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Sample records for burning plasma physics

  1. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiationhydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of selfheating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  2. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  3. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  4. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  5. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  6. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  7. Communication Support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegna, Chris [University of Wisconsin

    2014-02-05

    The role of this DOE grant was to provide administrative and software support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO). The USBPO is a grassroots organization of fusion plasma scientists that concentrates broadly on issues of interest in burning plasma physics in general with a particular emphasis on the needs of the ITER program. The particular role of this grant was to provide support of the communication needs of the USBPO primarily through the administration and maintenance of the USBPO server, the public USBPO website, e-mail lists and numerous members-only discussion forums and mail lists.

  8. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  9. Welding arc plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  10. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  11. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  12. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  13. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  14. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  15. [Physical rehabilitation in extensively burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Martínez, V; Díez Sanz, Ma J; Corona Fernández, O; García Aragón, A; González Fraile, L

    2014-02-01

    The rehabilitation of the extensively burned patient aims to prevent and minimize consequences of the own lesion this is supported by three pillars: 1) postural treatment to prevent contractures; 2) kinesiotherapy to maintain/restore joint range of movement and muscle strength; 3) functional recovery. Physical therapy is essential in the multidisciplinary team. A coordinated team assures better results and positively influences the quality of life of the patients.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy for burning plasma diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2008-10-01

    Ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS, 200-750 nm) atomic spectroscopy of neutral and ionized fuel species (H, D, T, and Li) and impurities (e.g., He, Be, C, and W) is a key element of plasma control and diagnosis on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and future magnetically confined burning plasma experiments (BPXs). Spectroscopic diagnostic implementation and performance issues that arise in the BPX harsh nuclear environment in the UV-VIS range, e.g., degradation of first mirror reflectivity under charge-exchange atom bombardment (erosion) and impurity deposition, permanent and dynamic loss of window, and optical fiber transmission under intense neutron and gamma-ray fluxes, are either absent or not as severe in the near-infrared (NIR, 750-2000 nm) range. An initial survey of NIR diagnostic applications has been undertaken on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. It is demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can be used for machine protection and plasma control applications, as well as contribute to plasma performance evaluation and physics studies. Emission intensity estimates demonstrate that NIR measurements are possible in the BPX plasma operating parameter range. Complications in the NIR range due to the parasitic background emissions are expected to occur at very high plasma densities, low impurity densities, and at high plasma-facing component temperatures.

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  18. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  19. Effect of Topical Platelet-Rich Plasma on Burn Healing After Partial-Thickness Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Umit; Ekici, Yahya; Bircan, Huseyin Yuce; Aydogan, Cem; Turkoglu, Suna; Ozen, Ozlem; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-06-05

    BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on tissue maturation and burn healing in an experimental partial-thickness burn injury model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 (platelet-rich plasma group) was exposed to burn injury and topical platelet-rich plasma was applied. Group 2 (control group) was exposed to burn injury only. Group 3 (blood donor group) was used as blood donors for platelet-rich plasma. The rats were killed on the seventh day after burn injury. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured and histopathologic changes were examined. RESULTS Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group (P=.03). Histopathologically, there was significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration (P=.005) and there were no statistically significant differences between groups in fibroblast development, collagen production, vessel proliferations, or epithelization. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma seems to partially improve burn healing in this experimental burn injury model. As an initial conclusion, it appears that platelet-rich plasma can be used in humans, although further studies should be performed with this type of treatment.

  20. Solar Physics - Plasma Physics Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Sturrock, P. A.; Wentzel, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the proceedings of a conference whose purpose was to explore plasma physics problems which arise in the study of solar physics is provided. Sessions were concerned with specific questions including the following: (1) whether the solar plasma is thermal or non-themal; (2) what spectroscopic data is required; (3) what types of magnetic field structures exist; (4) whether magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (5) whether resistive or non-magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (6) what mechanisms of particle acceleration have been proposed; and (7) what information is available concerning shock waves. Very few questions were answered categorically but, for each question, there was discussion concerning the observational evidence, theoretical analyses, and existing or potential laboratory and numerical experiments.

  1. Confinement projections for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, R.J.; Bateman, G.; Kaye, S.M.; Perkins, F.W.; Pomphrey, N.; Stotler, D.P.; Zarnstorff, M.C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Houlberg, W.A.; Neilson, G.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Porkolab, M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Reidel, K.S. (New York Univ., NY (USA)); Stambaugh, R.D.; Waltz, R.E. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX, formerly CIT) is to study the physics of self-heated fusion plasmas (Q = 5 to ignition), and to demonstrate the production of substantial amounts of fusion power (P{sub fus} = 100 to 500 MW). Confinement projections for BPX have been made on the basis of (1) dimensional extrapolation (2) theory-based modeling calibrated to experiment, and (3) statistical scaling from the available empirical data base. The results of all three approaches, discussed in this paper, roughly coincide. We presently view the third approach, statistical scaling, as the most reliable means for projecting the confinement performance of BPX, and especially for assessing the uncertainty in the projection. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Solar flares. [plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with explosions in a magnetized solar plasma, known as flares, whose effects are seen throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-rays through the visible and to the radio band. The diverse phenomena associated with flares are discussed, along with the physical mechanisms that have been advanced to explain them. The impact of solar flare research on the development of plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics is noted. The rapid development of solar flare research during the past 20 years, owing to the availability of high-resolution images, detailed magnetic field measurements, and improved spectral data, is illustrated.

  3. Computations in Plasma Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce I.; Killeen, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses contributions of computers to research in magnetic and inertial-confinement fusion, charged-particle-beam propogation, and space sciences. Considers use in design/control of laboratory and spacecraft experiments and in data acquisition; and reviews major plasma computational methods and some of the important physics problems they…

  4. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  5. Theoretical plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. H.; Vahala, G. M.

    1992-05-01

    Work during the past year in the areas of classical and anomalous transport, three-dimensional equilibria, divertor physics, and diagnostic techniques using waves is reported. Although much work was done on classical transport, the validity of the guiding-center drift equations, which are the basis of much of the theory, has received little attention. The limitations of the drift approximation are being studied. Work on three-dimensional equilibria, which shows that quasi-helical symmetry is broken in third order in the inverse aspect ratio, on the modification of the current profile due to tearing modes was completed. This work is relevant to the maintenance of a steady-state tokamak by the bootstrap current. Divertor physics is a primary area that required development for ITER. One of the few methods by which the physics of the divertor can be modified or controlled is magnetic perturbations. The effect of magnetic perturbations on the divertor scrapeoff layer in collaboration with Hampton University is being studied. The evolution of magnetic field embedded in a moving plasma is a dynamics problem of potential importance. Renormalization techniques gave important insights first in the theory of phase transitions. The applications of these techniques has extended to many areas of physics, including turbulence in fluids and plasmas. Essentially no diagnostics for magnetic fluctuations inside a fusion-grade plasma exist. A collaborative program with Old Dominion University and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to develop such a diagnostic based on the conversion of electromagnetic waves from the ordinary to the extraordinary mode is underway.

  6. Physical fitness in people after burn injury : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Mouton, Leonora J.

    2011-01-01

    Disseldorp LM, Nieuwenhuis MK, Van Baar ME, Mouton U. Physical fitness in people after burn injury: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1501-10. Objective: To gain insight into the physical fitness of people after burn injury compared with healthy subjects, and to present an overview

  7. Physical fitness in people after burn injury : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K; Van Baar, Margriet E; Mouton, Leonora J

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the physical fitness of people after burn injury compared with healthy subjects, and to present an overview of the effectiveness of exercise training programs in improving physical fitness in people after burn injury. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases EMBASE, PubMed,

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  9. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  10. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  11. Burn out among Greek physical therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tragea P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout is a psychosocial syndrome, defined as a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion, which occurs between individuals working in a vast working environment, especially in developed societies. Methods: For the conduct of the current study, there was appointed the evaluation of physiotherapists working in public and private hospitals, as well as rehabilitation centers in the area of Athens. With the use of random (multilayered sampling, 176 physiotherapists filled an anonymous questionnaire, which included various subjects concerning burnout; the MBI scale, questions concerning, gender, age, marital status, educational level, professionals sector, as well as questions concerning the factors related to professional development. Results: The factor which influences more the professional development of the participants was the educational level with a 65,1% percentage followed by the personality of the participants with a 62,9% percentage. The prevalence of the burnout was the following; Of the total of the participants,52% showed low emotional exhaustion, 45,3% medium personal achievements and 49,1% low depersonalization. Age group correlated with PA mean score (p = 0.007. Gender, was a significant variable for E.E. (Mann-Whitney test; p=0,046. Educational level correlated with all MBI dimensions. Mean E.E. score and mean DP score (p<0.001 were higher in those who had master and / or Phd (p=0.039. However mean PA score (p=0,043 found to be lower. The number of years working as a physiotherapist correlated with the level of PA (p = 0,038. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the predictors of 1 E.E. was the gender (p=0,037 2 PA was the age group (p=0,003.Conclusion: Burn out is a common problem in Greek physical therapists. Further research is needed in order to take the appropriate measures not only to identify this phenomenon, but also to prevent and confront it effectively.

  12. The Framework of Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Steven

    There have been relatively few good textbooks on plasma physics. Most become simple reference books that might be titled, “Plasma Physics Recipes.” Despite their utility such books do not make good textbooks. For teaching, one needs a book that shows how the basic results and models are part of a coherent whole. Richard Hazeltine and Francois Waelbroeck have written such a textbook: The Framework of Plasma PhysicsAn this book, plasma physics is developed carefully and logically from basic physics principles. The book is not, however, overly formal; physical arguments are used to reduce mathematical complexity.

  13. Colloidal Plasmas : Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C B Dwivedi

    2000-11-01

    Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic composition. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. The ability to tailor the electrostatic interactions between these colloidal particles provides a fertile ground for scientists to investigate the fundamental aspects of the Coulomb phase transition behavior. The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various acoustic modes, which are likely to exist in colloidal plasmas as well as in normal multi-ion species plasmas. Introductory ideas about the proposed physical models for the Coulomb phase transition in colloidal plasma will also be discussed.

  14. On turbulent transport in burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    The change of the transport coefficient due to the fusion energy source is studied. The scale invariance property of the reduced set of equations is investigated in the presence of the self-heating term due to the fusion reaction. The pressure gradient as well as the fusion power are the free energy sources that dictate the turbulent transport. It is shown that the burning transport coefficient can have a form with much wider variety, and that the transport property could be different owing to the self-heating by the fusion reactions. (author)

  15. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; HE Zhi-yong; ZHANG Gao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%.Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  16. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGPing-ze; XUZhong; HEZhi-yong; ZHANGGao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%. Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  17. A midsize tokamak as a fast track to burning plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mazzucato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual design of a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (≥ 10 with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER. This can be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a different magnetic divertor from those currently employed in present experiments is discussed.

  18. Theoretical Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, George M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Lattice Boltzmann algorithms are a mesoscopic method to solve problems in nonlinear physics which are highly parallelized – unlike the direction solution of the original problem. These methods are applied to both fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. By introducing entropic constraints one can enforce the positive definiteness of the distribution functions and so be able to simulate fluids at high Reynolds numbers without numerical instabilities. By introducing a vector distribution function for the magnetic field one can enforce the divergence free condition on the magnetic field automatically, without the need of divergence cleaning as needed in most direct numerical solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. The principal reason for the high parallelization of lattice Boltzmann codes is that they consist of a kinetic collisional relaxation step (which is purely local) followed by a simple shift of the relaxed data to neighboring lattice sites. In large eddy simulations, the closure schemes are highly nonlocal – the most famous of these schemes is that due to Smagorinsky. Under a lattice Boltzmann representation the Smagorinsky closure is purely local – being simply a particular moment on the perturbed distribution fucntions. After nonlocal fluid moment models were discovered to represent Landau damping, it was found possible to model these fluid models using an appropriate lattice Boltzmann algorithm. The close to ideal parallelization of the lattice Boltzmann codes permitted us to be Gordon Bell finalists on using the Earth Simulation in Japan. We have also been involved in the radio frequency propagation of waves into a tokamak and into a spherical overdense tokamak plasma. Initially we investigated the use of a quasi-optical grill for the launching of lower hybrid waves into a tokamak. It was found that the conducting walls do not prevent the rods from being properly irradiated, the overloading of the quasi-optical grill is not severe

  19. Progress Report for Activities of the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, James W

    2009-04-07

    This report describes the activities of the past year of the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO), a national organization of scientists involved in researching the properties of magnetically confined burning fusion plasmas. Its main activities are the coordination, facilitation, and promotion of research activities in the U. S. fusion energy sciences program relevant to burning plasma science and, specifically, of preparations for U. S. participation in the international ITER experiment. Specifically, the USBPO mission is to advance the scientific understanding of burning plasmas and to ensure the greatest benefit from a burning plasma experiment by coordinating relevant U. S. fusion research with broad community participation.

  20. Space plasma physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  1. Simulation of triton burn-up in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, M.J.; Balet, B.; Jarvis, O.N.; Stubberfield, P.M. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the first triton burn-up calculations for JET plasmas using the transport code TRANSP. Four hot ion H-mode deuterium plasmas are studied. For these discharges, the 2.5 MeV emission rises rapidly and then collapses abruptly. This phenomenon is not fully understood but in each case the collapse phase is associated with a large impurity influx known as the ``carbon bloom``. The peak 14 MeV emission occurs at this time, somewhat later than that of the 2.5 MeV neutron peak. The present results give a clear indication that there are no significant departures from classical slowing down and spatial diffusion for tritons in JET plasmas. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  3. Topics in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, Linda [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-05-31

    During the period 1998-2013, research under the auspices of the Department of Energy was performed on RF waves in plasmas. This research was performed in close collaboration with Josef Preinhaelter, Jakub Urban, Vladimir Fuchs, Pavol Pavlo and Frantisek Zacek (Czech Academy of Sciences), Martin Valovic and Vladimir Shevchenko (Culham). This research is detailed and all 38 papers which were published by this team are cited.

  4. Physical functional outcome assessment of patients with major burns admitted to a UK Burn Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Determining the discharge outcome of burn patients can be challenging and therefore a validated objective measure of functional independence would assist with this process. We developed the Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score to measure burn patients' functional independence. FAB scores were taken on discharge from ICU (FAB 1) and on discharge from inpatient burn care (FAB 2) in 56 patients meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data to measure the progress of patients' physical functional outcomes and to evaluate the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome. Mean age was 38.6 years and median burn size 35%. Significant improvements were made in the physical functional outcomes between FAB 1 and FAB 2 scores (ppatients were discharged home, 8 of these with social care. 8 patients were transferred to another hospital for further inpatient rehabilitation. FAB 1 score (≤ 9) is strongly associated with discharge outcome (pburn patients.

  5. Theory and Observations of Plasma Waves Excited Space Shuttle OMS Burns in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Schuck, P. W.; Hunton, D. E.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of artificial plasma turbulence were obtained during two Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) conducted during the flights of the Space Shuttle (STS-127 and STS-129). Based on computer modeling at the NRL PPD and Laboratory for Computational Physics & Fluid Dynamics (LCP), two dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines were scheduled to produce 200 to 240 kg exhaust clouds that passed over the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Communications, Navigation, and Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. This operation required the coordination by the DoD Space Test Program (STP), the NASA Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the C/NOFS payload operations, and the C/NOFS instrument principal investigators. The first SEITE mission used exhaust from a 12 Second OMS burn to deposit 1 Giga-Joules of energy into the upper atmosphere at a range of 230 km from C/NOFS. The burn was timed so C/NOFS could fly though the center of the exhaust cloud at a range of 87 km above the orbit of the Space Shuttle. The first SEITE experiment is important because is provided plume detection by ionospheric plasma and electric field probes for direct sampling of irregularities that can scatter radar signals. Three types of waves were detected by C/NOFS during and after the first SEITE burn. With the ignition and termination of the pair of OMS engines, whistler mode signals were recorded at C/NOFS. Six seconds after ignition, a large amplitude electromagnetic pulse reached the satellite. This has been identified as a fast magnetosonic wave propagating across magnetic field lines to reach the electric field (VEFI) sensors on the satellite. Thirty seconds after the burn, the exhaust cloud reach C/NOFS and engulfed the satellite providing very strong electric field turbulence along with enhancements in electron and ion densities. Kinetic modeling has been used to track the electric field turbulence to an unstable velocity

  6. Variational Integrators in Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Variational integrators are a special kind of geometric discretisation methods applicable to any system of differential equations that obeys a Lagrangian formulation. In this thesis, variational integrators are developed for several important models of plasma physics: guiding centre dynamics (particle dynamics), the Vlasov-Poisson system (kinetic theory), and ideal magnetohydrodynamics (plasma fluid theory). Special attention is given to physical conservation laws like conservation of energy and momentum. Most systems in plasma physics do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended towards nonvariational differential equations by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of integrating factors and adjoint equations. It allows us to find a Lagrangian for all ordinary and partial differential equations and systems thereof. Consequently, the applicability of variational integrators is extended to a much larger family of syst...

  7. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and keep them out of reach. Know about and practice fire escape routes at ... Burn, thermal - close-up Airway burn Skin First degree burn ...

  8. Research in plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Three aspects of barium ion cloud dynamics are discussed. First, the effect of the ratio of ion cloud conductivity to background ionospheric conductivity on the motion of barium ion clouds is investigated and compared with observations of barium ion clouds. This study led to the suggestion that the conjugate ionosphere participates in the dynamics of barium ion clouds. Second, analytic work on the deformation of ion clouds is presented. Third, a linearized stability theory was extended to include the effect of the finite extent of an ion cloud, as well as the effect of the ratio of ion cloud to ionospheric conductivities. The stability properties of a plasma with contra-streaming ion beams parallel to a magnetic field are investigated. The results are interpreted in terms of parameters appropriate for collisionless shock waves. It is found that this particular instability can be operative only if the up-stream Alfven Mach number exceeds 5.5.

  9. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2006-01-01

    Resulting from ongoing, international research into fusion processes, the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a major step in the quest for a new energy source.The first graduate-level text to cover the details of ITER, Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics introduces various aspects and issues of recent fusion research activities through the shortest access path. The distinguished author breaks down the topic by first dealing with fusion and then concentrating on the more complex subject of plasma physics. The book begins with the basics of controlled fusion research, foll

  10. Space Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. James L. Horwitz and R. Hugh Comfort's studies with the high altitude TIDE data have been progressing well. We concluded a study on the relationship of polar cap ion properties observed by TIDE near apogee with solar wind and IMF conditions. We found that in general H+ did not correlate as well as O+ with solar wind and IMF parameters. O+ density correlated(sub IMF), and Kp. At lower solar wind speeds, O+ density decreased with increasing latitude, but this trend was not observed at higher solar wind speeds. By comparing these results with results from other studies of O+ in different parts of the magnetosphere, we concluded that O+ ions often leave the ionosphere near the foot point of the cusp/cleft region, pass through the high-altitude polar cap lobes, and eventually arrive in the plasma sheet. We found that H+ outflows are a persistent feature of the polar cap and are not as dependent on the geophysical conditions; even classical polar wind models show H+ ions readily escaping owing to their low mass. Minor correlations with solar wind drivers were found; specifically, H+ density correlated best with IMF By, V(sub sw)B(sub IMF), and ESW(sub sw).

  11. On physical functioning after pediatric burns : Physical fitness and functional independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien Maria

    2015-01-01

    Burn injury can negatively impact physical functioning. This is not only due to the local damage of the skin or subsequent scarring, but also due to the disturbance of physiological processes and a period of physical inactivity. If limitations in physical functioning persist, it can affect health an

  12. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R.; Christopherson, A. R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Assessing the degree to which fusion alpha particles contribute to the fusion yield is essential to understanding the onset of the thermal runaway process of thermonuclear ignition. It is shown that in inertial confinement fusion, the yield enhancement due to alpha particle heating (before ignition occurs) depends on the generalized Lawson parameter that can be inferred from experimental observables. A universal curve valid for arbitrary laser-fusion targets shows the yield amplification due to alpha heating for a given value of the Lawson parameter. The same theory is used to determine the onset of the burning plasma regime when the alpha heating exceeds the compression work. This result can be used to assess the performance of current ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility.

  13. A polarization-based Thomson scattering technique for burning plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, E; Hartog, D J Den

    2013-01-01

    The traditional Thomson scattering diagnostic is based on measurement of the wavelength spectrum of scattered light, where electron temperature measurements are inferred from thermal broadening of the scattered laser light. At sufficiently high temperatures, especially those predicted for ITER and other burning plasmas, relativistic effects cause a change in the polarization state of the scattered photons. The resulting depolarization of the scattered light is temperature dependent and has been proposed elsewhere as a potential alternative to the traditional spectral decomposition technique. Following similar work, we analytically calculate the degree of polarization for incoherent Thomson scattering. For the first time, we obtain exact results valid for the full range of incident laser polarization states and electron temperatures. While previous work focused only on linear polarization, we show that circularly polarized incident light optimizes the degree of depolarization for a wide range of temperatures r...

  14. Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Free-Burning Arc Plasma in Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    COLLISIONAL-RADIATIVE MODELING OF FREE-BURNING ARC PLASMA IN ARGON M. Baeva  , D. Uhrlandt, S. Gorchakov Leibniz Institute for Plasma...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany 8. PERFORMING

  15. Design of a cross-sectional study on physical fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents after burn injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Takken, Tim; Van Brussel, Marco; Beerthuizen, Gerard I. J. M.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Burn injuries have a major impact on the patient's physical and psychological functioning. The consequences can, especially in pediatric burns, persist long after the injury. A decrease in physical fitness seems logical as people survive burn injuries after an often extensive period of d

  16. BurnMan: A lower mantle mineral physics toolkit

    KAUST Repository

    Cottaar, Sanne

    2014-04-01

    We present BurnMan, an open-source mineral physics toolbox to determine elastic properties for specified compositions in the lower mantle by solving an Equation of State (EoS). The toolbox, written in Python, can be used to evaluate seismic velocities of new mineral physics data or geodynamic models, and as the forward model in inversions for mantle composition. The user can define the composition from a list of minerals provided for the lower mantle or easily include their own. BurnMan provides choices in methodology, both for the EoS and for the multiphase averaging scheme. The results can be visually or quantitatively compared to observed seismic models. Example user scripts show how to go through these steps. This paper includes several examples realized with BurnMan: First, we benchmark the computations to check for correctness. Second, we exemplify two pitfalls in EoS modeling: using a different EoS than the one used to derive the mineral physical parameters or using an incorrect averaging scheme. Both pitfalls have led to incorrect conclusions on lower mantle composition and temperature in the literature. We further illustrate that fitting elastic velocities separately or jointly leads to different Mg/Si ratios for the lower mantle. However, we find that, within mineral physical uncertainties, a pyrolitic composition can match PREM very well. Finally, we find that uncertainties on specific input parameters result in a considerable amount of variation in both magnitude and gradient of the seismic velocities. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  17. DIII-D Upgrade to Prepare the Basis for Steady-State Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, R. J.; Guo, H. Y.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; Hill, D. N.

    2014-10-01

    Future steady-state burning plasma facilities will access new physics regimes and modes of plasma behavior. It is vital to prepare for this both experimentally using existing facilities, and theoretically in order to develop the tools to project to and optimize these devices. An upgrade to DIII-D is proposed to address the three critical aspects where research must go beyond what we can do now: (i) torque free electron heating to address the energy, particle and momentum transport mechanisms of burning plasmas using electron cyclotron (EC) heating and full power balanced neutral beams; (ii) off-axis heating and current drive to develop the path to true fusion steady state by reorienting neutral beams and deploying EC and helicon current drive; (iii) a new divertor with hot walls and reactor relevant materials to develop the basis for benign detached divertor operation compatible with wall materials and a high performance fusion core. These elements with modest incremental cost and enacted as a user facility for the whole US program will enable the US to lead on ITER and take a decision to proceed with a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  19. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  20. Physics of the plasma universe

    CERN Document Server

    Peratt, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Today many scientists recognize plasma as the key element to understanding new observations in near-Earth, interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic space; in stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, and throughout the observable universe. Physics of the Plasma Universe, 2nd Edition is an update of observations made across the entire cosmic electromagnetic spectrum over the two decades since the publication of the first edition. It addresses paradigm changing discoveries made by telescopes, planetary probes, satellites, and radio and space telescopes. The contents are the result of the author's 37 years research at Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This book covers topics such as the large-scale structure and the filamentary universe; the formation of magnetic fields and galaxies, active galactic nuclei and quasars, the origin and abundance of light elements, star formation and the evolution of solar systems, and cosmic rays. Chapters 8 and 9 are based ...

  1. Plasma physics via computer simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Birdsall, CK

    2004-01-01

    PART 1: PRIMER Why attempting to do plasma physics via computer simulation using particles makes good sense Overall view of a one dimensional electrostatic program A one dimensional electrostatic program ES1 Introduction to the numerical methods used Projects for ES1 A 1d electromagnetic program EM1 Projects for EM1 PART 2: THEORY Effects of the spatial grid Effects of the finitw time ste Energy-conserving simulation models Multipole models Kinetic theory for fluctuations and noise; collisions Kinetic properties: theory, experience and heuristic estimates PART 3: PRACTIC

  2. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe

  3. Classical transport equations for burning gas-metal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvig, Kim; Simakov, Andrei N.; Vold, Erik L.

    2014-09-01

    Thermonuclear inertial confinement fusion plasmas confined by a heavy metal shell may be subject to the mixing of metal into the gas with a resulting degradation of fusion yield. Classical plasma diffusion driven by a number of gradients can provide a physical mechanism to produce atomic mix, possibly in concert with complex hydrodynamic structures and/or turbulence. This paper gives a derivation of the complete dissipative plasma hydrodynamics equations from kinetic theory, for a binary ionic mixture plasma consisting of electrons, e, a light (hydrogenic gas) ion species, i, and a heavy, high ZI plasma metal species, I. A single mean ionization state for the heavy metal, ZI, is assumed to be provided by some independent thermodynamic model of the heavy metal Z I = Z I ( n i , n I , T e ). The kinetic equations are solved by a generalized Chapman-Enskog expansion that assumes small Knudsen numbers for all species: N K e ≡ λ e / L ≪ 1 , N K i ≡ λ i / L ≪ 1. The small electron to ion mass ratio, m e / m i ≪ 1, is utilized to account for electron-ion temperature separation, T e ≠ T i, and to decouple the electron and ion transport coefficient calculations. This produces a well ordered perturbation theory for the electrons, resulting in the well known "Spitzer" problem of Spitzer and collaborators and solved independently by Braginskii. The formulation in this paper makes clear the inherent symmetry of the transport and gives an analytic solution for all values of the effective charge Z eff, including Z eff replaces the Z eff of the electron problem, but has an extended domain, 0≤ Δ I < ∞, to cover all mixture fractions from the pure gas to the pure metal plasma. The extension of the Spitzer problem to include this extended domain is given in this work. The resulting transport equations for the binary gas-metal plasma mixture are complete and accurate through second order. All transport coefficients are provided in analytic form.

