:  the  patients with chemical  eye burn (n = 41. Group 3:  the  patients after  an induced  chemical  burn  (alcohol deepithelization  with an 18%  alcohol solution in LASEK (n = 27. Group 4:  healthy people  (n=25.  We  used  computer corneotopography, topography  of the  cornea and  analysis of anterior eye chamber, counting  the  number of endothelial  cells,  optical coherence tomography of the  anterior segment, confocal  microscopy, all tests were determined before  and after  treatment with irrigation systems.Results. In cases of the I or II degrees chemical  burn with a predominant lesion of the cornea — irrigation system is for emergency treatment — a neutral  pH buffer solution is 4.9% phosphate salts, possessing amphoteric properties, neutralizing acids  and bases. In cases of the I or II degrees thermal burns  with predominant damage to the  eyelids and  conjunctiva — an irrigation system is sterile sodium  chloride solution 0.9 %.Conclusions. The model of diagnostics and  treatment provides  high functional outcomes results in the  thermal and  chemical  burns  with predominant lesion of the eyelid or cornea with accurate timely diagnostics of the cornea and use  of optimal irrigation solutions  for emergency and targeted

  16. MR scanning, tattoo inks, and risk of thermal burn: An experimental study of iron oxide and organic pigments: Effect on temperature and magnetic behavior referenced to chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, K K; Johannesen, H H; Hvass Hansen, R; Dirks, M; Olsen, O; Serup, J

    2017-12-17

    Tattooed persons examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can develop burning sensation suggested in the literature to be thermal burn from the procedure. MRI-induced thermal effect and magnetic behavior of known tattoo pigments were examined ex vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging effects on 3 commonly used commercial ink stock products marketed for cosmetic tattooing was studied. A main study tested 22 formulations based on 11 pigment raw materials, for example, one line of 11 called pastes and another called dispersions. Samples were spread in petri dishes and tested with a 0.97 T neodymium solid magnet to observe visual magnetic behavior. Before MRI, the surface temperature of the ink was measured using an infrared probe. Samples were placed in a clinical 3T scanner. Two scans were performed, that is, one in the isocenter and one 30 cm away from the center. After scanning, the surface temperature was measured again. Chemical analysis of samples was performed by mass spectroscopy. Mean temperature increase measured in the isocenter ranged between 0.14 and 0.26°C (P tattoo pigments after MRI. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chemical signatures of urban, open burning and dust transportation in an urban environment- megacity in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, B.; Verma, S.

    2016-12-01

    A sub-micron aerosol sampler (SAS) consisting of two parallel stacked filter units (SFU) was deployed at an urban location (Kolkata) to study the sub-micron aerosols (water soluble inorganic ions (WSII) and carbonaceous aerosols (elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)) collected over a year (September 2010 to August 2011). Quantification of 10 WSII species using Ion Chromatograph (IC) indicated alkaline nature of aerosols with calcium (Ca2+) being the major neutralizing factor of acidity at the study site. In terms of WSII percentage contribution, the most abundant were crustal species (Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+) and marine species (chloride (Cl-)), followed by the secondary species sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) . Ca2+ (fugitive and transported dust) was dominant throughout the study period with K+ concentrations exhibiting seasonality with agricultural residue burning. Further, results of carbonaceous aerosols analyzed using the OC-EC aerosol analyzer following Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) protocol exhibited pronounced seasonality in OC than EC with the overall mean concentration of OC being three folds than EC. Primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon concentrations (SOC) estimated using EC tracer method showed 57% (43%) of POC (SOC) from various emission sources. Investigation of OC/EC ratio along with non-sea salt potassium (nss-K+) values revealed influence of season specific anthropogenic activities on both OC and EC concentrations (viz. Open burning (OB)) besides fossil fuel (FF) and biofuel (BF) usage for cooking and heating prevalent over the region. Source apportionment was discerned using positive matrix factorization (PMF) with four major factors (crustal, agricultural, anthropogenic sources and mixed source (crustal + agriculture + anthropogenic) as the primary contributors to the sub-micron aerosols at the study site.

  18. Chemical assault and skin/eye burns: two representative cases, report from the Acid Survivors Foundation, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Rebecca; Mathieu, Laurence; Hall, Alan H; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-09-01

    Chemical assault is a significant problem throughout the world, resulting in disfigurement, sometime blindness or vision impairment, and constituting a major economic burden on otherwise overwhelmed health services in developing countries. Two representative cases are presented here. One involved domestic spouse abuse with an acid and the second involved a teen-aged female assaulted with an acid, perhaps for retribution over a local judicial matter. Such atrocities have a world-wide scope, which is reviewed here. Preventive measures are the most appropriate response. However, when such chemical assaults do occur, active measures to mitigate or negate their effects deserve consideration. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Qihua; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xin; Hong, Jiaxu; Sun, Xinghuai; Xu, Jianjiang

    2012-06-06

    Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims' medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims' personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900). The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8 %, 29/56) paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9 %, 5/56). The victims' personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200) per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8 % (43/56) victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9 % (29/56) patients. Moreover, only 21.4 % (12/56) patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4 % (26/56) and 28.6 % (16/56) felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2 = 16.916, P = 0.028). The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a

  20. Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qihua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Methods Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. Results The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900. The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8 %, 29/56 paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9 %, 5/56. The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200 per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8 % (43/56 victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9 % (29/56 patients. Moreover, only 21.4 % (12/56 patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4 % (26/56 and 28.6 % (16/56 felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2 = 16.916, P = 0.028. Conclusions The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the

  1. EPIDEMOLOGY OF BURNS IN ENUGU, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JIBURUM

    Fifteen (5.3%) occurred in vehicles following road traffic accidents. Flame constituted the largest source of burn in 147 (49.1%) patients while scald burn from hot fluids( water, soup, hot tea, pap{custard} )constituted the next large group of 108. (37,9%). Twenty patients (7.0%) were due to chemical burns while electrical ...

  2. Modified Gunderson Conjunctival Flap Combined with an Oral Mucosal Graft to Treat an Intractable Corneal Lysis after Chemical Burn: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Cheng

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a severe chemical injury, persistent corneal melting presents as a threatening condition for loss of vision or the eyeball itself. Keratoplasty (both lamellar and penetrating and amniotic membrane transplantation have been the usual modes of therapy. However, these may not halt the persistent melting process. We introduce here an alternative surgical procedure to resolve corneal melting and preserve the globe. This case concerns the right eye of a 36-year-old male who had suffered from severe ocular alkali chemical burns and sustained intractable corneal melting, despite receiving corneal transplants three times, a limbal stem cell transplantation once, a scleral graft twice, and amniotic membrane transplantation eight times. To circumvent the impending perforation, we performed a modified Gunderson conjunctival flap combined with an oral mucosal graft. The corneal melting was halted, and the eyeball was preserved. The combination of an oral mucosal graft to the modified Gunderson conjunctival flap provided an easy alternative to resolve a case of intractable corneal melting and impending perforation.

  3. Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-06-02

    The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper

  4. The Impact of Uncertainties in African Biomass Burning Emission Estimates on Modeling Global Air Quality, Long Range Transport and Tropospheric Chemical Lifetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido R. van der Werf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the troposphere in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere (SH is significantly influenced by gaseous emissions released from African biomass burning (BB. Here we investigate how various emission estimates given in bottom-up BB inventories (GFEDv2, GFEDv3, AMMABB affect simulations of global tropospheric composition using the TM4 chemistry transport model. The application of various model parameterizations for introducing such emissions is also investigated. There are perturbations in near-surface ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO of ~60–90% in the tropics and ~5–10% in the SH between different inventories. Increasing the update frequency of the temporal distribution to eight days generally results in decreases of between ~5 and 10% in near-surface mixing ratios throughout the tropics, which is larger than the influence of increasing the injection heights at which BB emissions are introduced. There are also associated differences in the long range transport of pollutants throughout the SH, where the composition of the free troposphere in the SH is sensitive to the chosen BB inventory. Analysis of the chemical budget terms reveals that the influence of increasing the tropospheric CO burden due to BB on oxidative capacity of the troposphere is mitigated by the associated increase in NOx emissions (and thus O3 with the variations in the CO/N ratio between inventories being low. For all inventories there is a decrease in the tropospheric chemical lifetime of methane of between 0.4 and 0.8% regardless of the CO emitted from African BB. This has implications for assessing the effect of inter-annual variability in BB on the annual growth rate of methane.

  5. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to injury. , as your immune system shifts into gear. “The immune system response is intended to limit ... maintain blood pressure. Grafting—placing healthy skin on top of the burn wound—might help promote new ...

  6. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  7. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  8. Chemical characterization of soot particles emitted by Wood-Burning Cook Stoves: A XPS and HRTEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Giovanni; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Torres, Ricardo; Ruiz, Gerardo; Molina, Luisa; Saavedra, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    The morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and electronic structure of soot particles emitted directly from biofuel cook stoves have been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to obtain freshly emitted soot particles, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot chain. Additionally, the morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The XPS survey spectrum for soot particles shows that the main particle composition is carbon. We also observed differences in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles, which probably depends on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The XPS C-1s spectra show carbon with two peaks that correspond to sp2 and sp3 hybridization. Also, real-time absorption (βa) and scattering (αs) coefficients of the particles emitted by cook stoves were measured. The trend in βa and αs indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.

  9. CASE REPORT Playing Football Burns More Than Just Calories

    OpenAIRE

    Wain, Richard A. J.; Shah, Syed H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the case of a sports-related alkali burn due to a common household chemical and emphasize the importance of a detailed medical history in chemical burns patients. Methods: A single-patient case study is presented along with references from existing literature. Results: Alkaline burn injuries associated with sports have previously been described in the literature; however, this case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a chemical burn with a readily available househo...

  10. Burns: dressings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burns are classified according to depth. This overview concerns the treatments for partial-thickness burns, which can be expected or have the potential to heal spontaneously (superficial partial-thickness and mid-dermal partial-thickness burns). Injuries that involve the deeper part of the dermis and require surgical treatments to achieve healing are not the focus of this overview. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic overview and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for partial-thickness burns? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). Results At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 322 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 193 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 160 studies and the further review of 33 full publications. Of the 33 full articles evaluated, two systematic reviews and two RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 30 PICO combinations. Conclusions In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 10 interventions, based on information relating to the effectiveness and safety of alginate dressing, biosynthetic dressing, chlorhexidine-impregnated paraffin gauze dressing, hydrocolloid dressing, hydrogel dressing, paraffin gauze dressing, polyurethane film, silicone-coated nylon dressing, silver-impregnated dressing, and silver sulfadiazine cream. PMID:26173045

  11. Aircraft-borne aerosol chemical composition measurements in the lower to middle troposphere over southern West Africa: Biomass burning, urban outflow plumes, and long-range transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Anneke; Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Sauer, Daniel; Schlager, Hans; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    During the DACCIWA field campaign in June and July 2016, aircraft-borne in-situ aerosol chemical composition measurements were performed over southern West Africa (SWA). This presentation will focus on the submicron particle measurements done with a Compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) on board of the DLR Falcon aircraft during twelve research flights from Lomé, Togo, covering the altitude range from the boundary layer (BL) to the middle troposphere (12 km). A preliminary analysis of the results shows typical baseline total non-refractory aerosol mass loadings of 1.5 to 2.8 μg m-3 in the BL, and 0.4 to 1.1 μg m-3above. Up to half of the baseline aerosol mass in the BL appears to consist of sulphate, compared to only 10 to 35 % above the BL; organic matter dominates in the middle troposphere. During several flights, the DLR Falcon crossed a pronounced and seemingly widespread aerosol layer at 2—4.5 km altitude, partly in or slightly above the BL. The AMS data indicate that about half of the non-refractory aerosol mass in the middle of this layer consisted of organic matter. We consider it likely that these aerosol particles were produced by biomass burning in Central Africa. Emissions from cities and industrial areas were also intercepted, as well as enhancements in some species at higher altitudes. Trajectory analysis suggests that an increase of the organics to more than 2.5 μg m-3 observed at 8 km during one flight came from the Arabian Peninsula. Several ammonium peaks during the same flight at higher altitudes were traced back to the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone (ASMA).

  12. Why burn patients are referred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Noor-Ahmad; Karimi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    Many burn patients are needed to be referred to a tertiary burn hospital according to the American Burn Association (ABA) criteria. The purpose of this study was to verify the reasons for referring of the burn patients to the hospital. For 2 years, we prospectively surveyed the burn patients referred to a tertiary teaching burn hospital. Data for the following variables were collected and analyzed with SPSS software V21.0: causes of burn; age; gender; total body surface area (TBSA) measured at the referring center; TBSA measured at the receiving center; concomitant diseases and traumas; the reason for referral; condition of patients before and during the transportation; transportation time; presence of infection; presence of inhalation injury, electrical injury, and chemical injury; child abuse; insurance coverage; and results and outcomes of patients. A total of 578 burn patients (33.6% of the total admissions) were referred in the study period. Among these patients, 70.9% were females. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 35.3 (19.69) years. The mean (SD) of TBSA was 45.2 (26.3). Of the 578 patients, 45% were referred by request of the family or patients; 9% were referred because lack of diagnostic facility, approximately 43% were referred because of the need to be admitted in a tertiary burn center, 0.7% were referred because of a lack of capacity at other hospitals, and 0.5% were referred because of an error in the estimation of TBSA. A total of 45% of the referrals were by request of the family and patients. Tele-medicine may help to establish a direct contact between expert burn physicians and the patients and thus reduce unnecessary transfers. Approximately 9% of the referrals were because of lack of some diagnostic facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Imre; Németh, Zoltán; Weidinger, Tamás; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda; Molnár, Mihály; Major, István; Ajtai, Tibor; Utry, Noémi; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m-3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6 × OC) accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF) combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC = EC + OC) in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB) was a major source (40 %) for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 %) for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF) to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB) were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO) made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as domestic and industrial heating or cooking using gas, oil or coal

  14. Biomass burning impact on PM 2.5 over the southeastern US during 2007: integrating chemically speciated FRM filter measurements, MODIS fire counts and PMF analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Weber

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Archived Federal Reference Method (FRM Teflon filters used by state regulatory agencies for measuring PM2.5 mass were acquired from 15 sites throughout the southeastern US and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, water-soluble ions and carbohydrates to investigate biomass burning contributions to fine aerosol mass. Based on over 900 filters that spanned all of 2007, levoglucosan and K+ were studied in conjunction with MODIS Aqua fire count data to compare their performances as biomass burning tracers. Levoglucosan concentrations exhibited a distinct seasonal variation with large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and were well correlated with fire counts, except in winter when residential wood burning contributions were significant. In contrast, K+ concentrations had no apparent seasonal trend and poor correlation with fire counts. Levoglucosan and K+ only correlated well in winter (r2=0.59 when biomass burning emissions were highest, whereas in other seasons they were not correlated due to the presence of other K+ sources. Levoglucosan also exhibited larger spatial variability than K+. Both species were higher in urban than rural sites (mean 44% higher for levoglucosan and 86% for K+. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was applied to analyze PM2.5 sources and four factors were resolved: biomass burning, refractory material, secondary light absorbing WSOC and secondary sulfate/WSOC. The biomass burning source contributed 13% to PM2.5 mass annually, 27% in winter, and less than 2% in summer, consistent with other souce apportionment studies based on levoglucosan, but lower in summer compared to studies based on K+.

  15. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m−3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6  ×  OC accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC  =  EC + OC in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB was a major source (40 % for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 % for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as

  16. Comparison of chemical characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hecobian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares measurements of gaseous and particulate emissions from a wide range of biomass-burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the ARCTAS-2008 experiment: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, USA (3 April to 19 April 2008; ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July 2008; and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, USA (18 June to 24 June 2008. Approximately 500 smoke plumes from biomass burning emissions that varied in age from minutes to days were segregated by fire source region and urban emission influences. The normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMR of gaseous (carbon dioxide, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, toluene, benzene, methane, oxides of nitrogen and ozone and fine aerosol particulate components (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride, organic aerosols and water soluble organic carbon of these plumes were compared. A detailed statistical analysis of the different plume categories for different gaseous and aerosol species is presented in this paper.

    The comparison of NEMR values showed that CH4 concentrations were higher in air-masses that were influenced by urban emissions. Fresh biomass burning plumes mixed with urban emissions showed a higher degree of oxidative processing in comparison with fresh biomass burning only plumes. This was evident in higher concentrations of inorganic aerosol components such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, but not reflected in the organic components. Lower NOx NEMRs combined with high sulfate, nitrate and ammonium NEMRs in aerosols of plumes subject to long-range transport, when comparing all plume categories, provided evidence of advanced processing of these plumes.

  17. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water was discussed. A 29-year-old woman sustained a 7% second-degree burn on both buttocks and left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of a chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this Chinese traditional medicine. The prevention measures of this burn injury were also presented.

  18. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  19. Minor burns - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If this is not possible, put a cool, clean wet cloth on the burn, or soak the burn in a cool water bath for 5 minutes. ... After the burn is cooled, make sure it is a minor burn. If it is deeper, ... You may put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum ...

  20. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  1. Queima e aditivos químicos e bacterianos na ensilagem de cana-de-açúcar Burning and chemical and bacterial additives in sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rezende Siqueira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da queima e do uso de aditivos (ureia, benzoato de sódio, hidróxido de sódio (NaOH, Propionibacterium acidipropionici + Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus buchneri na ensilagem de cana-de-açúcar. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 (cana-de-açúcar crua e queimada × 6 (cinco aditivos mais o grupo controle com três repetições. Determinaram-se as perdas durante o processo fermentativo nas formas de gases e de efluentes e a recuperação de matéria seca (MS. Maior recuperação de MS foi observada nas silagens de cana-de-açúcar queimada (77,3% em relação às silagens de cana crua (73,1%. As recuperações de MS observadas nas silagens tratadas com NaOH ou L. buchneri foram de 84%, enquanto das silagens controle, 69%. No período após abertura, uma variável importante é a inibição da elevação do pH, nesse caso, medida pela variação do pH. Destacam-se como inibidores da variação do pH o benzoato de sódio e o L. buchneri, que promoveram variação do pH de 0,05 e 0,18 unidade de pH, respectivamente. A ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar sem aditivos, crua ou queimada, é uma estratégia que resulta em grandes perdas quantitativas, que podem ser evitadas pelo uso de aditivos. Entre os aditivos avaliados, o L. buchneri é o que atua de forma mais satisfatória nas fases de fermentação e pós-abertura de silagens de cana-de-açúcar crua ou queimada.This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of burning and additivess (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, Propionibacterium acidipropionici + Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri on sugar cane silage. A randomized complete design was used, in a 2 × 6 factorial scheme with two sugar cane forages (natural or burned and six treatments (five additive sources plus a control with three replications. The gas and effluent losses during the fermentation process and dry matter recovery

  2. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....... METHODS: We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. RESULTS: A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most...... common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines...

  3. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  4. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  5. Burns - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Burns URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/burns.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  6. Economics of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  7. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  8. Metal availability in heavy metal-contaminated open burning and open detonation soil: assessment using soil enzymes, earthworms, and chemical extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Eul-Young; Hyun, Seunghun; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2009-10-15

    The effects of heavy metal contamination on soil enzyme activity and earthworm health (bioaccumulation and condition) were studied in contaminated soils collected from an formerly open burning and open detonation (OBOD) site. Soil extraction methods were also evaluated using CaCl(2) and DTPA solutions as surrogate measures of metal bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Total heavy metal content of the soils ranged from 0.45 to 9.68 mg Cd kg(-1), 8.96 to 5103 mg Cu kg(-1), 40.21 to 328 mg Pb kg(-1), and 56.61 to 10,890 mg Zn kg(-1). Elevated metal concentrations are assumed to be primarily responsible for the reduction in enzyme activities and earthworm health indices. We found significant negative relationships between CaCl(2)- and DTPA-extractable metal content (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and soil enzyme activity (Psoil enzyme activity and metal bioaccumulation by earthworms can be used as an ecological indicator of metal availability. Furthermore, CaCl(2) and DTPA extraction methods are proved as promising, precise, and inexpensive surrogate measures of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn bioavailability from heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  9. Chemical composition of pre-monsoon air in the Indo-Gangetic Plain measured using a new air quality facility and PTR-MS: high surface ozone and strong influence of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2014-06-01

    One seventh of the world's population lives in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and the fertile region sustains agricultural food crop production for much of South Asia, yet it remains one of the most under-studied regions of the world in terms of atmospheric composition and chemistry. In particular, the emissions and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that form surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol through photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides are not well understood. In this study, ambient levels of VOCs such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and isoprene were measured for the first time in the IGP. A new atmospheric chemistry facility that combines India's first high-sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, an ambient air quality station and a meteorological station, was used to quantify in situ levels of several VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 at a suburban site in Mohali (northwest IGP). Westerly winds arriving at high wind speeds (5-20 m s-1) in the pre-monsoon season at the site were conducive for chemical characterization of regional emission signatures. Average levels of VOCs and air pollutants in May~2012 ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 nmol mol-1 for aromatic VOCs, 5.9 to 37.5 nmol mol-1 for the oxygenated VOCs, 1.4 nmol mol-1 for acetonitrile, 1.9 nmol mol-1 for isoprene, 567 nmol mol-1 for carbon monoxide, 57.8 nmol mol-1 for ozone, 11.5 nmol mol-1 for nitrogen oxides, 7.3 nmol mol-1 for sulfur dioxide, 104 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 276 μg m-3 for PM10. By analyzing the one-minute in situ data with meteorological parameters and applying chemical tracers (e.g., acetonitrile for biomass burning) and inter-VOC correlations, we were able to constrain major emission source activities on both temporal and diel scales. Wheat residue burning caused massive increases (> 3 times the baseline values) for all the measured VOCs and primary pollutants. Other forms of biomass burning at night were also a significant

  10. Chemical composition of pre-monsoon air in the Indo-Gangetic Plain measured using a new PTR-MS and air quality facility: high surface ozone and strong influence of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2013-12-01