  4. Plasma burn-through simulations using the DYON code and predictions for ITER

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyun-Tae; de Vries, P C; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss simulations of the full ionization process (i.e. plasma burn-through), fundamental to creating high temperature plasma. By means of an applied electric field, the gas is partially ionized by the electron avalanche process. In order for the electron temperature to increase, the remaining neutrals need to be fully ionized in the plasma burn-through phase, as radiation is the main contribution to the electron power loss. The radiated power loss can be significantly affected by impurities resulting from interaction with the plasma facing components. The DYON code is a plasma burn-through simulator developed at Joint European Torus (JET) [1] [2]. The dynamic evolution of the plasma temperature and plasma densities including impurity content is calculated in a self-consistent way, using plasma wall interaction models. The recent installation of a beryllium wall at JET enabled validation of the plasma burn-through model in the presence of new, metallic plasma facing components. The simulation...

  5. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  6. Variational integrators in plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael

    2013-07-01

    To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of

  7. Russian DEMO-S reactor with continuous plasma burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatalov, G. E-mail: geshat@qq.nfi.kiae.su; Kirillov, I.; Sokolov, Yu.; Strebkov, Yu.; Vasiliev, N

    2000-11-01

    A conceptual study of DEMO-S steady state reactor is being carried out in RF. The main goals of the study are aimed at establishing physics and engineering basis and limitations of the reactor. It was assumed that DEMO is a next step after international thermonuclear experimental reactors (ITER) operation, and so conservative assumptions were used in the study based on ITER engineering. A steady state operation mode is recommended with fusion power of 2-3 GW and maximum first wall (FW) neutron load of 3-4 MW m{sup -2}. The reactor has to operate in advance plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. The reversed shear regime and operation in H-mode are evaluated. A lifetime of 30-40 MW m{sup -2} is assumed for the DEMO plant, with three to four changes of plasma facing components. The general reactor layout is determined. Two options of breeding blanket with ceramic and liquid lithium breeders are presented, supported by neutronic, thermalhydraulic and mechanical calculations. A conventional type of water or Li cooling divertor targets with maximum heat load of {approx}10 MW m{sup -2} was chosen. Heat to electricity conversion schemes are analysed for both helium and liquid metal coolant with net efficiency of 35-40%. Aspects of radioactive waste management are considered.

  8. Plasma burn-through simulations using the DYON code and predictions for ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, H. T.; Sips, A.C.C.; de Vries, P. C.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss simulations of the full ionization process (i.e. plasma burn-through), fundamental to creating high temperature plasma. By means of an applied electric field, the gas is partially ionized by the electron avalanche process. In order for the electron temperature to increase, th

  9. Report of the Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Theoretical and experimental work in plasma physics is summarized. Technological and engineering aspects of plasma experiments in the SPICA, TORTUR 2, and RINGBOOG 2 reactors are discussed with emphasis on screw pinch, turbulent heating, and gas blankets. The free boundary equilibrium in high beta Tokamak plasma, wave dynamics, and transport problems were investigated.

  10. The physics of non-ideal plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2000-01-01

    This book is devoted to the physical properties of nonideal plasma which is compressed so strongly that the effects of interparticle interactions govern the plasma behavior. The interest in this plasma was generated by the development of modern technologies and facilities whose operations were based on high densities of energy. In this volume, the methods of nonideal plasma generation and diagnostics are considered. The experimental results are given and the main theoretical models of nonideal plasma state are discussed. The problems of thermodynamics, electro-physics, optics and dynamic stabi

  11. Plasma surface alloying of titanium alloy for enhancing burn-resistant property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; ZHANG Gao-hui; HE Zhi-yong; YAO Zheng-jun

    2006-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, burn-resistant alloying layers were made on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si titanium alloys by using double glow plasma surface alloying technology (DG Technology). Two typical burn-resistant layers Ti-Cr and Ti-Mo were made by DG plasma chromizing and DG plasma molybdenizing, respectively. Burn-resistant properties were tested by layer ignition method using 2 kW laser machine. Ignition experiments result reveals that the ignition temperature of alloyed layer with Mo and Cr concentration above 10% is about 200℃ higher than ignition temperature of Ti-6Al-4V substrate.

  12. Unifying physics of accelerators, lasers and plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Unifying Physics of Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma introduces the physics of accelerators, lasers and plasma in tandem with the industrial methodology of inventiveness, a technique that teaches that similar problems and solutions appear again and again in seemingly dissimilar disciplines. This unique approach builds bridges and enhances connections between the three aforementioned areas of physics that are essential for developing the next generation of accelerators.

  13. Physical Simulation of Burning Process of Alternative Engine Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Assad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of burning process in the closed vessel has been fulfilled with the help of method high-speed photography through a transparent glass. This method as an efficient means for investigation of fast processes permits to obtain a visual, convenient visual perception insight about the development of the burning process and understand peculiarities of the development of flame in the closed vessels.The paper contains a description of an experimental stand and methodology for execution of an experiment on visualization of the flame development and measurement of main parameters of the burning process in a closed vessel that is in the simulating combustion chamber.According to the obtained photos an analysis of form, structure and dynamics of flame front development has been carried out; some peculiarities and differences of flames of various fuel-air mixtures have been established and the paper proves an occurrence of the secondary glow during burning in the closed vessel.Body of data obtained with the help of the visualization of burning process makes it possible to determine main parameters of the burning process. In particular, relation of the pressure developed in the chamber with the mass of burnt-out mixture has been investigated and dependence has been obtained that shows the law of fuel burning-out in the graphic form.

  14. Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey. Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: Principal parameters of experimental devices; Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; Burning Plasma Experiment; Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification; Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade; International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor; International Collaboration; X-Ray Laser Studies; Hyperthermal Atomic Beam Source; Pure Electron Plasma Experiments; Plasma Processing: Deposition and Etching of Thin Films; Theoretical Studies; Tokamak Modeling; Engineering Department; Environment, Safety, and Health and Quality Assurance; Technology Transfer; Office of Human Resources and Administration; PPPL Patent Invention Disclosures; Office of Resource Management; Graduate Education: Plasma Physics; Graduate Education: Program in Plasma Science and Technology; and Science Education Program.

  15. Plasma Physics of Extreme Astrophysical Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A

    2014-01-01

    Certain classes of astrophysical objects, namely magnetars and central engines of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), are characterized by extreme physical conditions not encountered elsewhere in the Universe. In particular, they possess magnetic fields that exceed the critical quantum field of 44 teragauss. Figuring out how these complex ultra-magnetized systems work requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). However, an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying physics to such an extent that many relevant plasma-physical problems call for building QED-based relativistic quantum plasma physics. In this review, after describing the extreme astrophysical systems of interest and identifying the key relevant plasma-physical problems, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We discuss how a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and outline the basic theoretical framework f...

  16. Plasma Cathode Electron Sources Physics, Technology, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oks, Efim

    2006-01-01

    This book fills the gap for a textbook describing this kind of electron beam source in a systematic and thorough manner: from physical processes of electron emission to examples of real plasma electron sources and their applications.

  17. Space plasma physics: I - Stationary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    The physics of stationary processes in space plasmas is examined theoretically in an introduction intended for graduate students. The approach involves the extensive use of numerical simulations. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, small-amplitude waves, and the stationary solar plasma system; typical measurement data and simulation results are presented graphically.

  18. Fusion burning waves in proton-boron-11 plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Val, J.M. [Universidad Poltecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear; Eliezer, S. [Universidad Poltecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear; Piera, M. [Universidad Poltecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear; Velarde, G. [Universidad Poltecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear

    1996-06-17

    A method is proposed to exploit the aneutronic proton-{sup 11}B fusion reaction by means of igniting a heat detonation wave that expands across the fuel from a small heated region. The ignition process is triggered by a particle beam (or a couple of beams) impinging on an inertially compressed target. We determine conditions for ignition and burn propagation. Although the requirements on the igniting beam current are very high, the method is a clear hint how to produce the cleanest energy from nuclear reactions. (orig.).

  19. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  20. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  1. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics.  The next bo...

  2. Report on the solar physics-plasma physics workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Wentzel, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The paper summarizes discussions held between solar physicists and plasma physicists on the interface between solar and plasma physics, with emphasis placed on the question of what laboratory experiments, or computer experiments, could be pursued to test proposed mechanisms involved in solar phenomena. Major areas discussed include nonthermal plasma on the sun, spectroscopic data needed in solar plasma diagnostics, types of magnetic field structures in the sun's atmosphere, the possibility of MHD phenomena involved in solar eruptive phenomena, the role of non-MHD instabilities in energy release in solar flares, particle acceleration in solar flares, shock waves in the sun's atmosphere, and mechanisms of radio emission from the sun.

  3. PREFACE: 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Hans

    1982-01-01

    Invited Papers: The Physics of Hot Plasmas During the last decade a dramatic evolution of plasma physics has occurred. Not only have gigantic fusion plasma machines been planned, and are now being built, and elaborate spaceships and antenna systems been constructed to explore remote parts of the cosmos; new observations have revealed fascinating structures in space, ranging from pulsar plasmas under extreme conditions in very strong magnetic fields to large-scale magnetic field and electric current systems in cosmic plasmas. X-rays from very distant sources as well as radio-waves from the plasma in the magnetosphere and in the Aurora have recently been studied with new observational techniques. Ingenious laboratory experiments are continuously being carried out to exploit new fundamental processes in plasmas. These are of great interest for the basic understanding of plasmas and also have immediate consequences for applications, like plasma heating and diagnostics. The theoretical description of new plasma phenomena, and of the plasma state in general poses challenging problems, particularly in situations where high concentration of energy is located in the plasmas. Nonlinear wave analysis and turbulence theory have accordingly been extensively developed to describe in particular the collective plasma phenomena. New concepts have been envisaged like plasma solitons, which may be thought of as excitations of local concentrations of longitudinal plasma waves which turn out to be particularly stable. More and more sophisticated structures of nonlinear nature are being revealed by means of high capacity computer facilities. Simulation experiments allow for studies of chaotic behaviour of plasma particles. Related fields of activity form new trends in the development of plasma theory. The programme of the 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics, which was held in Göteborg, Sweden, stressed the role of the Physics of Hot Plasmas. Studies of such plasmas are

  4. Physics of quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Smilga, A V

    1997-01-01

    In this lecture, we give a brief review of what theorists now know, understand, or guess about static and kinetic properties of quark--gluon plasma. A particular attention is payed to the problem of physical observability, i.e. the physical meaningfulne ss of various characteristics of QGP discussed in the literature.

  5. Association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with sepsis in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Y F; Chai, J K; Yu, Y M; Luo, H M; Zhang, Q X; Feng, R

    2015-08-21

    We investigated the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with sepsis in severely burned patients. A total of 182 patients with burn areas lager than 30% of the body surface area were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 103 patients with sepsis (sepsis group) and 79 patients without sepsis (control group). An allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was used to determine PAI-1 polymorphism 4G/5G distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency of the 4G/4G genotype and the 4G allele frequency in the sepsis group were 42.7 and 62.1% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (P PAI-1 level than the control group (P PAI-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the 4G/4G genotype (P PAI-1 gene may be related to the susceptibility to burn sepsis and that the 4G/4G genotype may be an important genetic risk factor of burn sepsis. Additionally, PAI-1 concentrations in the serum are increased in patients with burn sepsis.

  6. Basic Studies in Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    close to a Maxwellian parametrized by a temperature T and mean velocity u which satisfy certain non -linear equations, which are the macroscopic equations...Simulations with Particle-to-Grid Methods 17 E. Microscopic-Shock Profiles: Exact Solution of a Non -Equilibrium System 18 IV. List of Publications...Investigator ABSTRACT An improved understanding of equilibrium and non -equilibrium properties of plasmas is central to many areas of basic science as

  7. Progress in Anisotropic Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In 1959 Weibel demonstrated that when a QED plasma has a temperature anisotropy there exist unstable transverse magnetic excitations which grow exponentially fast. In this paper we will review how to determine the growth rates for these unstable modes in the weak-coupling and ultrarelativistic limits in which the collective behavior is describable in terms are so-called "hard-loops". We will show that in this limit QCD is subject to instabilities which are analogous to the Weibel instability in QED. The presence of such instabilities dominates the early time evolution of a highly anisotropic plasma; however, at longer times it is expected that these instabilities will saturate (condense). I will discuss how the presence of non-linear interactions between the gluons complicates the determination of the saturated state. In order to discuss this I present the generalization of the Braaten-Pisarski isotropic hard-thermal-loop effective action to a system with a temperature anisotropy in the parton distribution fu...

  8. Dusty plasma as a unique object of plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G. E.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The self-consistency and basic openness of dusty plasma, charge fluctuations, high dissipation and other features of dusty plasma system lead to the appearance of a number of unusual and unique properties of dusty plasma. “Anomalous” heating of dusty particles, anisotropy of temperatures and other features, parametric resonance, charge fluctuations and interaction potential are among these unique properties. Study is based on analytical approach and numerical simulation. Mechanisms of “anomalous” heating and energy transfer are proposed. Influence of charge fluctuations on the system properties is discussed. The self-consistent, many-particle, fluctuation and anisotropic interparticle interaction potential is studied for a significant range of gas temperature. These properties are interconnected and necessary for a full description of dusty plasmas physics.

  9. Space plasma physics stationary processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...

  10. Plasma physics of extreme astrophysical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A; Rightley, Shane

    2014-03-01

    Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very extreme physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these extreme astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems important to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in

  11. Plasma physics of extreme astrophysical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Rightley, Shane

    2014-03-01

    Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very extreme physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)—the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these extreme astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems important to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in

  12. ITER-EDA physics design requirements and plasma performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Galambos, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wesley, J.; Boucher, D.; Perkins, F.; Post, D.; Putvinski, S. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Physics design guidelines, plasma performance estimates, and sensitivity of performance to changes in physics assumptions are presented for the ITER-EDA Interim Design. The overall ITER device parameters have been derived from the performance goals using physics guidelines based on the physics R&D results. The ITER-EDA design has a single-null divertor configuration (divertor at the bottom) with a nominal plasma current of 21 MA, magnetic field of 5.68 T, major and minor radius of 8.14 m and 2.8 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of {approximately}1.6 that produces a nominal fusion power of {approximately}1.5 GW for an ignited burn pulse length of {ge}1000 s. The assessments have shown that ignition at 1.5 GW of fusion power can be sustained in ITER for 1000 s given present extrapolations of H-mode confinement ({tau}{sub E} = 0.85 {times} {tau}{sub ITER93H}), helium exhaust ({tau}*{sub He}/{tau}{sub E} = 10), representative plasma impurities (n{sub Be}/n{sub e} = 2%), and beta limit [{beta}{sub N} = {beta}(%)/(I/aB) {le} 2.5]. The provision of 100 MW of auxiliary power, necessary to access to H-mode during the approach to ignition, provides for the possibility of driven burn operations at Q = 15. This enables ITER to fulfill its mission of fusion power ({approximately} 1--1.5 GW) and fluence ({approximately}1 MWa/m{sup 2}) goals if confinement, impurity levels, or operational (density, beta) limits prove to be less favorable than present projections. The power threshold for H-L transition, confinement uncertainties, and operational limits (Greenwald density limit and beta limit) are potential performance limiting issues. Improvement of the helium exhaust ({tau}*{sub He}/{tau}{sub E} {le} 5) and potential operation in reverse-shear mode significantly improve ITER performance.

  13. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formicola, Alba [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, INFN, L' Aquila (Italy); Corvisiero, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova (Italy); INFN, Genova (Italy); Gervino, Gianpiero [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed. (orig.)

  14. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Alba; Corvisiero, Pietro; Gervino, Gianpiero

    2016-04-01

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed.

  15. Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Managan, R. A.

    2015-01-08

    Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, Fn( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e μ/θ ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for Aα (ζ ),Aβ (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e-μ/θ)F1/2(μ/θ), F1/2'/F1/2, Fcα, and Fcβ. In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.

  16. Plasma-assisted heterogeneous catalysis for NOx reduction in lean-burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wan, C.Z.; Rice, G.W.; Voss, K.E. [Engelhard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the combination of a plasma with a catalyst to improve the reduction of NO{sub x} under lean-burn conditions. The authors have been investigating the effects of a plasma on the NO{sub x} reduction activity and temperature operating window of various catalytic materials. One of the goals is to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction between the gas-phase plasma chemistry and the heterogeneous chemistry on the catalyst surface. The authors have observed that plasma assisted heterogeneous catalysis can facilitate NO{sub x} reduction under conditions that normally make it difficult for either the plasma or the catalyst to function by itself. By systematically varying the plasma electrode and catalyst configuration, they have been able to elucidate the process by which the plasma chemistry affects the chemical reduction of NO{sub x} on the catalyst surface. They have discovered that the main effect of the plasma is to induce the gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO{sub 21}. The reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} is then accomplished by heterogeneous reaction of O with activated hydrocarbons on the catalyst surface. The use of a plasma opens the opportunity for a new class of catalysts that are potentially more durable, more active, more selective and more sulfur-tolerant compared to conventional lean-NO{sub x} catalysts.

  17. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.

    2011-09-21

    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  18. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S C; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$...

  19. Lunar Dust and Dusty Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    In the plasma and radiation environment of space, small dust grains from the Moon s surface can become charged. This has the consequence that their motion is determined by electromagnetic as well as gravitational forces. The result is a plasma-like condition known as "dusty plasmas" with the consequence that lunar dust can migrate and be transported by magnetic, electric, and gravitational fields into places where heavier, neutral debris cannot. Dust on the Moon can exhibit unusual behavior, being accelerated into orbit by electrostatic surface potentials as blow-off dust, or being swept away by moving magnetic fields like the solar wind as pick-up dust. Hence, lunar dust must necessarily be treated as a dusty plasma subject to the physics of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A review of this subject has been given before [1], but a synopsis will be presented here to make it more readily available for lunar scientists.

  20. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this classic text presents a complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, written by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field.  It offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of the subject matter and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. This outstanding text offers students a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly.  In a wholly lucid manner the second edition covered charged-particle motions, plasmas as fluids, kinetic theory, and nonlinear effects.  For the third edition, two new chapters have been added to incorporate discussion of more recent advances in the field.  The new chapter 9 on Special Plasmas covers non-neutral plasmas, pure electron plasmas, solid and ultra-cold plasmas, pair-ion plasmas, d...

  1. Fusion Plasma Physics and ITER - An Introduction (1/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In November 2006, ministers representing the world’s major fusion research communities signed the agreement formally establishing the international project ITER. Sited at Cadarache in France, the project involves China, the European Union (including Switzerland), India, Japan, the Russian Federation, South Korea and the United States. ITER is a critical step in the development of fusion energy: its role is to confirm the feasibility of exploiting magnetic confinement fusion for the production of energy for peaceful purposes by providing an integrated demonstration of the physics and technology required for a fusion power plant. The ITER tokamak is designed to study the “burning plasma” regime in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas by achieving a fusion amplification factor, Q (the ratio of fusion output power to plasma heating input power), of 10 for several hundreds of seconds with a nominal fusion power output of 500MW. It is also intended to allow the study of steady-state plasma operation at Q≥5 by me...

  2. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion comprises refereed papers contributed by invited speakers at the 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. The conference was jointly hosted by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, by the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association and by Imperial College London, where it took place from 28 June to 2 July 2004. The overall agenda for this conference was set by the Board of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society, chaired by Friedrich Wagner (MPIPP, Garching) and his successor Jo Lister (CRPP, Lausanne). It built on developments in recent years, by further increasing the scientific diversity of the conference programme, whilst maintaining its depth and quality. A correspondingly diverse Programme Committee was set up, whose members are listed below. The final task of the Programme Committee has been the preparation of this special issue. In carrying out this work, as in preparing the scientific programme of the conference, the Programme Committee formed specialist subcommittees representing the different fields of plasma science. The chairmen of these subcommittees, in particular, accepted a very heavy workload on behalf of their respective research communities. It is a great pleasure to take this opportunity to thank: Emilia R Solano (CIEMAT, Madrid), magnetic confinement fusion; Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn (MPQ, Garching), laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics; and Jean-Luc Dorier (CRPP, Lausanne), dusty plasmas. The relatively few papers in astrophysical and basic plasma physics were co-ordinated by a small subcommittee which I led. Together with Peter Norreys (RAL, Chilton), we five constitute the editorial team for this special issue. The extensive refereeing load, compressed into a short time interval, was borne by the Programme Committee members and by many other experts, to whom this special issue owes much. We are also grateful to the Local Organizing Committee

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Beam Plasma Physics (TEBPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental beam plasma physics (TEBPP) consists of a package of five instruments to measure electric and magnetic fields, plasma density and temperature, neutral density, photometric emissions, and energetic particle spectra during firings of the particle injector (SEPAC) electron beam. The package is developed on a maneuverable boom (or RMS) and is used to measure beam characteristics and induced perturbations field ( 10 m) and mid field ( 10 m to 100 m) along the electron beam. The TEBPP package will be designed to investigate induced oscillations and induced electromagnetic mode waves, neutral and ion density and temperature effects, and beam characteristics as a function of axial distance.

  4. The plasma physics of shock acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    The history and theory of shock acceleration is reviewed, paying particular attention to theories of parallel shocks which include the backreaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure. The work that computer simulations, both plasma and Monte Carlo, are playing in revealing how thermal ions interact with shocks and how particle acceleration appears to be an inevitable and necessary part of the basic plasma physics that governs collisionless shocks is discussed. Some of the outstanding problems that still confront theorists and observers in this field are described.

  5. Simulations of the operational control of a cryogenic plant for a superconducting burning-plasma tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, N

    2001-01-01

    In recent proposals for next generation superconducting tokamaks, such as the ITER project, the nuclear burning plasma is confined by magnetic fields generated from a large set (up to 100 GJ stored energy) of superconducting magnets. These magnets suffer heat loads in operation from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as eddy currents and AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and resistive heat generated at the current lead transitions to room temperature. The initial cryoplant for such a tokamak is expected to have a steady state capacity of up to about 85 kW at 4.5 K, comparable to the system installed for LHC at CERN. Experimental tokamaks are expected to operate at least initially in a pulsed mode with 20-30 short plasma pulses and plasma burn periods each day. A conventional cryoplant, consisting of a cold box and a set of primary heat exchangers, is ill-suited to such a mode of operation as the instantaneou...

  6. Use of platelet-rich plasma in deep second- and third-degree burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Neil Grant; Marques, Ruy Garcia; Santos, Jeanine Salles Dos; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2016-06-01

    Unfortunately burns are a common occurrence, leading to scarring or death. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains many growth factors that can accelerate wound healing. We analyzed the use of PRP in deep second-degree (dSD), deep second-degree associated with diabetes mellitus (dSDD), and third-degree (TD) burns in rats. Sixty syngeneic rats divided into three groups (dSD, dSDD, and TD) were burned, half receiving topical PRP and half being used as control; 10 additional rats per group were used for PRP preparation. On day 21, the animals were sacrificed and skin biopsies were collected. dSD and dSDD wounds treated with PRP showed faster wound closure, reduction in CD31-, CD68-, CD163-, MPO-, and in TGF-β-positive cells, and an increase in MMP2-positive cells. The neo-epidermis was thinner in the control of both the dSD and dSDD groups and granulation tissue was less reduced in the control of both the dSDD and TD groups. These results indicate that PRP can accelerate the healing process in dSD and dSDD, but not in TD burns.

  7. Physics Guidelines and Technological Solutions for Meaningful Fusion Burning Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, G.; Coppi, B.; Cucchiaro, A.

    2001-10-01

    The design of the Ignitor machine incorporates a series of solutions that allows it to produce plasma currents up to 11 MA with an adequate safety factor in a compact confinement configuration. The consequent record high poloidal magnetic pressures p_Mp=\\overline\\overlineB^2_p/(2μ_0) makes it possible to achieve ignition at low temperatures and to have a number of contained thermal particle orbits not inferior to that of much larger devices such as ITER-FEAT. In fact, the key parameter of merit for comparison among different machines(J.H. Schultz et al.,Advanced magnets and implications for BPX), BPS Workshop II (G.A. San Siego, CA, 2001) has been recognized to be of the type I_pAq_ψ/R_0, where Ip is the plasma current, A the aspect ratio, R0 the major radius and q_ψ the plasma safety factor. The combined technological solutions are the ''bucking and wedging" concept of the toroidal magnet, the adoption of compression rings, of a (horizontal) magnetic press, the He-subcooling of the (copper) coils and the splitting and grading of the central solenoid. Work sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the US Department of Energy.

  8. Application of medical physical culture at extensive deep burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjacheslav Meleshkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: describe the role of medical physical culture at extensive deep combustions for prophylaxis of development of congestive pneumonia, contractures and a muscular atrophy, and also for restoration of adaptation of an organism to household and labor loads after an dermoplastika. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature. Results: the main agent of physical aftertreatment – medical physical culture is considered; its application at treatment of patients with extensive deep combustions is proved; techniques of medical physical culture during the periods of a septicotoxemia and reconvalescence are described in detail. Conclusions: it is established that functional treatment will promote restoration of function of a locomotorium, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

  9. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  10. Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfven, H.

    1982-01-01

    New discoveries in cosmic plasma physics are described, and their applications to solar, interstellar, galactic, and cosmological problems are discussed. The new discoveries include the existence of double layers in magnetized plasmas and in the low magnetosphere, and energy transfer by electric current in the auroral circuit. It is argued that solar flares and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction should not be interpreted in terms of magnetic merging theories, and that electric current needs to be explicitly taken account of in understanding these phenomena. The filamentary structure of cosmic plasmas may be caused by electric currents in space, and the pinch effect may have a central role to play in the evolutionary history of interstellar clouds, stars, and solar systems. Space may have a cellular structure, with the cell walls formed by thin electric current layers. Annihilation may be the source of energy for quasars and the Hubble expansion, and the big bang cosmology may well be wrong.

  11. Fractal structures in nonlinear plasma physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, R L; da Silva, E C; Kroetz, T; Caldas, I L; Roberto, M; Sanjuán, M A F

    2011-01-28

    Fractal structures appear in many situations related to the dynamics of conservative as well as dissipative dynamical systems, being a manifestation of chaotic behaviour. In open area-preserving discrete dynamical systems we can find fractal structures in the form of fractal boundaries, associated to escape basins, and even possessing the more general property of Wada. Such systems appear in certain applications in plasma physics, like the magnetic field line behaviour in tokamaks with ergodic limiters. The main purpose of this paper is to show how such fractal structures have observable consequences in terms of the transport properties in the plasma edge of tokamaks, some of which have been experimentally verified. We emphasize the role of the fractal structures in the understanding of mesoscale phenomena in plasmas, such as electromagnetic turbulence.