    One seventh of the world population lives in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and the fertile region sustains agricultural food crop production for much of South Asia. Yet it remains one of the most under-studied regions of the world in terms of atmospheric composition and chemistry. In particular, the emissions and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that form surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol through photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides is not well understood. In this study, ambient levels of VOCs such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and isoprene were measured for the first time in the IGP. A new atmospheric chemistry facility that combines India's first high sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, an ambient air quality station and meteorological station, was used to quantify in-situ levels of several VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 at a suburban site in Mohali (N. W. IGP). Westerly winds arriving at high wind speeds (5-20 m s-1) in the pre-monsoon season at the site, were conducive for chemical characterization of regional emission signatures. Average levels of VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 ranged from 1.2-1.7 nmol mol-1 for aromatic VOCs, 5.9-37.4 nmol mol-1 for the oxygenated VOCs, 1.4 nmol mol-1 for acetonitrile, 1.9 nmol mol-1 for isoprene, 567 nmol mol-1 for carbon monoxide, 57.8 nmol mol-1 for ozone, 11.5 nmol mol-1 for nitrogen oxides, 7.3 nmol mol-1 for sulphur dioxide, 104 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 276 μg m-3 for PM10. By analyzing the one minute in-situ data with meteorological parameters and applying chemical tracers (e.g. acetonitrile for biomass burning) and inter-VOC correlations, we were able to constrain major emission source activities on both temporal and diel scales. Wheat residue burning activity caused massive increases (> 3 times of baseline values) for all the measured VOCs and primary pollutants. Other forms of biomass burning at night were also a significant source

  11. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Chemical Composition of size-resolved particles in a Brazilian megacity: Effect of NPF event, biomass burning and sea salt from remote regions on the CCN properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Oliveira, Carlos; de Fátima Andrade, Maria; Kumar, Prashant; Lopes, Fabio; Babinski, Marly; Landulfo, Eduado; Vara-Vela, Angel

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Their microphysics and chemical composition can directly affect development of clouds and precipitation process1,2. Only a few studies in Latin American have reported the impact of urban aerosol on the formation of CCN and their contribution to global climate change3. In this study, we simultaneously measured size distributed particle number concentration (PNC), CCN, black carbon (BC) and elemental concentrations (EC) in aerosol samples from São Paulo city. The PNC was measured by DMPS (model 3936) operated with a DMA (model 3080) and CPC (TSI, model 3010). The CCN was measuredby a single-column continuous-flow stream-wise thermal gradient CCN chamber (DMT CCNC-100). The BC and EC were determined in polycarbonate filter collected by Cascade Impactor (MOUDI-MSP), using a smoke stain reflectometer and an ED-XRF (EDX 700; Shimadzu), respectively. During the study period, which was August to September 2014, four events of new particle formation (NPF), characterizing secondary process of aerosol formation were noted. The total PNC varied between 1106 and 29168 cm-3, while CCN presented concentrations of 206 to 12761 cm-3for SS=1.0%. The PNC showed different concentrations during diurnal and nocturnal periods with average of 16392±7811 cm-3 and 6874±3444cm-3, respectively. The activated ratio (CCN/CN) presented diurnal and nocturnal values of 0.19±0.10 and 0.41±0.18, while apparent activation diameter (Dact,a) was estimated to be 110±29 and 71±28 nm (SS=0.6%), respectively. Combining EC and BC results with air mass trajectory analysis (Lidar aerosol profiles and Hysplit air trajectories), apportionment events were identified for sea salt and biomass burning from coastal and continental regions, respectively. The nocturnal AR and Dact,apresented values of 0.46±0.11 and 49±15 nm (SS=0.6%) for sea salt events as opposed to 0.33±0.14 and 64±30 nm (SS=0.6%) during biomass

  12. Cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air and biomass burning smoke near the mega-city Guangzhou, China – Part 2: Size-resolved aerosol chemical composition, diurnal cycles, and externally mixed weakly CCN-active soot particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved chemical composition, mixing state, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN activity of aerosol particles in polluted mega-city air and biomass burning smoke were measured during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign near Guangzhou, China, using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA, and a continuous-flow CCN counter (DMT-CCNC.

    The size-dependence and temporal variations of the effective average hygroscopicity parameter for CCN-active particles (κa could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fractions (forg, finorg determined by the AMS: κa,porg·forg + κinorg·finorg. The characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components were similar to those observed in other continental regions of the world: κorg≈0.1 and κinorg≈0.6. The campaign average κa values increased with particle size from ~0.25 at ~50 nm to ~0.4 at ~200 nm, while forg decreased with particle size. At ~50 nm, forg was on average 60% and increased to almost 100% during a biomass burning event.

    The VTDMA results and complementary aerosol optical data suggest that the large fractions of CCN-inactive particles observed at low supersaturations (up to 60% at S≤0.27% were externally mixed weakly CCN-active soot particles with low volatility (diameter reduction <5% at 300 °C and effective hygroscopicity parameters around κLV≈0.01. A proxy for the effective average hygroscopicity of the total ensemble of CCN-active particles including weakly CCN-active particles (κt could be parameterized as a function of κa,p and the number fraction of low volatility particles determined by VTDMA (φLV: κt,pa,p−φLV

  13. Burn mortality in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qader, Ari Raheem

    2012-08-01

    Mortality rates are important outcome parameters after burn, and can serve as objective end points for quality control. Causes of death after severe burn have changed over time. In a prospective study, eight hundred and eighty-four burn patients were admitted to the Burns and Plastic surgery Hospital in Sulaimani-Kurdistan region of Iraq in 2009. Age, gender, nationality, cause of burn, extent of injury, cause of death and mortality rate were tabulated and analyzed, 338 (38.2%) were male and 546 (61.8%) were female. The highest number of cases occurred in January, with the highest short period incidence occurring in April. Out of 884 cases, 260 persons died. Burn injuries were more frequent and larger with higher mortality in females than in males. Flame was the major cause of burns. Self-inflicted burns were noted mainly in young women. A large number of burns which affect children and females, occur in the domestic setting and could have been prevented. Therefore, it is necessary to implement programs for health education relating to prevention of burn injuries focusing on the domestic setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. [The pain from burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  15. Burns in a major burns center in East China from 2005 to 2014: Incidence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoming; Ma, Bing; Zeng, Ding; Fang, Xiao; Li, Haihang; Xiao, Shichu; Wang, Guangyi; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan

    2017-11-01

    Information about epidemiology on burns is rare in China. The aim of this article is to describe the pattern of burns in East China during a 10-year time period. A retrospective data analysis was performed on all hospitalized patients to the burn center at the Changhai hospital, one of major burn centers in East China, from 2005 to 2014. We included 3376 patients in this study. Among them, 48.1% were from 27 provinces out of Shanghai and nearly 90% were from East China. August saw the most admissions and November saw the fewest. Spring and summer separately dominated in number of female and male patients. Children aged 2-5 and working-age adult were the most commonly treated. Home was the commonest place of injury, followed by industrial-related places, outdoors, public buildings, and vehicles or roads. Scalds remained the primary reason, followed by fire, contact burns, electricity, and chemicals. The average %TBSA of male patients was 14.2±21.3, significantly different from that of female patients (10.4±16.9). Extremities were the most vulnerable body region burned, followed by the trunk, face and hands. The average hospital length of stay in male patients was 25.4±72.4 days, significantly different from that of females' 19.9±27.6 days. The total mortality was 1.8% and the lethal area burned resulting in 50% mortality was 96.5% TBSA. Compared with published data, these result are encouraging, which demonstrate that burn care and treatment has made significant progress. Burn clinicians should bear not only the responsibility to treat and cure burns, but also the popularization of knowledge about burn precautions and emergency treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  17. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed.

  18. Pediatric facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K

    2008-07-01

    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes.

  19. Fire Service Training. Immediate Care of the Burn Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    Part of a series of instructional outlines intended for use in a training program for firemen with no previous formal training, this curriculum guide discusses the emergency treatment of thermal, chemical, and electrical burns. The topics covered are as follow: (1) evaluation of the degree and extent of the burn; (2) shock, its signs and…

  20. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  1. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cairns BA, et al. Etiology and outcome of pediatric burns. J Pediatr Surg. 1996; 31(3): 329-33. ... RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): 1-7. 10 Baptiste MS, ...

  2. Are burns photographs useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L; Boyle, M; Taggart, I; Watson, S

    2006-11-01

    Routine photography of all patients admitted to the West of Scotland Regional Burns Unit was introduced in 2003. To date, there are few burns units to evaluate the usefulness of photographs taken. To assess the usefulness of photographs of patients admitted to the burns unit to various members of the multidisciplinary team. A questionnaire was completed by hospital staff involved in the management of burns patients over a 3-month period. A total of 43 questionnaires were completed. The majority of questionnaires were completed by nursing staff (55%) followed by medical staff (23%); physiotherapy (5%); anaesthetists (7%); theatre staff (5%); students (2%); dietician (2%). About 98% of respondents agreed that photographs were useful overall, particularly for teaching purposes. About 9% disagreed that photographs were useful for assessment due to difficulty in assessing depth of burn. About 72% agreed that the photographs were useful for patient management and improve patient care. About 88% agreed that all patients should have photographs available in future. Advantages of photographs include; moving and handling of patients; patient positioning in theatre; reviewing wound healing and complications. They are useful for assessing site, size and type of burn. Disadvantages include difficulty in assessing depth of burn, technical factors, and unavailability out of hours. Photographs of burns patients are useful overall to all members of the multidisciplinary team.

  3. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Burn Treatment & Prevention Tips for Families Page Content ​There are many different causes of serious burns in children, including sunburn , hot water or other hot liquids, and those due to ...

  4. Pain in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  5. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  7. Mineralogical and micromorphological modifications in soil affected by slash pile burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Nobles; W. J. Massman; M. Mbila; G. Butters

    2010-01-01

    Silvicultural practices, such as slash pile burning, are commonly used for fire and ecosystem management. This management technique can drastically alter chemical, physical and biological soil properties due to the high temperatures achieved during the prolonged severe burn. Little is known, however, about the impact of high-temperature slash pile burning on soil...

  8. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon D. Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0% had burns involving less than 20% of the body surface area. Cause of the burns was scald in 190 patients (67.4%, fire in 80 patients (28.4%, chemical in 8 patients (2.8%, and explosion in 2 patients (0.7%. Two female patients (0.7% aged 11 and 17 years died of their burns that were caused by fire. The mean length of hospitalization was 9.8 days. Pediatric burn injury has become a significant public health problem in the Bedouin population of the Negev. To reduce the burden of burn injury, it is necessary to increase current efforts in prevention of burns.

  9. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  10. Early and late complications of ocular burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalag, Miguel S; Wasiak, Jason; Syed, Quaderi; Paul, Eldho; Hall, Anthony J; Cleland, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Ocular involvement in facial burns may lead to significant long-term morbidity. The aims of this study were to analyse the epidemiology, management and outcomes of ocular burn injuries, as well as to identify risk factors for developing early and late ocular complications. A retrospective medical chart review was conducted for 125 patients with ocular burns who were admitted to the Victorian Adult Burns Service (VABS), from November 2000 to January 2010. Univariate analyses was utilised to identify demographic and injury related variables associated with early and late complications. The majority of patients were male (n=101, 80.8%), and the mean (range) age was 40.7 (15-86) years. The most common mechanism was flame burns (n=77, 61.6%), and most were accidental (n=114, 91.2%). Early ocular complications occurred in 50 (40.0% [95% CI: 31.3%-49.1%]) patients, with the commonest being visual loss (n=39, 31.2%). Chemical burns, ocular discomfort, peri-orbital oedema, corneal injury, as well as eyelid and facial burns of increasing severity were associated with developing an early complication. Late ocular complications occurred in 19 (15.2% [95% CI: 9.4%-22.7%]) patients, with visual loss being the most frequent (n=13, 10.4%). Chemical burns, ocular discomfort, corneal injury of increasing severity, visual loss on presentation, ectropion, as well as eyelid burns of increasing depth were associated with late morbidity. Chemical burns, ocular discomfort, as well as corneal injury and eyelid burns of increasing severity were risk factors for both early and late ocular complications. III (retrospective comparative study). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2014-08-01

    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Full thickness burn caused by exposure to giant hogweed: delayed presentation, histological features and surgical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2012-02-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with a full thickness chemical burn on his right pretibial area due to phytophotodermatitis (PPD) following contact with giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). Although cutaneous burns due to plants are a well-established cause of chemical burn, previous reports described partial thickness burns that healed with conservative measures. This patient presented to our unit two weeks after the initial injury with an established full thickness burn. Debridement and split thickness skin grafting was required. We presented the histological features of the debrided skin specimen and discussed potential factors leading to this unexpected full thickness injury.

  13. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  14. Epidemiology, etiology and outcomes of burn patients in a Referral Burn Hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns and its complications are regarded as a major problem in the society. Skin injuries resulted from ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals as well as respiratory damage from smoke inhalation are considered burns. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology and outcome of burn patients admitted to Motahari Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: Two hundred patients with second-degree burns admitted to Motahari Referral Center of Burn in Tehran, Iran. They were studied during a period of 12 months from May 2012 to May 2013. During the first week of treatment swabs were collected from the burn wounds after cleaning the site with sterile normal saline. Samples were inoculated in blood agar and McConkey agar, then incubation at 37 C for 48 hours. Identification was carried out according to standard conventional biochemical tests. Treatment continued up to epithelial formation and wound healing. Results of microbial culture for each patient was recorded. Healing time of the burn wounds in patients was recorded in log books. Chi-square test and SPSS Software v.19 (IBM, NY, USA were used for data analysis. Results: Our findings indicate that the most causes of burns are hot liquids in 57% of cases and flammable liquid in 21% of cases. The most cases of burns were found to be in the range of 21 to 30 percent with 17.5% and 7% in male and female respectively. Gram-negative bacteria were dominated in 85.7% and among them pseudomonas spp. with 37.5% were the most common cause of infected burns, followed by Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the most cause of burns in both sex is hot liquid. Men were more expose to burn than women and this might be due to the fact that men are involved in more dangerous jobs than female. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism encountered in burn infection.

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  16. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  17. American Burn Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the premier educational event for the entire burn care team. Submit an abstract or session idea, exhibit or sponsor the meeting, or plan to attend. Find out more about the 50th Annual Meeting in Chicago, ...

  18. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oven. The liquid may heat unevenly, resulting in pockets of breast milk or formula that can scald a baby's mouth. Screen fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. Radiators and electric baseboard heaters may ...

  19. Management of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Burn Wise Awareness Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  1. Smartphone applications in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Ball lightning burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

    2003-05-01

    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications.

  3. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  4. Management of pediatric hand burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Kisch, Tobias; Mauss, Karl L; Senyaman, Oezge; Kraemer, Robert; Mailänder, Peter; Wünsch, Lutz; Stang, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Hand burns are common in the pediatric population. Optimal hand function is a crucial component of a high-quality survival after burn injury. This can only be achieved with a coordinated approach to the injuries. The aim of this study was to review the management algorithm and outcomes of pediatric hand burns at our institution. In total, 70 children fulfilling our study criteria were treated for a burn hand injury in our Burn Care Center between January 2008 and May 2013. 14 of the 70 pediatric patients underwent surgery because of the depth of the hand burns. The management algorithm depending on the depth of the burn is described. Two patients underwent correction surgery due to burn contractures later. For a successful outcome of the burned hand, the interdisciplinary involvement and cooperation of the plastic and pediatric surgeon, hand therapist, burn team, patient and their parents are crucial.

  5. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin; Umran Dal; Gulsen Vural

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Servic...

  6. Performance evaluation of commercial copper chromites as burning rate catalyst for solid propellants

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Faria Diniz; Eunice Aparecida Campos; Luis Cláudio Rezende; Rita de Cássia L. Dutra; Wilma Massae Dio Nawa; Koshun Iha

    2010-01-01

    Copper chromites are well known as burning rate catalysts for the combustion of composite solid propellants, used as a source of energy for rocket propulsion. The propellant burning rate depends upon the catalyst characteristics such as chemical composition and specific surface area. In this work, copper chromite samples from different suppliers were characterized by chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and by surface area measurement (BET). The samples were then evaluated as burning rate ca...

  7. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  8. Burn injuries and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Betsy B; Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H

    2008-01-01

    Although burn injuries during pregnancy are considered relatively rare, the exact incidence is not known. Multiple factors influence morbidity and mortality resulting from burn injuries during pregnancy. These factors include the depth and size of the burn, the woman's underlying health and age, and the estimated gestational age of the fetus. Associated inhalation injury and development of other significant secondary complications also influence maternal and fetal outcomes. Successful burn care requires a team approach in which almost every healthcare discipline is represented. Initial care is almost always provided by a specially trained emergency medical team in an out-of-hospital setting. During this phase, the ability of the team to communicate with emergency hospital personnel facilitates appropriate clinical management at the scene. In addition, continued communication regarding the woman's status and responses to treatment allows critical care specialists within the hospital to ensure that necessary personnel and resources are available when the patient arrives. From the time the pregnant woman is admitted to a hospital for additional acute and critical care through the extensive process of rehabilitation from burn injuries, providing care often evokes strong emotions and requires specialized skills to achieve the most positive outcomes.

  9. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  10. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  11. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  12. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  13. Characteristics of paediatric burns in Sichuan province: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Cen, Ying; Chen, Jun-Jie; Xu, Xue-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xue

    2012-02-01

    This study analysed the epidemiology of paediatric burns in Sichuan province, China, for the formulation of prevention programmes for this population. A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients admitted to the Burn Centre of West China Hospital during 2003-2009, including patient demographics, burn aetiology, time and place of burn, rural or urban population, and education level and burn knowledge of the patients' guardians. A total of 1387 paediatric burn patients, mean age 3.21 years (range 0-14 years) were admitted. The majority (72.1%) were 0-3 years old, and the male/female ratio was 2.39:1. Most common aetiologies were scalds (81.3%), flames (17.1%), and electricity (1.3%), while chemical burns were rare. The ratio of indoor versus outdoor location was 4.93:1, and the rural/urban ratio was 4.03:1. Burns were classified as: total burn surface area (TBSA) ranging from 0% to 5%, (23.9% of patients); TBSA between 5% and 15% (33.2%); TBSA between 15% and 25% (29.8%); TBSA greater than 25% (13.1%). There was a higher prevalence from April to September, and the peak times were mealtime and bathtime. The education level was lower in the rural group. Both urban and rural groups had little knowledge of first aid for burns. Burn prevention programmes should promote improved living conditions, with prevention education addressed directly to the guardians of children. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  15. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Propagation of Cigarette Static Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagation model of cigarette static burn at the cigarette periphery is proposed. Propagation of cigarette static burn is characterized by intermittent burn of the cigarette paper. The burning rate depends on the period of flash burn of the paper and is independent of the burning width. By measuring the local temperature near the front line of the burning propagation, the rate-determining step was identified as the time required to ignite the paper. A mathematical analysis was performed by calculating the heat transfer at the periphery during the paper heating period, and it was revealed that the thermal properties of the cigarette are the dominant factors of cigarette static burn. Modeling results showed good agreement with measured data.

  17. Accumulative eschar after burn

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Fushun

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb?bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  18. One Burn, One Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    law , no person shall be...Johannes Kepler University Linz Software GmbH Research Department Medical Informatics Hagenberg, Austria Herbert L. Haller, MD Trauma Hospital Linz of...0000000000000004 Address correspondence to M. Giretzlehner, PhD, Johannes Kepler University Linz, RISC Software GmbH, Research Department Medical Informatics, Softwarepark 35, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria. One Burn, One Standard LETTER TO THE EDITOR

  19. Fatal Burn due to Solarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Sever

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation burns are uncommon and their etiologies are various. The ultraviolet lights are also a source of radiation burns. We present a case of life-threatening radiation burn caused by long wave ultraviolet lights (UV at the solarium center. Up to now, despite its widespread use, fatal radiation burns caused by the indoor tanning device at the solarium center have not been reported. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed.

  20. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  1. Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A.J.; Payne, A.R.

    1984-07-01

    A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.

  2. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale. PMID:22174972

  3. Electric field effects on droplet burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, Advitya; Kyritsis, Dimitrios; Matalon, Moshe

    2015-11-01

    The effects of an externally applied electric field are studied on the burning characteristics of a spherically symmetric fuel drop including the structure, mass burning rate and extinction characteristics of the diffusion flame. A reduced three-step chemical kinetic mechanism that reflects the chemi-ionization process for general hydrocarbon fuels has been proposed to capture the production and destruction of ions inside the flame zone. Due to the imposed symmetry, the effect of the ionic wind is simply to modify the pressure field. Our study thus focuses exclusively on the effects of Ohmic heating and kinetic effects on the burning process. Two distinguished limits of weak and strong field are identified, highlighting the relative strength of the internal charge barrier compared to the externally applied field, and numerically simulated. For both limits, significantly different charged species distributions are observed. An increase in the mass burning rate is noticed with increasing field in either limit with negligible change in the flame temperature. Increasing external voltages pushes the flame away from the droplet and causes a strengthening of the flame with a reduction in the extinction Damkhöler number.

  4. Fluid replacement in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolani, A; Governa, M; Barisoni, D

    1996-01-01

    Burn injury involves a large amount of water, electrolytes and proteins loss trough the burn wound. For this reason, to avoid shock, a wide infusion of fluid is necessary in the first hours after trauma. Many reanimation formulas were proposed in the past years, with different composition: saline, colloids, plasma. The authors have studied 40 burned patients admitted in Verona Burn Center within 4 hours after burn, with burns over 30% of the body surface area. Twenty of them were treated with Baxter reanimation formula (ringer lactated saline, RLS) while the others with Monafo hypertonic lactated saline (HLS), modified by Milan Burn Center. The two randomized groups were assessed and compared. In RLS group total fluid volume infused was higher while sodium requirements was lower than in HLS patients, with statistically significative difference (p electrolytes balance with lower fluid load, reducing tissue oedema and complication rate. Mortality rate was higher in HLS, may be for an higher Roy index in this group.

  5. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn

  6. Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  7. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  8. Making burns count: the impact of varying case selection criteria on the identification of ICD-10 coded hospitalised burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Finch, Caroline F

    2013-11-01

    Routinely collected hospitalisation data are widely used to monitor injury trends, provide estimates of the burden of injury and healthcare costs, and to inform policy. This study examined the impact of different ICD-10 based case selection criteria commonly used by Australian and international reporting bodies on the number and nature of burn-related hospitalisations identified. Burn cases from a state-wide administrative hospitalisation dataset were identified and compared using three different case selection criteria: (1) principal diagnosis code of burn 'T20-T31', (2) first external cause code denoting burn 'X00-X19' and (3) both principal diagnosis code of community acquired injury 'S00-T98' and first external cause code denoting burn 'X00-X19'. Principal diagnosis codes 'T20-T31' and first external cause codes 'X00-X19' identified a similar number of cases, however only 78% of these were captured by both definitions. Principal diagnosis codes identified chemical, electrical and contact burns not identified as burns using external cause codes. First external cause codes identified readmission cases which were not identified by principal diagnosis codes. Using principal diagnosis codes of community acquired injury combined with external cause code of burn under-numerated hospitalisations by forty percent. The development, implementation and evaluation of health policy and prevention measures rely on good quality, consistent data. Current methods for identifying burn cases in hospitalisation data provide wide differences in estimation of number and nature of cases. It is important for clinicians to understand the implications of coding on the epidemiology and measurement of the burden of burn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiseptics for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-07-12

    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non

  10. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2010-07-08

    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  11. Burn Burn Burn - er du skræmt? - en analyse af Kræftens Bekæmpelses kampagnefilm Burn Burn Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Knigge Kæstel-Hansen, Camilla; Wittrup Stæger, Cæcilie

    2015-01-01

    This project examines how to organize a health campaign to a specific target audience of 15-25 year olds. This audience very quickly filters out information they find irrelevant, and quickly moves on to new things. Thereby, this audience has high demands regarding health campaigns and their relevance. Conclusions will be based on Danish organization Kræftens Bekæmpelse’s campaign film Burn Burn Burn. The film target audience are youths aged 15- 25, and the film’s message is, that the use of t...

  12. Burns, biofilm and a new appraisal of burn wound sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter; Brammah, Susan; Wills, Edward

    2010-02-01

    Following a burn, the wound may become colonized and septic complications may ensue. Many organisms, commonly isolated from burn wounds produce biofilms, which are defined as a collection of organisms on a surface surrounded by a matrix. Biofilms are associated with development of antibiotic resistant organisms and are refractory to the immune system. The presence of biofilm in the burn wound has not been documented. A study was undertaken using light and electron microscopy to determine the presence of biofilm in the burn wound. Specific stains were used to detect the presence of micro-organisms and associated carbohydrate, a major constituent of the biofilm matrix. A concurrent microbiological study of the burn wound was also carried out. Biofilm was detected in ulcerated areas of the burn wound. Bacterial wound invasion with mixed organisms was also commonly detected. The finding of biofilm in the burn wound has significance in our understanding of burn wound sepsis and supports the evidence for early excision and closure of the burn wound. Due to the recalcitrant nature of biofilm associated sepsis and the difficulty in disrupting biofilm it has implications for the future development of wound care dressings. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Spectrum and Treatment Approaches in Corneal Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç Müftüoğlu, İlkay; Aydın Akova, Yonca; Çetinkaya, Altuğ

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical findings, treatment modalities and long-term prognosis of chemical and thermal burns of the cornea. Twenty-one patients (27 eyes) who were followed at two centers for corneal chemical and thermal burns between 2001 and 2013 were included. Eyes were grouped into four grades according to the severity of burn using Roper-Hall classification. Age, gender, type of burn, follow-up duration, corrected visual acuity before and after treatment, treatment modalities and complications were recorded. Patients received medical treatment or combined surgical treatment including amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT), conjunctivolimbal autograft/allograft (CLAU/CLAL) transplantation, keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) or penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Patients had a mean age of 27.1±15.5 years (range, 6 months-56 years) and were followed for a mean 63.2±58.6 weeks (4-160 weeks). Significant improvement was achieved with medical treatment alone in patients with grade I (4 eyes) and 2 burns (8 eyes). Patients with grade III burns (11 eyes) underwent CLAU (6 eyes), combined AMT/CLAU (3 eyes), AMT/CLAL (1 eye), or CLAL+PKP (1 eye), while patients with grade IV burns (4 eyes) had keratectomy+CLAL/AMT (1 eye), keratectomy+CLAL+PKP after recurrence with CLAU/AMT (1 eye), CLAU+PKP (1 eye), and AMT/KLAL+PKP (1 eye). All patients except the latter showed ocular surface stabilization with these procedures. Ocular burns cause severe impairment of the ocular surface. It is possible to achieve good results with appropriate medical treatment and surgeries including ocular surface reconstruction.

  14. Clinical Spectrum and Treatment Approaches in Corneal Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Kılıç Müftüoğlu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the clinical findings, treatment modalities and long-term prognosis of chemical and thermal burns of the cornea. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients (27 eyes who were followed at two centers for corneal chemical and thermal burns between 2001 and 2013 were included. Eyes were grouped into four grades according to the severity of burn using Roper-Hall classification. Age, gender, type of burn, follow-up duration, corrected visual acuity before and after treatment, treatment modalities and complications were recorded. Patients received medical treatment or combined surgical treatment including amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT, conjunctivolimbal autograft/allograft (CLAU/CLAL transplantation, keratolimbal allograft (KLAL or penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. Results: Patients had a mean age of 27.1±15.5 years (range, 6 months-56 years and were followed for a mean 63.2±58.6 weeks (4- 160 weeks. Significant improvement was achieved with medical treatment alone in patients with grade I (4 eyes and 2 burns (8 eyes. Patients with grade III burns (11 eyes underwent CLAU (6 eyes, combined AMT/CLAU (3 eyes, AMT/CLAL (1 eye, or CLAL+PKP (1 eye, while patients with grade IV burns (4 eyes had keratectomy+CLAL/AMT (1 eye, keratectomy+CLAL+PKP after recurrence with CLAU/AMT (1 eye, CLAU+PKP (1 eye, and AMT/KLAL+PKP (1 eye. All patients except the latter showed ocular surface stabilization with these procedures. Conclusion: Ocular burns cause severe impairment of the ocular surface. It is possible to achieve good results with appropriate medical treatment and surgeries including ocular surface reconstruction. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 182-187

  15. [The organization of burn care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques

    2002-12-15

    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  16. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Disseldorp, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    2017-12-01

    Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Perceived fatigue was assessed in 23 children and adolescents (15 boys and 8 girls, aged 6-18 years, with burns covering 10-46% of the total body surface area, 1-5 years post burn) using both child self- and parent proxy reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Outcomes were compared with reference values of non-burned peers. At group level, pediatric burn survivors did not report significantly more symptoms of fatigue than their non-burned peers. Individual assessments showed, however, that four children experienced substantial symptoms of fatigue according to the child self-reports, compared to ten children according to the parent proxy reports. Furthermore, parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue than the children themselves. Age, gender, extent of burn, length of hospital stay, and number of surgeries could not predict the level of perceived fatigue post-burn. Our results suggest that fatigue is prevalent in at least part of the pediatric burn population after 1-5 years. However, the fact that parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue then the children themselves, hampers evident conclusions. It is essential for clinicians and therapists to consider both perspectives when evaluating pediatric fatigue after burn and to determine who needs special attention, the pediatric burn patient or its parent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  18. Kenya cardinal burns condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-09

    Kenya's top Roman Catholic church official burned condoms and safe sex literature in a ceremony organized by a group opposed to contraception and sex education. About 250 people watched as Cardinal Maurice Otunga and two gynecologists prayed and sang before setting fire to several boxes of condoms and 100 copies of pamphlets promoting safe sex. The pamphlets encouraged condom use to fight the spread of HIV. The World Health Organization has estimated that 1 million of Kenya's 26 million people are infected with HIV or AIDS. full text

  19. Peat Bog Ecosystems: Burning

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Richard; Birnie, Richard; Clough, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Fires occur naturally on bogs through lightning strikes, but for any given location this is a rare occurrence - perhaps once every 200 or 300 years. Current burning practice for grazing or to encourage grouse means that ground is burnt 10x more frequently than this, resulting in loss of natural peat bog biodiversity and peat-forming species. Full recovery may take considerably more than a century.\\ud \\ud This briefing note is part of a series aimed at policy makers, practitioners and academic...

  20. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  1. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  2. Burn Center Treatment of Patients With Severe Anhydrous Ammonia Injury: Case Reports and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    16. Wibbenmeyer LA, Morgan LJ, Robinson BK, et al. Our chemical burn experience: exposing the dangers of anhydrous ammonia. J Burn Care Rehabil...Dérobert L, Proteau J, Caroff J. Étude anatomique de quatre cas d’intoxication aiguë par inhalation de gaz ammoniac . Amm Méd Lég 1964;44:362. 33

  3. Caustic Cement Burn in a Nigerian Male: A Surrogate for the State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Cement is an important material used in the construction industry. When mixed with water, it has abrasive, caustic and drying properties that could causeallergic and sensitivity reactions to the skin, chemical skin burns ordamage to the eyes following contact. Cement burns to the skin appears to occur commonly ...

  4. Changes in soil fertility following prescribed burning on Coastal Plain pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McKee

    1982-01-01

    Soil and forest floor samples were collected from four prescribed burning studies in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. The surface textures of soils ranged from sands to silt loams and the drainage classes from well to poorly drained. Burning treatments had been in force from 8 to 65 years. Reduction of the forest floor and its chemical constituents was related to...

  5. Modeling soil heating and moisture transport under extreme conditions: Forest fires and slash pile burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman

    2012-01-01

    Heating any soil during a sufficiently intense wildfire or prescribed burn can alter it irreversibly, causing many significant, long-term biological, chemical, and hydrological effects. Given the climate-change-driven increasing probability of wildfires and the increasing use of prescribed burns by land managers, it is important to better understand the dynamics of the...

  6. Prevention and management of outpatient pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Shannon P; Billmire, David A

    2008-07-01

    Burns are common injuries in the pediatric population, with an estimated 250,000 pediatric burn patients seeking medical care annually. A relative few require inpatient management. This article discusses suggestions for burn prevention, as well as acute burn care and long-term management of small burns.

  7. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  8. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaoka, T; Kaneko, J H; Arikawa, Y; Isobe, M; Sato, Y; Tsubota, M; Nagai, T; Kojima, S; Abe, Y; Sakata, S; Fujioka, S; Nakai, M; Shiraga, H; Azechi, H; Chayahara, A; Umezawa, H; Shikata, S

    2015-05-01

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 10(7) cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 10(7) cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5-1 keV and neutron yield of more than 10(9) neutrons/shot.

  9. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  10. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  11. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods: Perceived fatigue was

  12. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods Perceived fatigue was

  13. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burns surgery has traditionally been somewhat of a. “Cinderella” subspecialty, with the burn surgeon regularly being faced with significant physical and emotional demands. In addition, this branch of surgery has neither complicated surgical procedures nor a plethora of technological equipment to pique the interest of ...

  14. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... management of burns within a general hospital setting. Causes. About 90% of childhood burns are preventable. Informal housing, overcrowding and lack of electricity are underlying problems.4. The most frequent ... injury is not important from a wound treatment perspective, NAI has far-reaching social and ...

  15. Managing smoke from wildfires and prescribed burning in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Wain; Graham Mills; Lachlan McCaw; Timothy Brown

    2009-01-01

    In Australia the responsibility for management of forests and other public lands rests largely with state governments, and multiple government agencies may be involved in fire management. Whether resulting from wildfire, fuel reduction, or silvicultural operations, biomass burning often stimulates community concerns about hazards from fine particulates and chemical...

  16. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Post-Burn Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger delta, crude oil spilled soils are burned as a means of decontaminating the impacted soils. Gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GCFID) analyses were performed on oil residues extracted from burnt spilled oil soil samples to facilitate detailed chemical composition and characterization of petroleum ...

  17. The year in burns 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Alkali-related ocular burns: a case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Daniel J L; George, Robert J; Kleinschmidt, Andrew; Kumar, Rohit J; Maitz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alkali burns are known to possess high pathological potential because of their inherent ability to lyse cell membranes and penetrate intraocular structures with devastating results. The authors aimed to evaluate the most common cause of this presentation, the current treatment approaches to injury, and eventual outcome as related to severity. The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients who sustained chemical-related ocular injuries seen at the Concord Hospital Burns Unit, Australia between January 2005 and March 2012. Management was based on cooperation between ophthalmic staff and the burns unit, with emphasis on early aggressive intervention and rigorous follow-up. The records of 39 patients who presented with chemical-related injury were assessed, 12 of whom had confirmed alkali burns involving the cornea. The most commonly implicated agent was sodium hydroxide, usually in the context of otherwise trivial domestic accidents. Acute medical management included copious irrigation and the use of analgesics, cycloplegics, and topical antibiotics. In half the cases, steroid drops and oral vitamin C were also used. Ten of the 12 patients (83%) had return to premorbid visual acuity. Complications included cicatrical ectropion (n = 1), pseudoexfoliative syndrome (n = 1), and symblepharon (n = 1). Surgical correction was needed in the one patient with cicatrical ectropion. This case series shows that appropriate acute management minimizes the potentially devastating sequelae of ocular alkali burns. Emphasis should be placed on prevention of domestic and workplace injuries when using alkaline products.

  19. Does prescribed burning affect leaf secondary metabolites in pine stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoir, A V; Ormeño, E; Pasqualini, V; Ferrat, L; Greff, S; Lecareux, C; Vila, B; Mévy, J P; Fernandez, C

    2013-03-01

    Prescribed burning (PB) is gaining popularity as a low-cost forest protection measure that efficiently reduces fuel build-up, but its effects on tree health and growth are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the impact of PB on plant defenses in Mediterranean pine forests (Pinus halepensis and P. nigra ssp. laricio). These chemical defenses were estimated based on needle secondary metabolites (terpenes and phenolics including flavonoids) and discussed in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence and soil nutrients. Three treatments were applied: absence of burning (control plots); single burns (plots burned once); and repeated burns (plots burned twice). For single burns, we also explored changes over time. In P. laricio, PB tended to trigger only minor modifications consisting exclusively of short-lived increases (observed within 3 months after PB) in flavonoid index, possibly due to the leaf temperature increase during PB. In P. halepensis, PB had detrimental effects on physiological performance, consisting of (i) significant decreases in actual PSII efficiency (ΦPSII) in light-adapted conditions after repeated PB, and (ii) short-lived decreases in variable-to-maximum fluorescence ratio (Fv/Fm) after single PB, indicating that PB actually stressed P. halepensis trees. Repeated PB also promoted terpene-like metabolite production, which increased 2 to 3-fold compared to control trees. Correlations between terpene metabolites and soil chemistry were found. These results suggest that PB impacts needle secondary metabolism both directly (via a temperature impact) and indirectly (via soil nutrients), and that these impacts vary according to species/site location, frequency and time elapsed since last fire. Our findings are discussed with regard to the use of PB as a forest management technique and its consequences on plant investment in chemical defenses.

  20. Temperaturas de quema y propiedades físicas y químicas de suelos de la Región Semiárida Pampeana Central Impact of different burning temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of Central Semiarid Pampa soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Hepper

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Los fuegos controlados y naturales son frecuentes en el Caldenal, en la Región Semiárida Pampeana Central, y sus efectos sobre propiedades físicas y químicas de los suelos son poco conocidos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar las temperaturas de quema que producen cambios en algunas propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo en el Caldenal. Dos Haplustoles énticos, uno franco arenoso y otro franco fueron calentados durante 5 minutos a 100 ºC, 200 ºC, 300 ºC, 400 ºC, 500 ºC y 600 ºC. Sobre las muestras de suelo sin tratar y las sometidas a las diferentes temperaturas se determinó pH en agua, textura, carbono orgánico, nitrógeno total, cationes intercambiables y capacidad de intercambio catiónico. Las temperaturas de quema a las que se produjeron mayores modificaciones fueron 500 ºC y 600 °C, detectándose disminuciones del contenido de carbono orgánico, nitrógeno total, de la relación de ambos, de la capacidad de intercambio catiónico y la transformación del suelo franco en franco arenoso y del franco arenoso en arenoso franco. Los contenidos de potasio y sodio intercambiables aumentaron a partir de 300 ºC y 400 ºC según el suelo, mientras que en ambos el contenido de magnesio disminuyó a partir de 400 ºC y el de calcio no fue afectado a ninguna temperatura. A menores temperaturas, 200 ºC y 300 ºC, sólo se afectaron las proporciones de las fracciones de arena. Como consecuencia de una quema a altas temperaturas disminuirá la capacidad de retención de agua y de nutrientes de estos suelos, con la consecuente pérdida de fertilidad.The natural and controlled burns are very frequent in the Caldenal area, located in the Central Semiarid Pampean Region, and the effects they produce on the physical and chemical properties of the soils are not well-known. The aim of this study was to find out the burning temperatures that produce changes in soil physical and chemical properties in the Caldenal area. Two Entic

  1. Neonatal burns in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria: Epidemiology and outcome of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugburo, Andrew Omotayo; Fadeyibi, Idowu Olusegun; Mofikoya, Bolaji Oyawoye; Akanmu, Olanrewaju Nurudeen; Temiye, Edamisan Olusoji; Kanu, Okezie Obasi; Chira, Muna Kenneth; Egbikuadje, Dennis Emonena; Majekodunmi, Adetinuwe

    2013-05-01

    Burns in the neonate are rare and result mostly from iatrogenic sources in developed countries. The socioeconomic settings of developing countries are different from those in the developed countries. A review of the epidemiology and management of burns in the neonates in Lagos, Nigeria is presented. The case notes of burns in patients less than 29 days-old from 2004 to 2008 in 4 tertiary health institutions in Lagos were retrieved from the Medical Records Department; necessary data were extracted and analyzed. There were 21 neonates with burns within the study period. The incidence of neonatal burns ranged between 0.5 and 2.5%/year. The mean age was 16.38 ± 1.84 days and the mean BSA of 26.00 ± 5.53%. The etiology of burns was thermal in 19(90.5%) and chemical in 2(9.5%). Hypokalemia was common at early stages of their treatment. Burns were sustained at home in 90.5% of the cases. The mortality rate was 43.5%. Inhalation and thermal injuries were associated with most of the deaths. Domestic incidents from flames are the commonest causes of neonatal burns in the study environment. These are associated with prolonged morbidity and high mortality rate. Health education, highlighting methods of prevention should be undertaken in the community. Well equipped burn centers should be established to treat burns in all age groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological trends and risk factors in major burns patients in South Korea: a 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Kook; Kym, Dohern; Yim, Haejun; Yang, Hyeong Tae; Cho, Yong Suk; Kim, Jong Hyun; Hur, Jun; Chun, Wook

    2015-02-01

    To determine epidemiological trends among burns patients admitted to our burns center during 2003-2012, and the usefulness of the Abbreviated Burns Severity Index (ABSI) for predicting burns-related mortality. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 4481 burns patients. We analyzed the epidemiological trends and ABSI scores using Student t-test and one-way analysis of variance (continuous variables), chi-square test (categorical variables) and stepwise logistic-regression analysis (predictors of mortality). The mean age and male-to-female ratio were 39.9±19.7 years and 2.88, respectively. ABSI scores decreased from 7.7±3.0 in 2003 to 6.9±3.0 in 2012. Mortality rate improved from 24.5% in 2003 to 15.8% in 2012. Burns were caused by flames (67.3%), scalding (22.0%) and electrical (7.5%), chemical (1.6%) and contact (1.5%) injuries. Scalding and flames were the most common causes in patients aged ≤20 years and ≥21 years, respectively. Female sex, inhalation injury, full-thickness burns, large total body surface area (TBSA) burned and old age predicted mortality. ABSI scores 14 were associated with 0.7% and >90% mortality, respectively. The mortality of major burns has decreased but remains high. ABSI scores predict burns-related mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Pattern and outcome of children admitted for burns in Benin City, mid-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludiran O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are a vulnerable to burns, an injury, which is often preventable. A study of the profile of cases of children admitted for burns will provide background information to suggest locally doable preventive strategies as well as supply basic information for future reference. We studied the records of 62 children aged 0-16 years, admitted for burns, at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, between January 2002 and December 2006. There were 34 male and 28 female children. Children under three years constituted 56.5%. Whereas the leading cause of burns in all the children was flame burns from kerosene explosions (52%, scalds were responsible for 68.6% of cases in those under three. The extent of burn injury ranged from 6 to 50% and most of them presented late. 64.6% were discharged within three weeks. Wound sepsis and post burn contractures were the most frequently encountered complications (19.4% and 9.7% respectively. There were two deaths (3.2% related to sepsis. Particular attention to burn safety precautions in children (especially, in the> 3 years age group, safer storage and dispensing of combustible chemicals particularly petroleum products is advocated. Fire safety awareness, correct first aid measures and early presentation in the hospital will reduce morbidity and mortality. Early physiotherapy and splinting strategies will reduce contractures. There is the need locally for the establishment of specialized burn centres both to treat these children and to stimulate interest in burn management.

  4. Performance evaluation of commercial copper chromites as burning rate catalyst for solid propellants

    OpenAIRE

    Campos,Eunice Aparecida; Rita de Cássia L. Dutra; Rezende, Luis Cláudio; Diniz,Milton Faria; Nawa, Wilma Massae Dio; Iha,Koshun

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Copper chromites are well known as burning rate catalysts for the combustion of composite solid propellants, used as a source of energy for rocket propulsion. The propellant burning rate depends upon the catalyst characteristics such as chemical composition and specific surface area. In this work, copper chromite samples from different suppliers were characterized by chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and by surface area measurement (BET). The samples were then evaluated as burni...

  5. Regional Modeling of Biomass-Burning Aerosol Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, C. R.; Brodowski, C. M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Henderson, J.; Pierce, J. R.; Lin, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol freshly emitted from biomass-burning events are a complex mixture of organic species, black carbon, and inorganic salts with their size, number, and chemical composition dependent on the type of vegetation that is burning, the size and combustion efficiency of the fire event, and the ambient conditions. These particles evolve quickly in the atmosphere, both physically and chemically, due to coagulation, primary organic aerosol evaporation, and secondary organic aerosol formation. Understanding and simulating the complex evolution of these aerosols is critical to understanding the impact of biomass-burning plumes on air quality and climate. We present results from two biomass-burning impact studies using a new Lagrangian aerosol modeling tool, STILT-ASP. This modeling tool is comprised of the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model with an integrated Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). STILT allows for the identification of air parcels that were influenced by fire emissions during their transport to a model receptor (i.e. an urban monitoring site). STILT-ASP then determines the contribution of primary emission (of PM2.5) and secondary chemical formation (both O3 and PM2.5) from the fires to the pollutants in the parcel, and then sums these fire contributions across all parcels to determine the influence that the fire had on the receptor. We also discuss the preliminary integration of the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) with ASP (SAM-ASP), which will model plume-scale biomass-burning chemistry and dispersion in order to capture the evolution of aerosol size and number concentrations within the plume. The goal of this model is to ultimately better represent the near-source biomass-burning plume evolution for use in aerosol microphysics and climate models.