  12. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino

    2016-01-01

    Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...

  13. Experimental Studies of Microwave Reflection and Attenuation by Plasmas Produced by Burning Chemicals in Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhongcai; SHI Jiaming; WANG Jiachun

    2007-01-01

    A series of chemicals are designed and prepared.With the method of thermodynamics,the average electron densities of the plasmas generated by burning chemicals are calculated.The reflection and attenuation of the microwaves,in a frequency band of 2 GHz to 15 GHz,by the plasma are measured.The results of measurements indicate that the plasma can absorb the energies of the microwaves in a broad band and reflect them faintly.Moreover,theoretical discussion reveals that the electron-neutral collision is the major factor that results in the absorption in the wide band.By using Appleton equations,average collision frequencies and electron densities are calculated from the attenuations of microwaves.

  14. Physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescents with burns: a controlled, longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Caregiving has been described in the literature as a risk factor for ill health in the carer. This controlled, prospective study examines the course of physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescent survivors of a mass burn incident. METHODS: Health information was extracted

  15. Physics issues in long pulse plasma confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Toda, Shinichiro; Sanuki, Heiji [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I; Yagi, Masatoshi [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Fukuyama, Atsushi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Physics in the steady-state or long time discharge are illustrated from the view point of generic toroidal plasmas. Issues include physics process with very long time scale, dynamical phenomena of various time scales, transition nature under very slow temporal variations of parameters, statistical occurrence of transition and life time and identification of minimum circulating power. Nonlinear dependencies of transport properties of density, temperature, current, electric field and poloidal magnetic field cause self-organized dynamics. A picture of stationary oscillatory states is presented from a unified picture of nonlinear limit cycle dynamics. It is emphasized that the long time asymptotics are determined by the structure formation mechanisms. The sustainment needs a circulating power, and the circulating power in steady state plasma is also discussed. (author)

  16. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  17. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  18. EDITORIAL 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Tito; Hidalgo, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Introduction We are very pleased to present this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion dedicated to another annual EPS Plasma Physics Division Conference. It contains the invited papers of the 37th Conference, which was held at the Helix Arts Centre of the Dublin City University Campus, in Dublin, Ireland, from 21 to 25 June 2010. It was locally organized by a team drawn from different Irish institutions, led by Dublin City University and Queen's University Belfast. This team was coordinated by Professor Miles Turner (DCU), with the help of Dr Deborah O'Connell (QUB) as Scientific Secretary, and Ms Samantha Fahy (DCU) as Submissions Secretary. It attracted a large number of delegates (nearly 750), coming from 37 countries. Our Irish hosts provided an excellent atmosphere for the conference and social programme, very helpful for promoting personal links between conference participants. The Conference hosted three satellite meetings, and two special evening sessions. The satellite meetings were the Third Workshop on Plasma for Environmental Issues, the International Workshop on the Role of Arcing and Hot Spots in Magnetic Fusion Devices, and the Workshop on Electric Fields, Turbulence and Self-Organization in Magnetic Plasmas. The aim of this annual EPS Conference is to bring together the different communities of plasma physicists, in order to stimulate cross-collaboration and to promote in an integrated way this area of science. As in previous Conferences, we tried to attract the more relevant researchers and to present the latest developments in plasma physics and related areas. The Programme Committee was divided into four sub-committees, representing the main areas of plasma science. These four areas were magnetic confinement fusion (MCF), still the dominant area of this Conference with the largest number of participants, beam plasma and inertial fusion (BPIF), low temperature plasmas (LTP), which attracted a significant and growing number of

  19. Mathematics for plasma physics; Mathematiques pour la physique des plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentis, R. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2011-01-15

    The plasma physics is in the heart of the research of the CEA-DAM. Using mathematics in this domain is necessary, particularly for a precise statement of the partial differential equations systems which are on the basis of the numerical simulations. Examples are given concerning hydrodynamics, models for the thermal conduction and laser-plasma interaction. For the bi-temperature compressible Euler model, the mathematical study of the problem has allowed us to understand why the role of the energy equations dealing with ions on one hand and electrons on the other hand are not identical despite the symmetrical appearance of the system. The mathematical study is also necessary to be sure of the existence and uniqueness of the solution

  20. Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the last three of the five technical sessions. The first of the three is on plasma materials interaction issues, the second is on research facilities and the third is from smaller working group meetings on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, PLASMA PHYSICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LERNER, RITA G.

    DESCRIBED IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A THESAURUS FOR THE FIELD OF PLASMA PHYSICS, SIMILAR TO THE ONE PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED FOR CHEMICAL PHYSICS, FOR USE WITH COMPUTER-ORIENTED RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS. AN EXPERT IN THE FIELD OF PLASMA PHYSICS SELECTED TERMS IMPORTANT TO THE INFORMATION USER FROM THE PLASMA LITERATURE. THE HIERARCHY OF CLASSIFICATION UTILIZES…

  2. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2005-01-01

    The primary objectives of this book are, firstly, to present the essential theoretical background needed to understand recent fusion research and, secondly, to describe the current status of fusion research for graduate students and senior undergraduates. It will also serve as a useful reference for scientists and engineers working in the related fields. In Part I, Plasma Physics, the author explains the basics of magneto-hydrodynamics and kinetic theory in a simple and compact way and, at the same time, covers important new topics for fusion studies such as the ballooning representation, instabilities driven by energetic particles and various plasma models for computer simulations. Part II, Controlled Nuclear Fusion, attempts to review the "big picture" in fusion research. All important phenomena and technologies are addressed, with a particular emphasis on the topics of most concern in current research.

  3. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  4. Suppression of scar formation in a murine burn wound model by the application of non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon Lee, Dae; Lee, Jae-Ok; Jeon, Wonju; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kim, Jun-Sub; Hoon Jeong, Je; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Hoon Seo, Cheong

    2011-11-01

    Suppression of hypertrophic scar generation in an animal model by treatment with plasma is reported. Contact burn following mechanical stretching was used to induce scar formation in mice. Exposure to the plasma tended to reduce the scar area more rapidly without affecting vitality. The treatment resulted in decreased vascularization in the scar tissue. Plasma-treated scars showed mild decrease in the thickness of hypertrophic tissues as shown by histological assessment. Finally, we showed that plasma treatment induced cell death and reactive oxygen species generation in hypertrophic scar fibroblast. All of the results support that plasma treatment can control scar generation.

  5. Physics of Collisional Plasmas Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Moisan, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Physics of Collisional Plasmas deals with the plasma physics of interest to laboratory research and industrial applications, such as lighting, fabrication of microelectronics, destruction of greenhouse gases. Its emphasis is on explaining the physical mechanisms, rather than the detailed mathematical description and theoretical analysis. At the introductory level, it is important to convey the characteristic physical phenomena of plasmas, before addressing the ultimate formalism of kinetic theory, with its microscopic, statistical mechanics approach. To this aim, this text translates the physical phenomena into more tractable equations, using the hydrodynamic model; this considers the plasma as a fluid, in which the macroscopic physical parameters are the statistical averages of the microscopic (individual) parameters. This book is an introduction to the physics of collisional plasmas, as opposed to plasmas in space. It is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering . The first chapter intr...

  6. Physics of the quark - gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p{sub T} physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B {yields} J/{psi} production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation.

  7. Burn Control of Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasma 2. Burn Control in Tokamak Fusion Reactors 2.3 Burn Control in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Noboru

    The issue of burn control in FDR-ITER, the design of which was completed in 1998, is introduced, Controllability was studied based on the ID transport code, PRETOR, during the burn phase with self-ignition, as well as during start-up and shut-down. The results of the present study have helped us to identify the importance of controlling the fuel supply, impurity injection, and heating power to maintain fusion power and power to the divertor.

  8. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, S C; Merritt, E C; Adams, C S; Dunn, J P; Brockington, S; Case, A; Gilmore, M; Lynn, A G; Messer, S J; Witherspoon, F D

    2014-01-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$, sonic Mach number $M_s\\equiv V_{\\rm jet}/C_s>10$, jet diameter $=5$ cm, and jet length $\\approx 20$ cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

  9. Plasma proteome response to severe burn injury revealed by 18O-labeled "universal" reference-based quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O; Kaushal, Amit; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L; Davis, Ronald W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Herndon, David N; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2010-09-01

    A burn injury represents one of the most severe forms of human trauma and is responsible for significant mortality worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein concentrations of 10 healthy control subjects with those of 15 severe burn patients at two time-points following the injury. The overall analytical strategy for this work integrated immunoaffinity depletion of the 12 most abundant plasma proteins with cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation prior to LC-MS analyses of individual patient samples. Incorporation of an 18O-labeled "universal" reference among the sample sets enabled precise relative quantification across samples. In total, 313 plasma proteins confidently identified with two or more unique peptides were quantified. Following statistical analysis, 110 proteins exhibited significant abundance changes in response to the burn injury. The observed changes in protein concentrations suggest significant inflammatory and hypermetabolic response to the injury, which is supported by the fact that many of the identified proteins are associated with acute phase response signaling, the complement system, and coagulation system pathways. The regulation of approximately 35 proteins observed in this study is in agreement with previous results reported for inflammatory or burn response, but approximately 50 potentially novel proteins previously not known to be associated with burn response or inflammation are also found. Elucidating proteins involved in the response to severe burn injury may reveal novel targets for therapeutic interventions as well as potential predictive biomarkers for patient outcomes such as multiple organ failure.

  10. Physics through the 1990s: Plasmas and fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume contains recommendations for programs in, and government support of, plasma and fluid physics. Four broad areas are covered: the physics of fluids, general plasma physics, fusion, and space and astrophysical plasmas. In the first section, the accomplishments of fluid physics and a detailed review of its sub-fields, such as combustion, non-Newtonian fluids, turbulence, aerodynamics, and geophysical fluid dynamics, are described. The general plasma physics section deals with the wide scope of the theoretical concepts involved in plasma research, and with the machines; intense beam systems, collective and laser-driven accelerators, and the associated diagnostics. The section on the fusion plasma research program examines confinement and heating systems, such as Tokamaks, magnetic mirrors, and inertial-confinement systems, and several others. Finally, theory and experiment in space and astrophysical plasma research is detailed, ranging from the laboratory to the solar system and beyond. A glossary is included.

  11. Probing the Physics of Burning DT Capsules Using Gamma-ray Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hale, Gerald M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Paris, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic developed and lead by the Los Alamos National Laboratory GRH Team is used to determine the bang time and burn width of imploded inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility. The GRH team is conceptualizing and designing a new Gamma-­to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS), that would be capable of an energy resolution ΔE/E~3-­5%. In this whitepaper we examine the physics that could be explored by the combination of these two gamma-ray diagnostics, with an emphasis on the sensitivity needed for measurements. The main areas that we consider are hydrodynamical mixing, ablator areal density and density profile, and temporal variations of the density of the cold fuel and the ablator during the DT burn of the capsule.

  12. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.

  13. D-T burning plasma characteristics in an A=2 tokamak reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秉仁

    2005-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning plasma characteristic in an aspect ratio A=2 tokamak reactor is studied based on a simple equilibrium configuration, the Soloviev-type configuration. Operation limits for the Troyon beta value and for the Greenwald density value as well as for the ITER H-mode confinement scaling are used as the benchmark.It is found that in addition to suitable elongation, large triangularity has advantage for arriving at high beta value and obtaining high fusion power output. Compared to the present ITER design, the A=2 system can have very good merit for the avoidance of disruptions by setting rather high edge q value while keeping relatively large total toroidal current.The main disadvantage of decreasing the aspect ratio is due to the loss of more useful space in the inward region that leads to the decrease of toroidal magnetic field in the plasma region, then worsening the fusion merit. Our analysis and calculation also present a trade-off in this respect. Due to simple equilibrium configuration assumed, some other important issues such as the bootstrap current alignment cannot be optimized. However, the present analysis can offer an insight into the advantages of the medium aspect ratio reactor system that is a blank in present-day tokamak study.

  14. Physical processes associated with current collection by plasma contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ira; Davis, Victoria A.

    1990-01-01

    Recent flight data confirms laboratory observations that the release of neutral gas increases plasma sheath currents. Plasma contactors are devices which release a partially ionized gas in order to enhance the current flow between a spacecraft and the space plasma. Ionization of the expellant gas and the formation of a double layer between the anode plasma and the space plasma are the dominant physical processes. A theory is presented of the interaction between the contactor plasma and the background plasma. The conditions for formation of a double layer between the two plasmas are derived. Double layer formation is shown to be a consequence of the nonlinear response of the plasmas to changes in potential. Numerical calculations based upon this model are compared with laboratory measurements of current collection by hollow cathode-based plasma contactors.

  15. Emissions of Black Carbon Particles from Biomass Burning and Their Physical and Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Sahu, L.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Zhao, Y.; Vay, S. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Wisthaler, A.; Huey, L. G.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Large amounts of aerosol, including black carbon (BC), are emitted from biomass burning. It is therefore important to understand the chemical composition, rate of emissions, and mixing state of aerosols generated by this combustion process to estimate the impacts of aerosols on climate. Thus far, these physical and chemical quantities have been compiled by combining the data from laboratory and field experiments, but the data from the Arctic region are still very limited. These parameters were measured by an SP2 instrument based on the laser-induced incandescence technique on board the NASA DC-8 during the ARCTAS campaign. Aircraft sampling was made in plumes emitted by wildfires in Canada and the USA, and in those transported over long distances from Russia. First, we extract biomass burning plumes using CH3CN and SO2 data. Then, we derived the slopes of the CO-CO2-CH3CN-aerosol correlations for each burning plume. Based on this, we derive the average CO/CO2, CH3CN/CO2, BC/CO2, and BC/CO ratios together with their variability in the plumes strongly influenced by forest fires over Siberia, California, and Canada. A similar analysis is made for light-scattering particles. Using these relationships, the transport efficiencies of BC particles from the boundary layer to the free troposphere are also estimated. It is found that the BC particles were thickly coated upon emission. From comparison with AMS measurements, the coating materials are found to be mainly composed of organic compounds. This indicates the importance of the enhanced light absorption by BC particles emitted by biomass burning.

  16. Electron-ion relaxation in a dense plasma. [supernovae core physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, J. E.; Buchler, J.-R.

    1974-01-01

    The microscopic physics of the thermonuclear runaway in highly degenerate carbon-oxygen cores is investigated to determine if and how a detonation wave is generated. An expression for the electron-ion relaxation time is derived under the assumption of large degeneracy and extreme relativity of the electrons in a two-temperature plasma. Since the nuclear burning time proves to be several orders of magnitude shorter than the relaxation time, it is concluded that in studying the structure of the detonation wave the electrons and ions must be treated as separate fluids.

  17. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  18. Transport Physics in Reversed Shear Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinton, F.M.; Batha, S.H. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beer, M.A.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scott, S.D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Von Goeler, S.; Zarnstorff, M.C. [Princeton University, NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Laboratory; Bush, C.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Reversed magnetic shear is considered a good candidate for improving the tokamak concept because it has the potential to stabilize MHD instabilities and reduce particle and energy transport. With reduced transport the high pressure gradient would generate a strong off-axis bootstrap current and could sustain a hollow current density profile. Such a combination of favorable conditions could lead to an attractive steady-state tokamak configuration. Indeed, a new tokamak confinement regime with reversed magnetic shear has been observed on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) where the particle, momentum, and ion thermal diffusivities drop precipitously, by over an order of magnitude. The particle diffusivity drops to the neoclassical level and the ion thermal diffusivity drops to much less than the neoclassical value in the region with reversed shear. This enhanced reversed shear (ERS) confinement mode is characterized by an abrupt transition with a large rate of rise of the density in the reversed shear region during neutral beam injection, resulting in nearly a factor of three increase in the central density to 1.2 X 10(exp 20) cube m. At the same time the density fluctuation level in the reversed shear region dramatically decreases. The ion and electron temperatures, which are about 20 keV and 7 keV respectively, change little during the ERS mode. The transport and transition into and out of the ERS mode have been studied on TFTR with plasma currents in the range 0.9-2.2 MA, with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.7-4.6 T, and the radius of the q(r) minimum, q{sub min}, has been varied from r/a = 0.35 to 0.55. Toroidal field and co/counter neutral beam injection toroidal rotation variations have been used to elucidate the underlying physics of the transition mechanism and power threshold of the ERS mode.

  19. Multiframe, Single Line-of-Sight X-Ray Imager for Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this LDRD project was to demonstrate high spatial and temporal resolution x-ray imaging using optical detectors, and in particular the VISAR and OHRV diagnostics on the OMEGA laser. The x-ray source being imaged was a backlighter capsule being imploded by 39 beams of the OMEGA laser. In particular this approach utilized a semiconductor with the side facing the backlighter capsule coated with a thin aluminum layer to allow x rays to pass through the metal layer and then get absorbed in the semiconductor. The other side of the semiconductor was AR coated to allow the VISAR or OHRV probe beam to sample the phase change of the semiconductor as the x rays were absorbed in the semiconductor. This technique is capable of acquiring sub-picosecond 2-D or 1-D x-ray images, detector spatial resolution of better than 10 um and the ability to operate in a high neutron flux environment expected on ignition shots with burning plasmas. In addition to demonstrating this technique on the OMEGA laser, several designs were made to improve the phase sensitivity, temporal resolution and number of frames over the existing diagnostics currently implemented on the OMEGA laser. These designs included both 2-d imaging diagnostics as well as improved 1-D imaging diagnostics which were streaked in time.

  20. Dynacore Final Report , Plasma Physics prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, W.

    2001-01-01

    The generation and behaviour of plasma in a fusion device and its interaction with sur-rounding materials is studied by observing several phenomena that will accompany a plasma discharge. These phenomena are recorded by means of so called Diagnostics. These are instruments that comprise complex elec

  1. Space plasma physics results from Spacelab 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Spacelab 1 payload carried several instrument systems which together investigated a number of space plasma phenomena. These experiments used the Space Shuttle Orbiter as a platform for making controlled particle-beam, plasma and neutral gas inputs to the ionosphere and magnetosphere and for observing the outputs produced. Spacelab 1 space-plasma investigations included the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams (PICPAB), Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI) and the Low Energy Electron Spectrometer and Magnetometer. Among the major phenomena investigated both singly and jointly by these experiments are vehicle charging and neutralization, beam-plasma and wave-particle interactions, anomalous ionization phenomena produced by neutral-gas and plasma injections and several phenomena induced by modulated particle beam injections.

  2. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  3. Laser Plasma Physics - Forces and Nonlinear Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    This work is an electronic pre-publication of a book manuscript being under consideration in order to provide information to interested researchers about a review of mechanical forces in plasmas by electro-dynamic fields. Beginning with Kelvin's ponderomotive force of 1845 in electrostatics, the hydrodynamic force in a plasma is linked with quadratic force quantities of electric and magnetic fields. Hydrodynamics is interlinked with single particle motion of plasma particles electric field generation and double layers and sheaths due to properties of inhomogeneous plasmas. Consequences relate to laser driven particle acceleration and fusion energy. Beyond the very broad research field of fusion using nanosecond laser pulses based on thermodynamics, the new picosecond pulses of ultrahigh power opened a categorically different non-thermal interaction finally permitting proton-boron fusion with eliminating problems of nuclear radiation.

  4. Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2000-10-01

    The present lecture note was written to fill a gap between text books for undergraduates and specific review articles written by specialists for their young colleagues. The note may be divided in three parts. The first part is on basic characteristics of a plasma in a magnetic field. The second part describes plasma confinement and heating with an emphasis on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. In addition, propagation of plasma waves, plasma heating by electromagnetic waves are given. The third part is devoted to various specific concepts of nuclear fusion. Emphases are placed on toroidal devices, especially on tokamak devices and stellarators. One might feel heavy mathematics glimpsing the present note, especially in the part treating magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. (author)

  5. Physics of collapses in toroidal helical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1998-12-31

    Theoretical model for the collapse events in toroidal helical plasmas with magnetic hill is presented. There exists a turbulent-turbulent transition at a critical pressure gradient, leading to a sudden increase of the anomalous transport. When the magnetic shear is low, the nonlinear excitation of the global mode is possible. This model explains an abrupt growth of the perturbations, i.e., the trigger phenomena. Achievable limit of the plasma beta value is discussed. (author)

  6. Town Meeting on Plasma Physics at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    We invite you to the Town Meeting on the role of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in supporting basic and applied research in Plasma Physics in the U.S. The overarching goal of NSF is to promote the progress of science and to enable training of the next generation of scientists and engineers at US colleges and universities. In this context, the role of the NSF Physics Division in leading the nearly 20 year old NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering serves as an example of the long history of NSF support for basic plasma physics research. Yet, the NSF interest in maintaining a healthy university research base in plasma sciences extends across the Foundation. A total of five NSF Divisions are participating in the most recent Partnership solicitation, and a host of other multi-disciplinary and core programs provide opportunities for scientists to perform research on applications of plasma physics to Space & Solar Physics, Astrophysics, Accelerator Science, Material Science, Plasma Medicine, and many sub-disciplines within Engineering. This Town Meeting will provide a chance to discuss the full range of relevant NSF funding opportunities, and to begin a conversation on the present and future role of NSF in stewarding basic plasma science and engineering research at US colleges and universities. We would like to particularly encourage early career scientists and graduate students to participate in this Town Meeting, though everyone is invited to join what we hope to be a lively discussion.

  7. Plasma Physics Issues in Gas Discharge Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    WL-TR-92-2087 PLASMA PHYSICS ISSUES IN GAS DISCHARGE LASER DEVELOPMENT AD-A257 735 ALAN GARSCADDEN MARK J. KUSNER J. GARY EDEN WL/POOC-3 WRIGHT...LASERS INFRARED MOLECULAR jAS LASERS UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UL Plasma Physics Issues in Gas Discharge Laser Development Alan Garscadden...the close coupling between body of work was not generally useful in laser development . vibrationally excited nitrogen and CO or CO2 . In fact. the First

  8. Mental and Physical Health Outcomes in Parents of Children with Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Jessica; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Stone, James; Doupe, Malcolm; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric burn injuries are common, and the stress of caring for them can affect caregivers' health. This study's objective was to examine the rates of common mental and physical disorders of parents of burn-injured children (cases) compared with matched controls (controls). This is a population-based study linking the Regional Pediatric burn registry with administrative health information. Pediatric burn cases were matched 1:5 with control children from the general population based on age, sex, and geographical location then parents identified. One thousand and twenty-six parental cases and 4858 controls were identified. International Classification of Disease codes were used to identify diagnoses of common mental and physical disorders. Using rates of disease 2 years before and 2 years after the date of burn, the changes in the relative rates of health outcomes were compared between the cases and the controls. The cases had higher rates of postinjury mental and physical illness compared with the matches. However, it was found that controls also had increased rates postindex date and additionally cases had increased rates of preinjury illnesses. There was no difference in the relative rates of illnesses between the groups from pre- to post-index date. The higher rate of illness in cases postinjury could be explained by preinjury illness, and similar rate increases in the control cohort. Evaluation of the effect of a child's burn injury on parents should take into context the preexisting health of the parent. Socioeconomic factors associated with increased risk of burns may also be associated with adverse health outcomes.

  9. Introduction to plasma physics with space, laboratory and astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gurnett, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Introducing basic principles of plasma physics and their applications to space, laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, this new edition provides updated material throughout. Topics covered include single-particle motions, kinetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, small amplitude waves in hot and cold plasmas, and collisional effects. New additions include the ponderomotive force, tearing instabilities in resistive plasmas and the magnetorotational instability in accretion disks, charged particle acceleration by shocks, and a more in-depth look at nonlinear phenomena. A broad range of applications are explored: planetary magnetospheres and radiation belts, the confinement and stability of plasmas in fusion devices, the propagation of discontinuities and shock waves in the solar wind, and analysis of various types of plasma waves and instabilities that can occur in planetary magnetospheres and laboratory plasma devices. With step-by-step derivations and self-contained introductions to mathematical methods, this book...

  10. Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.

  11. PlasmaPy: beginning a community developed Python package for plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Huang, Yi-Min; PlasmaPy Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, researchers in several disciplines have collaborated on community-developed open source Python packages such as Astropy, SunPy, and SpacePy. These packages provide core functionality, common frameworks for data analysis and visualization, and educational tools. We propose that our community begins the development of PlasmaPy: a new open source core Python package for plasma physics. PlasmaPy could include commonly used functions in plasma physics, easy-to-use plasma simulation codes, Grad-Shafranov solvers, eigenmode solvers, and tools to analyze both simulations and experiments. The development will include modern programming practices such as version control, embedding documentation in the code, unit tests, and avoiding premature optimization. We will describe early code development on PlasmaPy, and discuss plans moving forward. The success of PlasmaPy depends on active community involvement and a welcoming and inclusive environment, so anyone interested in joining this collaboration should contact the authors.