  6. Outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassira, Wrood; Namias, Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    The leading etiologies of pediatric burns are scald, thermal, and electrical injuries. The initial management of burns involves assessment of burn depth and total body surface area (TBSA) affected, a history, and physical examination. Calculation of percent of TBSA affected is an important determinant of the necessity for hospitalization versus outpatient management. Only second- and third-degree burns are included in the calculation. The criteria for outpatient management vary based on the center experience and resources. One such set of criteria in an experienced burn center includes burn affecting less than 15% TBSA, therefore not requiring fluid resuscitation; the ability to take in oral fluids, excluding serious perioral burns; no airway involvement or aspiration of hot liquid; no abuse; and dependable family able to transport the patient for clinic appointments. Once the child is ready to reenter school, the physician must discuss with the family and school staff any needs and expectations for the child, including wound care. Social reintegration can be difficult. Educating the teachers and staff of the child's appearance may help prepare the students.

  7. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  8. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  9. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  10. Mixing between a stratospheric intrusion and a biomass burning plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brioude

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, carbon monoxide, aerosol extinction coefficient, acetonitrile, nitric acid and relative humidity measured from the NOAA P3 aircraft during the TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006 experiment, indicate mixing between a biomass burning plume and a stratospheric intrusion in the free troposphere above eastern Texas. Lagrangian-based transport analysis and satellite imagery are used to investigate the transport mechanisms that bring together the tropopause fold and the biomass burning plume originating in southern California, which may affect the chemical budget of tropospheric trace gases.

  11. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-10-01

    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  14. Honey dressing in pediatric burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangroo A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of honey have been recognized since antiquity. Although used as an adjuvant method of accelerating wound healing from ancient times, honey has been sporadically used in the treatment of burns. Honey acts mainly as a hyperosmolar medium and prevents bacterial growth. Because of its high viscosity, it forms a physical barrier, and the presence of enzyme catalase gives honey an antioxidant property. Its high-nutrient content improves substrate supply in local environment promoting epithelialization and angiogenesis. In pediatric burn patients no exclusive study has been conducted using honey as a burn dressing. An attempt is being made to evaluate the effect of honey in the management of burns in pediatric patients.

  15. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harman Award Hickey Award Advocacy Award Edge Servant Leadership Award Contact Information News & Media Phoenix Blog Who We Are Get Involved Ways to Give Our Vision | Uniting the voice of the burn community around the globe to profoundly advance lifelong ...

  16. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  17. Chemistry of Cigarette Burning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette-burning and the smoke-formation processes and smoke composition are important topics for understanding cigarette performance. This paper proposes the molecular formulas representing the active components of bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos and a basic chemistry model of the cigarette burning processes. Previous knowledge of the cigarette burning processes and smoke formation helped to establish parameters in deriving the basic chemistry equations. The proposed chemistry provides a brief view of the mechanisms of the cigarette burning during puffing and interpuff smoldering, and can be used to interpret and predict the smoke composition for cigarettes made from bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos. Based on the proposed chemistry, the effect of ventilation on smoke component deliveries is discussed and the reaction heat of the puffing process is estimated.

  18. Electrothermal Ring Burn - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring.

  19. Clinical observation of ocular alkali burn by Breviscapinun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lian Cai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To find better ways of treating ocular alkali burn, and to reduce the suffering of patients and social burden.METHODS:Totally 100 patients were graded according to the degree of chemical burns to four major groups, each half were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group. Control group underwent conventional treatment. In addition to conventional therapy, patients in each treatment group were also added a Breviscapine intravenous injection of 40mg daily. Corneal recovery time, changes in vision, degree of corneal opacity, number of corneal neovascularization and other complications were observed. Curative effects were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in level Ⅰ group between control group and treatment group(P>0.05; There were significantly different in level Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ group(PPCONCLUSION: Breviscapine in the treatment of ocular alkali burns can shorten the course of treatment, reduce corneal scarring, and improve vision.

  20. Aquatic ecological risks due to cyanide releases from biomass burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Timothy R; Lutes, Christopher C; Doorn, Michiel R J; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Timmenga, Hubert J; Crouch, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity due to the creation and mobilization of chemical constituents by fire has been little studied, despite reports of post-fire fish kills attributed to unspecified pyrogenic toxicants. We examined releases of cyanides from biomass burning and their effect on surface runoff water. In laboratory test burns, available cyanide concentrations in leachate from residual ash were much higher than in leachate from partially burned and unburned fuel and were similar to or higher than the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for rainbow trout (45 microg/l). Free cyanide concentrations in stormwater runoff collected after a wildfire in North Carolina averaged 49 microg/l, again similar to the rainbow trout LC50 and an order of magnitude higher than in samples from an adjacent unburned area. Pyrogenic cyanide inputs, together with other fire-related stressors, may contribute to post-fire fish mortalities, particularly those affecting salmonids.

  1. Measurement of HONO, HNCO, and other inorganic acids by negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS): application to biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Roberts; P. Veres; C. Warneke; J. A. Neuman; R. A. Washenfelder; S. S. Brown; M. Baasandorj; J. B. Burkholder; I. R. Burling; T. J. Johnson; R. J. Yokelson; J. de Gouw

    2010-01-01

    A negative-ion proton transfer chemical ionization mass spectrometric technique (NI-PT-CIMS), using acetate as the reagent ion, was applied to the measurement of volatile inorganic acids of atmospheric interest: hydrochloric (HCl), nitrous (HONO), nitric 5 (HNO3), and isocyanic (HNCO) acids. Gas phase calibrations through the sampling inlet showed the method to be...

  2. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  3. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Miura K; Nagao A; Ueyama K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smolder...

  4. The safety and efficacy of Diphoterine for ocular and cutaneous burns in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Darren D; Zukin, Leonid M; Dellavalle, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Diphoterine, developed by the French company Prevor, is a polyvalent, chelating, amphoteric and slightly hypertonic solution used in the management of chemical cutaneous and ocular burns. While used extensively in Europe and Canada, it is has not been approved by the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as an alternative to the water-rinse method due to a lack of evidence of its safety and efficacy on human subjects. An unbiased and extensive systematic review was undertaken in order to better understand Diphoterine's safety and efficaciousness on humans. Review the safety and efficacy of Diphoterine for treating chemical burns of the skin and eyes in humans. Data sources: Information sources included Pubmed, the National Library of Medicine's Medline Database and the "Publications" sections of the Prevor website. Search terms included Diphoterine, chemical burn, ocular burn and cutaneous burn. Any study type published through a peer-reviewed journal up to May 2016 was considered eligible. Published data must have included Diphoterine in the treatment of chemical burns on the skin or eyes as well as meet other specified criteria. Acceptable studies had to use either a quantitative (e.g. number of work days lost) or qualitative (e.g. level of erythema) approach when measuring cutaneous or ocular lesion outcomes. Independent assessment of article inclusion by two authors using predefined criteria. Diphoterine is safe and highly effective in improving healing time, healing sequelae and pain management of chemical burns on the skin and eyes of humans. Outcomes are significantly improved when compared to water or a physiologic solution equivalent. We recommend that this product be readily available to emergency responders and companies that expose their employees to hazardous chemical substances in order to improve healing sequelae, pain management and lost work days from these types of burns.

  5. Keeping pace with the media; Giant Hogweed burns - A case series and comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Benjamin G; Bedford, James; Kanitkar, Suryakant

    2017-08-01

    Phytophotodermatitis is almost exclusively reported in the dermatological literature, but may progress to a chemical burn. There has been widespread media reporting during the summer of 2015 of burns caused by giant hogweed. However, there is a lack of awareness of this mechanism of injury amongst the burn multidisciplinary team, and there have been no published articles in the surgical literature regarding plant burns, other than sporadic case reports, for 20 years. We present a comprehensive review of plant burns and three cases from our adult and paediatric Burn Centres of burns caused by giant hogweed. Accurate diagnosis is straightforward with a detailed history and is important to prompt appropriate treatment, and prevent a misdiagnosis of non-accidental injury. This review and case series are timely to raise awareness of phytophotodermatitis and burns caused by plants to burns multidisciplinary teams. Prospective studies are warranted to assess the efficacy of topical treatments and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Agents, mechanisms and clinical features of non-scald burns in children: A prospective UK study.

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    Johnson, E L; Maguire, S; Hollén, L I; Nuttall, D; Rea, D; Kemp, A M

    2017-09-01

    To inform childhood burn prevention by identifying demographics, clinical features and circumstances of unintentional non-scald burns. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted across Cardiff, Bristol and Manchester, including six emergency departments, three minor injury units and one burns unit between 13/01/2013-01/10/2015. Data collected for children aged burn (scald, contact, flame, radiation, chemical, electrical, friction) included: demographics, circumstances of injury and clinical features. Scalds and burns due to maltreatment were excluded from current analysis. Of 564 non-scald cases, 60.8% were boys, 51.1% were burns affected one anatomical site. Contact burns accounted for 86.7% (489/564), 34.8% (137/394) of which were from objects placed at >0.6m and 76.5% (349/456) affected the hands. Hairstyling devices were the most common agent of contact burns (20.5%, 100/487); 34.1% (30/88) of hairstyling devices were on the floor. Of children aged 10-15 years, 63.7% (65/102), sustained contact burns of which 23.2% (13/56) were preparing food, and when burnt from hairstyling devices, 73.3% (11/15) were using them at the time of injury. Parents of toddlers must learn safe storage of hazardous items. Older children should be taught skills in safe cooking and hairstyling device use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Transplante de membrana amniótica em casos agudos graves de queimadura ocular química e síndrome de Stevens-Johnson Amniotic membrane transplantation for severe acute cases of chemical ocular burn and Stevens-Johnson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinaldo da Silva Ricardo

    2009-04-01

    .PURPOSE: To study the therapeutic potential of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases of severe acute chemical ocular burn and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of eight patients, with a total of ten eyes, submitted to amniotic membrane transplantation for treatment of ocular chemical burns and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in the acute phase between January 1999 and May 2008 in the Ophthalmology Department of UNIFESP. Data relating to sex, age, degree of chemical burns, etiology, affected eye, ophthalmological findings, extension of amniotic membrane, surgeries, additional time between the injury and surgery in days, visual acuity before and after surgery, epithelial defect healing (days, complications and time of follow-up in months were collected. RESULTS: The average age of patients was 35.7 ± 23.04 years, with six men and two women. Three patients (four eyes had Stevens-Johnson syndrome and five patients (six eyes had chemical ocular burn. The epithelial defect was healed at an average of 27.8 ± 4.7 days (ranging from 20 and 35 days. All patients presented limbal stem cell deficiency in a median follow-up of 7.8 ± 2.8 months (ranging from six and twelve months and four eyes developed symblepharon. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the amniotic membrane transplantation represents an additive that can be carried out in the serious cases of ocular chemical burn and Stevens-Johnson syndrome with the finality of promoting the epithelialization and abolishing the inflammation and its consequences, if compared with other studies that treated similar cases with medical therapy only. On the other hand, it is not possible to avoid the limbic deficiency in these cases, which in the future will need limbal stem cell transplantation or other surgeries for correction of the ocular surface.

  8. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Gerry; Suleman, Hanif; Bunce, Catey; Dua, Harminder

    2012-09-12

    Ocular surface burns can be caused by chemicals (alkalis and acids) or by direct heat. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) performed in the acute phase (day 0 to day 7) of an ocular surface burn is reported to relieve pain, accelerate healing and reduce scarring and blood vessel formation. The surgery involves applying a patch of amniotic membrane (AM) over the entire ocular surface up to the eyelid margins. To assess the effects of AMT on the eyes of people having suffered acute ocular surface burns. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 June 2012. We included randomised trials of medical therapy and AMT applied in the first seven days after an ocular surface burn compared to medical therapy alone. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data. We contacted trial investigators for missing information. We summarised data using risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) as appropriate. We included one RCT of 100 participants with ocular burns that were randomised to treatment with AMT and medical therapy or medical therapy alone. A subset of patients (n = 68) who were treated within the first seven days of the injury met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The remaining 32 eyes were excluded. The included subset consisted of 36 moderate (Dua classification II-III) and 32 severe (Dua

  9. Mechanisms of Retinal Damage after Ocular Alkali Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Zhou, Chengxin; Lei, Fengyang; Scott, Nathan; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Robert, Marie-Claude; Vavvas, Demetrios; Dana, Reza; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H

    2017-06-01

    Alkali burns to the eye constitute a leading cause of worldwide blindness. In recent case series, corneal transplantation revealed unexpected damage to the retina and optic nerve in chemically burned eyes. We investigated the physical, biochemical, and immunological components of retinal injury after alkali burn and explored a novel neuroprotective regimen suitable for prompt administration in emergency departments. Thus, in vivo pH, oxygen, and oxidation reduction measurements were performed in the anterior and posterior segment of mouse and rabbit eyes using implantable microsensors. Tissue inflammation was assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. The experiments confirmed that the retinal damage is not mediated by direct effect of the alkali, which is effectively buffered by the anterior segment. Rather, pH, oxygen, and oxidation reduction changes were restricted to the cornea and the anterior chamber, where they caused profound uveal inflammation and release of proinflammatory cytokines. The latter rapidly diffuse to the posterior segment, triggering retinal damage. Tumor necrosis factor-α was identified as a key proinflammatory mediator of retinal ganglion cell death. Blockade, by either monoclonal antibody or tumor necrosis factor receptor gene knockout, reduced inflammation and retinal ganglion cell loss. Intraocular pressure elevation was not observed in experimental alkali burns. These findings illuminate the mechanism by which alkali burns cause retinal damage and may have importance in designing therapies for retinal protection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Burn plasma transfer induces burn edema in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Thomas; Abé, Dorotheé; Weihrauch, Marc; Peters, Christopher; Gebhardt, Martha Maria; Germann, Guenter; Heitmann, Christoph; Walther, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Thermal injuries greater than 20% body surface area (BSA) result in systemic shock with generalized edema in addition to local tissue destruction. Burn shock is induced by a variety of mediators, mainly immunomodulative cytokines. This experimental study evaluates if burn shock can be induced in healthy rats by transfer of burn plasma (BP) with mediators. Thermal injury was induced by hot water (100 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA) in male syngenic Wistar rats. Donor rats were killed 4 h posttrauma, and BP was harvested. Burn plasma was transferred to healthy animals by continuous intravenous infusion in three types of dilution (100%, 10%, and 1%). Positive controls were directly examined 4 h after thermal injury, and negative control rats had a continuous infusion done with sham burn (SB) plasma (37 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA). Afterwards, intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed in postcapillary mesenteric venules at 0, 60, and 120 min. Edema formation was assessed by relative changes over time in fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin in the intravascular versus the extravascular space. The interactions of leucocytes and endothelium were evaluated by quantification of leukocyte sticking. Additionally, microhemodynamic (volumetric blood flow, erythrocyte velocity, venular wall shear rate, venular diameters) and macrohemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart frequency, temperature) were assessed online (arterial catheter). For statistics, an ANOVA was performed with Bonferroni adjustment procedure. Differences were considered significant when P edema formation remains uncertain and requires further investigation.

  11. An epidemiological analysis of paediatric burns in urban and rural areas in south central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ouyang, Li-zhi; Huang, Xiao-yuan; Zhang, Pi-hong; Zhang, Ming-hua; Ren, Li-cheng; Liang, Peng-fei

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to analyse the epidemiology of paediatric burns in south central China, illustrate the differences between rural and urban areas, and discern prevention measures to reduce paediatric burns. Data were obtained from all paediatric patients admitted to Department of Burns unit of Xiangya Hospital during 2009-2012. A retrospective review was performed, including cause of burn, pre-hospital treatment, place of burn occurrence, anatomical areas involved, extent of burn, date of injury, number of operations, complications, length of hospital stay, hospitalisation cost and cure rate. A total of 278 hospitalised paediatric patients were admitted in this study. The majority (56.47%) were 1-3 years old. Rural patients accounted for 67.99% in total; the ratio of boys to girls was 2.05. Scalding with hot fluids was the most common cause of burns in children (62.59%), followed by flame (17.63), fireworks (9.71%), electricity (5.76%) and other factors such as contact and chemical (4.32%). The living room was the location with the highest frequency of burns in children (53.24%). Burns were more likely to happen in winter and the upper extremities were the most involved anatomic site (53.24%). Total burn surface area (TBSA) ranging from 0% to 9% accounted for 55.4% in total. Rural patients underwent more operations and had longer and costlier hospital stays than urban patients. Compared with treatment in urban areas, rural burn patients received less first-aid treatment, underwent more surgery, had more complications and longer and more costly hospital stays. This finding strongly suggests that it is necessary to make more efforts to prevent burns, especially in rural areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. LA50 in burn injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K.; Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; Momeni, M.; Safari, R.; Ghadarjani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months – 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country PMID:27857645

  13. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  14. Numerical Simulations of Acoustically Driven, Burning Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heon-Chang; Karagozian, Ann R.; Smith, Owen I.

    1999-11-01

    The burning characteristics of fuel droplets exposed to external acoustical excitation within a microgravity environment are investigated numerically. The issue of acoustic excitation of flames in microgravity is especially pertinent to understanding the behavior of accidental fires which could occur in spacecraft crew quarters and which could be affected by pressure perturbations as result from ventilation fans or engine vibrations. Combustion of methanol fuel droplets is considered here using a full chemical reaction mechanism.(Marchese, A.J., et al., 26th Symp. (Int.) on Comb., p. 1209, 1997) The droplet and surrounding diffusion flame are situated within a cylindrical acoustic waveguide where standing waves are generated with varying frequency and amplitude. Applied sound pressure levels are limited at present to magnitudes for which the droplet shape remains spherical. A third order accurate, essentially-non-oscillatory (ENO) numerical scheme is employed to accurately resolve the spatial and temporal evolution of the flame front. Acoustically excited vs. non-excited external conditions for the burning droplet in microgravity are compared, and the effects of acoustic frequency, sound pressure level, and relative position of the droplet with respect to pressure and velocity nodes are explored.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

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    Cibele Nasri-Heir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  16. Lethal triad in severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherren, P B; Hussey, J; Martin, R; Kundishora, T; Parker, M; Emerson, B

    2014-12-01

    Hypothermia, acidaemia and coagulopathy in trauma is associated with significant mortality. This study aimed to identify the incidence of the lethal triad in major burns, and describe demographics and outcomes. Patients admitted during a 71 month period with a total body surface area burn (TBSA)≥30% were identified. A structured review of a prospective database was conducted. The lethal triad was defined as a combination of coagulopathy (International normalised ratio>1.2), hypothermia (temperature≤35.5°C) and acidaemia (pH≤7.25). Fifteen of 117 patients fulfilled the criteria for the lethal triad on admission. Lethal triad patients had a higher median (IQR) abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) (12 (9-13) vs. 8.5 (6-10), p=0.001), mean (SD) TBSA burn (59.2% (18.7) vs. 47.9% (18.1), p=0.027), mean (SD) age (46 (22.6) vs. 33 (28.3) years, p=0.033), and had a higher incidence of inhalational injury (p0.05). The lethal triad was associated with increased mortality (66.7% vs. 13.7%, plethal triad was not shown to be a predictor of mortality (p>0.05). Burn patients with the lethal triad have a high mortality rate which reflects the severity of the injury sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise behaviors after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.

  18. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  19. The changing pattern of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyasundara, Sandun L; Rajan, Vasant; Lam, Lawrence; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2011-01-01

    After scalds, flame burns have been considered the next most common mode of burn injury in childhood. Recent experience in the authors' unit suggested that contact burns were becoming more frequent. The authors sought to determine the contemporary frequency of different burn modalities in children presenting to a burns unit. A retrospective review of 3621 children treated in the burns unit, both ambulatory and inpatient, at the authors' institution between January 2003 and December 2007 was performed. Patients were identified using the Burns Unit database. Data collected included age, gender, burn etiology and site, TBSA, and whether operative surgery was required. Of the 3515 patients eligible for inclusion, scalds accounted for 55.9%, contact 30.5%, and flame 7.9% of all burns. Contact burns were shown to be consistently more frequent than flame burns for every year of the study (z = 17.30, P burns, reflecting the variety of mechanisms involved. The data suggest a change in the historical pattern of pediatric burns previously reported in the literature. These findings have implications for public health awareness and burns prevention campaigns.

  20. Microbial community structure and activity in a Colorado Rocky Mountain forest soil scarred by slash pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida E. Jimenez Esquilin; Mary E. Stromberger; William J. Massman; John M. Frank; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2007-01-01

    Tree thinning and harvesting produces large amounts of slash material which are typically disposed of by burning, often resulting in severe soil heating. We measured soil chemical properties and microbial community structure and function over time to determine effects of slash pile burning in a ponderosa pine forest soil. Real time data were collected for soil...

  1. [The organization of emergency actions for ocular burns in conditions of military unit (of the ship)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, É V; Chernysh, V F

    2014-06-01

    Prehospital services for ocular burns are delivered by servicemen as self or mutual management and also by paramedic. Every case of ocular burn should be considered as severe one. The patient, shortly after the first aid, should be transported to the medical company or medical unit. Under conditions of medical unit military doctor has to organize an ophthalmological working space (ophthalmological comer) with the necessary equipment. Eye irrigation has to be made for chemical ocular burns. Military doctor should consider any previous irrigation as insufficient. For severe ocular burns during evacuation to the hospital it is necessary to perform a simple blepharorrhaphy or (if the condition of lids allows) to make a hermetic seal with aid of aid-band. Doctor's obligations should also include prophylaxis of ocular burns.

  2. A treatment algorithm for the management of intraoral burns: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Steve; Kufta, Kenneth; Sollecito, Thomas P; Panchal, Neeraj

    2017-10-09

    Oral mucosa follows a distinctly different trajectory of wound healing than skin. Although there are contemporary guidelines regarding treatment of burns to the skin, there is no standard of care specific to intraoral burns. This narrative review proposes an evidence-based treatment algorithm for the management of intraoral burns. Data was collated through a comprehensive review of the literature and only included studies that have reported particular success with favorable short- and long-term prognoses. In order to critically appraise the strength of the treatment recommendations, the GRADE criteria was applied to each arm of the algorithm. The algorithm was initially subdivided into the four primary etiologies of intraoral burns - thermogenic, cryogenic, chemical, electrical. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservative modalities of intra-oral burn treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Impacto da queima nos atributos químicos e na composição química da matéria orgânica do solo e na vegetação Impact of burning on soil chemical attributes and organic matter composition and on vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pinheiro Dick

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual de queimadas periódicas nos atributos químicos, teor e composição da matéria orgânica de um Latossolo Vermelho e na composição química da vegetação predominante. Os ambientes estudados foram: campo nativo pastejado, sem queima e sem roçada (PN; campo nativo queimado e pastejado (PQ; e mata nativa adjacente à pastagem (MN. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-5, 0-20, 20-40 e 40-60 cm, para determinação dos atributos de fertilidade, teores de carbono e nitrogênio, e realização das análises de espectroscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR. A parte aérea da vegetação desses ambientes foi analisada por análise elementar e FTIR. A queima da pastagem reduziu os teores de N, Mg e K e aumentou a saturação por Al no solo, em comparação ao PN. No solo sob mata, os teores dos nutrientes foram menores, e os de C e N e a saturação por Al mais elevados do que em PN. A aromaticidade da matéria orgânica do solo não diferiu entre os três ambientes estudados e aumentou em profundidade. Na vegetação da pastagem queimada, observou-se menor teor de N e maior proporção de grupos silicatados, em comparação ao PN. A vegetação de mata apresentou maior quantidade de grupamentos nitrogenados e aromáticos do que a de PN e PQ.The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of periodic burning on soil chemical attributes, composition of soil organic matter, and on vegetation of a Hapludox. Samples from three environments were studied: native pasture under grazing, without burning and shortening (NP; native pasture under grazing and burning (BP; and native forest (NF adjacent to the pasture area. Soil samples were collected in four layers: 0-5, 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm, in which fertility attributes and contents of C and N were determined, and analyses of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were performed. Samples from

  4. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smoldering burn rate did not affect the total amount of heat emitted nor the ratio of radiated heat to convected heat.

  5. Epidemiology of pediatric burns requiring hospitalization in China: a literature review of retrospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai-Yang, Lv; Zhao-Fan, Xia; Luo-Man, Zhang; Yi-Tao, Jia; Tao, Tan; Wei, Wei; Bing, Ma; Jie, Xiong; Yu, Wang; Yu, Sun

    2008-07-01

    This review was an effort to systematically examine the nationwide data available on pediatric burns requiring hospitalization to reveal burn epidemiology and guide future education and prevention. The China Biomedical Disk Database, Chongqing VIP Database, and China Journal Full-Text Database were searched for articles reporting data on children and their burns from January 2000 through December 2005. Studies were included that systematically investigated the epidemiology of pediatric burns requiring hospitalization in China. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria, all of which were retrospective analyses. For each study included, 2 investigators independently abstracted the data related to the population description by using a standard form and included the percentage of patients with burn injury who were burn; anatomical sites of burn; severity of burn; and mortality and cause of death. These data were extracted, and a retrospective statistical description was performed with SPSS11.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Of the pediatric patients studied, the proportion of children with burn injury ranged from 22.50% to 54.66%, and the male/female ratio ranged from 1.25:1 to 4.42:1. The ratio of children aged 3 years was 0.19:1 to 4.18:1. The rural/urban ratio was 1.60:1 to 12.94:1. The ratio of those who were burned indoors versus outdoors was 1.62 to 17.00, and there were no effective hints on the distribution of seasons and anatomical sites of burn that could be found. The peak hours of pediatric burn were between 17:00 and 20:00. Most articles reported the sequence of reasons as hot liquid > flame > electricity > chemical, and scalding was, by far, the most predominant reason for burn. The majority of the studies reported the highest proportion involved in moderate burn, and the lowest proportion was for critical burn. The mortality rate ranged from 0.49% to 9.08%, and infection, shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome were the most common causes of

  6. Recent Biomass Burning in the Tropics and Related Changes in Tropospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke; Chandra, J. R. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Torres, O.; Damon, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone. In the tropics, biomass burning produces ozone enhancements over broad regions of Indonesia, Africa, and South America including Brazil. Fires are intentionally set in these regions during the dry season each year to clear cropland and to clear land for human/industrial expansion. In Indonesia enhanced burning occurs during dry El Nino conditions such as in 1997 and 2006. These burning activities cause enhancement in atmospheric particulates and trace gases which are harmful to human health. Measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) from October 2004-November 2008 are used to evaluate the effects of biomass burning on tropical tropospheric ozone. These measurements show sizeable decreases approx.15-20% in ozone in Brazil during 2008 compared to 2007 which we attribute to the reduction in biomass burning. Three broad biomass burning regions in the tropics (South America including Brazil, western Africa, and Indonesia) were analyzed in the context of OMI/MLS measurements and the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. The results indicate that the impact of biomass burning on ozone is significant within and near the burning regions with increases of approx.10-25% in tropospheric column ozone relative to average background concentrations. The model suggests that about half of the increases in ozone from these burning events come from altitudes below 3 km. Globally the model indicates increases of approx.4-5% in ozone, approx.7-9% in NO, (NO+NO2), and approx.30-40% in CO.

  7. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  8. [Burn out syndrome in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraub, Simon; Marx, E

    2004-09-01

    SEPS or burnout syndrome was described among health care workers. Oncology care givers--physicians and nurses--can be concerned. Burnout is a chronical stress reaction. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are more prevalent than low personal accomplishment. Burnout is essentially assessed by questionnaires. Oncologists report an higher level of burnout, than AIDS medical or palliative care staff. Causes of burn out are numerous: insufficient personal time, sense of failure,... followed by poorly management and difficulties in staff or institution relationships. Prevention and therapy of burn out can be considered on three levels: personal, (psychotherapy, advices on health way of life), team (improvement in communication) and institution (support meetings and talking groups).

  9. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: A prospective hospital based study was carried out from December 2010 to February 2011 at Yekatit 12 hospital burn center. Periodic wound swabs and blood samples were collected on 1st, 7th, and 14th days of hospital stay and processed with conventional culture and biochemical tests. Isolates ...

  10. Air-freshener burns: A new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  11. A population-based study of the epidemiology of acute adult burns in Ecuador from 2005 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Armijos, Luciana; Iturralde, Ana Lucia

    2015-05-01

    To describe the demographic, risk factor, occupational, and morbidity and mortality characteristics of burns in adults in Ecuador using national data. These data are from the only specialized public hospital in Ecuador that has a 12-bed burn unit. The National Institute of Statistics and Census provided data from the burn unit of the Hospital Eugenio Espejo, in Quito. Three different datasets pertaining to burn deaths, burn unit inpatient admissions, and hospital discharge were analyzed. Patients who died or were discharged before entering the burn unit were not included in this analysis. During the 10-year period, 1106 patients were admitted to the burn unit, men represent 69.37% with 768 cases and women represent 30.62% with 337 patients; the number of patients per year was on average 123 cases; the average age was 33-34 years old, with a range between 16 and 96 years old. Heat (thermal) burns represent 65.78% followed by electrical with 30.53%, friction burns with 2.06%, and chemical burns with 1.62%. Domestic methane gas was the most frequent agent causing thermal burns and the most affected occupational groups are construction workers and people who stay at home. The overall mortality is 10.2% and the average length of stay was 23 days. Thermal burns are more frequent than any other cause of burns. Electrical burns are more frequent in Ecuador than anywhere else according to our research, meaning that control and prevention of workplace safety, urban planning, and home safety are scarce. The most affected groups are those dedicated to labor work. Finally, mortality in hospitalized patient is higher when compared with developed countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Subconjunctival application of regenerative factor-rich plasma for the treatment of ocular alkali burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez De Aracena Del Cid, Rafael; Montero De Espinosa Escoriaza, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    To study the efficiency of the subconjunctival application of autologous regenerative factor-rich plasma (RFRP) in patients with different degrees of ocular alkali burns. Thirty-five eyes of 35 patients with ocular alkali burns were analyzed. They were classified into moderate and relevance groups according to the severity of the burn. A control group was established for each with conventional topical medical treatment; subconjunctival regenerative factor rich plasma (RFRP) was applied to the other groups. A further group was added to the severe chemical burn group, which received autohemotherapy. The clinical evolution of the lesions and the period in which the pathology prevented the patient from working were studied; monitoring was carried out until the patient had healed. In the moderate chemical burns, there was a significant reduction in corneal and conjunctival epithelization times, sick leave duration, and healing time when the patients were treated with RFRP in comparison to the control group. With regard to the severe burns, significant reduction in time to corneal scarring in those treated with RFRP in comparison to traditional treatment was reported. RFRP showed, at least as effective and less side effects than the autohemotherapy. Subconjunctival infiltration with autologous RFRP can be considered an effective, straightforward, and economical form of treatment for burns of the ocular surface.

  13. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ...

  14. [Advances in the research of clinical features and treatment of ammonia burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guosheng; Xiao, Shichu; Sun, Yu; Ji, Shizhao; Xia, Zhaofan

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia is commonly used in industry and agriculture. It is also one of the most frequently accidentally spilled chemicals. Exposure to ammonia can cause severe cutaneous burn or freezing injury, ocular injury, and inhalation injury, among them inhalation injury is the most lethal one. Although the diagnosis and treatment of ammonia burns have been improved, the long-term prognosis is not satisfactory. In this article, we reviewed the literature concerning ammonia burns, in order to summarize the clinical features and treatment of such injury.

  15. Inorganic markers, carbonaceous components and stable carbon isotope from biomass burning aerosols in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.

    2015-12-01

    To better characterize the sources of fine particulate matter (i.e. PM2.5) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, aerosol chemical composition such total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and inorganic ions were studied as well as stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of TC. Intensively open biomass burning episodes were identified from late September to early October by satellite fire and aerosol optical depth maps. During the biomass burning episodes, concentrations of PM2.5, OC, EC, and WSOC increased by a factor of 4-12 compared to non-biomass-burning periods. Non-sea-salt potassium is strongly correlated with PM2.5, OC, EC and WSOC, suggesting an important contribution of biomass burning emission. The enrichment in both the non-sea-salt potassium and chlorine is significantly larger than other inorganic species, indicating that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly fresh and less aged. In addition, WSOC to OC ratio is relatively lower compared to that reported in biomass burning aerosols in tropical regions, supporting that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly primary and secondary organic aerosols is not significant. A lower average δ13C value (-26.2‰) is found for the biomass-burning aerosols, suggesting a dominant contribution from combustion of C3 plants in the studied region.

  16. Economic Spillovers From Public Investments in Medical Countermeasures: A Case Study of a Burn Debridement Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahati, Farah; Nystrom, Scott; Howell, David R; Jaffe, Richard

    2017-06-19

    The US federal government invests in the development of medical countermeasures for addressing adverse health effects to the civilian population from chemical, biological, and radiological or nuclear threats. We model the potential economic spillover effects in day-to-day burn care for a federal investment in a burn debridement product for responding to an improvised nuclear device. We identify and assess 4 primary components for projecting the potential economic spillover benefits of a burn debridement product: (1) market size, (2) clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, (3) product cost, and (4) market adoption rates. Primary data sources were the American Burn Association's 2015 National Burn Repository Annual Report of Data and published clinical studies used to gain European approval for the burn debridement product. The study results showed that if approved for use in the United States, the burn debridement product has potential economic spillover benefits exceeding the federal government's initial investment of $24 million a few years after introduction into the burn care market. Economic spillover analyses can help to inform the prioritizing of scarce resources for research and development of medical countermeasures by the federal government. Future federal medical countermeasure research and development investments could incorporate economic spillover analysis to assess investment options. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 9).

  17. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns from fires and scalding: Be " ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  18. Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and East Asia during BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-10-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in March-April when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K+, OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via long-range transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  19. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  20. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  1. Burning effigies with Bakhtinian laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttke, F.

    2015-01-01

    The hanging or burning of effigies as an expression of dissent is a well-established genre of playful political protest. It is enacted in a variety of ways, accessing the conventions of various traditional rituals and social practices, and can function either as a progressive force demanding change,

  2. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  3. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of ...

  4. The Burn-Out Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ

    1979-01-01

    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  5. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found outside of the burns theatre. Challenges include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic monitoring and positioning, impaired temperature regulation, altered drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, renal dysfunction and sepsis.2 To be able to effectively ...

  6. Clinker Burning Kinetics and Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira

    dimensions, rotation velocity, temperature, gas composition, heat transfer phenomena, etc. These conditions can only be partly simulated in ordinary lab-scale experiments. Thus, the objectives of this project have been to establish test equipment to simulate the industrial clinker burning process...

  7. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogen production with CO 2 capture by coupling steam reforming of methane and chemical-looping combustion: Use of an iron-based waste product as oxygen carrier burning a PSA tail gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, María; Gayán, Pilar; de Diego, Luis F.; García-Labiano, Francisco; Abad, Alberto; Pans, Miguel A.; Adánez, Juan

    In this work it is analyzed the performance of an iron waste material as oxygen carrier for a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system. CLC is a novel combustion technology with the benefit of inherent CO 2 separation that can be used as a source of energy for the methane steam reforming process (SR). The tail gas from the PSA unit is used as fuel in the CLC system. The oxygen carrier behaviour with respect to gas combustion was evaluated in a continuous 500 W th CLC prototype using a simulated PSA off-gas stream as fuel. Methane or syngas as fuel were also studied for comparison purposes. The oxygen carrier showed enough high oxygen transport capacity and reactivity to fully convert syngas at 880 °C. However, lower conversion of the fuel was observed with methane containing fuels. An estimated solids inventory of 1600 kg MW th -1 would be necessary to fully convert the PSA off-gas to CO 2 and H 2O. An important positive effect of the oxygen carrier-to-fuel ratio up to 1.5 and the reactor temperature on the combustion efficiency was found. A characterization of the calcined and after-used particles was carried out showing that this iron-based material can be used as oxygen carrier in a CLC plant since particles maintain their properties (reactivity, no agglomeration, high durability, etc.) after more than 111 h of continuous operation.

  9. Management of post burn hand deformities

    OpenAIRE

    Sabapathy S; Bajantri Babu; Bharathi R

    2010-01-01

    The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of s...

  10. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    PHHS-BU) in Dallas. 2. Keywords: burn, smoke inhalation, vitamin E, patients, oxidative stress, pulmonary function, ICU days 3. Accomplishments: a...Memorial Hermann Hospital (BICU-MHH) in Houston, and the Parkland Health and Hospital System Burn Unit (PHHS-BU) in Dallas. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...Galveston, the Burn Intensive Care Unit at Memorial Hermann Hospital (BICU-MHH) in Houston, and the Parkland Health and Hospital System Burn Unit

  11. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  12. Performance evaluation of commercial copper chromites as burning rate catalyst for solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Faria Diniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper chromites are well known as burning rate catalysts for the combustion of composite solid propellants, used as a source of energy for rocket propulsion. The propellant burning rate depends upon the catalyst characteristics such as chemical composition and specific surface area. In this work, copper chromite samples from different suppliers were characterized by chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and by surface area measurement (BET. The samples were then evaluated as burning rate catalyst in a typical composite propellant formulation based on HTPB binder, ammonium perchlorate and aluminum. The obtained surface area values are very close to those informed by the catalyst suppliers. The propellant processing as well as its mechanical properties were not substantially affected by the type of catalyst. Some copper chromite catalysts caused an increase in the propellant burning rate in comparison to the iron oxide catalyst. The results show that in addition to the surface area, other parameters like chemical composition, crystalline structure and the presence of impurities might be affecting the catalyst performance. All evaluated copper chromite samples may be used as burning rate catalyst in composite solid propellant formulations, with slight advantages for the SX14, Cu-0202P and Cu-1800P samples, which led to the highest burning rate propellants.

  13. Costs of burn care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.J.; Polinder, S.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Middelkoop, E.; van Baar, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Burn care is traditionally considered expensive care. However, detailed information about the costs of burn care is scarce despite the increased need for this information and the enhanced focus on healthcare cost control. In this study, economic literature on burn care was systematically reviewed to

  14. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phone have been described.[3]. We report on a case of first‑degree burn due to overheating of. Compaq Presario cq50 on the patient's left foot. So far, there have been a few case reports about portable computer causing burns, but until now burning induced in such a quick succession of time (3 days) has not been reported.

  15. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  16. Effect of water table variations and input of natural organic matter on the cycles of C and N, and mobility of As, Zn and Cu from a soil impacted by the burning of chemical warfare agents: A mesocosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Hugues; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Gautret, Pascale; Le Forestier, Lydie; Breeze, Dominique; Séby, Fabienne; Norini, Marie-Paule; Dupraz, Sebastien

    2017-10-01

    A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and of the input of bioavailable organic matter on the biogeochemical cycles of C and N, and on the behavior of metal(loid)s in a soil highly contaminated by the destruction of arsenical shells. An instrumented mesocosm was filled with contaminated soil taken from the "Place-à-Gaz" site. Four cycles of dry and wet periods of about one month were simulated for 276days. After two dry/wet cycles, organic litter sampled on the site was added above the topsoil. The nitrogen cycle was the most impacted by the wet/dry cycles, as evidenced by a denitrification microbial process in the saturated level. The concentrations of the two most mobile pollutants, Zn and As, in the soil water and in the mesocosm leachate were, respectively, in the 0.3-1.6mM and 20-110μM ranges. After 8months of experiment, about 83g·m -3 of Zn and 3.5g·m -3 of As were leached from the soil. These important quantities represent cycles had no major effect on Zn mobility. However, soil saturation induced the immobilization of As by trapping As V but enhanced As III mobility. These phenomena were amplified by the presence of bioavailable organic matter. The study showed that the natural deposition of forest organic litter allowed a part of the soil's biological function to be restored but did not immobilize all the Zn and As, and even contributed to transport of As III to the surrounding environment. The main hazard of this type of site, contaminated by organo-arsenic chemical weapons, is the constitution of a stock of As that may leach into the surrounding environment for several hundred years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  18. Prescribed burning and its effect on plant biomass and species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three burning regime (fire protected, early burning, late burning) and their effects on plant biomass and species diversity in Dabagi forest Reserve of Sokoto State were investigated. Prescribed burning was carried out on randomly selected plots (10 m x 10 m) in November (early burn) and March (late burn) 2004.

  19. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  20. The NBT test in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The number of polymorphs which stained with the dye nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT "Positive") increased sharply during the first week after burning, reaching levels 4--5 times above values for healthy volunteers. In burns of more than 20% of the body surface a second, smaller increase in the number of NBT "positives" occurred 4 to 6 weeks after burning. The high levels of NBT "positive" polymorphs occurred independently of infection on the burns. A burned patient who died from septicaemia had very low numbers of NBT "positive" polymorphs for 3 weeks before death. PMID:444418

  1. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  2. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard

    2014-06-01

    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  4. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  5. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  6. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries.

  7. Burning mouth syndrome: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra G Patil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by chronic orofacial pain without any mucosal abnormalities or other organic disease. There are numerous synonyms for this ailment such as stomatodynia, stomatopyrosis, glossodynia, glossopyrosis, sore mouth, sore tongue, oral dysesthesia, and scalding mouth syndrome. Patients usually present with burning, stinging, or numbness on the tongue or other areas of oral mucosa. The complex etiology and lack of characteristic signs and symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult. As a result of which managing such patients become a herculean task. Moreover, lack of understanding of the disease leads to misdiagnosis and unnecessary referral of patients. In this article, the authors have described the etiopathogenesis, diagnostic algorithm and management of this confusing ailment.

  8. Repeated expansion in burn sequela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of burn sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in area at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the burned patient is the reconstruction of extensive areas with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars.

  9. Burn Treatment for the Unburned

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-24

    5. Prasad JK, Feller I, Thomson PD: Use of amnion for the treatment of dressing is more rapid in patients with TEN-simple loss of Stevens - Johnson ...dermatologists, increases the risk of infection, Heimbach et al and other pediatricians, neurologists ( phenytoin [Dilantin] is a common authors quite... syndrome . J Trauma 1986;26:945-946. the epidermis is not the equivalent of a burn. As is the case in 6. Halebian PH, Madden MR, Finklestein JL, et al

  10. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  11. Epidemiologic evaluation of patients with major burns and recommendations for burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ilhan; Arslan, Kemal; Altunbaş, Zeynep; Kara, Fatih; Yilmaz, Hüseyin

    2012-03-01

    Burns are an important health problem in our country and in the world. In our study, we aimed to epidemiologically analyze the patients who were hospitalized in a burn unit that serves 3 million individuals in Central Anatolia. Records of 457 patients who had been hospitalized in the burn unit during the period 2008-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assessed in terms of gender, age, burn area, burn depth, admission time to the health center, burn region, and factors causing burns. Most (44.6%) of the patients were in the 0-5 age group. Burn surface area was detected as 11.6 +/- 8.5%. Patients had reached the health center in 252.8 +/- 892.5 minutes. While 82.7% of the patients had second degree bums, 17.3% had third degree burns. Most burns were on the extremities (39.6%). The most common burn agent was scalds with hot liquids (54.1%). In our study, children in the 0-5 age group were found to be the most commonly affected group with respect to indoor burns. The basic contributing factor is that children spend more time in the house and are more active. Scalding burns may be prevented when greater care is taken when using hot liquids that may lead to indoor burns. Informing parents on this issue is of first priority.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon in Biomass Burning Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Peng; Aiona, Paige K.; Li, Ying; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Emissions from biomass burning are a significant source of brown carbon (BrC) in the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the molecular composition of freshly-emitted biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) samples collected during test burns of selected biomass fuels: sawgrass, peat, ponderosa pine, and black spruce. We characterize individual BrC chromophores present in these samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector and a high-resolution mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that both the overall BrC absorption and the chemical composition of light-absorbing compounds depend significantly on the type of biomass fuels and burning conditions. Common BrC chromophores in the selected BBOA samples include nitro-aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, and polyphenols spanning a wide range of molecular weights, structures, and light absorption properties. A number of biofuel-specific BrC chromophores are observed, indicating that some of them may be used as potential markers of BrC originating from different biomass burning sources. On average, ~50% of the light absorption above 300 nm can be attributed to a limited number of strong BrC chromophores, which may serve as representative light-absorbing species for studying atmospheric processing of BrC aerosol. The absorption coefficients of BBOA are affected by solar photolysis. Specifically, under typical atmospheric conditions, the 300 nm absorbance decays with a half-life of 16 hours. A “molecular corridors” analysis of the BBOA volatility distribution suggests that many BrC compounds in the fresh BBOA have low volatility (<1 g m-1) and will be retained in the particle phase under atmospherically relevant conditions.