  12. PREFACE: Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lebedev, Yu

    2010-01-01

    The Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'08) organized by St Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from 30 June to 5 July 2008. A Special Session on Plasmas for Environmental Issues was co-organised by the Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Lisbon, Portugal and the Laboratory of Plasmas and Energy Conversion, University of Toulouse, France. That puts the beginning of a series in Workshops on Plasmas for Environmental Issues, now as a satellite meeting of the European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007)), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 38 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the

  13. Monte Carlo simulations for plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, M.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Wang, W.X. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Plasma behaviours are very complicated and the analyses are generally difficult. However, when the collisional processes play an important role in the plasma behaviour, the Monte Carlo method is often employed as a useful tool. For examples, in neutral particle injection heating (NBI heating), electron or ion cyclotron heating, and alpha heating, Coulomb collisions slow down high energetic particles and pitch angle scatter them. These processes are often studied by the Monte Carlo technique and good agreements can be obtained with the experimental results. Recently, Monte Carlo Method has been developed to study fast particle transports associated with heating and generating the radial electric field. Further it is applied to investigating the neoclassical transport in the plasma with steep gradients of density and temperatures which is beyong the conventional neoclassical theory. In this report, we briefly summarize the researches done by the present authors utilizing the Monte Carlo method. (author)

  14. Physics and Dynamics of Current Sheets in Pulsed Plasma Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    pulsed plasma thruster. A simple experiment would involve measuring the impulse bit of a coaxial gas-fed pulsed plasma thruster operated in both positive...Princeton, NJ, 2002. [2] J. Marshal. Performance of a hydromagnetic plasma gun . The Physics of Fluids, 3(1):134–135, January-February 1960. [3] R.G. Jahn...Jahn and K.E. Clark. A large dielecteic vacuum facility. AIAA Jour- nal, 1966. [16] L.C. Burkhardt and R.H. Lovberg. Current sheet in a coaxial plasma

  15. PREFACE: First International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Evgenia; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Atanassov, Vladimir

    2006-07-01

    The First International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'05) organized by The Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia and the Foundation `Theoretical and Computational Physics and Astrophysics' was dedicated to the World Year of Physics 2005 and held in Kiten, Bulgaria, on the Black Sea Coast, from 8--12 June 2005. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists from various branches of plasma physics in order to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations. Another important task was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for the further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 31 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion research, kinetics and transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, MHD waves and instabilities in the solar atmosphere, dc and microwave discharge modelling, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are Masters or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will stimulate readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. We greatly appreciate the financial support from the sponsors: the Department for Language Teaching and International Students at Sofia University, Dr Ivan Bogorov Publishing house, and Artgraph2 Publishing house. We would like to express our gratitude to the invited lecturers who were willing to pay the participation fee. In this way, in addition to the intellectual support they provided by means of their excellent lectures, they also supported the school

  16. Reaction-diffusion problems in the physics of hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelmsson, H

    2000-01-01

    The physics of hot plasmas is of great importance for describing many phenomena in the universe and is fundamental for the prospect of future fusion energy production on Earth. Nontrivial results of nonlinear electromagnetic effects in plasmas include the self-organization and self-formation in the plasma of structures compact in time and space. These are the consequences of competing processes of nonlinear interactions and can be best described using reaction-diffusion equations. Reaction-Diffusion Problems in the Physics of Hot Plasmas is focused on paradigmatic problems of a reaction-diffusion type met in many branches of science, concerning in particular the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic fields with plasmas.

  17. Research in Pulsed Power Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    constraints will preclude the use of channels with much with a Tesla coil. Nor is uniformity improved by the use of larger wall radii. a 3 kA prepulse. Driving...Oliphant. 12C. Bruno, J. Delvaux. A. Nicolas . and M. Roche, IEEE Trans. Plasma and P. F. Ottinger. App!. Phys. Lett. 45. 1043 (1984).ISci. PS-IS, 686

  18. Physics of High Temperature, Dense Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    34Investigation of the High-Energy Acceleration Mode in the Coaxial Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S28, (1964). I. 9. Dattner, A. and Eninger J...34Studies of a Coaxial Plasma Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S41, (1964). II. 10. Wilcox, J. M., Pugh, E., Dattner, A. and Eninger , J., "Experimental Study of

  19. Physical properties of erupting plasma associated with coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Reeves, K. K.; Moon, Y.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the physical properties (temperature, density, and mass) of erupting plasma observed in X-rays and EUV, which are all associated with coronal mass ejections observed by SOHO/LASCO. The erupting plasmas are observed as absorption or emission features in the low corona. The absorption feature provides a lower limit to the cold mass while the emission feature provides an upper limit to the mass of observed plasma in X-ray and EUV. We compare the mass constraints for each temperature response and find that the mass estimates in EUV and XRT are smaller than the total mass in the coronagraph. Several events were observed by a few passbands in the X-rays, which allows us to determine the temperature of the eruptive plasma using a filter ratio method. The temperature of one event is estimated at about 8.6 MK near the top of the erupting plasma. This measurement is possibly an average temperature for higher temperature plasma because the XRT is more sensitive at higher temperatures. In addition, a few events show that the absorption features of a prominence or a loop change to emission features with the beginning of their eruptions in all EUV wavelengths of SDO/AIA, which indicates the heating of the plasma. By estimating the physical properties of the erupting plasmas, we discuss the heating of the plasmas associated with coronal mass ejections in the low corona.

  20. PREFACE: Second International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Evgeniya; Atanassov, Vladimir

    2007-04-01

    The Second International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'06) organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Bulgarian Nuclear Society, was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, on the Black Sea Coast, from 3-9 July 2006. As with the first of these scientific meetings (IWSSPP'05 Journal of Physics: Conference Series 44 (2006)), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 33 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma research, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of these papers were presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed through the (sometimes heavy and troublesome) refereeing and editing procedure and our referees for their patience and considerable effort to improve the manuscripts. We greatly appreciate the financial support from the sponsors: the Department for Language Teaching and International Students at the University of Sofia and Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania EAD. We would like to express our gratitude to the invited

  1. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space physics and plasma physics experiments that can be performed from the space shuttle were identified. Potential experiment concepts were analyzed to derive requirements for a spaceborne experiment facility. The laboratory, known as the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory consists of a 33-foot pallet of instruments connected to a 25-foot pressurized control module. Two 50-meter booms, two subsatellites, a high power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator array, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform are the primary systems deployed from the pallet. The pressurized module contains all the control and display equipment required to conduct the experiments, and life support and power subsystems.

  2. Plasma physics analysis of SERT-2 operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the major plasma processes involved in the SERT 2 spacecraft experiments was conducted to aid in the interpretation of recent data. A plume penetration model was developed for neutralization electron conduction to the ion beam and showed qualitative agreement with flight data. In the SERT 2 configuration conduction of neutralization electrons between thrusters was experimentally demonstrated in space. The analysis of this configuration suggests that the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields was an important factor in the observed results. Specifically, the opposed field orientation appeared to provide a high conductivity channel between thrusters and a barrier to the ambient low energy electrons in space. The SERT 2 neutralizer currents with negative neutralizer biases were up to about twice the theoretical prediction for electron collection by the ground screen. An explanation for the higher experimental values was a possible conductive path from the neutralizer plume to a nearby part of the ground screen. Plasma probe measurements of SERT 2 gave the clearest indication of plasma electron temperature, with normal operation being near 5 eV and discharge only operation near 2 eV.

  3. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-08-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  4. Guest investigator program study: Physics of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma bubbles are large-scale (10 to 100 km) depletions in plasma density found in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. Their formation has been found to entail the upward transport of plasma over hundreds of kilometers in altitude, suggesting that bubbles play significant roles in the physics of many of the diverse and unique features found in the low-latitude ionosphere. In the simplest scenario, plasma bubbles appear first as perturbations in the bottomside F layer, which is linearly unstable to the gravitationally driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Once initiated, bubbles develop upward through the peak of the F layer into its topside (sometimes to altitudes in excess of 1000 km), a behavior predicted by the nonlinear form of the same instability. While good general agreement has been found between theory and observations, little is known about the detailed physics associated with plasma bubbles. Our research activity centered around two topics: the shape of plasma bubbles and associated electric fields, and the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of plasma bubbles. The first topic was pursued because of a divergence in view regarding the nonlinear physics associated with plasma bubble development. While the development of perturbations in isodensity contours in the bottomside F layer into plasma bubbles is well accepted, some believed bubbles to be cylinder-like closed regions of depleted plasma density that floated upward leaving a turbulent wake behind them (e.g., Woodman and LaHoz, 1976; Ott, 1978; Kelley and Ott, 1978). Our results, summarized in a paper submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research, consisted of incoherent scatter radar measurements that showed unambiguously that the depleted region is wedgelike and not cylinderlike, and a case study and modeling of SM-D electric field instrument (EFI) measurements that showed that the absence of electric-field perturbations outside the plasma-depleted region is a distinct signature of wedge

  5. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  6. Plasma-Powder Feedstock Interaction During Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Hongbo; Zhang, Baopeng

    2017-01-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition is a new process developed to produce coatings from the vapor phase. To achieve deposition from the vapor phase, the plasma-feedstock interaction inside the plasma torch, i.e., from the powder injection point to the nozzle exit, is critical. In this work, the plasma characteristics and the momentum and heat transfer between the plasma and powder feedstock at different torch input power levels were investigated theoretically to optimize the net plasma torch power, among other important factors such as the plasma gas composition, powder feed rate, and carrier gas. The plasma characteristics were calculated using the CEA2 code, and the plasma-feedstock interaction was studied inside the torch nozzle at low-pressure (20-25 kPa) conditions. A particle dynamics model was introduced to compute the particle velocity, coupled with Xi Chen's drag model for nonevaporating particles. The results show that the energy transferred to the particles and the coating morphology are greatly influenced by the plasma gas characteristics and the particle dynamics inside the nozzle. The heat transfer between the plasma gas and feedstock material increased with the net torch power up to an optimum at 64 kW, at which a maximum of 3.4% of the available plasma energy was absorbed by the feedstock powder. Experimental results using agglomerated 7-8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder as feedstock material confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  7. Computerized tomographic imaging for space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Coplan, Michael A.; Moore, John H.; Berenstein, Carlos A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of plasma electron velocity distribution functions as a problem in imaging and image reconstruction is considered. A model instrument that measures the integral of the distribution function along lines in velocity space is presented. This allows the use of the powerful mathematical and numerical methods that have recently been so successful in other areas of imaging. It is found that this approach leads to classes of instruments that are qualitatively different from contemporary designs. An investigation of different methods of reconstruction of the distribution function from integral measurements reveals that the mathematical tools appropriate to one particular imaging problem may be very different from those required to deal with another.

  8. Plasma physics of accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concepts and phenomena that are needed to understand X- and gamma-ray sources are discussed. The capture of material from the wind or from the atmosphere or envelope of a binary companion star is described and the resulting types of accretion flows discussed. The reasons for the formation of a magnetosphere around the neutron star are explained. The qualitative features of the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars are then described and compared with the qualitative features of the geomagnetosphere. The conditions for stable flow and for angular and linear momentum conservation are explained in the context of accretion by magnetic neutron stars and applied to obtain rough estimates of the scale of the magnetosphere. Accretion from Keplerian disks is then considered in some detail. The radial structure of geometrically thin disk flows, the interaction of disk flows with the neutron star magnetosphere, and models of steady accretion from Keplerian disks are described. Accretion torques and the resulting changes in the spin frequencies of rotating neutron stars are considered. The predicted behavior is then compared with observations of accretion-powered pulsars. Magnetospheric processes that may accelerate particles to very high energies, producing GeV and, perhaps, TeV gamma-rays are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms that decelerate and eventually stop accreting plasma at the surfaces of strongly magnetic neutron stars are described.

  9. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  10. Structure and structure-preserving algorithms for plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    Conventional simulation studies of plasma physics are based on numerically solving the underpinning differential (or integro-differential) equations. Usual algorithms in general do not preserve known geometric structure of the physical systems, such as the local energy-momentum conservation law, Casimir invariants, and the symplectic structure (Poincaré invariants). As a consequence, numerical errors may accumulate coherently with time and long-term simulation results may be unreliable. Recently, a series of geometric algorithms that preserve the geometric structures resulting from the Hamiltonian and action principle (HAP) form of theoretical models in plasma physics have been developed by several authors. The superiority of these geometric algorithms has been demonstrated with many test cases. For example, symplectic integrators for guiding-center dynamics have been constructed to preserve the noncanonical symplectic structures and bound the energy-momentum errors for all simulation time-steps; variational and symplectic algorithms have been discovered and successfully applied to the Vlasov-Maxwell system, MHD, and other magnetofluid equations as well. Hamiltonian truncations of the full Vlasov-Maxwell system have opened the field of discrete gyrokinetics and led to the GEMPIC algorithm. The vision that future numerical capabilities in plasma physics should be based on structure-preserving geometric algorithms will be presented. It will be argued that the geometric consequences of HAP form and resulting geometric algorithms suitable for plasma physics studies cannot be adapted from existing mathematical literature but, rather, need to be discovered and worked out by theoretical plasma physicists. The talk will review existing HAP structures of plasma physics for a variety of models, and how they have been adapted for numerical implementation. Supported by DOE DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  11. Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties ofBiomass Burn Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Lewis, K.; Desyaterik, Yury; Wang, Z.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Arnott, W.P.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, M.K.

    2008-01-29

    Aerosols generated from burning different plant fuels were characterized to determine relationships between chemical, optical and physical properties. Single scattering albedo ({omega}) and Angstrom absorption coefficients ({alpha}{sub ap}) were measured using a photoacoustic technique combined with a reciprocal nephelometer. Carbon-to-oxygen atomic ratios, sp{sup 2} hybridization, elemental composition and morphology of individual particles were measured using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion of X-rays (SEM/EDX). Particles were grouped into three categories based on sp2 hybridization and chemical composition. Measured {omega} (0.4-1.0 at 405 nm) and {alpha}{sub ap} (1.0-3.5) values displayed a fuel dependence. The category with sp{sup 2} hybridization >80% had values of {omega} (<0.5) and {alpha}{sub ap} ({approx}1.25) characteristic of light absorbing soot. Other categories with lower sp2 hybridization (20 to 60%) exhibited higher {omega} (>0.8) and {alpha}{sub ap} (1.0 to 3.5) values, indicating increased absorption spectral selectivity.

  12. Applications of Symmetry Methods to the Theory of Plasma Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Cicogna

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The theory of plasma physics offers a number of nontrivial examples of partial differential equations, which can be successfully treated with symmetry methods. We propose three different examples which may illustrate the reciprocal advantage of this "interaction" between plasma physics and symmetry techniques. The examples include, in particular, the complete symmetry analysis of system of two PDE's, with the determination of some conditional and partial symmetries, the construction of group-invariant solutions, and the symmetry classification of a nonlinear PDE.

  13. Control of Plasma-Stored Energy for Burn Control using DIII-D In-Vessel Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R. J. [PPPL; Eidietis, N. W. [General Atomics; Grierson, B. A. [PPPL; Hyatt, A. W. [General Atomics; Koleman, E. [PPPL; Logan, N. C. [PPPL; Nazikian, R. [PPPL; Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics; Wolf, S. [MIT

    2014-09-01

    A new approach has been experimentally demonstrated to control the stored energy by applying a non-axisymmetric magnetic field using the DIII-D in-vessel coils to modify the energy confinement time. In future burning plasma experiments as well as magnetic fusion energy power plants, various concepts have been proposed to control the fusion power. The fusion power in a power plant operating at high gain can be related to the plasma-stored energy and hence, is a strong function of the energy confinement time. Thus, an actuator, that modifies the confinement time, can be used to adjust the fusion power. In relatively low collisionality DIII-D discharges, the application of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields results in a decrease in confinement time and density pumpout. Gas puffing was used to compensate the density pumpout in the pedestal while control of the stored energy was demonstrated by the application of non-axisymmetric fields.

  14. Physics considerations for laser-plasma linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2010-06-11

    Physics considerations for a next-generation linear collider based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. The ultra-high accelerating gradient of a laser-plasma accelerator and short laser coupling distance between accelerator stages allows for a compact linac. Two regimes of laser-plasma acceleration are discussed. The highly nonlinear regime has the advantages of higher accelerating fields and uniform focusing forces, whereas the quasi-linear regime has the advantage of symmetric accelerating properties for electrons and positrons. Scaling of various accelerator and collider parameters with respect to plasma density and laser wavelength are derived. Reduction of beamstrahlung effects implies the use of ultra-short bunches of moderate charge. The total linac length scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density, whereas the total power scales proportional to the square root of the density. A 1 TeV center-of-mass collider based on stages using a plasma density of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} requires tens of J of laser energy per stage (using 1 {micro}m wavelength lasers) with tens of kHz repetition rate. Coulomb scattering and synchrotron radiation are examined and found not to significantly degrade beam quality. A photon collider based on laser-plasma accelerated beams is also considered. The requirements for the scattering laser energy are comparable to those of a single laser-plasma accelerator stage.

  15. Plasma Physics Research at an Undergraduate Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    Undergraduate research experiences have motivated many physics majors to continue their studies at the graduate level. The Department of Physics and Astronomy at SUNY Geneseo, a primarily undergraduate institution, recognizes this simple reality and is committed to ensuring research opportunities are available to interested majors beginning as early as their freshman year. Every year for more than a decade, as many as two dozen students and 8 faculty members have worked on projects related to high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion during the summer months and the academic year. By working with their research sponsors, it has been possible to identify an impressive number of projects suitable for an institution such as Geneseo. These projects tend to be hands-on and require teamwork and innovation to be successful. They also take advantage of in-house capabilities such as the 2 MV tandem pelletron accelerator, a scanning electron microscope, a duoplasmatron ion deposition system and a 64 processor computing cluster. The end products of their efforts are utilized at the sponsoring facilities in support of nationally recognized programs. In this talk, I will discuss a number of these projects and point out what made them attractive and appropriate for an institution like Geneseo, the direct and indirect benefits of the research opportunities for the students and faculty, and how the national programs benefited from the cost-effective use of undergraduate research. In addition, I will discuss the importance of exposure for both students and faculty mentors to the larger scientific community through posters presentations at annual meetings such as the DPP and DNP. Finally, I will address the need for even greater research opportunities for undergraduate students in the future and the importance of establishing longer ``educational pipelines'' to satisfy the ever growing need for top-tier scientists and engineers in industry, academia and the

  16. Physics of liquid and crystalline plasmas: Future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.

    It has been shown that under certain conditions "complex plasmas" (plasma containing ions, electrons and charged microspheres) may undergo spontaneous phase changes to become liquid and crystalline, without recombination of the charge components. Hence these systems may be regarded as new plasma states "condensed plasmas". The ordering forces are mainly electrostatic, but dipolar effects, anisotropic pressure due shielding, ion flow focussing etc. may all play a role, too. Complex plasmas are of great interest from a fundamental research point of view because the individual particles of one plasma component (the charged microspheres) can be visualised and hence the plasma can be studied at the kinetic level. Also, the relevant time scales (e.g. 1/plasma frequency) are of order 0.1 sec, the plasma processes occur practically in "slow motion". We will discuss some physical processes (e.g. wave propagation, shocks, phase transitions) of these systems and outline the potential of the research for the understanding of strongly coupled systems. Technologically, it is expected that colloidal plasmas will also become very important, because both plasma technology and colloid technology are widely developed already. In this overview first the basic forces between the particles are discussed, then the phase transitions, the lattice structures and results from active experiments will be presented. Finally the future perspectives will be discussed, from the scientific potential point of view and the experimental approaches in the laboratory and in space. Experiments under microgravity conditions are of great importance, because the microspheres are 10's of billions times heavier than the ions.

  17. Physics of High Performance Dueterium-Tritium Plasmas in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, K. M.; White, R.; Wieland, R. M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wong, K. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Batha, S.; Lamarche, P.; LeBlanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Beer, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Belov, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Krasilnikov, A. V.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mika, R.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mirnov, S. V.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scott, S. D.; Semenov, I.; Berk, H.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Breizman, B.; Dorland, W.; Phillips, P.; Bretz, N. L.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G. W.; Herrmann, H. W.; Herrmann, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hogan, G. R.; Hosea, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production,isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high -li) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF-heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-li discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier.It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed.

  18. Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, K.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Batha, S. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I{sub i}) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I{sub i} discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed.

  19. New Outreach Initiatives at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Dominguez, Arturo; Greco, Shannon; Ortiz, Deedee; Delooper, John

    2015-11-01

    In FY15, PPPL concentrated its efforts on a portfolio of outreach activities centered around plasma science and fusion energy that have the potential to reach a large audience and have a significant and measurable impact. The overall goal of these outreach activities is to expose the public (within New Jersey, the US and the world) to the Department of Energy's scientific endeavors and specifically to PPPL's research regarding fusion and plasma science. The projects include several new activities along with upgrades to existing ones. The new activities include the development of outreach demos for the plasma physics community and the upgrade of the Internet Plasma Physics Experience (IPPEX). Our first plasma demo is a low cost DC glow discharge, suitable for tours as well as for student laboratories (plasma breakdown, spectroscopy, probes). This has been field tested in a variety of classes and events. The upgrade to the IPPEX web site includes a new template and a new interactive virtual tokamak. Future work on IPPEX will provide users limited access to data from NSTX-U. Finally, our Young Women's Conference was expanded and improved. These and other new outreach activities will be presented.

  20. Signals from Fat After Injury: Plasma Adipokines and Ghrelin Concentrations in the Severely Burned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    hor- mones , beta blockers and intensive insulin therapy. Furthermore, Table 1 Demographics of control and burn subjects. Values in the table are mean...possibilities to assess the status of the patient through the use of these hor- mones as biomarkers. This work also provides the basis on which to

  1. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-04-04

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a question about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem is proved by renormalization group techniques. A natural symplectic structure for thermodynamics is shown to arise asymptotically from the maximum entropy formalism.

  2. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Zizi M. Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H.; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20–40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20–40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for ...

  3. Physical simulation of the long-term dynamic action of a plasma beam on a space debris object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, Valentin A.; Gorev, Nikolai. B.; Tokmak, Nikolai A.; Kochubei, Galina S.

    2017-03-01

    A methodology is developed for physical (laboratory) simulation of the long-term dynamic action of plasma beam high-energy ions on a space debris object with the aim of removing it to a lower orbit followed by its burning in the Earth's atmosphere. The methodology is based on the use of a criterion for the equivalence of two plasma beam exposure regimes (in the Earth' ionosphere and in laboratory conditions) and an accelerated test procedure in what concerns space debris object material sputtering and space debris object erosion by a plasma beam in the Earth's ionosphere. The space debris coating material (blanket thermal insulation) sputtering yield and normal and tangential momentum transfer coefficients are determined experimentally as a function of the ion energy and the ion beam incidence angle.

  4. The upgraded Large Plasma Device, a machine for studying frontier basic plasma physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W; Pribyl, P; Lucky, Z; Drandell, M; Leneman, D; Maggs, J; Vincena, S; Van Compernolle, B; Tripathi, S K P; Morales, G; Carter, T A; Wang, Y; DeHaas, T

    2016-02-01

    In 1991 a manuscript describing an instrument for studying magnetized plasmas was published in this journal. The Large Plasma Device (LAPD) was upgraded in 2001 and has become a national user facility for the study of basic plasma physics. The upgrade as well as diagnostics introduced since then has significantly changed the capabilities of the device. All references to the machine still quote the original RSI paper, which at this time is not appropriate. In this work, the properties of the updated LAPD are presented. The strategy of the machine construction, the available diagnostics, the parameters available for experiments, as well as illustrations of several experiments are presented here.

  5. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems: Annual and Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and burn core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the

  6. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, V.L.; Wieczorek, M.A. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY94. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1994. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that PPPL`s environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 195 1. The long-range goal of the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion power as an alternate energy source. In 1994, PPPL had one of its two large tokamak devices in operation-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification or PBX-M completed its modifications and upgrades and resumed operation in November 1991 and operated periodically during 1992 and 1993; it did not operate in 1994 for funding reasons. In December 1993, TFTR began conducting the deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments and set new records by producing over ten @on watts of energy in 1994. The engineering design phase of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (T?X), which replaced the cancelled Burning Plasma Experiment in 1992 as PPPL`s next machine, began in 1993 with the planned start up set for the year 2001. In December 1994, the Environmental Assessment (EA) for the TFTR Shutdown and Removal (S&R) and TPX was submitted to the regulatory agencies, and a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) was issued by DOE for these projects.

  7. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, V.L.; Wiezcorek, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY93. The report is prepared to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1993. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion power as an alternate energy source. In 1993, PPPL had both of its two large tokamak devices in operation; the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M). PBX-M completed its modifications and upgrades and resumed operation in November 1991. TFTR began the deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments in December 1993 and set new records by producing over six million watts of energy. The engineering design phase of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), which replaced the cancelled Burning Plasma Experiment in 1992 as PPPL`s next machine, began in 1993 with the planned start up set for the year 2001. In 1993, the Environmental Assessment (EA) for the TFRR Shutdown and Removal (S&R) and TPX was prepared for submittal to the regulatory agencies.

  8. From W7-X to a HELIAS fusion power plant: motivation and options for an intermediate-step burning-plasma stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmer, F.; Beidler, C. D.; Dinklage, A.; Wolf, R.; The W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    As a starting point for a more in-depth discussion of a research strategy leading from Wendelstein 7-X to a HELIAS power plant, the respective steps in physics and engineering are considered from different vantage points. The first approach discusses the direct extrapolation of selected physics and engineering parameters. This is followed by an examination of advancing the understanding of stellarator optimisation. Finally, combining a dimensionless parameter approach with an empirical energy confinement time scaling, the necessary development steps are highlighted. From this analysis it is concluded that an intermediate-step burning-plasma stellarator is the most prudent approach to bridge the gap between W7-X and a HELIAS power plant. Using a systems code approach in combination with transport simulations, a range of possible conceptual designs is analysed. This range is exemplified by two bounding cases, a fast-track, cost-efficient device with low magnetic field and without a blanket and a device similar to a demonstration power plant with blanket and net electricity power production.

  9. Silicon burning; 1, neutronization and the physics of quasi-equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Hix, W R

    1995-01-01

    As the ultimate stage of stellar nucleosynthesis, and the source of the iron peak nuclei, silicon burning is important to our understanding of the evolution of massive stars and supernovae. Our reexamination of silicon burning, using results gleaned from simulation work done with a large nuclear network (299 nuclei and more than 3000 reactions) and from independent calculations of equilibrium abundance distributions, offers new insights into the quasi-equilibrium mechanism and the approach to nuclear statistical equilibrium. We find that the degree to which the matter has been neutronized is of great importance, not only to the final products but also to the rate of energy generation and the membership of the quasi-equilibrium groups. A small increase in the global neutronization results in much larger free neutron fluences, increasing the abundances of more neutron-rich nuclei. As a result, incomplete silicon burning results in neutron richness among the isotopes of the iron peak much larger than the global ...

  10. The effects of endemic fluoride poisoning caused by coal burning on the physical development and intelligence of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.Y.; Zhang, H.X.; Fan, W.; Fang, S.J.; Kang, P.P.; Chen, X.G.; Yu, M.J. [Xinxiang Medical College, Xinxiang (China)

    2008-10-15

    The goal is to investigate the effects of endemic fluoride poisoning caused by coal burning on the physical development and intellectual ability of children. Random sampling from the relevant population, 176 fluorosis sufferers aged 7-12 (the subjects) were drawn from a heavily fluoride poisoned area of Zhijin County, with 50 children without dental fluorosis (the control) selected from a less severely poisoned area. The children were subjected to tests to determine levels of urinary fluoride, physical development, and intellectual ability, followed by analysis of the various measurements. Compared to the control group, the fluorosis group showed retarded physical development, and the levels of urinary fluoride and intellectual ability were both lower than the control (P < 0.05 for both). Conclusion: high fluoride burden has a definite effect on the intellectual and physical development of children.