  13. Burns at the soroka university medical center - a two-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, R; Cohen, A D; Glezinger, R; Krieger, Y; Yancolevich, N; Rosenberg, L

    2007-03-31

    Background. Burn trauma is a major public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. Objectives. To characterize the profile of injured burn patients and to identify patients who are prone to burn injury. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study including all patients who were admitted to the Burns and Plastic Surgery Department, Soroka University Medical Center, Israel, between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2002. Results. Five hundred and fifty-eight patients with a mean age of 15.4 yr (SD, 19.5 yr) were included in the study. There were 348 male patients (62.4%). The cause of the burns was scalding in 314 patients (56.3%), flame in 177 (31.7%), chemicals in 31 (5.6%), explosion in 20 (3.6%), and electricity in four (0.7%). There were 325 Bedouin patients (58.2%) and 221 Jewish patients (39.6%). In Bedouins, 235 patients (72.3%) were children below 5 yr, compared to 59 Jewish patients (26.7%) (p Soroka University Medical Center are described. Burn injury has become a principal public health problem, particularly in Bedouin children.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at selected burning grounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B.W.; Minor, L.K.M.; Flucas, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    A commercial immunoassay field test (IFT) was used to rapidly assess the total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil at selected burning grounds within the explosives corridor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results were compared with analyses obtained from LANL Analytical Laboratory and from a commercial laboratory. Both used the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Methods 8270 and 8310. EPA`s Method 8270 employs gas chromatography and mass spectral analyses, whereas EPA`s Method 8310 uses an ultraviolet detector in a high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. One crude oil sample and one diesel fuel sample, analyzed by EPA Method 8270, were included for references. On an average the IFT results were lower for standard samples and lower than the analytical laboratory results for the unknown samples. Sites were selected to determine whether the PAHs came from the material burned or the fuel used to ignite the burn, or whether they are produced by a high-temperature chemical reaction during the burn. Even though the crude oil and diesel fuel samples did contain measurable quantities of PAHs, there were no significant concentrations of PAHs detected in the ashes and soil at the burning grounds. Tests were made on fresh soil and ashes collected after a large burn and on aged soil and ashes known to have been at the site more than three years. Also analyzed were twelve-year-old samples from an inactive open burn cage.

  15. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menikoff, R.; Shaw, M. S.

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i) the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t) = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps) = [Nbc(Ps)]-1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t) = ∫t0 D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P) is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  16. Self-inflicted burns: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Antony; Wijewardena, Aruna; Streimer, Jeff; Vandervord, John

    2013-03-01

    Self-inflicted burns are regularly admitted to burns units worldwide. Most of these patients are referred to psychiatric services and are successfully treated however some return to hospital with recurrent self-inflicted burns. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of the recurrent self-inflicted burn patients admitted to the Royal North Shore Hospital during 2004-2011. Burn patients were drawn from a computerized database and recurrent self-inflicted burn patients were identified. Of the total of 1442 burn patients, 40 (2.8%) were identified as self-inflicted burns. Of these patients, 5 (0.4%) were identified to have sustained previous self-inflicted burns and were interviewed by a psychiatrist. Each patient had been diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder and had suffered other forms of deliberate self-harm. Self-inflicted burns were utilized to relieve or help regulate psychological distress, rather than to commit suicide. Most patients had a history of emotional neglect, physical and/or sexual abuse during their early life experience. Following discharge from hospital, the patients described varying levels of psychiatric follow-up, from a post-discharge review at a local community mental health centre to twice-weekly psychotherapy. The patients who engaged in regular psychotherapy described feeling more in control of their emotions and reported having a longer period of abstinence from self-inflicted burn. Although these patients represent a small proportion of all burns, the repeat nature of their injuries led to a significant use of clinical resources. A coordinated and consistent treatment pathway involving surgical and psychiatric services for recurrent self-inflicted burns may assist in the management of these challenging patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of burn effect on skin using simultaneous Raman-Brillouin spectroscopy, and fluorescence microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Traverso, Andrew; Ballmann, Charles; Petrov, Georgi; Ibey, Bennett L.; Yakovlev, Vladislav

    2017-02-01

    Burns are thermal injuries that can completely damage or at least compromise the protective function of skin, and affect the ability of tissues to manage moisture. Burn-damaged tissues exhibit lower elasticity than healthy tissues, due to significantly reduced water concentrations and plasma retention. Current methods for determining burn intensity are limited to visual inspection, and potential hospital x-ray examination. We present a unique confocal microscope capable of measuring Raman and Brillouin spectra simultaneously, with concurrent fluorescence investigation from a single spatial location, and demonstrate application by investigating and characterizing the properties of burn-afflicted tissue on chicken skin model. Raman and Brillouin scattering offer complementary information about a material's chemical and mechanical structure, while fluorescence can serve as a useful diagnostic indicator and imaging tool. The developed instrument has the potential for very diverse analytical applications in basic biomedical science and biomedical diagnostics and imaging.

  18. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollstein, R N; McDonald, C

    1980-11-01

    Infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in burns. Burn wound infection is defined as burn wound bacterial proliferation in a density equal to or greater than 10(5) bacteria per gram of tissue. Gram-negative bacteria, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as staphylococci and fungal opportunists, have been identified as prominent invaders. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents are essential adjuncts in the prevention and treatment of burn wound infection. Topical antimicrobial therapy is indicated in all hospitalized burn patients. Short-term use of systemic antimicrobials for prophylaxis and treatment is required in all moderate and major burns, specifically for early prophylaxis, perioperative prophylaxis, and clinical infection. Antimicrobial choice is based on specific patient or environmental bacteriological data.

  19. Caracterização física, química e mineralógica de solos da colônia agrícola do Apiaú (Roraima, Amazônia, sob diferentes usos e após queima Physical chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils from the agricultural colony of Apiaú ( Roraima, Amazonia, under different land uses and after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinar Ferreira Melo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos sobre os solos sob cultivo de subsistência em assentamentos rurais do norte da Amazônia. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram a caracterização de solos da Colônia Agrícola do Apiaú, Roraima, e a avaliação das alterações em algumas propriedades químicas resultantes dos sistemas de manejo adotados pelos agricultores, bem como os impactos da ação de queimadas nos solos. As áreas estudadas foram: pastagens, cultivo de banana e de milho, mata queimada e não queimada. As amostras de solos foram submetidas a análises químicas e mineralógicas. Foram encontrados Latossolos, Argissolos e Gleissolos, todos possuindo mineralogia caulinítica e expressivos teores de Ti, evidenciando elevado grau de intemperismo. Os Argissolos e Gleissolos possuem baixos teores de Fe. Os baixos teores de cátions trocáveis indicam a baixa fertilidade natural, com elevada saturação por Al no complexo sortivo na maioria dos solos. A pobreza química resultou em pouca variação química entre os diferentes solos. Comparativamente, a área cultivada com banana mostrou os maiores teores de cátions trocáveis e de P disponível no horizonte superficial, conseqüência da mineralização dos restos culturais pela ação do fogo e maior proximidade de afloramentos de rocha. A pobreza química extrema nos Argissolos refletiu-se na má qualidade da pastagem degradada. Os baixos teores totais de Zn, Cu e Mg indicaram sua baixa reserva e possível deficiência.There are few studies on soils under slash-and-burn agriculture in settlements in Amazônia. The aim of this study was the soil characterization in the Apiaú Agricultural Colony, Roraima, and to evaluate changes in some soil chemical properties in function of the management systems and the impacts of burning to the soil properties. The studied areas were: pastures, cultivated with banana and maize, burned forest and natural forest. The samples were submitted to physical chemical and

  20. Micronutrients after burn injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Megan J; Pham, Tam N; Gibran, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation of micronutrients after burn injury is common practice in order to fight oxidative stress, support the immune system, and optimize wound healing. Assessing micronutrient status after burn injury is difficult because of hemodilution in the resuscitation phase, redistribution of nutrients from the serum to other organs, and decreases in carrier proteins such as albumin. Although there are many preclinical data, there are limited studies in burn patients. Promising research is being conducted on combinations of micronutrients, especially via the intravenous route.

  1. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  2. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or grabbing hot items such as irons and oven doors. Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove so that children can't grab them and they can't accidentally be knocked over. Place fire extinguishers in key locations at home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and ...

  3. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  4. Management of the Chronic Burn Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins-Williams, Stephen Tyler; Marston, William A; Hultman, Charles Scott

    2017-07-01

    This article reviews the current evidence in using hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in burn wounds. There is also separate consideration of diabetic foot burns and a protocol for use of HBOT in a specific case. The challenges of using HBOT in an acute burn care setting are reviewed. Next the pathophysiology of Marjolin ulcers is reviewed. The current thinking in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Marjolin ulcers is discussed. Finally, a background in using topical growth factors (tGF) is provided, followed by a summary of the current evidence of tGF in burn wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  6. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  7. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  8. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...... scale fires can overcome these heat losses, as they typically have higher burning rates, which increase the heat feedback to the fuel surface and therefore can result in the higher burning efficiencies....

  9. A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    objectives were met and study equipment was distributed. • Reliability testing of goniometry measurement methods within and between investigators...1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0148 TITLE: A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients...SUBTITLE A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0148 5c

  10. Burns: The epidemiological pattern, risk and safety awareness at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many burns are preventable but there is no published local prospective data on the epidemiological pattern of burns that would form the basis of care and formulation of burn prevention strategies. Objectives: To determine the epidemiological pattern of burns and assess the awareness of burn risk and ...

  11. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  12. Comparison of heat transfer and soil impacts of air curtain burner burning and slash pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han

    2017-01-01

    We measured soil heating and subsequent changes in soil properties between two forest residue disposal methods: slash pile burning (SPB) and air curtain burner (ACB). The ACB consumes fuels more efficiently and safely via blowing air into a burning container. Five burning trials with different fuel sizes were implemented in northern California, USA. Soil temperature...

  13. Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical dilemma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan R Patil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS is a chronic orofacial burning pain condition usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings that affects many adults worldwide, yet its etiology and treatment remain poorly understood. Though it has been associated with numerous oral and systemic conditions, there has been no clear consensus on its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. As a result, patients with inexplicable oral complaints are often referred from one health care professional to another without effective management having significant emotional impact on patients. As the dental profession expands its scope of care to oral medicine and geriatrics, BMS will be more effectively diagnosed and managed by these dental surgeons. Hence, they should be more involved in evaluation and management of these patients. The present article provides updated information on BMS including possible etiological factors and current treatment options, although data on the effectiveness of these treatment modalities remain limited. Recently researchers found that treatment with a familiar nutritional supplement- lipoic acid- is of remarkable benefit with minimal adverse effects. ALA (alpha-lipoic acid may be the effective treatment modality in management of BMS.

  14. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  15. Surgical rehabilitation following severe ocular burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, S J; Shortt, A J

    2009-10-01

    Chemical and thermal burns can cause devastating injuries to the anterior segment. The consequences of alkali injuries are notoriously severe due to the rapid penetration of these agents into the ocular tissues. Denaturation of tissue, inflammation, and scarring leads to loss of function. An understanding of the pathogenesis of tissue damage has lead to a rational approach to treatment. Emergency irrigation of the eye is essential and there is a 'window of opportunity' during the first 7-10 days after injury when medical treatment can significantly limit the potentially blinding consequences. The acute injury is followed by early and late reparative phases during which the prognosis can be further improved by surgical intervention. Early surgical intervention is targeted at protecting the ocular surface and encouraging re-epithelisation. Later, surgical treatments are directed at ocular surface reconstruction and restoration of vision. However, before any attempt is made at surface reconstruction, the ocular surface environment must be optimised by division of symblepharon, and correction of lid deformity and trichiasis. If there is conjunctivalisation of the corneal surface, limbal stem cell transplantation can restore a corneal epithelial cell phenotype, and transplantation of in vitroamplified corneal epithelial stem cells has been developed as an alternative to keratolimbal transfer techniques. Keratoplasty and cataract surgery may then be necessary to clear the visual axis. Finally, keratoprosthesis is an option for the most severely damaged eyes.

  16. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  17. Increased admissions for diabetes mellitus after burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; O'Halloran, Emily; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M

    2016-12-01

    Currently, limited long-term data on hyperglycaemia and insulin sensitivity in burn patients are available and the data that do exist are primarily related to paediatric severe burns. The aim of this study was to assess if burn is associated with increased post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus. A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of all persons hospitalized for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012 and a frequency matched non-injury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll (n=123,399). Crude admission rates and summed length of stay for diabetes mellitus were calculated. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn cohort had 2.21 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.36-1.56) as many admissions and almost three times the number of days in hospital with a diabetes mellitus diagnosis (IRR, 95% CI: 2.94, 2.12-4.09) than the uninjured cohort. Admission rates were significantly elevated for those burned during childhood (diabetes mellitus in the burn cohort provide evidence that burns have longer term effects on blood glucose and insulin regulation after wound healing. The first five years after burn discharge appears to be a critical period with significantly elevated incident admissions for diabetes mellitus during this time. Results would suggest prolonged clinical management after discharge and or wound healing to minimise post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of Critical Burn Injuries: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Dries

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Burn injury and its subsequent multisystem effects are commonly encountered by acute care practitioners. Resuscitation is the major component of initial burn care and must be managed to restore and preserve vital organ function. Later complications of burn injury are dominated by infection. Burn centers are often called to manage problems related to thermal injury, including lightning and electrical injuries. Methods A selected review is provided of key management concepts as well as of recent reports published by the American Burn Association. Results The burn-injured patient is easily and frequently over resuscitated, with ensuing complications that include delayed wound healing and respiratory compromise. A feedback protocol designed to limit the occurrence of excessive resuscitation has been proposed, but no new “gold standard” for resuscitation has replaced the venerated Parkland formula. While new medical therapies have been proposed for patients sustaining inhalation injury, a paradigm-shifting standard of medical therapy has not emerged. Renal failure as a specific contributor to adverse outcome in burns has been reinforced by recent data. Of special problems addressed in burn centers, electrical injuries pose multisystem physiologic challenges and do not fit typical scoring systems. Conclusion Recent reports emphasize the dangers of over resuscitation in the setting of burn injury. No new medical therapy for inhalation injury has been generally adopted, but new standards for description of burn-related infections have been presented. The value of the burn center in care of the problems of electrical exposure, both manmade and natural, is demonstrated in recent reports.

  19. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  20. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, Peter R [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We determined the morphological, chemical, and thermal properties of aerosol particles generated by biomass burning during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) campaign during the wildland fire season in the Pacific Northwest from July to mid-September, 2013, and in October, 2013 from prescribed agricultural burns in the lower Mississippi River Valley. BBOP was a field campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The morphological information was both two-dimensional, as is typical of most microscopy images and that have many of the characteristic of shadows in that they lack depth data, and three-dimensional (3D). The electron tomographic measurements will provided 3D data, including the presence and nature of pores and interstices, and whether the individual particles are coated by or embedded within other materials. These microphysical properties were determined for particles as a function of time and distance from the respective sources in order to obtain detailed information regarding the time evolution of changes during aging.

  1. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Ferreira, Juliana Montez; da Silva, Paula Marques C; Constancio, Dilene Francisco

    2014-06-01

    To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision). An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision. Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up.

  2. Accidental cutaneous burns secondary to salbutamol metered dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Ashutosh; Shackley, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  3. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision.CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision.COMMENTS: Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up.

  4. Transient downregulation of microRNA-206 protects alkali burn injury in mouse cornea by regulating connexin 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Huanfen; Tang, Weiqiang; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burn in cornea may cause permanent visual problem or complete blindness. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA 206 (miR-206) in relieving chemical burn in mouse cornea. An alkali burn model was established in C57BL/6 mice to induce chemical corneal injury. Within 72 hours, the transient inflammatory responses in alkali-treated corneas were measured by opacity and corneal neovascularization (CNV) levels, and the gene expression profile of miR-206 was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Inhibitory oligonucleotides of miR-206, miR-206-I, were intrastromally injected into alkali-burned corneas. The possible protective effects of down-regulating miR-206 were assessed by both in vivo measurements of inflammatory responses and in vitro histochemical examinations of corneal epithelium sections. The possible binding of miR-206 on its molecular target, connexin43 (Cx43), was assessed by luciferase reporter (LR) and western blot (WB) assays. Cx43 was silenced by siRNA to examine its effect on regulating miR-206 modulation in alkali-burned cornea. Opacity and CNV levels, along with gene expression of miR-206, were all transiently elevated within 72 hours of alkali-burned mouse cornea. Intrastromal injection of miR-206-I into alkali-burned cornea down-regulated miR-206 and ameliorated inflammatory responses both in vivo and in vitro. LR and WB assays confirmed that Cx43 was directly targeted by miR-206 in mouse cornea. Genetic silencing of Cx43 reversed the protective effect of miR-206 down-regulation in alkali-burned cornea. miR-206, associated with Cx43, is a novel molecular modulator in alkali burn in mouse cornea.

  5. Ustioni da fuoco / Burn injuries / Les brûlures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Copertino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries require high specialistic treatment. Burn injuries are common in disasters and war scenarios, so war medicine has been fundamental to improve treatment protocols for burn patients..Burn injuries are classified according to the etiopathogenetic agent (physical, chemical or radiation, that determines different anatomoisthologic aspects.An estimation of the depth and extension are fundamental for defining the gravity of the burn. Critical burn patients have to be transported in specialistic Centers. There they are treated by multispecialistic teams from the resuscitation phase to the reconstructive surgery and specialist rehabilitation.. This process can continue for two years with the objective to return patients to a quiet normal life. Les brûlures sont des lésions traumatiques qui requièrent un traitement spécialisé. Lors de catastrophes et de guerres, les brûlures sont des lésions très fréquentes et la médecine de guerre a contribué à faire avancer la science de manière importante, dans le traitement de cette pathologie.Les brûlures sont classées en fonction de l'agent étiopathogénique (agents physiques, chimiques ou radiations dont le mécanisme d'action qui provoque la lésion cause des aspects anatomohistologiques caractéristiques.Pour définir la sévérité d'une brûlure, il est aussi fondamental d'éstimer l'extension de la surface corporelle et la profondeur de l'épiderme, et éventuellement du derme, atteints. Les patients gravement brûlés doivent être hospitalisés dans des Centres Spécialisés où des équipes multispécialistes les suivent de la phase initiale de la réanimation aux phases de chirurgie reconstructive et au processus de réhabilitation. Ces dernières phases peuvent se prolonger pendant les deux années suivant le traumatisme avant qu'une réintégration dans une vie sociale acceptable ne puisse être faite.

  6. Satisfaction with life after burn: A Burn Model System National Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverman, J; Mathews, K; Nadler, D; Henderson, E; McMullen, K; Herndon, D; Meyer, W; Fauerbach, J A; Wiechman, S; Carrougher, G; Ryan, C M; Schneider, J C

    2016-08-01

    While mortality rates after burn are low, physical and psychosocial impairments are common. Clinical research is focusing on reducing morbidity and optimizing quality of life. This study examines self-reported Satisfaction With Life Scale scores in a longitudinal, multicenter cohort of survivors of major burns. Risk factors associated with Satisfaction With Life Scale scores are identified. Data from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) Burn Model System (BMS) database for burn survivors greater than 9 years of age, from 1994 to 2014, were analyzed. Demographic and medical data were collected on each subject. The primary outcome measures were the individual items and total Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores at time of hospital discharge (pre-burn recall period) and 6, 12, and 24 months after burn. The SWLS is a validated 5-item instrument with items rated on a 1-7 Likert scale. The differences in scores over time were determined and scores for burn survivors were also compared to a non-burn, healthy population. Step-wise regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of SWLS scores at different time intervals. The SWLS was completed at time of discharge (1129 patients), 6 months after burn (1231 patients), 12 months after burn (1123 patients), and 24 months after burn (959 patients). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in terms of medical or injury demographics. The majority of the population was Caucasian (62.9%) and male (72.6%), with a mean TBSA burned of 22.3%. Mean total SWLS scores for burn survivors were unchanged and significantly below that of a non-burn population at all examined time points after burn. Although the mean SWLS score was unchanged over time, a large number of subjects demonstrated improvement or decrement of at least one SWLS category. Gender, TBSA burned, LOS, and school status were associated with SWLS scores at 6 months

  7. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  8. Intensive Care Management in Pediatric Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ebru Sakallıoğlu Abalı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This article aimed to review the current principles of management from initial assessment to early management and intensive care for pediatric burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 62-9

  9. EPiderniolo y and bacterial colonization of burn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKOOl) '. Bacterial isolates. Figure 2 shows the range of bacteria isolated from burn wounds. S. alfl'fl/J', P. mlmlaz'lz's and streptococci were the commonest isolates. The other Gram negatives were. Paeruglnara (4.5%). Salmonella, E. roll and Klebsz'ella app. Discussion. The epidemiology of burns reported from this study is.

  10. Experimental Proteus mirabilis Burn Surface Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    mirabilis Burn Surface Infection Albert T. McManus, PhD; Charles G. McLeod, Jr, DVM; Arthur D. Mason, Jr, MD * We established a human burn Isolate of...William J1. Northam. Peter A. lDorsaneo, and Paulette langlinais MS. model may be useful in evaluation of experimental antibi - prov ided technical support

  11. Zelfzorg als buffer voor burn-out

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Caroline; Dewaele, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Burn-out komt vaak voor bij hulpverleners. Door hun eigenheid durven ze niet snel hulp vragen. In geen enkele missietekst van een organisatie staat dat de organisatie zelfzorg bij hulpverleners als kerntaak opneemt. Zelfzorg is de beste buffer tegen burn-out.

  12. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  13. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550

  14. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  15. Burned Oaks: Which Ones Will Survive?

    OpenAIRE

    McCreary, Doug; Nader, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Wildfire in an oak woodland can kill some trees outright and leave others with burn damage that may or may not eventually kill them, too. Here is a quick method for assessing the extent of burn damage and the likelihood that an affected tree will survive.

  16. Prescribed burning in southwestern ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen S Sackett; Sally M Haase; Michael G Harrington

    1996-01-01

    Prescribed burning is an effective way of restoring the fire process to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems of the Southwest. If used judiciously, fire can provide valuable effects for hazard reduction, natural regeneration, thinning, vegetation revitalization, and in general, better forest health. Relatively short burning...

  17. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  18. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depres......The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr......) a depression of leukocytes in the peripheral blood was found of the burned mice. This depression was due to a reduction in the polymorphonuclear cells. The burned mice were not able to clear a Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection, since the infection spread to the blood as compared to mice only infected...... with P. aeruginosa subcutaneously. The burn model offers an opportunity to study infections under these conditions. The present model can also be used to examine new antibiotics and immune therapy. Our animal model resembling the clinical situation is useful in developing new treatments of burn wound...

  19. Burn out: Cognitieve problemen, stress en vermoeidheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Veel burn-out patiënten rapporteren cognitieve problemen. Presteren burn-out patiënten ook minder goed op cognitieve taken? En met welke mechanismen hangen deze problemen samen? Onderzoek laat zien dat deze cognitieve problemen objectief zijn aan te tonen en dat ze meer met stress lijken samen te

  20. Prevention of Burn in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Kursun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the last century, advances in medical care and longevity have resulting in an increase in the elderly population, and the world and Turkey populations have become older. In parallel with the aging population, problems seen in old people have been increasing. Burn, one of these problems, causes more serious injuries and high level of mortality in people aged 65 years and over compared to the general population. Reduction in sensory/cognitive functions, slowing reflexes, limited movements and accompanying situations (chronic diseases, alcoholism, used medication, neurological and psychiatric disorders which are due to physiology of elderly people increase the burn incidence and the severity of burn. In addition, these factors could also raise the ventilation requirement, complications and hospitalization period in burnt patients. Despite the recent developmetns in burn treatment and care, burn is still a serious health problem for elderly people. As the majority of the burn injuries are preventable, the essential point of burn administration in elderly people should be related to the prevention of burn incidence. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 251-254

  1. Thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Petra; Fields, Amanda L; Braun, Lindsay C; James, Laura E; Bailey, J Kevin; Yakuboff, Kevin P; Kagan, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is initially seen in patients with burn injury as a transient occurrence during the first week after injury. Subsequent decreases occur later in the course of treatment and are commonly due to sepsis, dilutional effects, and medication exposure. Although studies have demonstrated that thrombocytopenia in the critically ill patients is associated with a worse prognosis, there is limited literature as to the significance of thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patients. In this study, the authors evaluate the prognostic implications of thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patients. They performed a 5-year retrospective chart of patients aged 18 years or younger with burns >20% TBSA admitted to their institution. Data collected included patient demographics, burn etiology and %TBSA involvement, length of stay, pertinent laboratory values, and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Of the 187 patients studied, thrombocytopenia occurred in 112 patients. Eighty-two percent demonstrated thrombocytopenia within the first week of injury and 18% demonstrated additional episodes of thrombocytopenia after this time. A reactive thrombocytosis occurred in 130 (70%) patients. The incidence of thrombocytopenia could not be attributed to age, gender, or burn etiology. However, patients with thrombocytopenia were more likely to have inhalation injury and extensive TBSA involvement than those without (P thrombocytosis in the pediatric burn patient is associated with increased mortality risk and is influenced by the extent of burn, inhalation injury, and the development of sepsis.

  2. Nutritional management of the burn patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of these metabolic alterations include increased gluconeogenesis, increased proteolysis, increased ureagenesis, sequestration of micronutrients and altered lipid metabolism. The magnitude of the response parallels the extent of the burn injury and reaches a maximum of about twice normal when the burn size exceeds ...

  3. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  4. Referral patterns in pediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, Andrea N; Swanson, John M; Ladd, Mitchell R; Neff, Lucas P; Carter, Jeff E; Holmes, James H

    2014-09-01

    Though multiple studies have demonstrated superior outcomes amongst adult burn patients at verified burn centers (VBCs) relative to nondedicated burn centers (NBCs), roughly half of such patients meeting American Burn Association (ABA) referral guidelines are not sent to these centers. We sought examine referral patterns amongst pediatric burn patients. Retrospective review of a statewide patient database identified pediatric burn patients from 2000 to 2007 using International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) discharge codes. These injuries were crossreferenced with ABA referral criteria to determine compliance with the ABA guidelines. 1831 children sustained burns requiring hospitalization during the study period, of which 1274 (70%) met ABA referral criteria. Of 557 treated at NBCs, 306 (55%) met criteria for transfer. Neither age, gender, nor payer status demonstrated significant association with treatment center. VBCs treated more severely injured patients, but there was no difference in survival or rate of discharge home from NBCs versus VBCs. Studies to evaluate differences in functional outcomes between pediatric burn patients treated at VBCs versus NBCs would be beneficial to ensure optimization of outcomes in this population.

  5. An Approach to Modeling a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muramatsu M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and smoke components distributions inside a burning cigarette have been briefly reviewed. Then, focusing on our mathematical model to explain the natural smoldering mechanism of a cigarette and new mathematical models recently published by other authors, an approach to modeling a burning cigarette has been outlined.

  6. Emergency burn rehabilitation: cost, risk, effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Miles; Donald M. Haskins; Darrel W. Ranken

    1989-01-01

    The fires of 1987 had a heavy impact on the Hayfork Ranger District. Over 50,000 acres were burned within the South Fork Trinity River watershed, which contains an important anadromous fishery. Major problems within the burned area were found to be: (1) slopes having highly erodible soils where intense wildfire resulted in a total loss of ground cover, and (2) burnout...

  7. Top-down estimates of biomass burning emissions of black carbon in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. H. Mao; Q. B. Li; D. Chen; L. Zhang; W. -M. Hao; K.-N. Liou

    2014-01-01

    We estimate biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions of black carbon (BC) in the western US for May-October 2006 by inverting surface BC concentrations from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) network using a global chemical transport model. We first use active fire counts from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS...

  8. Does chronic nitrogen deposition during biomass growth affect atmospheric emissions from biomass burning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R Giordano; Joey Chong; David R Weise; Akua A Asa-Awuku

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nitrogen deposition has measureable impacts on soil and plant health.We investigate burning emissions from biomass grown in areas of high and low NOx deposition. Gas and aerosolphase emissions were measured as a function of photochemical aging in an environmental chamber at UC-Riverside. Though aerosol chemical speciation was not...

  9. Epidemiology and trends in severe burns in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, J.; Vloemans, A.F.; Beerthuizen, G.I.J.M.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Boxma, H.; Breederveld, R.; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; Middelkoop, E.; van Baar, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of severe burns in the Netherlands, including trends in burn centre admissions, non burn centre admissions and differences by age.

  10. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risks Burns and Scalds Type Video Audience Parents You are here Home Safety Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this ...

  11. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  12. Estrogen treatment of acetic acid burns to the vagina, cervix, and perineum: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Jessica A; Kuykendall, Lauren V; Troy, Jared S; Smith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In colposcopic evaluation of the cervix, acetic acid of 3 to 5% is commonly used for identification of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells. Acetic acid is a known caustic substance and has the potential to cause irritation and chemical burns when there is sufficient concentration or duration of contact. The authors present a unique case of a woman who inadvertently received undiluted acetic acid during a routine colposcopy, resulting in significant chemical burns of the vagina, cervix, and perineum. Her burns were treated with topical estrogen cream of 1 g twice daily applied directly to the wounds. The burn wounds were fully healed within 8 weeks without complication or additional treatment. At 6 months after the injury, the patient was allowed to engage in sexual activity, and vaginal dilation and pelvic floor therapy were initiated. At 12 months postinjury, her only symptomatic scarring at the left vaginal wall continues to improve. Thus, topical estrogen treatment of 1 g applied twice daily should be continued until burn scar maturation is complete and treatment improvement plateaus in cases of burns to the vagina, cervix, and perineum. This case is further clinical evidence of estrogen's positive effect on wound healing and its potential role in burn treatment.

  13. Estimating domestic wood burning emissions in Nordic countries using ambient air observations, receptor and dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B.; Karl, M.; Laupsa, H.; Johansson, C.; Pohjola, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.

    2009-04-01

    One of the major emission sources of primary PM2.5 in Nordic countries during winter is wood burning from domestic heating. In Norway alone it is estimated that 80% of PM2.5 is emitted through this source. Though direct measurements of wood burning emissions are possible under controlled conditions, emission inventories for domestic heating are difficult to calculate. Emissions vary from stove to stove as well as wood type, wood condition and burning habits. The consumption rate of wood burning is also strongly dependent on meteorological as well as societal conditions. As a result the uncertainty in wood burning emission inventories used in dispersion modelling is considered to be quite high. As an alternative method for estimating the emissions resulting from wood burning for domestic heating this paper combines ambient air measurements, chemical analysis of filter samples, receptor models, dispersion models, and simple inverse modelling methods to infer emission strengths. The methodology is applied in three Nordic cities, notably Oslo (Norway), Helsinki (Finland) and Lycksele (Sweden). In these cities daily filter samples over several months have been collected. The filter samples have been chemically analysed for a range of elemental and specific markers including OC/EC and Levoglucosan. The chemical analysis has been used as input for a range of receptor models, including UNMIX, PMF, PMF-2 and COPREM. From these calculations the source contributions at the measurement sites, with particular emphasis on wood burning, have been estimated. Though the receptor models have a common basis their application method varies, and as a result the number of identifiable sources and their contributions may differ. For the application here the contribution of wood burning was not found to vary significantly, irrespective of the model or user. It was also found that Levoglucosan as a wood burning tracer was essential for the identification of the wood burning sources. Source

  14. Stubble Burning and Consciousness Level of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülistan Erdal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the consciousness levels, attitudes and behaviours of farmers against stubble burning and the damages of stubble burning which is a part of land misuse. 86 farmers from 9 villages in Zile county of Tokat province were surveyed for the study. These data was used to state farmers' socio-demographical characteristics and their behaviours against stubble burning was analysed. According to the study results, 99% of the farmers says that stubble burning is a wrong application. They states that stubble burning causes natural damages and the most importantly it is harmful by 76% to the living creatures in the nature. 57% of them prefers the method of mixing stubble to the soil.

  15. Prophylactic antibiotic use in pediatric burn units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, O; Celik, A; Ergün, G; Ozok, G

    2004-12-01

    Prophylactic antibiotic use in childhood burns is controversial. The efficiency of antibiotic prophylaxis in 77 pediatric burn patients was evaluated. Forty-seven patients received prophylactic antibiotics (Group AP), while 30 patients received no prophylaxis (Group NP). Age, wound depth, day of admission, mechanism of burn injury, type of dressings were similar for both groups (p > 0.05). Wound infection rates were 21.3 % in Group AP and 16.7 % in Group NP (p > 0.05). S. aureus, Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, and E. coli were the most common microorganisms. Patients with wound colonization and infection had a larger burned total body surface area (BTBSA) in both groups (p beneficial and cost-effective results in the treatment of childhood burns is recommended.

  16. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  17. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation.

  18. Early management of the burned pediatric hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Mark E; Evans, Jill; O, Seung-Jun

    2008-07-01

    Unique anatomic and pathophysiologic features of the thermally burned pediatric hand are reviewed, with a focus on direct management of the injured tissue in the early phases of the treatment process. A nonoperative approach to most pediatric hand burns is advocated, and principles of early wound care, including antimicrobial therapy, and escharotomy are described. Specific emphasis is placed on distinctive characteristics of the fifth digit which make it prone to contracture patterns resembling a boutonniere-type deformity and on newer wound care technologies that simplify the application process without loss of antimicrobial and barrier function. The technical principles of full-thickness burn excision, as well as considerations in selecting suitable graft for burn closure, are also discussed. Finally, basic techniques for splinting, positioning, and exercising the burned pediatric hand are described. When properly applied, the principles discussed herein have rendered the severely scarred, functionless hand a rarity after thermal injury.

  19. Modeling thermal burns due to airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, G N; Sidhu, H S

    2005-12-01

    Automotive airbags are now a widely accepted safety measure designed to reduce morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents. Their usage is increasing with multiple airbags (driver, passenger and side curtain) being fitted to many vehicles. However the deployment of airbags has been identified as causing injuries in some instances including minor burns. There are three mechanisms for thermal burns due to an airbag; contact with the hot expelled gases from the airbag, contact with the hot airbag itself and melting of clothing from either of these contacts. A mathematical model is used here to predict the likelihood and severity of the first two types of burns. It is shown that direct contact with high temperature exhaust gases venting from the airbag can indeed lead to burns and that burns from contacting the hot airbag material are possible but far less likely to occur.

  20. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Methamphetamine laboratory-related burns in Western Australia--why the explosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tomas B; Rawlins, J M; Rea, S; Wood, F M

    2011-09-01

    With increasing numbers of illicit drug users in both urban and rural communities, users and producers are becoming increasingly enterprising in their sourcing of mind altering drugs. An example of this is the 'amateur' production of methamphetamine in domestic dwellings. We describe the mechanism of burn seen in methamphetamine production, the pattern of clinical injury, and the difficulties in treating these patients. A 12 month retrospective study of five patient groups presenting to our burn service with injuries following methamphetamine laboratory explosion. Out of five patient groups we have treated 9 individual patients (with one patient presenting on two different occasions) with burns following methamphetamine laboratory explosion. All patients were male and required hospital admission. The cause of the explosive injury was initially reported as barbeque or oven related, assault, or accident in all patients. Two patients (in separate events) required intubation for associated inhalation injury. Burn size varied from 1% to 40% BSA. 7 patients required surgical debridement and skin grafting. Injury type was thermal and chemical. All patients had difficult follow-up due to low levels of clinic attendance. Methamphetamine laboratory explosion burns are difficult injuries from the start. Invariably the true circumstances surrounding the injury are not clear, and clinicians should be suspicious of a meth lab explosion in suspect individuals with burns plus airway injury. Patient management is complex and often requires substantial analgesic and anxiolytic medication in conjunction with clinical psychology and psychiatry as an inpatient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Limbal autograft and allograft transplantations in patients with corneal burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O; Tekeli, O; Ornek, K; Arslanpençe, A; Yalçindağ, N F

    2004-03-01

    To investigate and compare the surgical outcomes of limbal autograft and limbal allograft transplantations in patients with corneal burns. In total, 20 patients (n=22 eyes) with chemical burn and two patients (n=2 eyes) with thermal burn were included in this study. Limbal autograft or limbal allograft transplantation surgery was performed in all patients. HLA-typing was tested before allograft surgeries. Limbal allografting was performed in all eyes using donor tissue from live relatives. Systemic cyclosporine A was administered for immunosuppression. The corneal surface was successfully reconstructed in all eyes (100%) after limbal autografting, two eyes required additional amniotic membrane transplantation and one eye required allografting. The mean follow-up period for limbal autografts was 13.9 +/- 7.0 months. Limbal allografting failed to reduce corneal vascularity and opacification in five (55.6%) eyes and was successful only in four (44.4%) eyes (mean follow-up 16.2 +/- 11.2 months) (P=0.002). In all, 15 eyes undergoing limbal autografting completed re-epithelialization of the cornea at a mean of 35.6 +/- 60.2 days. The mean epithelial healing time in nine eyes undergoing limbal allografting was 13.0 +/- 7.3 days (P=0.525). After limbal autografting, functional vision (> or =1/10) was attained in 12 (80%) eyes. Only one eye (11.1%) achieved functional vision after limbal allografting (P=0.036). Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in three patients following limbal allografting. No cyclosporine-associated side effects were observed. Limbal autograft transplantation is an effective and safe procedure for unilateral corneal burns. It seems that limbal allograft transplantation is better combined with penetrating keratoplasty for a better visual outcome and higher graft survival rate. Systemic immunosuppression seems to be necessary for limbal allografts even in the presence of HLA-matched donor tissues.

  3. Paediatric Burns in the Acute Phase: Specific Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Grisolia, G.A.; Pinzauti, E.; Pancani, S.; Pavone, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with specific aspects of paediatric burns in the acute phase and considers how the treatment of burned children differs from that of burned adults. The epidemiology of paediatric burns is reviewed. Particular aspects of the treatment of burned children are presented, with regard to treatment at the site of the accident, first aid, resuscitation, and local treatment. The importance of the accurate assessment of paediatric burns is stressed.

  4. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  5. Alkali Burn of the Ocular Surface Associated With a Commonly Used Antifog Agent for Eyewear: Two Cases and a Review of Previous Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, John D; Pike, Evan C; Mauger, Thomas F

    2016-02-01

    To report 2 cases of ocular chemical burns associated with the use of a swim goggle antifog agent and to review the literature for this and similar antifog products. Case reports and systematic review of the medical literature, material safety data, product safety reports, and consumer reviews. Two males, one 46 years and the other 41 years, were referred to our clinic with chemical burns of the ocular surface after using the same goggle antifog agent while swimming in a triathlon. Both sustained significant epithelial defects. Fortunately, with prompt treatment, both of our patients returned to their baseline vision within a few weeks without suffering sight-threatening complications. These are the first cases of ocular chemical burn secondary to use of an eyewear antifog agent to be reported in the medical literature. Similar reports found in consumer forums suggest that our cases are not isolated and these products may have the potential to cause vision-threatening chemical burns.

  6. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  7. Polysaccharide Hydrogel Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes the Healing of Corneal Alkali Burn in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Yu, Min; Yang, Chunbo; Li, Xiaorong

    2015-01-01

    Corneal chemical burns are common ophthalmic injuries that may result in permanent visual impairment. Although significant advances have been achieved on the treatment of such cases, the structural and functional restoration of a chemical burn-injured cornea remains challenging. The applications of polysaccharide hydrogel and subconjunctival injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to promote the healing of corneal wounds. In this study, polysaccharide was extracted from Hardy Orchid and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Supplementation of the polysaccharide significantly enhanced the migration rate of primarily cultured rat corneal epithelial cells. We examined the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide in conjunction with MSCs application on the healing of corneal alkali burns in rats. Compared with either treatment alone, the combination strategy resulted in significantly better recovery of corneal epithelium and reduction in inflammation, neovascularization and opacity of healed cornea. Polysaccharide and MSCs acted additively to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β), antiangiogenic cytokine (TSP-1) and decrease those promoting inflammation (TNF-α), chemotaxis (MIP-1α and MCP-1) and angiogenesis (VEGF and MMP-2). This study provided evidence that Hardy Orchid derived polysaccharide and MSCs are safe and effective treatments for corneal alkali burns and that their benefits are additive when used in combination. We concluded that combination therapy with polysaccharide and MSCs is a promising clinical treatment for corneal alkali burns and may be applicable for other types of corneal disorder. PMID:25789487

  8. Polysaccharide hydrogel combined with mesenchymal stem cells promotes the healing of corneal alkali burn in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Ke

    Full Text Available Corneal chemical burns are common ophthalmic injuries that may result in permanent visual impairment. Although significant advances have been achieved on the treatment of such cases, the structural and functional restoration of a chemical burn-injured cornea remains challenging. The applications of polysaccharide hydrogel and subconjunctival injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been reported to promote the healing of corneal wounds. In this study, polysaccharide was extracted from Hardy Orchid and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Supplementation of the polysaccharide significantly enhanced the migration rate of primarily cultured rat corneal epithelial cells. We examined the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide in conjunction with MSCs application on the healing of corneal alkali burns in rats. Compared with either treatment alone, the combination strategy resulted in significantly better recovery of corneal epithelium and reduction in inflammation, neovascularization and opacity of healed cornea. Polysaccharide and MSCs acted additively to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β, antiangiogenic cytokine (TSP-1 and decrease those promoting inflammation (TNF-α, chemotaxis (MIP-1α and MCP-1 and angiogenesis (VEGF and MMP-2. This study provided evidence that Hardy Orchid derived polysaccharide and MSCs are safe and effective treatments for corneal alkali burns and that their benefits are additive when used in combination. We concluded that combination therapy with polysaccharide and MSCs is a promising clinical treatment for corneal alkali burns and may be applicable for other types of corneal disorder.

  9. Failure of amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of acute ocular burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A.; Dua, H.; King, A.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To report the failure of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for ocular surface reconstruction in patients with severe acute chemical and thermal burns.
METHODS—Four eyes of three patients who suffered severe chemical (n=3) and thermal (n=1) burns were studied. The aim of AMT was to prevent symblepharon formation, promote conjunctival regeneration, inhibit corneal melting by promoting epithelialisation, and to protect the ocular surface while associated lid burns were treated. AMT was used to cover the entire ocular surface of all the severely burnt and ischaemic eyes, 2-3 weeks after the injury. Where indicated, AMT was repeated by itself or in combination with other procedures in all patients.
RESULTS—Three of the four eyes developed symblepharon and progressive corneal melt requiring urgent tectonic keratoplasty. All four eyes had persistent epithelial defects. Less than 25% of conjunctival regeneration occurred in three eyes. Two eyes autoeviscerated, one patient underwent lid sparing exenteration for a painful blind eye and one eye became phthysical.
CONCLUSIONS—AMT did not help to restore the ocular surface or preserve the integrity of the eye in all our patients with severe acute burns, when used by itself or in combination with other surgical procedures. This reflects the extreme severity of the ocular burns in these patients and, in turn, draws attention to the fact that the current classification system does not adequately reflect such severity. In the current system such burns would be grouped under grade IV injuries to the eye (more than 50% limbal ischaemia). The prognosis of patients with 100% limbal ischaemia is much worse than patients with just over 50% limbal ischaemia. This inadequacy of the classification system probably also explains the difference between outcomes of management of grade IV burns (with AMT) in this series, compared with others.

 PMID:11520758

  10. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  11. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    vegetation burning is the largest contributor to the total amount of emissions, followed by biofuel and human waste burnings. Spatial distribution of open vegetation burning showed extensive emissions in Southern and Central Africa, Amazon of South America, and Southeast Asia with high probability of fire occurrences. Human waste burning presented high emissions in India, Central Africa, and Mexico. Biofuel burning emissions also recorded that large amounts were released from India, Central Africa and Mexico. Our estimates for all trace gases and aerosols emissions from open biomass burning combined with estimates of those from biofuel burning are in the range of the estimates constrained by chemical transport models andand other bottom-up methods. Our high resolution CO2 emission estimates will contribute to regional top-down CO2 flux estimates using data from current satellites such as GOSAT and OCO-2 and future satellites such as TanSat, GOSAT-2, and Carbonsat.