  11. Physical properties of dense, low-temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmer, Ronald

    1997-04-01

    Plasmas occur in a wide range of the density-temperature plane. The physical quantities can be expressed by Green's functions which are evaluated by means of standard quantum statistical methods. The influences of many-particle effects such as dynamic screening and self-energy, structure factor and local-field corrections, formation and decay of bound states, degeneracy and Pauli exclusion principle are studied. As a basic concept for partially ionized plasmas, a cluster decomposition is performed for the self-energy as well as for the polarization function. The general model of a partially ionized plasma interpolates between low-density, nonmetallic systems such as atomic vapors and high-density, conducting systems such as metals or fully ionized plasmas. The equations of state, including the location of the critical point and the shape of the coexistence curve, are determined for expanded alkali-atom and mercury fluids. The occurrence of a metal-nonmetal transition near the critical point of the liquid-vapor phase transition leads in these materials to characteristic deviations from the behavior of nonconducting fluids such as the inert gases. Therefore, a unified approach is needed to describe the drastic changes of the electronic properties as well as the variation of the physical properties with the density. Similar results are obtained for the hypothetical plasma phase transition in hydrogen plasma. The transport coefficients (electrical and thermal conductivity, thermopower) are studied within linear response theory given here in the formulation of Zubarev which is valid for arbitrary degeneracy and yields the transport coefficients for the limiting cases of nondegenerate, weakly coupled plasmas (Spitzer theory) as well as degenerate, strongly coupled plasmas (Ziman theory). This linear response method is applied to partially ionized systems such as dense, low-temperature plasmas. Here, the conductivity changes from nonmetallic values up to those typical for

  12. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: Bridging Laboratory and Space Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava [University New Hampshire- Durham

    2012-02-16

    Recent developments in experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic reconnection hold promise for providing solutions to outstanding problems in laboratory and space plasma physics. Examples include sawtooth crashes in tokamaks, substorms in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, eruptive solar flares, and more recently, fast reconnection in laser-produced high energy density plasmas. In each of these examples, a common and long-standing challenge has been to explain why fast reconnection proceeds rapidly from a relatively quiescent state. In this talk, we demonstrate the advantages of viewing these problems and their solutions from a common perspective. We focus on some recent, surprising discoveries regarding the role of secondary plasmoid instabilities of thin current sheets. Nonlinearly, these instabilities lead to fast reconnection rates that are very weakly dependent on the Lundquist number of the plasma.

  13. Quasiparticle lifetimes and infrared physics in QED and QCD plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-09-22

    The perturbative calculation of the lifetime of fermion excitations in a QED plasma at high temperature is plagued with infrared divergences which are not eliminated by the screening corrections. The physical processes responsible for these divergences are the collisions involving the exchange of longwavelength, quasistatic, magnetic photons, which are not screened by plasma effects. The leading divergences can be resummed in a non-perturbative treatment based on a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck model at finite temperature. The resulting expression of the fermion propagator is free of infrared problems, and exhibits a non-exponential damping at large times: S{sub R}(t) {approx} exp(-{alpha}T t ln{omega}{sub p}t), where {omega}{sub p} = eT/3 is the plasma frequency and {alpha} = e{sup 2}/4{pi}.

  14. Fusion in the Era of Burning Plasma Studies: Workforce Planning for 2004 to 2014. Final report to FESA C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    This report has been prepared in response to Dr. R. Orbach’s request of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) to “address the issue of workforce development in the U.S. fusion program.” The report addresses three key questions: what is the current status of the fusion science, technology, and engineering workforce; what is the workforce that will be needed and when it will be needed to ensure that the U.S. is an effective partner in ITER and to enable the U.S. to successfully carry out the fusion program; and, what can be done to ensure a qualified, diversified, and sufficiently large workforce and a pipeline to maintain that workforce? In addressing the charge, the Panel considers a workforce that allows for a vigorous national program of fusion energy research that includes participation in magnetic fusion (ITER) and inertial fusion (NIF) burning plasma experiments.

  15. Preface to Special Topic: Advances in Radio Frequency Physics in Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccillo, Angelo A.; Phillips, Cynthia K.; Ceccuzzi, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognized that auxiliary plasma heating will be required to achieve the high temperature, high density conditions within a magnetically confined plasma in which a fusion "burn" may be sustained by copious fusion reactions. Consequently, the application of radio and microwave frequency electromagnetic waves to magnetically confined plasma, commonly referred to as RF, has been a major part of the program almost since its inception in the 1950s. These RF waves provide heating, current drive, plasma profile control, and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilization. Fusion experiments employ electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies, from tens of MHz to hundreds of GHz. The fusion devices containing the plasma are typically tori, axisymmetric or non, in which the equilibrium magnetic fields are composed of a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by external coils, and a poloidal field created, at least in the symmetric configurations, by currents flowing in the plasma. The waves are excited in the peripheral regions of the plasma, by specially designed launching structures, and subsequently propagate into the core regions, where resonant wave-plasma interactions produce localized heating or other modification of the local equilibrium profiles. Experimental studies coupled with the development of theoretical models and advanced simulation codes over the past 40+ years have led to an unprecedented understanding of the physics of RF heating and current drive in the core of magnetic fusion devices. Nevertheless, there are serious gaps in our knowledge base that continue to have a negative impact on the success of ongoing experiments and that must be resolved as the program progresses to the next generation devices and ultimately to "demo" and "fusion power plant." A serious gap, at least in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequencies and partially in the lower hybrid frequency ranges, is the difficulty in coupling large amount of power to the

  16. The role of magnetohydrodynamics in heliospheric space plasma physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, Murray; Smith, Zdenka Kopal; Wu, Shi Tsan

    1988-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a fairly recent extension of the field of fluid mechanics. While much remains to be done, it has successfully been applied to the contemporary field of heliospheric space plasma research to evaluate the 'macroscopic picture' of some vital topics via the use of conducting fluid equations and numerical modeling and simulations. Some representative examples from solar and interplanetary physics are described to demonstrate that the continuum approach to global problems (while keeping in mind the assumptions and limitations therein) can be very successful in providing insight and large scale interpretations of otherwise intractable problems in space physics.

  17. Association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D with physical performance in physically active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrati, Ikram; Hammami, Raouf; Ben Fradj, Mohamed Kacem; Martone, Domenico; Padulo, Johnny; Feki, Moncef; Chaouachi, Anis; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D is thought to regulate skeletal muscle function and boost physical performance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D and physical performance in physically active children. This cross-sectional study included 125 children who practice football as a leisure activity. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was assessed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method. Vitamin D inadequacy was defined as 25-OHD D inadequacy may limit exercise performance. Further research should verify whether correction of vitamin D deficiency enhances physical performance.

  18. Relaunch of the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Rusaitis, L.; Zwicker, A.; Stotler, D. P.

    2015-11-01

    In the late 1990's PPPL's Science Education Department developed an innovative online site called the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX). It featured (among other modules) two Java based applications which simulated tokamak physics: A steady state tokamak (SST) and a time dependent tokamak (TDT). The physics underlying the SST and the TDT are based on the ASPECT code which is a global power balance code developed to evaluate the performance of fusion reactor designs. We have relaunched the IPPEX site with updated modules and functionalities: The site itself is now dynamic on all platforms. The graphic design of the site has been modified to current standards. The virtual tokamak programming has been redone in Javascript, taking advantage of the speed and compactness of the code. The GUI of the tokamak has been completely redesigned, including more intuitive representations of changes in the plasma, e.g., particles moving along magnetic field lines. The use of GPU accelerated computation provides accurate and smooth visual representations of the plasma. We will present the current version of IPPEX as well near term plans of incorporating real time NSTX-U data into the simulation.

  19. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stencel, J.R.; Finley, V.L.

    1991-12-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for CY90. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health. The PPPL has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951 and in 1990 had one of its two large tokamak devices in operation: namely, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification is undergoing new modifications and upgrades for future operation. A new machine, the Burning Plasma Experiment -- formerly called the Compact Ignition Tokamak -- is under conceptual design, and it is awaiting the approval of its draft Environmental Assessment report by DOE Headquarters. This report is required under the National Environmental Policy Act. The long-range goal of the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion power as an alternate energy source. 59 refs., 39 figs., 45 tabs.

  20. Divertor plasma physics experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Allen, S.L.; Evans, T.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the results and conclusions of our most recent divertor physics and development work. Using an array of new divertor diagnostics we have measured the plasma parameters over the entire divertor volume and gained new insights into several divertor physics issues. We present direct experimental evidence for momentum loss along the field lines, large heat convection, and copious volume recombination during detachment. These observations are supported by improved UEDGE modeling incorporating impurity radiation. We have demonstrated divertor exhaust enrichment of neon and argon by action of a forced scrape off layer (SOL) flow and demonstrated divertor pumping as a substitute for conventional wall conditioning. We have observed a divertor radiation zone with a parallel extent that is an order of magnitude larger than that estimated from a 1-D conduction limited model of plasma at coronal equilibrium. Using density profile control by divertor pumping and pellet injection we have attained H-mode confinement at densities above the Greenwald limit. Erosion rates of several candidate ITER plasma facing materials are measured and compared with predictions of a numerical model.

  1. Promoting Plasma Physics as a Career: A Generational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James

    2005-10-01

    A paradigm shift is occurring in education physics programs. Educators are shifting from the traditional teaching focus to concentrate on student learning. Students are unaware of physics as a career, plasma physics or the job opportunities afforded to them with a physics degree. The physics profession needs to promote itself to the younger generations, or specifically the millennial generation (Born in the 1980's-2000's). Learning styles preferred by ``Millennials'' include a technological environment that promotes learning through active task performance rather than passive attendance at lectures. Millennials respond well to anything experiential and will be motivated by opportunities for creativity and challenging learning environments. The open-ended access to information, the ability to tailor learning paths, and continuous and instantaneous performance assessment offer flexibility in the design of curricula as well as in the method of delivery. Educators need to understand the millennial generation, appeal to their motivations and offer a learning environment designed for their learning style. This poster suggests promoting a physics career by focusing on generational learning styles and preferences.

  2. Effects of short term aquatic exercise on physical parameters in burn patients

    OpenAIRE

    Anthonissen, Mieke; Van den Kerckhove, Eric; Daly, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The most frequent complications after burn injuries are deconditioning, muscle weakness, contractures, hypertrophic scarring, pain, itching, psychological and social impairments. Exercising is a well-known intervention for these complications and it is evidence-based practice in children. In adults however few RCTs are available. Aquatic exercise provides several therapeutic benefits. Buoyancy and hydrostatic pressure counteract gravity and create an environment with low...

  3. Silicon Burning I: The Importance of Neutronization to the Physics of Quasi-Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, W. R.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1995-12-01

    As the most tightly bound nuclei, the `Iron Peak' nuclei are the culmination of nuclear energy generation in astrophysical environments and the result of Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium (NSE). Our re-examination of silicon burning, the mechanism by which the nuclei of the iron peak are produced, has revealed a number of potential improvements to our understanding of this ultimate stage of astrophysical nuclear energy generation. We will discuss results gleaned from simulation work done with a large nuclear network (300 nuclei and 3000 reactions) and from independent calculations of equilibrium abundance distributions, which offer new insights into the quasi-equilibrium mechanism and the approach to NSE. We find that the degree to which the matter has been neutronized is of great importance, not only to the final products, but also to the rate of energy generation and the membership of the quasi-equilibrium groups. Furthermore, we find that, as a result of quasi-equilibrium, incomplete silicon burning results in neutron richness among the isotopes of the iron group much larger than the global neutronization would indicate. In light of our findings, we will also discuss the applicability of approximations for silicon burning commonly employed in hydrodynamic simulations.

  4. Programmable physical parameter optimization for particle plasma simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan-Kelley, Benjamin; Verboncoeur, John; Lin, Ming-Chieh

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a scheme for interactive and programmable optimization of physical parameters for plasma simulations. The simulation code Object-Oriented Plasma Device 1-D (OOPD1) has been adapted to a Python interface, allowing sophisticated user or program interaction with simulations, and detailed numerical analysis via numpy. Because the analysis/diagnostic interface is the same as the input mechanism (the Python programming language), it is straightforward to optimize simulation parameters based on analysis of previous runs and automate the optimization process using a user-determined scheme and criteria. An example use case of the Child-Langmuir space charge limit in bipolar flow is demonstrated, where the beam current is iterated upon by measuring the relationship of the measured current and the injected current.

  5. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's Contributions to Space Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Since the mid-l970's, the Space Plasma Physics Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has contributed critical instrumentation to numerous satellite and sounding rocket missions exploring the plasmas of near-Earth space. This talk will review major discoveries in Earth's ionosphere, plasmasphere, and magnetosphere directly attributable to the researchers of the Space Plasma Physics Group and the significance of these discoveries to the field of plasma physics.

  6. plasmaFoam: An OpenFOAM framework for computational plasma physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Verma, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    As emphasized in the 2012 Roadmap for low temperature plasmas (LTP), scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of the fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with these systems. While several in-house and commercial codes exist, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages, a common framework that can be developed by researchers from all over the world will likely accelerate the impact of computational studies on advances in low-temperature plasma physics and chemistry. In this regard, we present a finite volume computational toolbox to perform high-fidelity simulations of LTP systems. This framework, primarily based on the OpenFOAM solver suite, allows us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon by performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations on unstructured meshes using well-established high performance computing tools that are widely used in the computational fluid dynamics community. In this talk, we will present preliminary results obtained using the OpenFOAM-based solver suite with benchmark three-dimensional simulations of microplasma devices including both dielectric and plasma regions. We will also discuss the future outlook for the solver suite.

  7. Contributions of plasma physics to chaos and nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, D. F.

    2016-11-01

    This topical review focusses on the contributions of plasma physics to chaos and nonlinear dynamics bringing new methods which are or can be used in other scientific domains. It starts with the development of the theory of Hamiltonian chaos, and then deals with order or quasi order, for instance adiabatic and soliton theories. It ends with a shorter account of dissipative and high dimensional Hamiltonian dynamics, and of quantum chaos. Most of these contributions are a spin-off of the research on thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement, which started in the fifties. Their presentation is both exhaustive and compact. [15 April 2016

  8. Physics issues associated with low-beta plasma generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetic aspects of MHD generators are explored by examining the propagation of dense, low-beta streams of plasma. Three situations are considered: the basic principles of plasma-stream propagation, the propagation of plasma streams into vacuum, and the propagation of plasma streams into ambient plasmas. These three situations are analogous to plasma generators, plasma generators with vacuum loads, and plasma generators with plasma loads. Kinetic (microphysics) aspects include oscillations of the generator plasma, the effects of diocotron instabilities, the acceleration of particles, the starvation of current systems, and plasma-wave production.

  9. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  10. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  11. Brief Introduction to the Foundation of CAI Shidong Award for Plasma Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Zhengming

    2010-01-01

    @@ The late Academician Professor CAI Shidong was an outstanding plasma physicist who had made seminal contributions in both fundamental plasma theories and controlled thermonuclear fusion energy research.Professor CAI was also one of the pioneers in China's plasma physics research.In 1973,Professor CAI decided to leave U.S.and return to China in order to help pushing forward plasma physics research in China.Professor CAI formed a research group consisting of young scientists and carried out high-level works in this important physics discipline.He worked tirelessly,set examples by his own deeds,and made outstanding contributions in plasma physics research,educating younger generations of plasma physicists,as well as establishing collaborations with plasma scientists in other Asian-African developing nations.In short,Professor CAI devoted the best years of his life to China's plasma physics research.

  12. Soft X-ray measurements in magnetic fusion plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrugno, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Mazon, D.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.

    2010-11-01

    Soft X-ray diagnostic systems and their successful application in the field of magnetic fusion plasma physics are discussed. Radiation with wavelength in the region of Soft X-Ray (1-30 keV) is largely produced by high temperature plasmas, carrying important information on many processes during a plasma discharge. Soft X-ray diagnostics are largely used in various fusion devices all over the world. These diagnostic systems are able to obtain information on electron temperature, electron density, impurity transport, Magneto Hydro Dynamic instabilities. We will discuss the SXR diagnostic installed on FTU in Frascati (Italy) and on Tore Supra in Cadarache (France), with special emphasis on diagnostic performances. Moreover, we will discuss the two different inversion methods for tomographic reconstruction used in Frascati and in Cadarache, the first one is relied on a guessed topology of iso-emissivity surfaces, the second one on regularization techniques, like minimum Fisher or maximum entropy. Finally, a new and very fast 2D imaging system with energy discrimination and high time resolution will be summarized as an alternative approach of SXR detection system.

  13. Space plasma physics at the Applied Physics Laboratory over the past half-century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potemra, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of space-plasma experiments conducted at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at Johns Hopkins University including observational campaigns and the instrumentation developed. Specific space-plasma experiments discussed include the study of the radiation environment in the Van Allen radiation belt with solid-state proton detectors. Also described are the 5E-1 satellites which acquired particle and magnetic-field data from earth orbit. The Triad satellite and its magnetometer system were developed for high-resolution studies of the earth's magnetic field, and APL contributions to NASA's Interplanetary Monitoring Platforms are listed. The review mentions the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the Atmosphere Explorer mission, and the Active Magnetic Particle Tracer Explorers mission. Other recent programs reviewed include a high-latitude satellite, contributions to the Voyager mission, and radar studies of space plasmas.

  14. Earth's magnetosphere - Global problems in magnetospheric plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetospheric physics is presently in a transition from the exploratory stage to one in which satellite missions and ground-based observations are planned with the specific object of achieving a global understanding and self-consistent quantitative description of the cause-and-effect relationship among the principal dynamic processes involved. Measurements turn to lower and lower energies and to higher ion mass species, in order to encompass the entire particle population, and to a broader range of the frequency spectrum of magnetic and electric field variations. In the present paper, the current status of our knowledge on magnetospheric plasma physics is reviewed, with particular reference of such fundamental advances as the discovery of layers of streaming plasma in the magnetosphere beneath its boundary surface, the identification of the terrestrial magnetosphere as a celestial source of kilometric radiation and relativistic particles, the identification of parallel electric field regions within the magnetosphere and their role in auroral particle acceleration, and the discovery of large fluxes of energetic heavy ions trapped in the magnetosphere.

  15. Thalidomide decreases the plasma levels of IL-1 and TNF following burn injury: is it a new drug for modulation of systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eski, Muhitdin; Sahin, Ismail; Sengezer, Mustafa; Serdar, Muhittin; Ifran, Ahmet

    2008-02-01

    TNF and IL-1, which are produced from phagocytic cells, can produce a significant systemic inflammatory response independently by inducing systemic leukocyte and endothelial cell activation. These cytokines play a pivotal role in development of systemic inflammatory response after severe burn. Thalidomide has been shown to decrease the secretion of TNF from phagocytic cells, therefore suppression of TNF and IL-1 production from activated phagocytic cells might be a successful treatment modality for prevention of systemic inflammatory response following severe burn. To address this issue, we aimed to show whether thalidomide treatment decreased or suppressed plasma levels of TNF and IL-1 following burn in rats. Following the injury, 36 rats were randomly separated into two experimental groups at the third and seventh days. Rats in the experimental group had oral thalidomide (10mg/kg day) treatment for three and seven consecutive days whereas animals in control groups had no treatment. Thalidomide treatment decreased TNF and IL-1 significantly in both experimental groups at both the points (PTNF and IL-1, we speculate that thalidomide may have modulatory effect on the systemic inflammatory response after burn by decreasing plasma levels of TNF and IL-1.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco

    1998-04-01

    Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The

  17. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Burn Pits Burn Pits Registry Studies Photo: U.S. Department ... the health of deployed Veterans. Health effects from burn pit smoke Toxins in burn pit smoke may ...

  18. Burn Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  19. Electrical conductivity of a methane–air burning plasma under the action of weak electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, G.; Pietanza, L. D.; D’Angola, A.; Laricchiuta, A.; Di Vita, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on the calculation of the electrical conductivity of a methane–air flame in the presence of weak electric fields, solving the Boltzmann equation for free electrons self-consistently coupled with chemical kinetics. The chemical model GRI-Mech 3.0 has been completed with chemi-ionization reactions to model ionization in the absence of fields, and a database of cross sections for electron-impact-induced processes to account for reactions and transitions activated in the flame during discharge. The dependence of plasma properties on the frequency of an oscillating field has been studied under different pressure and gas temperature conditions. Fitting expressions of the electrical conductivity as a function of gas temperature and methane consumption are provided for different operational conditions in the Ansaldo Energia burner.

  20. The expansion of a plasma into a vacuum - Basic phenomena and processes and applications to space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1983-01-01

    In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.

  1. Planetary plasma data analysis and 3D visualisation at the French Plasma Physics Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Michel; Génot, Vincent; Cecconi, Baptiste; Andre, Nicolas; Budnik, Elena; Bouchemit, Myriam; Jourdane, Nathanaël; Dufourg, Nicolas; Beigbeider, Laurent; Toniutti, Jean-Philippe; Durand, Joelle

    2016-10-01

    The CDPP (the French plasma physics data center http://cdpp.eu/) is engaged for nearly two decades in the archiving and dissemination of plasma data products from space missions and ground-based observatories. Besides these activities, the CDPP developed services like AMDA (http://amda.cdpp.eu/) and 3DView (http://3dview.cdpp.eu/). AMDA enables in depth analysis of a large amount of data through dedicated functionalities such as: visualisation, data mining, cataloguing. 3DView provides immersive visualisations in planetary environments: spacecraft position and attitude, ephemerides. Magnetic field models (Cain, Tsyganenko), visualisation of cubes, 2D cuts as well as spectra or time series along spacecraft trajectories are possible in 3Dview. Both tools provide a joint access to outputs of simulations (MHD or Hybrid models) in planetary sciences as well as planetary plasma observational data (from AMDA, CDAWeb, Cluster Science Archive, ...). Some of these developments were funded by the EU IMPEx project, and some of the more recent ones are done in the frame of Europlanet 2020 RI project. The role of CDPP in the analysis and visualisation of planetary data and mission support increased after a collaboration with the NASA/PDS which resulted in the access in AMDA to several planetary datasets like those of GALILEO, MESSENGER, MAVEN, etc. In 2014, AMDA was chosen as the quicklook visualisation tool for the Rosetta Plasma Consortium through a collaboration with Imperial College, London. This presentation will include several use cases demonstrating recent and new capabilities of the tools.

  2. Influence of physical characteristics and ingredients on the minimum burning pressure of ammonium nitrate emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, R.; Goldthorp, S.; Badeen, C.M.; Johnson, C.; Feng, H. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory; Chan, S.K. [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, PQ (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    The sustained combustion of ammonium nitrate water-based explosives (AWEs) will not occur when pressures are kept below specific threshold values. The minimum burning pressure (MBP) is used to estimate safety operating pressures for the processing, manufacturing and handling of AWEs. MBP measurements were performed for various commercially available AWEs. The purpose of the study was to determine how common formulation changes may affect the MBP of AWEs and how changes in testing methodologies will influence obtained MBP values. The study examined how the testing geometries of products containing glass microspheres altered the combustion behaviour of the AWEs used in the test. The influence of temperature and initial viscosity on the MBP was also investigated. The study showed that re-solidified glass was found in the bottom cap of the cell during vertical testing geometries. It was concluded that slow decomposition events were eliminated when using a horizontal testing geometry. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  3. A prospect at 11th international Toki conference. Plasma physics, quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2001-01-01

    A prospect of plasma physics at the turn of next century is discussed. The theme of this conference identifies the future direction of the research related with plasmas. Main issue is the potential and structure formation in plasmas; More specifically, structures which are realized through the interaction of electromagnetic fields, in particular that with electric fields, in non-equilibrium state. An emphasis is made to clarify the fundamental physics aspects of the plasma physics in fusion research as well as that in the basic research of plasmas. The plasma physics will give an important contribution to the solution of the historical enigma, i.e., all things flow. Having an impact on human recognition of nature and showing a beauty in a law, the plasma physics/science will demonstrate to be a leading science in the 21st century. (author)

  4. Overview of Space Station attached payloads in the areas of solar physics, solar terrestrial physics, and plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. T.; Kropp, J.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines the currently planned utilization of the Space Station to perform investigations in solar physics, solar terrestrial physics, and plasma physics. The investigations and instrumentation planned for the Solar Terrestrial Observatory (STO) and its associated Space Station accommodation requirements are discussed as well as the planned placement of the STO instruments and typical operational scenarios. In the area of plasma physics, some preliminary plans for scientific investigations and for the accommodation of a plasma physics facility attached to the Space Station are outlined. These preliminary experiment concepts use the space environment around the Space Station as an unconfined plasma laboratory. In solar physics, the initial instrument complement and associated accommodation requirements of the Advanced Solar Observatory are described. The planned evolutionary development of this observatory is outlined, making use of the Space Station capabilities for servicing and instrument reconfiguration.

  5. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  6. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas.

  7. The technology of Plasma Spray Physical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Góral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The deposition of thermal barrier coatings is currently the most effective means of protecting the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades from the impact of aggressive environment of combustion gases. The new technologies of TBC depositions are required.Design/methodology/approach: The essential properties of the PS-PVD process have been outlined, as well as recent literature references. In addition, the influence of a set process condition on the properties of the deposited coatings has been described.Findings: The new plasma-spraying PS-PVD method is a promising technology for the deposition of modern thermal barrier coatings on aircraft engine turbine blades.Research limitations/implications: The constant progress of engine operating temperatures and increasing pollution restrictions determine the intensive development of heat-resistant coatings, which is directed to new deposition technologies and coating materials.Practical implications: The article presents a new technology of thermal barrier coating deposition - LPPS Thin Film and Plasma Spray - Physical Vapour Deposition.Originality/value: The completely new technologies was described in article.

  8. EDITORIAL: The Third Nordic Symposium on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecseli, Hans; Trulsen, Jan

    2006-02-01

    The Third Nordic Symposium on Plasma Physics was organized at Lysebu, Oslo, Norway on 4 7 October 2004, under the auspices of the Norwegian Centre for Advanced Study (CAS). The arrangement was preceded by two similar meetings organized at the Risø National Laboratory in Denmark by one of us (HP): Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas, 13 16 August 1985, and The Second Nordic Symposium on Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas and Related Topics, 8 12 August 1988. The proceedings from these two previous meetings were published as Physica Scripta Reprint Series No. 2, and RS 16 (with a few copies still being available). The idea of `Nordic' in the title of this latest meeting was interpreted somewhat liberally, by including also scientific organizations in northern Germany, where a collaboration facing Nordic countries comes naturally, and indeed has solid historical roots pointing also to ongoing activities. We hope that this series of meetings can continue, suggesting that the interval should be kept to a minimum of three years to ensure that all participants present new results. (We hope not to have to wait 16 years until next time, though!) The aim of our meetings is to stimulate collaboration among plasma physicists by creating a forum where the participants can exchange ideas and seek inspiration under relaxed conditions. We have the distinct impression that the meeting was very successful in this respect. Many Nordic institutes have widespread international collaborations, and we were happy to welcome also foreign representatives for some of these activities. Altogether 28 contributed talks were presented by 30 participants. The abstracts of all talks were distributed at the meeting. The present proceedings cover a selection of the contributions. One participant had to cancel, but the contribution is included in these proceedings. All the papers have been refereed according to the usual standards of the journal We, the organizers, thank CAS for the generous financial support

  9. OPEN BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLE-PHASE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This effort presents the physical and chemical characterization of PM2.5 emissions from simulated agricultural fires of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The O2 levels and CO/CO

  10. Asymptotic-Preserving methods and multiscale models for plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of Asymptotic-Preserving methods for multiscale plasma simulations by addressing three singular perturbation problems. First, the quasi-neutral limit of fluid and kinetic models is investigated in the framework of non magnetized as well as magnetized plasmas. Second, the drift limit for fluid descriptions of thermal plasmas under large magnetic fields is addressed. Finally efficient numerical resolutions of anisotropic elliptic or diffusion equations arising in magnetized plasma simulation are reviewed.

  11. Experimental and theoretical research in applied plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkolab, M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: fusion theory and computations; theory of thermonuclear plasmas; user service center; high poloidal beta studies on PBX-M; fast ECE fluctuation diagnostic for balloning mode studies; x-ray imaging diagnostic; millimeter/submillimeter-wave fusion ion diagnostics; small scale turbulence and nonlinear dynamics in plasmas; plasma turbulence and transport; phase contrast interferometer diagnostic for long wavelength fluctuations in DIII-D; and charged and neutral fusion production for fusio plasmas.

  12. Plasma physics abstracts, 1 January - 31 December, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Dangelo, N.; Goertz, C. K.

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: ion-cyclotron waves; plasma waves; solar wind lithium releases; bow shock; Pi2 wave bursts; auroral kilometric radiation; ion energization; magnetic field corrections; electric fields; magnetospheric processes; electron acceleration; inner heliosphere; nightside auroral zone; computerized simulation; plasma wave turbulence; and magnetohydrodynamic waves in plasma sheets.

  13. Extreme Scale Computing for First-Principles Plasma Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Choogn-Seock [Princeton University

    2011-10-12

    World superpowers are in the middle of the “Computnik” race. US Department of Energy (and National Nuclear Security Administration) wishes to launch exascale computer systems into the scientific (and national security) world by 2018. The objective is to solve important scientific problems and to predict the outcomes using the most fundamental scientific laws, which would not be possible otherwise. Being chosen into the next “frontier” group can be of great benefit to a scientific discipline. An extreme scale computer system requires different types of algorithms and programming philosophy from those we have been accustomed to. Only a handful of scientific codes are blessed to be capable of scalable usage of today’s largest computers in operation at petascale (using more than 100,000 cores concurrently). Fortunately, a few magnetic fusion codes are competing well in this race using the “first principles” gyrokinetic equations.These codes are beginning to study the fusion plasma dynamics in full-scale realistic diverted device geometry in natural nonlinear multiscale, including the large scale neoclassical and small scale turbulence physics, but excluding some ultra fast dynamics. In this talk, most of the above mentioned topics will be introduced at executive level. Representative properties of the extreme scale computers, modern programming exercises to take advantage of them, and different philosophies in the data flows and analyses will be presented. Examples of the multi-scale multi-physics scientific discoveries made possible by solving the gyrokinetic equations on extreme scale computers will be described. Future directions into “virtual tokamak experiments” will also be discussed.

  14. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Nanodispersed Powders Produced by a Plasma-Chemical Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. GEORGIEVA; G. VISSOKOV; Iv. GRANCHAROV

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a review on the physical-chemical properties and characteristics of plasma-chemically produced nanodispersed powders (NDP), such as metals, oxides, nitrides, carbides, and catalysts. The plasma-chemical preparation of the powders was carried out in thermal plasma (TP) created by means of high-current electric arcs, plasma jets, high-frequency (HF) discharges, etc. We also discuss certain properties and characteristics of the NDPs, which are determined largely by the conditions of preparation.

  15. Physical chemical studies of dispersed aluminosilicate wastes for obtaining the burned building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuriev, I. Y.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, G. G.; Volokitin, O. G.; Lutsenko, A. V.; Kosmachev, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of the studies that determined that grinding can be one of the ways to modify aluminosilicate wastes. The optimal grinding modes were defined in laboratory conditions. Physical and chemical studies of modified ashes were carried out by means of X-ray phase analysis, differential thermal analysis and microscopy. The results have shown that modified ashes of thermal power stations when being applied in production of ceramic brick influence positively the processing properties of raw materials and the ready products.

  16. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editors: Carol A. Phillips; Anthony R. DeMeo

    2004-08-23

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights report provides a summary of the activities at the Laboratory for the fiscal year--1 October 2002 through 30 September 2003. The report includes the Laboratory's Mission and Vision Statements, a message ''From the Director,'' summaries of the research and engineering activities by project, and sections on Technology Transfer, the Graduate and Science Education Programs, Awards and Honors garnered by the Laboratory and the employees, and the Year in Pictures. There is also a listing of the Laboratory's publications for the year and a section of the abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols used throughout the report. In the PDF document, links have been created from the Table of Contents to each section. You can also return to the Table of Contents from the beginning page of each section. The PPPL Highlights for fiscal year 2003 is also available in hardcopy format. To obtain a copy e-mail Publications and Reports at: pub-reports@pppl.gov. Be sure to include your complete mailing address

  17. Physics and optimization of plasma startup in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, W.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Ko, J.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Brower, D. L.; Liu, W.

    2015-05-01

    In the tokamak and reversed-field pinch (RFP), inductively driven toroidal plasma current provides the confining poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating power, but the magnitude and/or duration of this current is limited by the available flux swing in the poloidal field transformer. A portion of this flux is consumed during startup as the current is initiated and ramped to its final target value, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding startup and minimizing the amount of flux consumed. Flux consumption can be reduced during startup in the RFP by increasing the toroidal magnetic field, Bti, applied to initiate the discharge, but the underlying physics is not yet entirely understood. Toward increasing this understanding, we have for the first time in the RFP employed advanced, non-invasive diagnostics on the Madison Symmetric Torus to measure the evolution of current, magnetic field, and kinetic profiles during startup. Flux consumption during startup is dominantly inductive, but we find that the inductive flux consumption drops as Bti increases. The resistive consumption of flux, while relatively small, apparently increases with Bti due to a smaller electron temperature. However, the ion temperature increases with Bti, exceeding the electron temperature and thus reflecting non-collisional heating. Magnetic fluctuations also increase with Bti, corresponding primarily to low-n modes that emerge sequentially as the safety factor profile evolves from tokamak-like to that of the RFP.

  18. 'Plasma Camp': A Different Approach to Professional Development for Physics Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Post-Zwicker and Nicholas R. Guilbert

    1998-12-01

    The Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Institute ('Plasma Camp') was inaugurated in 1998 as a way to address two areas of concern in the professional development of high-school physics teachers: involving teachers in the theory and methods of a current area of research in physics and connecting the research experience back into the classroom. The Institute, run jointly by a scientist and a teacher, immersed high-school teachers from across the country in laboratory investigations and in pedagogical projects for two weeks at Princeton University's Plasma Physics Laboratory. The goals, structure, and initial outcomes of the Institute are discussed.

  19. Burned Out Or Just Frustrated? Reasons Why Physical Education Teachers Leave Their Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Ryszard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the reasons why physical education (PE teachers leave their profession. The study included 80 individuals who decided to leave a teaching profession in 2013. A diagnostic poll method with the use of the QWL (Quality of Work Life index was employed in the study. It was observed that there are usually a number of reasons why they give up their job, the most important being financial reasons. Their decision is influenced by the accumulation of professional and personal problems as well as their inability to solve them. The findings showed that teachers‘ departure from the profession is generally associated with the issue of burnout; however, financial reasons are most frequently ones that directly affect this decision.

  20. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  1. Three dimensional simulation of a DC free burning arc. Application to lightning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemartin, L.; Lalande, P.; Montreuil, E.; Delalondre, C.; Chéron, B. G.; Lago, F.

    2009-02-01

    One of the mechanisms assumed to be involved in the ignition channel cut off is associated with the development of instability. Like any other electric arc, lightning channels become unstable if the provided power is insufficient. In order to study this phenomenon, ONERA in collaboration with EDF has performed 3D simulations of a part of a lightning channel in order to compute the main characteristics of the arc and understand in the future the physical conditions for the ignition of instability. The model, based on the resistive magneto hydro dynamic equations, was adapted to the lightning channel context. In a first step, the results were compared to the experiment of Tanaka et al. [Tanaka, S., Sunabe, K., and Goda, Y., 2000. Three dimensional behaviour analysis of D.C. free arc column by image processing technique, XIII Int'l Conf on Gas Discharges and their applications, Glasgow.] on long electric arcs subjected to continuing current at mean sea level. A good agreement between computations and measurements was found for times greater than tens of millisecond. Results also showed that the internal resistance continuously decreases with time. Finally, this model was adapted to investigate the effects of altitude on the characteristics of the arc column. Results showed that the effects of altitudes are negligible for altitudes lower than 4 km.

  2. Role of magnetospheric plasma physics for understanding cosmic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indra M. L.

    Cosmic phenomena occur in the remote regions of space where in situ observations are not possible. For a proper understanding of these phenomena, laboratory experiments are essential, but in situ observations of magnetospheric plasma provide an even better background to test various hypothesis of cosmic interest. This is because the ionospheric-magnetospheric plasma and the solar wind are the only cosmic plasmas accessible to extensive in situ observations and experiments.

  3. Physical limitations in ferromagnetic inductively coupled plasma sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bliokh, Yury P; Slutsker, Yakov Z

    2012-01-01

    The Ferromagnetic Inductively Coupled Plasma (FICP) source, which is a version of the common inductively coupled plasma sources, has a number of well known advantages such as high efficiency, high level of ionization, low minimal gas pressure, very low required driver frequency, and even a possibility to be driven by single current pulses. We present an experimental study of such an FICP source which showed that above a certain value of the driving pulse power the properties of this device changed rather drastically. Namely, the plasma became non-stationary and non-uniform contrary to the stationary and uniform plasmas typical for this kind of plasma sources. In this case the plasma appeared as a narrow dense spike which was short compared to the driving pulse. The local plasma density could exceed the neutral atoms density by a few orders of magnitude. When that happened, the afterglow plasma decay time after the end of the pulse was long compared to an ordinary case with no plasma spike. Experiments were pe...

  4. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  5. Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY89); tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for (FY89); graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; and Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory Reports (FY89).

  6. Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY89); tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for (FY89); graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; and Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory Reports (FY89).

  7. Physical investigation of a quad confinement plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Aaron; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Quad magnetic confinement plasma sources are novel magnetized DC discharges suitable for applications in a broad range of fields, particularly space propulsion, plasma etching and deposition. These sources contain a square discharge channel with magnetic cusps at the four lateral walls, enhancing plasma confinement and electron residence time inside the device. The magnetic field topology is manipulated using four independent electromagnets on each edge of the channel, tuning the properties of the generated plasma. We characterize the plasma ejected from the quad confinement sources using a combination of traditional electrostatic probes and non-intrusive laser-based diagnostics. Measurements show a strong ion acceleration layer located 8 cm downstream of the exit plane, beyond the extent of the magnetic field. The ion velocity field is investigated with different magnetic configurations, demonstrating how ion trajectories may be manipulated. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  8. Should we use platelet-rich plasma as an adjunct therapy to treat "acute wounds," "burns," and "laser therapies": A review and a proposal of a quality criteria checklist for further studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Frédéric; Hersant, Barbara; Bosc, Romain; Meningaud, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma seems to help wound healing. The goal of this review is to determine if the adjunction of platelet-rich plasma enhances the clinical outcome of acute wounds, burns, and laser therapies. A PubMed and Cochrane library search was performed by two reviewers with the senior author as a consultant. Medical Subject Headings search terms used were the following: ["Platelet-rich plasma" OR "Platelet gel" OR "Platelet growth factor"] AND ["Acute wound" OR "Wound" OR "Burn" OR "Laser"]. We included controlled studies assessing the clinical outcome of acute wounds, burns, and laser therapies treated by platelet-rich plasma. Nine randomized controlled studies, six prospective controlled studies, and two retrospective controlled studies were included. Regarding acute wounds, three randomized controlled trials found a statistical benefit regarding either the healing time, the return back to work time, the quality of life, or the pain and three prospective controlled studies found a statistical difference regarding the velocity of healing. Platelet-rich plasma decreased the intensity or duration of erythema after laser therapy in four randomized studies. Regarding the long-term outcome of laser therapies, two studies found a statistical benefit and two others did not. Platelet-rich plasma accelerates acute wound healing and decreases erythema after laser therapies. Its use on burns has not been enough studied.

  9. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  10. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhir, Dass, E-mail: dass.sudhir@iter-india.org; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29 GIDC, Sec-25, Gandhinagar, 382016 Gujarat (India)

    2016-02-15

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  11. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  12. 179th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Gizzi, L A; Faccini, R

    2012-01-01

    Impressive progress has been made in the field of laser-plasma acceleration in the last decade, with outstanding achievements from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Closely exploiting the development of ultra-intense, ultrashort pulse lasers, laser-plasma acceleration has developed rapidly, achieving accelerating gradients of the order of tens of GeV/m, and making the prospect of miniature accelerators a more realistic possibility. This book presents the lectures delivered at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics and summer school: "Laser-Plasma Acceleration" , held in Varenna, Italy, in June 2011. The school provided an opportunity for young scientists to experience the best from the worlds of laser-plasma and accelerator physics, with intensive training and hands-on opportunities related to key aspects of laser-plasma acceleration. Subjects covered include: the secrets of lasers; the power of numerical simulations; beam dynamics; and the elusive world of laboratory plasmas. The object...

  13. Thermonuclear reactions with magnetical confined plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkau, K.; Schumacher, U.

    1982-09-01

    As the result of intensive research activities in the plasma physics one can expect that in future an independent burning plasma can be produced. The focal point of fusion research then will crescent shift on the answer of the question whether the technological development the design of a commercial working energy systems allows. The authors report on thermonuclear devices, plasma confinement, plasma heating, thermonuclear reactions and safety.

  14. Some problems of pulsar physics. [magnetospheric plasma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, J.

    1979-01-01

    The theories of particle acceleration along polar field lines are reviewed, and the total energization of the charge separated plasma is summarized, when pair creation is absent. The application of these theories and plasma supply to pulsars is discussed, with attention given to the total amount of electron-positron plasma created and its momentum distribution. Various aspects of radiation emission and transport are analyzed, based on a polar current flow model with pair creation, and the phenomenon of marching subpulses is considered. The coronation beaming and the relativistically expanding current sheet models for pulsar emission are also outlined, and the paper concludes with a brief discussion of the relation between the theories of polar flow with pair plasma and the problem of the energization of the Crab Nebula.

  15. Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2007-02-28

    Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

  16. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Working group report: Heavy-ion physics and quark-gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Munshi G Mustafa; Sudhir Raniwala; T Awes; B Rai; R S Bhalerao; J G Contreras; R V Gavai; S K Ghosh; P Jaikumar; G C Mishra; A P Mishra; H Mishra; B Mohanty; J Nayak; J-Y Ollitrault; S C Phatak; L Ramello; R Ray; P K Sahu; A M Srivastava; D K Srivastava; V K Tiwari

    2006-11-01

    This is the report of Heavy Ion Physics and Quark-Gluon Plasma at WHEPP-09 which was part of Working Group-4. Discussion and work on some aspects of quark-gluon plasma believed to have created in heavy-ion collisions and in early Universe are reported.

  18. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included

  19. Advance in the research of platelet-rich plasma in burn treatment%富血小板血浆在烧伤治疗中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文; 郑健生

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is the plasma derived from the repeatedly centrifuged whole blood,and it contains high concentration of platelets.The growth factors and concentrated platelets in PRP play important roles in proliferation,division,and differentiation of cells,and wound repair.In the past,PRP was used in the treatment of bone fracture,bone defect,soft tissue injury,and refractory wound.In recent years,it had been used in burn treatment,but it provoked some disputes.This article reviews the advance in the research of PRP in burn treatment and discusses the problems in its clinical application.

  20. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  1. Porcine Burn Shock - Development of a Reliable Model and Response to Sodium, Water, and Plasma Loads Administered for Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    temperature dropped post anes- thesia but thereafter was stable and within normal limits. The pulse rate was within the range of normal values...is retlatively Si g- ni ficant thait oile - hialf thne animals Ii the Burn. Non- Resutsci tate’d (Group 11) tri-Atment Vrwip (lid, i’spiecially III...Monitor, Type 410 Tektronix, Inc. S. W. Millikan Way P. 0. Box 500 Beaverton, OR 97005 Numechron Tymeter Tymeter Electronics Pennwood Numechron Company

  2. Laser-plasma interaction physics for shock ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyon C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the shock ignition scheme, the ICF target is first compressed with a long (nanosecond pulse before creating a convergent shock with a short (∼100 ps pulse to ignite thermonuclear reactions. This short pulse is typically (∼2.1015–1016 W/cm2 above LPI (Laser Plasma Instabilities thresholds. The plasma is in a regime where the electron temperature is expected to be very high (2–4 keV and the laser coupling to the plasma is not well understood. Emulating LPI in the corona requires large and hot plasmas produced by high-energy lasers. We conducted experiments on the LIL (Ligne d'Integration Laser, 10 kJ at 3ω and the LULI2000 (0.4 kJ at 2ω facilities, to approach these conditions and study absorption and LPI produced by a high intensity beam in preformed plasmas. After introducing the main risks associated with the short pulse propagation, we present the latest experiment we conducted on LPI in relevant conditions for shock ignition.

  3. JINA Workshop Nuclear Physics in Hot Dense Dynamic Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A L; Cerjan, C; Landen, O; Libby, S; Chen, M; Wilson, B; Knauer, J; Mcnabb, D; Caggiano, J; Bleauel, D; Weideking, M; Kozhuharov, C; Brandau, C; Stoehlker, T; Meot, V; Gosselin, G; Morel, P; Schneider, D; Bernstein, L A

    2011-03-07

    Measuring NEET and NEEC is relevant for probing stellar cross-sections and testing atomic models in hot plasmas. Using NEEC and NEET we can excite nuclear levels in laboratory plasmas: (1) NIF: Measure effect of excited nuclear levels on (n,{gamma}) cross-sections, 60% and never been measured; (2) Omega, Test cross-sections for creating these excited levels via NEEC and NEET. Will allow us to test models that estimate resonance overlap of atomic states with the nucleus: (1) Average Atom model (AA) (CEA&LLNL), single average wave-function potential; (2) Super Transition Array (STA) model (LLNL), More realistic individual configuration potentials NEET experimental data is scarce and not in a plasma environment, NEEC has not yet been observed.

  4. Interaction physics of multipicosecond Petawatt laser pulses with overdense plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A J; Divol, L

    2012-11-09

    We study the interaction of intense petawatt laser pulses with overdense plasma over several picoseconds, using two- and three-dimensional kinetic particle simulations. Sustained irradiation with non-diffraction-limited pulses at relativistic intensities yields conditions that differ qualitatively from what is experimentally available today. Nonlinear saturation of laser-driven density perturbations at the target surface causes recurrent emissions of plasma, which stabilize the surface and keep absorption continuously high. This dynamics leads to the acceleration of three distinct groups of electrons up to energies many times the laser ponderomotive potential. We discuss their energy distribution for applications like the fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion.

  5. TEBPP: Theoretical and Experimental study of Beam-Plasma-Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. R.; Bernstein, W.; Linson, L. M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Hallinan, T. J.; Leinbach, H.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of an electron beam (0 to 10 keV, 0 to 1.5 Amp) with the plasma and neutral atmospheres at 200 to 400 km altitude is studied with emphasis on applications to near Earth and cosmical plasmas. The interaction occurs in four space time regions: (1) near electron gun, beam coming into equilibrium with medium; (2) equilibrium propagation in ionosphere; (3) ahead of beam pulse, temporal and spatial precursors; (4) behind a beam pulse. While region 2 is of the greatest interest, it is essential to study Region 1 because it determines the characteristics of the beam as it enters 2 through 4.

  6. Scald Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety Tips & Info Scald Burns Thousands of scald burns occur annually, and ALL are preventable! The two high-risk populations are children under the age ... the single most important factor in preventing scald burns. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...

  7. Examining the Effects of Oxygen Plasma on Physical and Dyeing Properties of Some Cellulose Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara KOCAK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton, Agava Americana and artichoke fibers were treated with plasma with oxygen gas in Diener Vacuum Plasma for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, with 40 kHz low frequency and at 0.3 mbar pressure. After the plasma treatment, fibers' weight loss %, tensile strength, elongation, fiber diameter, surface topography (SEM, colour changes, and light and washing fastness properties were investigated. A positive increase was observed for mechanical and fastness properties after 5 min plasma treatment. The effects of plasma treatments on dyeing properties of fibers were studied. Dyeing properties of plasma treated fibers were improved after 3 min. treatment. SEM results were also proved the improved physical properties and colour changes due to the rough surface structure.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.9368

  8. Drift waves and chaos in a LAPTAG plasma physics experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Birge-Lee, Henry; Wise, Joe; Katz, Cami; Wolman, Ben; Baker, Bob; Marmie, Ken; Patankar, Vedang; Bridges, Gabriel; Buckley-Bonanno, Samuel; Buckley, Susan; Ge, Andrew; Thomas, Sam

    2016-02-01

    In a project involving an alliance between universities and high schools, a magnetized plasma column with a steep pressure gradient was established in an experimental device. A two-dimensional probe measured fluctuations in the plasma column in a plane transverse to the background magnetic field. Correlation techniques determined that the fluctuations were that of electrostatic drift waves. The time series data were used to generate the Bandt-Pompe entropy and Jensen-Shannon complexity for the data. These quantities, when plotted against one another, revealed that a combination of drift waves and other background fluctuations were a deterministically chaotic system. Our analysis can be used to tell the difference between deterministic chaos and random noise, making it a potentially useful technique in nonlinear dynamics.

  9. The physics of plasma injection events. [during magnetospheric substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Kaye, S. M.; Southwood, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, plasma injection is defined as an increase of particle flux in a detector of finite bandwidth. Injection can result from dynamic processes or from spacecraft penetration of a quasi-static spatial structure produced by a steady magnetospheric convection pattern. ATS-5 particle spectrograms are found to provide examples of plasma injection events of both sorts. Dynamic injection occurs both with and without local magnetic signatures. For events not associated with clear local magnetic signatures, convection theory with a steady or a time-varying uniform electric field can account for the energy dispersion of injected particles with energy less than 50 keV. The paper concludes with a discussion of the way in which the convection boundaries are related to the substorm injection boundary of Mauk and McIlwain. Several alternative expressions for the local time and K(p) dependence of the injection boundary are given.

  10. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010 The Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'10) is organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from July 5 to July 10, 2010. The scientific programme covers the topics Fusion Plasma and Materials; Plasma Modeling and Fundamentals; Plasma Sources, Diagnostics and Technology. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007), IWSSPP'08, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 207 (2010), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 34 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed through the (sometimes heavy and troublesome) refereeing and editing

  11. Energy Efficient Transient: Plasma Ignition: Physics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-30

    Wang from the University of Southern California on modeling the TPI-assisted combustion. The ethylene data taken on the PDE is intended to assist this...production of said species will assist in the development of a model for transient plasma ignition greatly. The plan for a two week experiment is to...Back-Lighted Thyratron ," 27th International Power Modulator Conference 2006, Washington, D.C., 14-18 May 2006. P.I. - Martin A. Gundersen "Energy

  12. The contribution of Nikola Tesla to plasma physics and current status of plasmas that he studied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zoran Lj.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main Interests in science of Nikola Tesla were gas discharges plasmas, their application in lighting and in production of ozone as well as their role in conduction of electricity through the atmosphere. In particular Tesla is well known as the first person to produce rf plasmas. Such plasmas in the present day constitute the main technology required to produce integrated circuits (IC and have been essential in the revolution that resulted from IC technologies. In addition Tesla participated in studies of arcs especially arcs used as a source of light, corona discharges required to induce plasma chemical reactions and produce ozone and was involved in various aspects of gas breakdown and gaseous dielectrics. His ideas, level of his understanding and current status of these fields are discussed in this review.

  13. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  14. Redox Stimulation of Human THP-1 Monocytes in Response to Cold Physical Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bekeschus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In plasma medicine, cold physical plasma delivers a delicate mixture of reactive components to cells and tissues. Recent studies suggested a beneficial role of cold plasma in wound healing. Yet, the biological processes related to the redox modulation via plasma are not fully understood. We here used the monocytic cell line THP-1 as a model to test their response to cold plasma in vitro. Intriguingly, short term plasma treatment stimulated cell growth. Longer exposure only modestly compromised cell viability but apparently supported the growth of cells that were enlarged in size and that showed enhanced metabolic activity. A significantly increased mitochondrial content in plasma treated cells supported this notion. On THP-1 cell proteome level, we identified an increase of protein translation with key regulatory proteins being involved in redox regulation (hypoxia inducible factor 2α, differentiation (retinoic acid signaling and interferon inducible factors, and cell growth (Yin Yang 1. Regulation of inflammation is a key element in many chronic diseases, and we found a significantly increased expression of the anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 and of the neutrophil attractant chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8. Together, these results foster the view that cold physical plasma modulates the redox balance and inflammatory processes in wound related cells.

  15. Observing the Plasma-Physical Processes of Pulsar Radio Emission with Arecibo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    With their enormous densities and fields, neutron stars entail some of the most exotic physics in the cosmos. Similarly, the physical mechanisms of pulsar radio emission are no less exotic, and we are only now beginning to understand them. The talk will provide an introduction to the phenomenology of radio pulsar emission and focus on those aspects of the exquisite Arecibo observations that bear on their challenging emission physics.The commonalities of the radio beamforms of most slow pulsars (and some millisecond pulsars) argue strongly that their magnetic fields have a nearly dipolar structure at the height of their radio emission regions. These heights can often be determined by aberration/retardation analyses. Similarly, measurement of the orientation of the polarized radio emission with respect to the emitting magnetic field facilitates identification of the physical(X/O) emission modes and study of the plasma coupling to the electromagnetic radiation.While the physics of primary plasma generation above the pulsar polar cap is only beginning to be understood, it is clear that the radio pulsars we see are able to generate copious amounts of electron-positron plasma in their emission regions. Within the nearly dipolar field structure of these emission regions, the plasma density is near to that of the Goldreich-Julian model, and so the physical conditions in these regions can be accurately estimated.These conditions show that the plasma frequencies in the emission regions are much higher than the frequency of the emitted radiation, such that the plasma couples most easily to the extraordinary mode as observed. Therefore, the only surviving emission mechanism is curvature radiation from charged solitons, produced by the two-stream instability. Such soliton emission has probably been observed directly in the Crab pulsar; however, a physical theory of charged soliton radiation does not yet exist.