  12. Formation of secondary aerosols from biomass burning plumes: chamber simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Fang, Z.; Deng, W.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning contributed substantially to carbonaceous aerosols in China's ambient air, even in its highly industrialized megacities, based on recent source attributions by receptor modeling or by molecular and isotopic tracers. Although chemical evolution of biomass burning plumes in the ambient is a vital issue for the study of climatic and health effects, the understanding of secondary pollutants formation during the aging of biomass burning plumes is far from complete. Here we collected typical agriculture residues and forest plant branches in the Pearl River Delta in south China, and got them burned in laboratory-controlled conditions and introduced the plumes from burning these biomass directly into the GIGCAS indoor smog chamber with a reactor of 30 m3 to investigate the photochemical aging of the plumes. The inorganic trace gases, including SO2, NOx, NH3 and O3, were monitored online with chemiluminescence gas analyzers, precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitor online with a PTR-ToF-MS and offline by a preconcentrator coupled with a gas chromatography-mass selective detector/flame ionization detector/electron capture detector (GC-MSD/FID/ECD), particle number concentrations and size distributions were obtained using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) was used to measure the chemical compositions and evolutions of submicron aerosols and to trace the change in the average element ratios of organics, like H/C, O/C, and N/C. The results from the study were summarized in the following aspects: 1) primary emission factors of gaseous and particulate pollutants from burning of typical biomass including agricultural remains and forest wood plants; 2) yields of secondary pollutants, including secondary inorganic and organic aerosols and gaseous products (like O3) during photochemical aging of biomass burning plumes; 3) relationship between the formed secondary

  13. Using the REACT Strategy to Understand Physical and Chemical Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Güngören, Seda Çavus; Ültay, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Students often struggle to determine whether changes in matter are physical or chemical; for example, they may have difficulty labelling a candle melting as a physical change but a candle burning as chemical change. Here we describe a lesson that we used to integrate conceptual learning about physical and chemical changes using the…

  14. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R

    2011-05-01

    In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes

  15. Management of difficult pediatric facial burns: reconstruction of burn-related lower eyelid ectropion and perioral contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Brent; More, Sunita; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S

    2008-07-01

    Despite significant burn treatment advances, modern multidisciplinary care, and improved survival after burns, facial burn scars remain clinically challenging. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. Pediatric facial burns present the same reconstructive challenges seen in adults, with additional developmental and psychologic concerns. In this paper, we describe the basic principals of facial burn care in the pediatric burn population, with a specific focus on lower-eyelid burn ectropion and oral commissure burn scar contracture leading to microstomia. Several cases are demonstrated.

  16. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered.

  18. Research in burns - Present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burd Andrew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been tremendous advances in burns care over the past 50 years. Much of this, but not all, can be attributed to basic science and clinically related research. Out of the best centres in the world, centres that are fully funded and richly resourced, best practice guidelines result in impressive outcomes not only in terms of survival but also in terms of a quality of survival. Indeed the remaining clinical challenges in these centres are the elderly, the inhalational burns, and the very extensive burns. There are however other challenges when looking at burns care in a global context and in particular is the provision of even minimal standards of acceptable care for burns patients in many parts of the world. Whilst the justification for research funding in the wealthy countries becomes increasingly esoteric, for example looking at the immunology of face transplantation, the global health challenges of burns care still remain. Perhaps, the greatest research challenge in burns care in the 21st century lies not in furthering our understanding of the phenomenon we observe but the global application of the knowledge we already possess.

  19. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  1. Scar formation following excisional and burn injuries in a red Duroc pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani N; Kim, Jayne Y; McFarland, Kevin L; Sen, Chandan K; Supp, Dorothy M; Bailey, J Kevin; Powell, Heather M

    2017-07-20

    Scar research is challenging because rodents do not naturally form excessive scars, and burn depth, size, and location cannot be controlled in human longitudinal studies. The female, red Duroc pig model has been shown to form robust scars with biological and anatomical similarities to human hypertrophic scars. To more closely mimic the mode of injury, recreate the complex chemical milieu of the burn wound environment and enhance scar development, an animal model of excessive burn-induced scarring was developed and compared with the more commonly used model, which involves excisional wounds created via dermatome. Standardized, full-thickness thermal wounds were created on the dorsum of female, red Duroc pigs. Wounds for the dermatome model were created using two different total dermatome settings: ∼1.5 mm and ≥ 1.9 mm. Results from analysis over 150 days showed that burn wounds healed at much slower rate and contracted more significantly than dermatome wounds of both settings. The burn scars were hairless, had mixed pigmentation, and displayed fourfold and twofold greater excess erythema values, respectively, compared with ∼1.5 mm and ≥ 1.9 mm deep dermatome injuries. Burn scars were less elastic, less pliable, and weaker than scars resulting from excisional injuries. Decorin and versican gene expression levels were elevated in the burn group at day 150 compared with both dermatome groups. In addition, transforming growth factor-beta 1 was significantly up-regulated in the burn group vs. the ∼1.5 mm deep dermatome group at all time points, and expression remained significantly elevated vs. both dermatome groups at day 150. Compared with scars from dermatome wounds, the burn scar model described here demonstrates greater similarity to human hypertrophic scar. Thus, this burn scar model may provide an improved platform for studying the pathophysiology of burn-related hypertrophic scarring, investigating current anti-scar therapies, and development of

  2. The trends of burns epidemiology in a tropical regional burns centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwee, Jolie; Song, Christopher; Tan, Kok Chai; Tan, Bien Keem; Chong, Si Jack

    2016-05-01

    Singapore General Hospital (SGH) is a regional burns centre in Southeast Asia and is the only dedicated burns facility providing specialized burns care in Singapore. A cohort study was performed for burns patients admitted to SGH from 2011 to 2013. We compared our data with earlier studies and observed the trends of burns epidemiology in Singapore. Results were analyzed using the SPSS programme. 655 patients were admitted during this study period, a 35.9% increase from 2003 to 2005. Scalding by water and flame injury remain the top causes of burns and the mean extent of burn is 9.5%. TBSA correlates with the incidence of burn infection, bacteremia and mortality. Patients with ≥20% TBSA are at a higher risk of bacteremia, and ≥ 34% TBSA is a predictor of mortality. 4.9% (n=32) of our patients developed bacteremia. Bacteremia was associated with a surgical duration of ≥80min. Patients with bacteremia incurred longer hospitalization, and had higher mortality rates. Overall mortality rate of our burns patients has decreased from 4.5% to 2.7% (n=18). Key factors of mortality include inhalational injury, bacteremia and ≥20% TBSA. This is a large epidemiology study of a tropical region burns centre. A total of 655 burns cases over a 3-year period were analyzed. We analysed the key factors associated with adverse outcomes including burns infection, bacteremia and mortality, factors associated with mortality, and discussed strategies on the optimization of burns care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  4. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, G

    2013-01-01

    Laptop burn is a real condition and medical reports indicate that using a laptop across the legs can indeed cause it. in very rare cases, the condition can cause damage leading to skin cancer. A 24-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic reddish brown pigmentation on the thighs. After an extensive work-up, burning caused by use of a laptop was observed. Burning was induced in 3 days by using laptop for 4 h daily. Laptop should be used in properly ventilated and air-conditioned rooms. The ...

  5. Burn injury caused by laptop computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G

    2013-11-01

    Laptop burn is a real condition and medical reports indicate that using a laptop across the legs can indeed cause it. in very rare cases, the condition can cause damage leading to skin cancer. A 24-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic reddish brown pigmentation on the thighs. After an extensive work-up, burning caused by use of a laptop was observed. Burning was induced in 3 days by using laptop for 4 h daily. Laptop should be used in properly ventilated and air-conditioned rooms. The most effective way of preventing erythema is to use the laptop on the table or desk.

  6. Post-burn scars and scar contractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Arun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality and morbidity from burns have diminished tremendously over the last six to seven decades. However, these do not truly reflect whether the victim could go back to society as a useful person or not and lead a normal life because of the inevitable post-burn scars, contractures and other deformities which collectively have aesthetic and functional considerations. This article gives an overview of the post-burn scars and scar contractures, especially their prevention, minimisation and principles of management.

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation Complicated by Skin Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, S.D.; Huffman, N.P.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Brown, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been increasingly utilized as a minimally invasive treatment for primary and metastatic liver tumors, as well as tumors in the kidneys, bones, and adrenal glands. The development of high-current RF ablation has subsequently led to an increased risk of thermal skin injuries at the grounding pad site. The incidence of skin burns in recent studies ranges from 0.1–3.2% for severe skin burns (second-/third-degree), and from 5–33% for first-degree burns.1–3 PMID:22654258

  8. The Bradford Burn Study: the epidemiology of burns presenting to an inner city emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Rawlins, J; Shenton, A F; Sharpe, D T

    2007-01-01

    Objective The Bradford Burn Study prospectively reviewed all burn attendances at a single emergency department in the UK over a 1 year period. The study reviewed the epidemiology, demographics and outcomes of all patients entered into the study. Design and setting A 12 month prospective study of burn injuries attending an inner city emergency department serving a population of 1 million people. Results 460 patients were enrolled into the study. Average patient age was 22.7 years, male: female ratio was 1:1.4, and children burn units. Conclusions Emergency departments manage patients with burns well, and referrals to plastic surgery departments are appropriate. The majority of burns can be prevented by addressing educational issues and vulnerable sections of the population. PMID:17652679

  9. Accuracy of burn size estimation in patients transferred to adult Burn Units in Sydney, Australia: an audit of 698 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Issler, Andrea C; Lajevardi, Sepehr S; Chang, Ling-Yun; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare burn size estimation between referring centres and Burn Units in adult patients transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia. A review of all adults transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia between January 2009 and August 2013 was performed. The TBSA estimated by the referring institution was compared with the TBSA measured at the Burns Unit. There were 698 adults transferred to a Burns Unit. Equivalent TBSA estimation between the referring hospital and Burns Unit occurred in 30% of patients. Overestimation occurred at a ratio exceeding 3:1 with respect to underestimation, with the difference between the referring institutions and Burns Unit estimation being statistically significant (Pburn-injured patients as well as in patients transferred more than 48h after the burn (Pburn (Ppatients, severe burns (≥20% TBSA) were found to have more satisfactory burn size estimations compared with less severe injuries (burn size assessment by referring centres. The systemic tendency for overestimation occurs throughout the entire TBSA spectrum, and persists with increasing time after the burn. Underestimation occurs less frequently but rises with increasing time after the burn and with increasing TBSA. Severe burns (≥20% TBSA) are more accurately estimated by the referring hospital. The inaccuracies in burn size assessment have the potential to result in suboptimal treatment and inappropriate referral to specialised Burn Units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Sediment availability on burned hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Moody, John A.; Smith, Hugh G.; Noske, Philip J.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2013-12-01

    describes the inherent resistance of soil to erosion. Hillslope erosion models typically consider erodibility to be constant with depth. This may not be the case after wildfire because erodibility is partly determined by the availability of noncohesive soil and ash at the surface. This study quantifies erodibility of burned soils using methods that explicitly capture variations in soil properties with depth. Flume experiments on intact cores from three sites in western United States showed that erodibility of fire-affected soil was highest at the soil surface and declined exponentially within the top 20 mm of the soil profile, with root density and soil depth accounting for 62% of the variation. Variation in erodibility with depth resulted in transient sediment flux during erosion experiments on bounded field plots. Material that contributed to transient flux was conceptualized as a layer of noncohesive material of variable depth (dnc). This depth was related to shear strength measurements and sampled spatially to obtain the probability distribution of noncohesive material as a function of depth below the surface. After wildfire in southeast Australia, the initial dnc ranged from 7.5 to 9.1 mm, which equated to 97-117 Mg ha-1 of noncohesive material. The depth decreased exponentially with time since wildfire to 0.4 mm (or fire effects on erodibility as a function of the production and depletion of the noncohesive layer overlying a cohesive layer.

  11. Interaction of Burning Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 m diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 m diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands from the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and various image processing techniques including flame position tracking, color separation, and pixel by pixel image comparison were employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishment as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.

  12. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OUTCOME ANALYSIS OF BURNS PATIENTS ACCORDING TO PERCENTAGE BURNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habeeb Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Burn injury is a serious preventable health problem. Unlike developed countries, in India, most burns occur in the domestic environment. The mortality is high. The social, psychological (disfigurement and physical trauma in those who survive is high and the quality of life is greatly reduced. The present study was undertaken to study the epidemiology and the outcome of patients admitted with burn injury in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was done to assess the profile and the proportion of percentage of burns with morbidity and mortality in a tertiary care hospital of north Kerala in the year 2007. RESULTS The commonest cause of burns were found to be accidental accounting for 73%. Among the study subjects, 45% survived while 49% died and 6% were discharged against medical advice. The mortality was high in patients with more than 60% of body surface area affected by burns. The mortality increased with percentage of burns even in a tertiary care center. The mortality also increased with increase in age of the patient. CONCLUSION The mortality increased with age and percentage of burns even in a tertiary care hospital. The management of burns needs well-equipped burn centres and other facilities, which demand a lot of economic commitment. Setting up of a well-equipped referral burn centre with a trained team with good economic support from the government and non-governmental agencies and strengthening of peripheral healthcare facilities can produce promising results in burn management.

  14. Risk factors for mortality in burn children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Rosanova

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: In this series of burn children age ≤ 4 years, Garces index score 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were identified as independent variables related with mortality.

  15. Acute burns of the hands - physiotherapy perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunpath, Tanuja; Chetty, Verusia; Van Der Reyden, Dain

    2016-01-01

    .... Five focus groups consisting of physiotherapists and physiotherapy assistants working with burn injured patients from each of the five selected public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal were recruited...

  16. Silver Sulfadiazine Nanosystems for Burn Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate stable silver sulfadiazine (SSD) nanosuspensions and nanogels suitable for topical delivery with a view to increase bactericidal activity in burn therapy...

  17. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  18. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pruitt, Basil A

    2005-01-01

    Mass casualty burn disasters are potentially challenging, in part because the majority of health care providers are inexperienced in the care of thermally injured patients and in part because of the...

  19. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn...... model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn...... and secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P burn did not differ between dexamethasone and placebo treatments (P >.6). There were no significant...

  20. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn may...

  1. Photographic assessment of burn size and depth: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.; Moues, C.; Bogomolova, K.; Nieuwenhuis, M.; Oen, I.; Middelkoop, E.; Breederveld, R.; de Baar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of using photographs of burns to assess both burn size and depth. Method: Fifty randomly selected photographs taken on day 0-1 post burn were assessed by seven burn experts and eight referring physicians. Inter-rater

  2. Rehabilitation of burn patients: an underestimated socio-economic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Sander, Jan-Thorben; Weyand, Birgit; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Patients with burns utilise intensive medical care and rehabilitation. Deep dermal burns lead to scar contractures. Virtually no published data exists on costs for treatment of acute burns in comparison to burn sequelae. Our purpose was to collect financial data on burn therapy to estimate the socio-economic burden of thermal injuries. German-DRG for in-patient treatment of burns was collected from our burn center. DRG-related T95.- coding served as a search tool for burn associated sequelae. To include rehabilitation costs, data from the largest health care insurance and a workmen compensation fund were acquired. Acute burn treatment comprised 92% of costs for intensive care with approximately 4.600 EUR per percent total burned surface area (TBSA). Expenses for non-intensive care patients were significantly lower than for burn sequelae. Rehabilitation expenses were 4.4-fold higher than costs for acute burns including 59% for manual therapy and 37% for auxiliary material. TBSA multiplied by factor 4600 could serve for cost calculation of severely burned patients. Approximately 0.3 billion EUR in total or 270.000 EUR per patient/year were spent on burn sequelae. Early admission to specialized burn centers is advocated with state-of-the-art treatment to minimize burn sequelae and health care expenses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of burning intensity on soil water storage and transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four levels of biomass burn were considered: (i) slight burn (SB), (ii) moderate burn (MB) and (iii) heavy burn (HB) versus (iv) control or noburn (NB), corresponding to ... Moreover, the saturated hydraulic conductivity (6.6 – 3.2 cm / sec) between 5 and 25 cm depths and infiltration rates at 0.5 minute during the first year were ...

  4. Pediatric genital burns: a 15-year retrospective analysis of outcomes at a level 1 burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Go, Pauline H; Mansour, E Hani; Marano, Michael A; Petrone, Sylvia J; Houng, Abraham P; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2011-08-01

    Burns involving the genitalia and perineum are commonly seen in the context of extensive total body surface area (TBSA) burns and rarely as isolated injuries because of protection provided by the thighs and the abdomen. Genital burns usually result in extended hospital stays and are accompanied by severe morbidity and increased mortality. A retrospective analysis of consecutive pediatric (burns involving the genitalia admitted to the Saint Barnabas Medical Center Level 1 Burn Unit from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2009, was performed. One hundred sixty pediatric patients (8.3%) had a genital burn, including 105 patients younger than 5 years (65.6%) and 55 patients between 5 and 18 years (34.4%). Overall mean TBSA was 13.8% ± 16.8%, mean TBSA (genitalia) was 0.84% ± 0.25%, mean length of stay (LOS) was 11.9 ± 11.9 days, and mean burn intensive care unit LOS was 4.9 ± 9.7 days. In patients younger than 5 years, a TBSA burn more than 10% with extensive genitalia involvement is almost always the result of a scald injury. Younger patients (2 weeks). Patients 5 years or older are more often male and usually have a TBSA burn more than 15%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Total Intravenous Anesthesia for Major Burn Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    anesthesia, analgesia, and amnesia achievable. On the other hand, use of ketamine without a concomitant benzodiazepine has been associated with... benzodiazepine or propofol effectively prevents these phenomena, and they have not been a problem in our experience [4, 33]. Also, the S(+) enantiomer has a...Anaesthesia for burns in children: a review of procedures practised at Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town. Burns 1994; 20: 241-3

  7. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  8. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    leading out of the town were clogged by refugees, preventing the rescue of patients. Response to this disaster was aided by the activation of the...surgeon. These authors commented that in order to prevent the burn centre from becoming overloaded, patients with non-survivable injuries as well as those...Triage As in other types of mass casualty events, triage is an essential component of burn disastermanagement : ‘for the surgeon facing 30 victims of urban

  9. Infection control in severely burned patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood stream infections. Universal application of early excision of burned tissues has made a substantial improvement in the control of wound-related infections in burns. Additionally, the development of new technologies in wound care have helped to decrease morbidity and mortality in severe burn victims. Many examples can be given of the successful control of wound infection, such as the application of an appropriate antibiotic solution to invasive wound infection sites with simultaneous vacuum-assisted closure, optimal preservation of viable tissues with waterjet debridement systems, edema and exudate controlling dressings impregnated with Ag (Silvercel, Aquacell-Ag). The burned patient is at high risk for NI. Invasive interventions including intravenous and urinary chateterization, and entubation pose a further risk of NIs. The use of newly designed antimicrobial impregnated chateters or silicone devices may help the control of infection in these immunocomprimised patients. Strict infection control practices (physical isolation in a private room, use of gloves and gowns during patient contact) and appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy guided by laboratory surveillance culture as well as routine microbial burn wound culture are essential to help reduce the incidance of infections due to antibiotic resistant microorganisms. PMID:24701406

  10. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin E deficiency in burn patients and supplementation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b ) to prevent or reverse oxidative...improve our understanding of the metabolism of alpha-tocopherol in thermally injured patients, and B ) demonstrate the mechanism by which vitamin E

  11. Public communication in unplanned biomass burning events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Scott A; Naylor, Roger; Therriault, Shannon

    2010-02-01

    Public communication related to emergency, unplanned, or "wildfire" biomass burning is best understood as a function of the audience for that communication. Two enduring communication models, the Health Belief Model and the Stages of Change or Transtheoretical Model, are instructive in analyzing and preparing differing communication response strategies that are indicated for communities with varying degrees of experience in responding to unplanned biomass burning smoke events.

  12. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  13. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, R; Clark, J.; J. Lecker

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-der...

  14. [Treatment of pain in children burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Pommier, C; Robert, A; Comparin, J P; Foyatier, J L

    1997-03-01

    Burn injury is considered by children as one of the most painful traumas (just after bone factures). Burn pain in children can and must be controlled as well as for adult patients, with almost identical techniques. Continuous pain from injury and intermittent pain caused by therapeutic procedures must be evaluated and treated separately. Due to very high levels of nociception, satisfactory management of procedural pain requires the use of opioid therapy. Non pharmacological methods are meaningless if pharmacological treatment is not optimal.

  15. Model assessing the impact of biomass burning on air quality and photochemistry in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Yokelson, R. J.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major global emission source for trace gases and particulates. Various multi-platform measurements during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)-2003 and Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)-2006 campaigns suggest significant influences of biomass burning (BB) on air quality in Mexico City during the dry season, and the observations show emissions from BB impose viable yet highly variable impacts on organic aerosols (OA) in and around Mexico City. We have developed emission inventories for forest fires surrounding Mexico City based on measurement-estimated emission factors and MODIS fire counts, and for garbage fires in Mexico City based on in situ-measured emission factors and the population distribution and socioeconomic data. In this study, we will comprehensively assess the impact of biomass burning on the aerosol loading, chemical composition, OA formation and photochemistry in Mexico City using WRF-Chem. Analysis of the model results, in conjunction with concurrent field measurements, will be presented.

  16. Evaluation of the Corrosion Protection Coating in Accordance with Burn Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, ChangHo; Park, JinHwan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study was conducted in order to examine the effect of burn damage and the resultant anti-corrosion performance. The breakdown and defect of the paint film caused by burn damage are considered to affect not only the macroscopic appearance but also the adhesive force and the anti-corrosion performance of the paint film. The material of the paint film was epoxy paint that is used most widely for heavy-duty coating, and in order to induce burn damage, heat treatment with a torch was applied to the other side of the paint film. Surface and chemical structure changes according to aging were analyzed using FE-SEM and infrared absorption spectroscopy, and variation in the anti-corrosion performance was analyzed through the AC impedance test.

  17. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  19. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...... as oil spill response method. The parameters studied were the initial slick thickness of the oil, the vaporization order of burning crude oil, the ignition of fresh and weathered crude oils on water, the influence of the burning area, the effect of the water layer below the burning oil and the use...

  20. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.