  16. Contributions to 28th European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics (Madeira Tecnopolo, Funchal, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001) from LHD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The LHD experimental group has presented nineteen papers at the 28th European Physical Society Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics (Madeira Tecnopolo, Funchal, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001). The contributed papers are collected in this report. (author)

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: Principal parameters achieved in experimental devices for fiscal year 1992; tokamak fusion test reactor; princeton beta experiment-modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; tokamak physics experiment/steady-state advanced tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; plasma processing: Deposition and etching of thin films; pure electron plasma experiments; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; high-field magnet project; engineering department; environment, safety, and health and quality assurance; technology transfer; office of human resources and administration; PPPL invention disclosures for fiscal year 1992; office of resource management; graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: program in plasma science and technology; and science education program.

  18. Prospects for measuring the fuel ion ratio in burning ITER plasmas using a DT neutron emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, C.; Skiba, M.; Dzysiuk, N.; Weiszflog, M.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Andersson-Sundén, E.; Eriksson, J.; Binda, F.

    2014-11-01

    The fuel ion ratio nt/nd is an essential parameter for plasma control in fusion reactor relevant applications, since maximum fusion power is attained when equal amounts of tritium (T) and deuterium (D) are present in the plasma, i.e., nt/nd = 1.0. For neutral beam heated plasmas, this parameter can be measured using a single neutron spectrometer, as has been shown for tritium concentrations up to 90%, using data obtained with the MPR (Magnetic Proton Recoil) spectrometer during a DT experimental campaign at the Joint European Torus in 1997. In this paper, we evaluate the demands that a DT spectrometer has to fulfill to be able to determine nt/nd with a relative error below 20%, as is required for such measurements at ITER. The assessment shows that a back-scattering time-of-flight design is a promising concept for spectroscopy of 14 MeV DT emission neutrons.

  19. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  20. Physics and chemistry of plasma-assisted combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey

    2015-08-13

    There are several mechanisms that affect a gas when using discharge plasma to initiate combustion or to stabilize a flame. There are two thermal mechanisms-the homogeneous and inhomogeneous heating of the gas due to 'hot' atom thermalization and vibrational and electronic energy relaxation. The homogeneous heating causes the acceleration of the chemical reactions. The inhomogeneous heating generates flow perturbations, which promote increased turbulence and mixing. Non-thermal mechanisms include the ionic wind effect (the momentum transfer from an electric field to the gas due to the space charge), ion and electron drift (which can lead to additional fluxes of active radicals in the gradient flows in the electric field) and the excitation, dissociation and ionization of the gas by e-impact, which leads to non-equilibrium radical production and changes the kinetic mechanisms of ignition and combustion. These mechanisms, either together or separately, can provide additional combustion control which is necessary for ultra-lean flames, high-speed flows, cold low-pressure conditions of high-altitude gas turbine engine relight, detonation initiation in pulsed detonation engines and distributed ignition control in homogeneous charge-compression ignition engines, among others. Despite the lack of knowledge in mechanism details, non-equilibrium plasma demonstrates great potential for controlling ultra-lean, ultra-fast, low-temperature flames and is extremely promising technology for a very wide range of applications.

  1. Paradigm Changes in High Temperature Plasma Physics Research and Implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyeon K. Park

    2008-02-22

    Significant high temperature plasma research in both the magnetic and inertial confinement regimes led to the official launching of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project which is aimed at challenging controlled fusion power for human kind. In particular, such an endeavor originated from the fruitful research outcomes from the world wide magnetic confinement devices (primarily based on the Tokamak approach) mainly in advanced countries (US, EU, and Japan). In recent years, all new steady state capable Tokamak devices are operated and/or constructed in Asian countries and incidentally, the majority of the ITER consortium consists of Asian countries. This provides an opportunity to revisit the unresolved essential physics issues and/or extend the understanding of the transient physics to the required steady state operation so that ITER can benefit from these efforts. The core physics of a magnetically confined hot plasma has two essential components; plasma stability and cross-field energy transport physics. Complete understanding of these two areas is critical for the successful operation of ITER and perhaps, Demo reactor construction. In order to have stable high beta plasmas with a sufficiently long confinement time, the physics of an abrupt disruption and sudden deterioration of the energy transport must be understood and conquered. Physics issues associated with transient harmful MHD behavior and turbulence based energy transport are extremely complicated and theoretical understanding needs a clear validation and verification with a new research approach such as a multi-dimensional visualization.

  2. Study of Anti-Hydrogen and Plasma Physics 4.Observation of Antiproton Beams and Nonneutral Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Masaki; Fujiwara, Makoto; Kuroda, Naofumi

    2004-01-01

    Diagnostics of antiproton beams and nonneutral plasmas are described in this chapter. Parallel plate secondary electron emission detectors are used to non-destructively observe the beam position and intensity without loss. Plastic scintillation tracking detectors are useful in determining the position of annihilations of antiprotons in the trap. Three-dimensional imaging of antiprotons in a Penning trap is discussed. The unique capability of antimatter particle imaging has allowed the observation of the spatial distribution of particle loss in a trap. Radial loss is localized to small spots, strongly breaking the azimuthal symmetry expected for an ideal trap. By observing electrostatic eigen-modes of nonneutral plasmas trapped in the Multi-ring electrode trap, the non-destructive measurement of plasma parameters is performed.

  3. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Omid

    composition and thermodynamic properties. The method was applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of hydrogen/air and methane/air plasma mixtures for a wide range of temperatures (1,000-100,000 K), pressures (10-6-100 atm) and different equivalence ratios within flammability limit. In calculating the individual thermodynamic properties of the atomic species, the Debye-Huckel cutoff criterion has been used for terminating the series expression of the electronic partition function. A new differential-based multi-shell model was developed in conjunction with Schlieren photography to measure laminar burning speed and to study the flame instabilities for different alternative fuels such as syngas and GTL. Flame instabilities such as cracking and wrinkling were observed during flame propagation and discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic and thermo-diffusive effects. Laminar burning speeds were measured using pressure rise data during flame propagation and power law correlations were developed over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios. As a part of this work, the effect of EGR addition and substitution of nitrogen with helium in air on flame morphology and laminar burning speed were extensively investigated. The effect of cell formation on flame surface area of syngas fuel in terms of a newly defined parameter called cellularity factor was also evaluated. In addition to that the experimental onset of auto-ignition and theoretical ignition delay times of premixed GTL/air mixture were determined at high pressures and low temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios.

  4. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  5. Recent advances in numerical simulation of space-plasma-physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations have become an increasingly popular, important and insightful tool for studying space plasmas. This review describes MHD and particle simulations, both of which treat the plasma and the electromagnetic field in which it moves in a self consistent fashion but on drastically different spatial and temporal scales. The complementary roles of simulation, observations and theory are stressed. Several examples of simulations being carried out in the area of magnetospheric plasma physics are described to illustrate the power, potential and limitations of the approach.

  6. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: construction and its plasma aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis; Chowdhuri, Manis

    2010-07-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density approximately 3-5x10(10) cm(-3) and temperature approximately 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  7. Quark-gluon plasma: Status of heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V Gavai

    2000-07-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD), defined on a discrete space–time lattice, leads to a spectacular non-perturbative prediction of a new state of matter, called quark-gluon plasma (QGP), at sufficiently high temperatures or equivalently large energy densities. The experimental programs of CERN, Geneva and BNL, New York of relativistic heavy ion collisions are expected to produce such energy densities, thereby providing us a chance to test the above prediction. After a brief introduction of the necessary theoretical concepts, I will present a critical review of the experimental results already obtained by the various experiments in order to examine whether QGP has already been observed by them.

  8. The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance edge localized mode-stable operation in future burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, A. M., E-mail: garofalo@fusion.gat.com; Burrell, K. H.; Meneghini, O.; Osborne, T. H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Eldon, D.; Grierson, B. A.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, New York 10027-6900 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Liu, F.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, P.O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    For the first time, DIII-D experiments have achieved stationary quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) operation for many energy confinement times at simultaneous ITER-relevant values of beta, confinement, and safety factor, in an ITER-like shape. QH-mode provides excellent energy confinement, even at very low plasma rotation, while operating without edge localized modes (ELMs) and with strong impurity transport via the benign edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). By tailoring the plasma shape to improve the edge stability, the QH-mode operating space has also been extended to densities exceeding 80% of the Greenwald limit, overcoming the long-standing low-density limit of QH-mode operation. In the theory, the density range over which the plasma encounters the kink-peeling boundary widens as the plasma cross-section shaping is increased, thus increasing the QH-mode density threshold. The DIII-D results are in excellent agreement with these predictions, and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic analysis of reconstructed QH-mode equilibria shows unstable low n kink-peeling modes growing to a saturated level, consistent with the theoretical picture of the EHO. Furthermore, high density operation in the QH-mode regime has opened a path to a new, previously predicted region of parameter space, named “Super H-mode” because it is characterized by very high pedestals that can be more than a factor of two above the peeling-ballooning stability limit for similar ELMing H-mode discharges at the same density.

  9. Dynamics of magnetically trapped particles foundations of the physics of radiation belts and space plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Juan G

    2014-01-01

    This book is a new edition of Roederer’s classic Dynamics of Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, updated and considerably expanded. The main objective is to describe the dynamic properties of magnetically trapped particles in planetary radiation belts and plasmas and explain the physical processes involved from the theoretical point of view. The approach is to examine in detail the orbital and adiabatic motion of individual particles in typical configurations of magnetic and electric fields in the magnetosphere and, from there, derive basic features of the particles’ collective “macroscopic” behavior in general planetary environments. Emphasis is not on the “what” but on the “why” of particle phenomena in near-earth space, providing a solid and clear understanding of the principal basic physical mechanisms and dynamic processes involved. The book will also serve as an introduction to general space plasma physics, with abundant basic examples to illustrate and explain the physical origin of diff...

  10. Atomic physics of shocked plasma in winds of massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Cohen, David H.; Owocki, Stanley P. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); CRESST/UMBC (United States); Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2012-05-25

    High resolution diffraction grating spectra of X-ray emission from massive stars obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton have revolutionized our understanding of their powerful, radiation-driven winds. Emission line shapes and line ratios provide diagnostics on a number of key wind parameters. Modeling of resolved emission line velocity profiles allows us to derive independent constraints on stellar mass-loss rates, leading to downward revisions of a factor of a few from previous measurements. Line ratios in He-like ions strongly constrain the spatial distribution of Xray emitting plasma, confirming the expectations of radiation hydrodynamic simulations that X-ray emission begins moderately close to the stellar surface and extends throughout the wind. Some outstanding questions remain, including the possibility of large optical depths in resonance lines, which is hinted at by differences in line shapes of resonance and intercombination lines from the same ion. Resonance scattering leads to nontrivial radiative transfer effects, and modeling it allows us to place constraints on shock size, density, and velocity structure.

  11. Atomic Physics of Shocked Plasma in Winds of Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Cohen, David H.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution diffraction grating spectra of X-ray emission from massive stars obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton have revolutionized our understanding of their powerful, radiation-driven winds. Emission line shapes and line ratios provide diagnostics on a number of key wind parameters. Modeling of resolved emission line velocity profiles allows us to derive independent constraints on stellar mass-loss rates, leading to downward revisions of a factor of a few from previous measurements. Line ratios in He-like ions strongly constrain the spatial distribution of Xray emitting plasma, confirming the expectations of radiation hydrodynamic simulations that X-ray emission begins moderately close to the stellar surface and extends throughout the wind. Some outstanding questions remain, including the possibility of large optical depths in resonance lines, which is hinted at by differences in line shapes of resonance and intercombination lines from the same ion. Resonance scattering leads to nontrivial radiative transfer effects, and modeling it allows us to place constraints on shock size, density, and velocity structure

  12. Scientific study in solar and plasma physics relative to rocket and balloon projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    The goals of this research are to provide scientific and technical capabilities in the areas of solar and plasma physics contained in research programs and instrumentation development relative to current rocket and balloon projects; to develop flight instrumentation design, flight hardware, and flight program objectives and participate in peer reviews as appropriate; and to participate in solar-terrestrial physics modeling studies and analysis of flight data and provide theoretical investigations as required by these studies.

  13. Physics-Based Computational Algorithm for the Multi-Fluid Plasma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    also illustrates the dispersive nature of the waves, which makes capturing the effect difficult in MHD algorithms. The electromagnetic plasma shock...055911, 2007. [45] J. Loverich and U. Shumlak. Nonlinear full two-fluid study of m = 0 sausage instabilities in an axisymmetric Z pinch. Physics of... preserving high-order semi- Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin scheme for the Vlasov-Poisson equations. Jour- nal of Computational Physics, 230(16):6203–6232

  14. PREFACE: 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R.; Lebedev, S.

    2003-12-01

    The 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics took place in St Petersburg, Russian Federation, on 7th--11th July 2003. It was jointly organized by the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, the St Petersburg State Polytechnical University and Technical University Applied Physics Ltd, on behalf of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society (EPS). The members of the local organizing committee were drawn from these institutions: B Kuteev, Chair, Polytechnical University S Lebedev, Vice-Chair, Ioffe Institute A Lebedev, Scientific Secretary, Ioffe Institute V Bakharev, TUAP Ltd V Grigor'yants, Ioffe Institute V Sergeev, Polytechnical University N Zhubr, Ioffe Institute Over the years, the annual conference of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society has widened its scope. Contributions to the present conference covered widely diversified fields of plasma physics, ranging from magnetic and inertial fusion to low temperature plasmas. Plasma sizes under investigation ranged from tiny to astronomical. The topics covered during the conference were distributed over the following categories: tokamaks, stellarators, high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement, alternative magnetic confinement, plasma edge physics, plasma heating and current drive, diagnostics, basic plasma physics, astrophysical and geophysical plasmas and low temperature plasmas. The scientific programme and paper selection were the responsibility of the Programme Committee appointed by the Board of the EPS Plasma Physics Division. The committee was composed of: R Koch, Chairman, ERM/KMS Brussels, Belgium E Ascasibar, CIEMAT Madrid, Spain S Atzeni, Università di Roma, Italy G Bonhomme, LPMI Nancy, France C Chiuderi, Università di Firenze, Italy B Kuteev, St Petersburg State Polytechnical,University, Russian Federation M Mauel, Contact person APS-DPP, Columbia University New York, USA R A Pitts, EPFL/CRPP Lausanne, Switzerland R Salomaa

  15. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  16. PREFACE: Plasma Physics by Laser and Applications 2013 Conference (PPLA2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassisi, V.; Giulietti, D.; Torrisi, L.; Delle Side, D.

    2014-04-01

    The ''Plasma Physics by Laser and Applications'' Conference (PPLA 2013) is a biennial meeting in which the National teams involved in Laser-Plasma Interaction at high intensities communicate their late results comparing with the colleagues from the most important European Laser Facilities. The sixth appointment has been organized in Lecce, Italy, from 2 to 4 October 2013 at the Rector Palace of the University of Salento. Surprising results obtained by laser-matter interaction at high intensities, as well as, non-equilibrium plasma generation, laser-plasma acceleration and related secondary sources, diagnostic methodologies and applications based on lasers and plasma pulses have transferred to researchers the enthusiasm to perform experiments ad maiora. The plasma generated by powerful laser pulses produces high kinetic particles and energetic photons that may be employed in different fields, from medicine to microelectronics, from engineering to nuclear fusion, from chemistry to environment. A relevant interest concerns the understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena, the employed lasers, plasma diagnostics and their consequent applications. For this reason we need continuous updates, meetings and expertise exchanges in this field in order to follow the evolution and disclose information, that has been done this year in Lecce, discussing and comparing the experiences gained in various international laboratories. The conference duration, although limited to just 3 days, permitted to highlight important aspects of the research in the aforementioned fields, giving discussion opportunities about the activities of researchers of high international prestige. The program consisted of 10 invited talks, 17 oral talks and 17 poster contributions for a total of 44 communications. The presented themes covered different areas and, far from being exhaustive gave updates, stimulating useful scientific discussions. The Organizers belong to three Italian Universities

  17. Burning the DT-plasma with inert impurities and non-cryogenic ICF-target with solid fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Gus'kov S.Yu.; Il'in D.V.; Sherman V.E.

    2013-01-01

    The ignition criterion, ignition energy and gain of DT-plasma of ICF-target in the presence of impurities of light atoms such as beryllium, carbon and lithium at their arbitrary concentration are found. It is shown that the most promising type of non-cryogenic solid thermonuclear fuel is DT-hydride of beryllium (BeDT). It is suggested to apply the targets with such a fuel as: (1) Fast-ignited ICF-target at the ignition energy of 25–50 kJ and compression driver energy of 2–3 MJ; (2) ICF-target...

  18. Evolution of large-sclae plasma structures in comets: Kinematics and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Disconnection Events are the dramatic part of the periodic morphology involving the separation of the entire plasma tail from the head region of the comet and the growth of a new plasma. The coordinated observations of Comet Halley recorded approximately 30 DEs during the 7 months of plasma activity; 19 of these are obvious. The plasma physics of these events were approached via a detailed, kinematic investigation of specific DEs and the solar-wind environment associated with it. As the detailed investigations are completed, researchers should be able to answer the question of a single or multiple mechanism(s) for DEs and determine which mechanism(s) are important. At present, the mechanism of sunward magnetic reconnection caused by interplanetary sector boundary crossing in consistent with the data available.

  19. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  20. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  1. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days. RESULTS: Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled Physics of Plasma-Wall Interactions in Controlled Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Behrisch, R; Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    1986-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion is one of the possible candidates for long term energy sources which will be indispensable for our highly technological society. However, the physics and technology of controlled fusion are extremely complex and still require a great deal of research and development before fusion can be a practical energy source. For producing energy via controlled fusion a deuterium-tritium gas has to be heated to temperatures of a few 100 Million °c corres­ ponding to about 10 keV. For net energy gain, this hot plasma has to be confined at a certain density for a certain time One pro­ mising scheme to confine such a plasma is the use of i~tense mag­ netic fields. However, the plasma diffuses out of the confining magnetic surfaces and impinges on the surrounding vessel walls which isolate the plasma from the surrounding air. Because of this plasma wall interaction, particles from the plasma are lost to the walls by implantation and are partially reemitted into the plasma. In addition, wall...

  3. Study of Local Reconnection Physics in a Laboratory Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji; Troy Carter; Scott Hsu; Masaaki Yamada

    2001-06-11

    A short review of physics results obtained in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) is given with an emphasis on the local features of magnetic reconnection in a controlled environment. Stable two-dimensional current sheets are formed and sustained by induction using two internal coils. The observed reconnection rates are found to be quantitatively consistent with a generalized Sweet-Parker model which incorporates compressibility, unbalanced upstream-downstream pressure, and the effective resistivity. The latter is significantly enhanced over its classical values in the low collisionality regime. Strong local ion heating is measured by an optical probe during the reconnection process, and at least half of the increased ion energy must be due to nonclassical processes, consistent with the resistivity enhancement. Characteristics of high-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations detected in the current sheet suggest presence of the lower-hybrid-drift-like waves with significant magnetic components. The detailed structures of the current sheet are measured and compared with Harris theory and two-fluid theory.

  4. EDITORIAL: The Fifth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    , Russia, the US, China, South Korea and India (as of March 2006). It will take several years to accomplish this important task. There is no doubt that the success depends not only on funding but also on enthusiastic people willing to contribute with their skills and knowledge. Young scientists and engineers must be enrolled to the programme and trained in various disciplines of fusion science and technology. There are various education schemes and work programmes. Organization of summer schools on fusion-related plasma physics is an important part of the training process. Several schools are organized annually or every second year in Europe. Fusion-related science is so vast that it is impossible to cover all topics during an event lasting for one or two weeks. Therefore, each school has its distinctive features and focuses on a selected group of issues to be addressed in depth. This also applies to the Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics in Kudowa Zdrój (Poland) that, has been organised annually since 2001. It was initiated by Dr Marek Scholz with the help of his colleagues from the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) in Warsaw. The idea was to create a forum for students mainly from Eastern Europe to learn and discuss subjects in general plasma physics and dense magnetized media, predominantly in plasma focus devices. Over the years the school has matured and created a clear profile. A unique feature has always been to accommodate in the programme not only tutorials delivered by invited senior scientists but also presentations prepared by the students. In June 2005 the 5th Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics was held under the heading 'Towards Fusion Energy: Plasma Physics, Diagnostics, Applications'. There were 59 participants, including 44 students, coming from plasma physics and material research laboratories in 17 countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Georgia, Iran, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia

  5. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  6. EDITORIAL: Stability and nonlinear dynamics of plasmas: A symposium celebrating Professor Robert Dewar's accomplishments in plasma physics Stability and nonlinear dynamics of plasmas: A symposium celebrating Professor Robert Dewar's accomplishments in plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate Professor Robert Dewar's 65th birthday, a Symposium was held on 31 October 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, just before the 51st Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society. The Symposium was attended by many of Bob's colleagues, friends, postdoctoral colleagues and students (present and former). Boyd Blackwell, Anthony Cooper, Chris Hegna, Stuart Hudson, John Krommes, Alexander Pletzer, Ellen Zweibel, and I gave talks that covered various aspects of Bob's wide-ranging scholarship, and his leadership in the Australian and the US fusion program. At the Symposium, Bob gave an insightful talk, published in this issue as a paper with D Leykam. This paper makes available for the first time unpublished results from Bob's M Sc Thesis on a general method for calculating the potential around a `dressed' test particle in an isotropic and collisionless plasma. The paper is interesting not only because it provides a glimpse of the type of elegant applied mathematics that we have come to associate with Bob, but also because he discusses some leitmotifs in his intellectual evolution since the time he was a graduate student at the University of Melbourne and Princeton University. Through his early encounter with quantum field theory, Bob appreciated the power of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, which he used with great effectiveness in nonlinear dynamics and plasma physics. A question that animates much of his work is one that underlies the `dressed' particle problem: if one is given a Hamiltonian with an unperturbed (or `bare') part and an interaction part, how is one to obtain a canonical transformation to `the oscillation centre' thatwould reduce the interaction part to an irreducible residual part while incorporating the rest in a renormalized zeroth-order Hamiltonian? One summer in Princeton, I worked with Bob on a possible variational formulation for this problem, and failed. I was daunted enough by my failure that I turned

  7. A linear dispersion relation for the hybrid kinetic-ion/fluid-electron model of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Told, Daniel; Astfalk, Patrick; Jenko, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A dispersion relation for a commonly used hybrid model of plasma physics is developed, which combines fully kinetic ions and a massless-electron fluid description. Although this model and variations of it have been used to describe plasma phenomena for about 40 years, to date there exists no general dispersion relation to describe the linear wave physics contained in the model. Previous efforts along these lines are extended here to retain arbitrary wave propagation angles, temperature anisotropy effects, as well as additional terms in the generalized Ohm's law which determines the electric field. A numerical solver for the dispersion relation is developed, and linear wave physics is benchmarked against solutions of a full Vlasov-Maxwell dispersion relation solver. This work opens the door to a more accurate interpretation of existing and future wave and turbulence simulations using this type of hybrid model.

  8. Burning the DT-plasma with inert impurities and non-cryogenic ICF-target with solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus'kov S.Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ignition criterion, ignition energy and gain of DT-plasma of ICF-target in the presence of impurities of light atoms such as beryllium, carbon and lithium at their arbitrary concentration are found. It is shown that the most promising type of non-cryogenic solid thermonuclear fuel is DT-hydride of beryllium (BeDT. It is suggested to apply the targets with such a fuel as: (1 Fast-ignited ICF-target at the ignition energy of 25–50 kJ and compression driver energy of 2–3 MJ; (2 ICF-target spark-ignited by 15–20 MJ heavy ion driver; (3 Spark-ignited target by 5–7 MJ laser as a neutron source for hybrid fusion-fission.

  9. AINSE Plasma Science and Technology Conference and Elizabeth and Frederick White Workshop on Fundamental Problems in the Physics of Magnetically Confined Plasmas: Conference handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The handbook contains abstracts of papers and posters presented at the conference. The main topics relate to plasma physics and fusion, plasma processing and uses as well as specific fusion devices and experiments. Eighty-four out of ninety-two presentations were considered to be in the INIS subject scope and have been separately indexed.

  10. Spacelab 1 - Scientific objectives, life sciences, space plasma physics, astronomy and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the accomplishments of the Spacelab 1 complement to the Shuttle mission of Nov. 28, 1983, is presented. Consideration is given to scientific results in the fields of life sciences, materials sciences, atmospheric physics, and earth observations. A table is given which lists the scientific objectives and the percentage of objectives accomplished in each field.

  11. Integrated physics analysis of plasma start-up scenario of helical reactor FFHR-d1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Sakamoto, R.; Seki, R.; Suzuki, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Satake, S.; Sagara, A.; The FFHR Design Group

    2015-06-01

    1D physics analysis of the plasma start-up scenario of the large helical device (LHD)-type helical reactor FFHR-d1 was conducted. The time evolution of the plasma profile is calculated using a simple model based on the LHD experimental observations. A detailed assessment of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and neo-classical energy loss was conducted using the integrated transport analysis code TASK3D. The robust controllability of the fusion power was confirmed by feedback control of the pellet fuelling and a simple staged variation of the external heating power with a small number of simple diagnostics (line-averaged electron density, edge electron density and fusion power). A baseline operation control scenario (plasma start-up and steady-state sustainment) of the FFHR-d1 reactor for both self-ignition and sub-ignition operation modes was demonstrated.

  12. Spectroscopy and atomic physics of highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni for tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cheng, C.-C.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the spectroscopy and atomic physics for some highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni ions produced in tokamak plasmas. Forbidden and intersystem wavelengths for Cr and Ni ions are extrapolated and interpolated using the known wavelengths for Fe lines identified in solar-flare plasmas. Tables of transition probabilities for the B I, C I, N I, O I, and F I isoelectronic sequences are presented, and collision strengths and transition probabilities for Cr, Fe, and Ni ions of the Be I sequence are given. Similarities of tokamak and solar spectra are discussed, and it is shown how the atomic data presented may be used to determine ion abundances and electron densities in low-density plasmas.

  13. Global problems in magnetospheric plasma physics and prospects for their solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Selected problems in magnetospheric plasma physics are critically reviewed. The discussion is restricted to questions that are 'global' in nature (i.e., involve the magnetosphere as a whole) and that are beyond the stage of systematic survey or isolated study requirements. Only low-energy particle aspects are discussed. The article focuses on the following subjects: (1) the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field on the topography, topology, and stability of the magnetospheric boundary; (2) solar-wind plasma entry into the magnetosphere; (3) plasma storage and release mechanisms in the magnetospheric tail; and (4) magnetic-field-aligned currents and magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions. A brief discussion of the prospects for the solution of these problems during and after the International Magnetospheric Study is given.

  14. James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Talk: On Nonlinear Physics of Shear Alfv'en Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liu

    2012-10-01

    Shear Alfv'en Waves (SAW) are electromagnetic oscillations prevalent in laboratory and nature magnetized plasmas. Due to its anisotropic propagation property, it is well known that the linear wave propagation and dispersiveness of SAW are fundamentally affected by plasma nonuniformities and magnetic field geometries; for example, the existence of continuous spectrum, spectral gaps, and discrete eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas. This talk will discuss the crucial roles that nonuniformity and geometry could also play in the physics of nonlinear SAW interactions. More specifically, the focus will be on the Alfv'enic state and its breaking up by finite compressibility, non-ideal kinetic effects, and geometry. In the case of compressibility, finite ion-Larmor-radius effects are shown to qualitatively and quantitatively modify the three-wave parametric decays via the ion-sound perturbations. In the case of geometry, the spontaneous excitation of zonal structures by toroidal Alfv'en eigenmodes is investigated; demonstrating that, for realistic tokamak geometries, zonal current dominates over zonal flow. [4pt] Present address: Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

  15. Classical Methods of Statistics With Applications in Fusion-Oriented Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kardaun, Otto J W F

    2005-01-01

    Classical Methods of Statistics is a blend of theory and practical statistical methods written for graduate students and researchers interested in applications to plasma physics and its experimental aspects. It can also fruitfully be used by students majoring in probability theory and statistics. In the first part, the mathematical framework and some of the history of the subject are described. Many exercises help readers to understand the underlying concepts. In the second part, two case studies are presented exemplifying discriminant analysis and multivariate profile analysis. The introductions of these case studies outline contextual magnetic plasma fusion research. In the third part, an overview of statistical software is given and, in particular, SAS and S-PLUS are discussed. In the last chapter, several datasets with guided exercises, predominantly from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, are included and their physical background is concisely described. The book concludes with a list of essential keyword transl...

  16. TELEMATICS APPLICATIONS REMOT: Interfaces and Adaptations of the Plasma Physics Demonstrator

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmerling, G.; Van der Meer, E.

    1997-01-01

    In document D6.2, a textual description of the soft- and hardware components of the plasma physics demonstrator as well as a definition of remote and local site was given. In order to couple these components to a complete teleoperation system, interfaces between them have to be defined and existing soft- and hardware have to be adapted. This task will be described in this document.

  17. Minimally-Invasive Gene Transfection by Chemical and Physical Interaction of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma irradiated to the living-cell is investigated for medical applications such as gene transfection, which is expected to play an important role in molecular biology, gene therapy, and creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the conventional gene transfection using the plasma has some problems that the cell viability is low and the genes cannot be transferred into some specific lipid cells, which is attributed to the unknown mechanism of the gene transfection using the plasma. Therefore, the time-controlled atmospheric pressure plasma flow is generated and irradiated to the living-cell suspended solution for clarifying the transfection mechanism toward developing highly-efficient and minimally- invasive gene transfection system. In this experiment, fluorescent dye YOYO-1 is used as the simulated gene and LIVE/DEAD Stain is simultaneously used for cell viability assay. By the fluorescence image, the transfection efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the number of transferred and surviving cells to total cell count. It is clarified that the transfection efficiency is significantly increased by the short-time (cell viability (>90%). This result indicates that the physical effects such as the electric field caused by the charged particles arriving at the surface of the cell membrane, and chemical effects associated with plasma-activated products in solution act synergistically to enhance the cell-membrane transport with low-damage. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24108004.

  18. The Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) simulation of turbulent transport in the core plasma: A grand challenge in plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The long-range goal of the Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) is the reliable prediction of tokamak performance using physics-based numerical tools describing tokamak physics. The NTP is accomplishing the development of the most advanced particle and extended fluid model`s on massively parallel processing (MPP) environments as part of a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary numerical study of tokamak core fluctuations. The NTP is a continuing focus of the Office of Fusion Energy`s theory and computation program. Near-term HPCC work concentrates on developing a predictive numerical description of the core plasma transport in tokamaks driven by low-frequency collective fluctuations. This work addresses one of the greatest intellectual challenges to our understanding of the physics of tokamak performance and needs the most advanced computational resources to progress. We are conducting detailed comparisons of kinetic and fluid numerical models of tokamak turbulence. These comparisons are stimulating the improvement of each and the development of hybrid models which embody aspects of both. The combination of emerging massively parallel processing hardware and algorithmic improvements will result in an estimated 10**2--10**6 performance increase. Development of information processing and visualization tools is accelerating our comparison of computational models to one another, to experimental data, and to analytical theory, providing a bootstrap effect in our understanding of the target physics. The measure of success is the degree to which the experimentally observed scaling of fluctuation-driven transport may be predicted numerically. The NTP is advancing the HPCC Initiative through its state-of-the-art computational work. We are pushing the capability of high performance computing through our efforts which are strongly leveraged by OFE support.

  19. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  20. Some physics and chemistry of Coblation® electrosurgical plasma devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; Ryan, Thomas P.; Woloszko, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Electrosurgical devices employing plasmas to ablate, cut and otherwise treat tissues have been in widespread use for decades. Following d'Arsonval's 19th century work on the neuromuscular response from high-frequency excitation of tissue, Doyen treated skin blemishes with a spark-gap generator in 1909. In the late 1920's, physician Harvey Cushing and Harvard physicist William Bovie developed an electrosurgical device and power source that eventually became a standard of care for cutting, coagulating, desiccating, or fulgurating tissue. Beginning in the 1990's a new class of low-voltage electrosurgical devices employing electricallyconducting saline fluids were developed by ArthroCare Corp. These modern Coblation® devices are now widely used in many different surgical procedures, including those in arthroscopic surgery, otorhinolaryngology, spine surgery, urology, gynecological surgery, and others. This paper summarizes some of the research we have been doing over the last decade to elucidate the physics and chemistry underlying Coblation® electrosurgical devices. Electrical-, thermal-, fluid-, chemicaland plasma-physics all play important roles in these devices and give rise to a rich variety of observations. Experimental techniques employed include optical and mass spectroscopy, fast optical imaging, and electrical voltage and current measurements. Many of the features occur on fast time scales and small spatial scales, making laboratory measurements difficult, so coupled-physics, finite-element-modeling can also be employed to glean more information than has been acquired thus far through physical observation.

  1. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Buttenschön, B; Butterworth, A; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Feldbaumer, E; Fonseca, R A; Goddard, B; Gross, M; Grulke, O; Gschwendtner, E; Holloway, J; Huang, C; Jaroszynski, D; Jolly, S; Kempkes, P; Lopes, N; Lotov, K; Machacek, J; Mandry, S R; McKenzie, J W; Meddahi, M; Militsyn, B L; Moschuering, N; Muggli, P; Najmudin, Z; Noakes, T C Q; Norreys, P A; Öz, E; Pardons, A; Petrenko, A; Pukhov, A; Rieger, K; Reimann, O; Ruhl, H; Shaposhnikova, E; Silva, L O; Sosedkin, A; Tarkeshian, R; Trines, R M G N; Tückmantel, T; Vieira, J; Vincke, H; Wing, M; Xia G , G

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN { the AWAKE experiment { has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  2. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Buttenschon, B; Butterworth, A; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Feldbaumer, E; Fonseca, R A; Goddard, B; Gross, M; Grulke, O; Gschwendtner, E; Holloway, J; Huang, C; Jaroszynski, D; Jolly, S; Kempkes, P; Lopes, N; Lotov, K; Machacek, J; Mandry, S R; McKenzie, J W; Meddahi, M; Militsyn, B L; Moschuering, N; Muggli, P; Najmudin, Z; Noakes, T C Q; Norreys, P A; Oz, E; Pardons, A; Petrenko, A; Pukhov, A; Rieger, K; Reimann, O; Ruhl, H; Shaposhnikova, E; Silva, L O; Sosedkin, A; Tarkeshian, R; Trines, R M G N; Tuckmantel, T; Vieira, J; Vincke, H; Wing, M; Xia, G

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN -- the AWAKE experiment -- has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  3. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems; NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERROR, [value too long for type character varying(50); Hejzlar, Pavel; Yarsky, Peter; Driscoll, Mike; Wachs, Dan; Weaver, Kevan; Czerwinski, Ken; Pope, Mike; Parry, James; Marshall, Theron D.; Davis, Cliff B.; Crawford, Dustin; Hartmann, Thomas; Saha, Pradip

    2005-01-31

    This project is organized under four major tasks (each of which has two or more subtasks) with contributions among the three collaborating organizations (MIT, INEEL and ANL-West): Task A: Core Physics and Fuel Cycle; Task B: Core Thermal Hydraulics; Task C: Plant Design; Task D: Fuel Design The lead PI, Michael J. Driscoll, has consolidated and summarized the technical progress submissions provided by the contributing investigators from all sites, under the above principal task headings.

  4. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.

    2009-09-03

    through the background plasma. If controlled, this physical effect can be used for optimized beam transport over long distances.

  5. Simulation study of burning control with transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Gonta [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masayoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-07-01

    Dynamics of burning plasmas are studied by use of one dimensional simulation code with current diffusive ballooning mode model. Focusing on the effects of current profile control, burning performance is evaluated. The ohmic plasma is heated by additional heating and ignited state of the plasma is reached. Due to the formation of negative shear, improved confinement is obtained with the L-mode boundary condition. Controlling the external current drive, burning state is sustained longer than 1000 sec. (author)

  6. Study on the effects of physical plasma on in-vitro cultivates cells; Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von physikalischem Plasma auf in vitro kultivierte Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassenburg, Susanne

    2014-03-15

    This study focused on the interactions of non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma on in vitro cultured keratinocytes (HaCaT keratinocytes) and melanoma cells (MV3). Three different plasma sources were used: a plasma jet (kINPen 09), a surface DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) and a volume DBD. For analyzing basic effects of plasma on cells, influence of physical plasma on viability, on DNA and on induction of ROS were investigated. Following assays were used: -- Viability: - neutral red uptake assay, cell counting (number of viable cells, cell integrity) - BrdU assay (proliferation) - Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, flow cytometry (induction of apoptosis), -- DNA: - alkaline comet assay (detection of DNA damage) - staining of DNA with propidium iodide, flow cytometry (cell cycle analysis), -- ROS: - H2DCFDA assay, flow cytometry (detection of ROS-positive cells). In addition to the effects which where induced by the plasma sources, the influence of the plasma treatment regime (direct, indirect and direct with medium exchange), the working gas (argon, air) and the surrounding liquids (cell culture medium: RPMI, IMDM; buffer solutions: HBSS, PBS) on the extent of the plasma cell effects were investigated. All plasma sources induced treatment time-dependent effects in HaCaT keratinocytes and melanoma cells (MV3): - loss of viable cells and reduced proliferation - induction of apoptosis after the longest treatment times - DNA damage 1 h after plasma treatment, 24 h after plasma treatment DNA damage was present only after the longest treatment times, evidence for DNA damage repair - due to accumulation of cells in G2/M phase, cell count in G1 phase (24 h) is lower - increase of ROS-positive cells 1 h and 24 h after plasma treatment. It was shown that cells which were cultured in RPMI showed stronger effects (stronger loss of viability and more DNA damage) than cells which were cultured in IMDM. Also plasma-treated buffer solutions (HBSS, PBS) induced DNA

  7. On the Burning of Plutonium Originating from Light Water Reactor Use in a Fast Molten Salt Reactor—A Neutron Physical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Merk; Dzianis Litskevich

    2015-01-01

    An efficient burning of the plutonium produced during light water reactor (LWR) operation has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability indices of LWR operations. The work offers a comparison of the efficiency of Pu burning in different reactor configurations—a molten salt fast reactor, a LWR with mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and a sodium cooled fast reactor. The calculations are performed using the HELIOS 2 code. All results are evaluated against the plutonium burning efficiency d...

  8. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  9. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader

  10. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > Burns A A A What's ... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ...

  11. Influence of sedentary versus physically active conditions on regulation of plasma renin activity and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Patrick J

    2008-09-01

    Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Sedentary animals compared to physically active controls exhibit enhanced sympathoexcitatory responses, including arterial baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation. Hypotension-induced sympathoexcitation is also associated with the release of vasoactive hormones. We hypothesized that sedentary conditions may enhance release of the vasoactive hormones AVP and ANG II. To test this hypothesis, the humoral response to hypotension was examined in conscious rats after 9-12 wk of sedentary conditions or "normally active" conditions. Normally active conditions were produced by allowing rats access to running wheels in their home cages. Running distance peaked after 4 wk (4.5 +/- 0.7 km/day), and the total distance run after 9 wk was 174 +/- 23 km (n = 25). Similar levels of hypotension were induced in conscious sedentary or physically active animals with the arterial vasodilator, diazoxide (25 mg/kg iv). Control experiments used a saline injection of equivalent volume. Plasma samples were collected and assayed for plasma AVP concentration and plasma renin activity (PRA). Sedentary conditions significantly enhanced resting and hypotension-induced PRA relative to normal physical activity. In contrast, resting and hypotension-induced AVP levels were not statistically different between groups. These data suggest that baroreflex-mediated activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but not AVP secretion, is enhanced by sedentary conditions. We speculate that augmented activation of the renin-angiotensin system may be related to enhanced sympathetic outflow observed in sedentary animals and may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the sedentary population.

  12. Increasing the utility of the Functional Assessment for Burns Score: Not just for major burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Rodgers, Louise; Upson, Clara

    2016-02-01

    The Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score is established as an objective measure of physical function that predicts discharge outcome in adult patients with major burn. However, its validity in patients with minor and moderate burn is unknown. This is a multi-centre evaluation of the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome in adult inpatients with minor and moderate burns. FAB assessments were undertaken within 48 h of admission to (FAB 1), and within 48 h of discharge (FAB 2) from burn wards in 115 patients. Median age was 45 years and median burn size 4%. There were significant improvements in the patients' FAB scores (pburns.

  13. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginia Finley

    2001-04-20

    The results of the 1999 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1999. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality--an alternative energy source. 1999 marked the first year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion reactors. With its completion within budget and ahead of its target schedule, NSTX first plasma occurred on February 12, 1999. The 1999 performance of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was rated ''outstanding'' by the U.S. Department of Energy in the Laboratory Appraisal report issued early in 2000. The report cited the Laboratory's consistently excellent scientific and technological achievements, its successful management practices, and included high marks in a host of other areas including environmental management, employee health and safety, human resources administration, science education, and communications. Groundwater investigations continued under a voluntary

  14. Modeling physical chemistry of the Io plasma torus in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper, M.; Delamere, P. A.; Overcast-Howe, K.

    2016-07-01

    Periodicities in the Io plasma illustrate the rich complexity of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in space plasmas. The confounding System IV period (slower than the rotation of Jupiter's magnetic field ≡ System III) remains a mystery of the torus. Common to both System III and IV are modulations of the superthermal electron population. The small fraction (<1%) of hot electrons plays a vital role in torus physical and chemical properties, modulating the abundance and temperature of ion species. Building on previous models of torus physical chemistry, we have developed a two-dimensional model that includes azimuthal and radial transport (diffusion equation) while averaging chemical processes in latitude. This paper presents initial results of the model, demonstrating the role of hot electrons in forming a single-peaked torus structure. The effect of azimuthal shear is investigated as plasma is transported radially outward, showing how the torus properties evolve during transport from a chemically dominated regime (inner torus) to a transport dominated regime (outer torus). Surprisingly, we find that hot electron populations influence torus properties at all radial distances. While many of our results are preliminary, suggestions for future modeling experiments are suggested to provide additional insight into the origin of the ubiquitous superthermal electrons.

  15. 严重烧伤患者的早期治疗与功能恢复%Early Treatment and Physical Function Recovery of Severe Burn Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璧; 贾赤宇; 苏映军; 徐明达; 朱雄翔

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨严重烧伤患者早期治疗与功能训练的最佳方案。方法 9例烧伤面积>90%,Ⅲ度>70%患者采用同一部位反复供皮和Ⅱ度烧伤愈合后供皮以扩大皮源,以异体与自体皮相间移植和大片筛状皮移植为主,同时在创面愈合后即开始物理治疗和功能训练。结果 9例患者中3例恢复工作,6例能做些家务劳动,生活完全自理。结论 严重烧伤患者早期采取有效的植皮措施和功能训练是提高治愈率、减少并发症,促进患者功能恢复的有效保证。%Objective To investigate the optimal scheme for early treatmentand the physical function restoration. Methods Nine burn patients with burnt area >90 % of total body surface area (TBSA) and full thickness burnt area >70 % of TBSA were studied. In each of the skin grafts, donor cutaneous sheets were harvested repeatedly from the same sites or from healed area of partial thickness burnt wounds to enlarge the donor areas. For most of the wounds large autogenic mesh sheets grafting and modified Jackson's technique of autogenic-allogenic skin strip grafting were adopted. At the same time, physical therapy and function training were performed after wounds healed. Results Of the 9 patients, 3 restored to work and 6 could engage in the housework. Conclusion Early skin transplantation and function training in the patients with severe burn could increase the curative rate, decrease the incidence of the complications and promote the function recovery.

  16. STUDENT AWARD FINALIST: Plasma Acid: A Chemically and Physically Metastable Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shainsky, Natalie; Dobrynin, Danil; Ercan, Utku; Joshi, Suresh; Brooks, Ari; Ji, Haifeng; Fridman, Gregory; Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gennady

    2011-10-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge applied to the surface of a liquid creates a chemically and physically metastable substance. The properties and lifetime of the substance depend on the treatment conditions such as gas atmosphere and liquid medium used, treatment dose, and other parameters. When deionized water is used, the metastable substance becomes a strong oxidizer. We show that direct exposure of deionized water to neutral and charged species produced in plasma creates a strong oxidizer and acidic substance in this water which, for the lack of a better term, we termed plasma acid. Plasma acid can remain stable for relatively long time and its oxidizing power may be linked to the significant lowering of its pH. We report experiments that demonstrate plasma acid's metastability. We also show that observed pH of as low as 2.0 cannot be completely accounted for by the production of nitric acid; and that the conjugate base derived from superoxide is at least partly responsible for both, lowering of the pH and increase in the oxidizing power of the solution.

  17. Status of Plasma Physics Techniques for the Deposition of Tribological Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma physics deposition techniques of sputtering and ion-plating are reviewed. Their characteristics and potentials are discussed in terms of synthesis or deposition of tribological coatings. Since the glow discharge or plasma generated in the conventional sputtering and ion-plating techniques has a low ionization efficiency, rapid advances have been made in equipment design to further increase the ionization efficiency. The enhanced ionization favorably affects the nucleation and growth sequence of the coating. This leads to improved adherence and coherence, higher density, favorable morphological growth, and reduced internal stresses in the coatings. As a result, desirable coating characteristics can be precision tailored. Tribological coating characteristics of sputtered solid film lubricants such as MoS2, ion-plated soft gold and lead metallic films, and sputtered and ion-plated wear-resistant refractory compound films such as nitrides and carbides are discussed.

  18. pypk - A Python extension module to handle chemical kinetics in plasma physics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PLASMAKIN is a package to handle physical and chemical data used in plasma physics modeling and to compute gas-phase and gas-surface kinetics data: particle production and loss rates, photon emission spectra and energy exchange rates. A large number of species properties and reaction types are supported, namely: gas or electron temperature dependent collision rate coefficients, vibrational and cascade levels, evaluation of branching ratios, superelastic and other reverse processes, three-body collisions, radiation imprisonment and photoelectric emission. Support of non-standard rate coefficient functions can be handled by a user-supplied shared library.

    The main block of the PLASMAKIN package is a Fortran module that can be included in an user's program or compiled as a shared library, libpk. pypk is a new addition to the package and provides access to libpk from Python programs. It is build on top of the ctypes foreign function library module and is prepared to work with several Fortran compilers. However pypk is more than a wrapper and provides its own classes and functions taking advantage of Python language characteristics. Integration with Python tools allows substantial productivity gains on program development and insight on plasma physics problems.

  19. Magnetospheric Plasma Physics : the Impact of Jim Dungey’s Research

    CERN Document Server

    Southwood, David; Mitton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This book makes good background reading for much of modern magnetospheric physics. Its origin was a Festspiel for Professor Jim Dungey, former professor in the Physics Department at Imperial College on the occasion of his 90th birthday, 30 January 2013. Remarkably, although he retired 30 years ago, his pioneering and, often, maverick work in the 50’s through to the 70’s on solar terrestrial physics is probably more widely appreciated today than when he retired. Dungey was a theoretical plasma physicist. The book covers how his reconnection model of the magnetosphere evolved to become the standard model of solar-terrestrial coupling. Dungey’s open magnetosphere model now underpins a holistic picture explaining not only the magnetic and plasma structure of the magnetosphere, but also its dynamics which can be monitored in real time. The book also shows how modern day simulation of solar terrestrial coupling can reproduce the real time evolution of the solar terrestrial system in ways undreamt of in 1961 w...

  20. Computational Plasma Physics at the Bleeding Edge: Simulating Kinetic Turbulence Dynamics in Fusion Energy Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William

    2013-04-01

    Advanced computing is generally recognized to be an increasingly vital tool for accelerating progress in scientific research in the 21st Century. The imperative is to translate the combination of the rapid advances in super-computing power together with the emergence of effective new algorithms and computational methodologies to help enable corresponding increases in the physics fidelity and the performance of the scientific codes used to model complex physical systems. If properly validated against experimental measurements and verified with mathematical tests and computational benchmarks, these codes can provide more reliable predictive capability for the behavior of complex systems, including fusion energy relevant high temperature plasmas. The magnetic fusion energy research community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale very well with the number of processors on massively parallel supercomputers. A good example is the effective usage of the full power of modern leadership class computational platforms from the terascale to the petascale and beyond to produce nonlinear particle-in-cell simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of plasma turbulence in magnetically-confined high temperature plasmas. Illustrative results provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics in extreme-scale computing campaigns to enable predictive simulations with unprecedented physics fidelity. Some illustrative examples will be presented of the algorithmic progress from the magnetic fusion energy sciences area in dealing with low memory per core extreme scale computing challenges for the current top 3 supercomputers worldwide. These include advanced CPU systems (such as the IBM-Blue-Gene-Q system and the Fujitsu K Machine) as well as the GPU-CPU hybrid system (Titan).

  1. Burning vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; D'Cruz, David

    2016-04-26

    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn.

  2. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  3. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  4. The physics of positively biased conductors surrounded by dielectrics in contact with a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Chang, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The physics of a positively biased conductor surrounded by dielectrics in contact with plasma is investigated. It is shown that because of the presence of secondary emission from the surrounding dielectrics, the voltage of the surfaces near the conductor has three solutions. The high- and low-voltage solutions are stable, while the intermediate-voltage solution is unstable. This theory is applied to explain the snapover effect observed on high-voltage solar arrays that involve the use of highly biased surfaces in contact with the space environment.

  5. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for Calendar Year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, V.L.; Wieczorek, M.A.

    1994-03-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY92. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health.

  6. Physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeshev, A. A.; Rozhkova, E. A.; Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of quasicrystalline coatings based on the Al65Cu23Fe12 alloy prepared by plasma spraying have been investigated. The specific features of the phase formation due to the competitive interactions of the icosahedral ψ and cubic β phases have been elucidated. A correlation between the microhardness and the content of the icosahedral phase in the coating has been determined. The decisive role of the quasicrystalline phase in the formation of high tribological characteristics of the coatings has been revealed and tested.

  7. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, V.L.; Stencel, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY91. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health.

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Finley

    2000-03-06

    The results of the 1998 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the US Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants, if any, that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1998. One significant initiative is the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) program that embraces environment, safety, and health principles as one.

  9. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude

  10. Photon Physics and Plasma Research, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. This paper is the third part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with Photon Physics and Plasma Research. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the Jubilee XXXth SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET tokamak and pi-of-the sky experiments ...

  11. Analytical approximations for a conservative nonlinear singular oscillator in plasma physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzabeigy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A modified variational approach and the coupled homotopy perturbation method with variational formulation are exerted to obtain periodic solutions of a conservative nonlinear singular oscillator in plasma physics. The frequency–amplitude relations for the oscillator which the restoring force is inversely proportional to the dependent variable are achieved analytically. The approximate frequency obtained using the coupled method is more accurate than the modified variational approach and ones obtained using other approximate methods and the discrepancy between the approximate frequency using this coupled method and the exact one is lower than 0.31% for the whole range of values of oscillation amplitude. The coupled method provides a very good accuracy and is a promising technique to a lot of practical engineering and physical problems.

  12. FY93 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This is the annual report from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for the period October 1, 1992 to September 30, 1993. The report describes work done on TFTR during the year, as well as preparatory to beginning of D-T operations. Design work is ongoing on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) which is to test very long pulse operations of tokamak type devices. PBX has come back on line with additional ion-Bernstein power and lower-hybrid current drive. The theoretical program is also described, as well as other small scale programs, and the growing effort in collaboration on international design projects on ITER and future collaborations at a larger scale.

  13. An exercise-based physical therapy program for patients with patellar tendinopathy after platelet-rich plasma injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Meijer, L.T.B.; Zwerver, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe a post platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection, exercise-based physical therapy program, investigate feasibility and report the first results of patellar tendinopathy patients treated with PRP injection combined with the physical therapy program. Study Design: Case-series. Setti

  14. The Challenge of Incorporating Charged Dust in the Physics of Flowing Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Ma, Y.; Lai, H.; Jian, L.; Toth, G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of two oppositely charged species with very different mass ratios leads to interesting physical processes and difficult numerical simulations. The reconnection problem is a classic example of this principle with a proton-electron mass ratio of 1836, but it is not the only example. Increasingly we are discovering situations in which heavy, electrically charged dust particles are major players in a plasma interaction. The mass of a 1mm dust particle is about 2000 proton masses and of a 10 mm dust particle about 2 million proton masses. One example comes from planetary magnetospheres. Charged dust pervades Enceladus' southern plume. The saturnian magnetospheric plasma flows through this dusty plume interacting with the charged dust and ionized plume gas. Multiple wakes are seen downstream. The flow is diverted in one direction. The field aligned-current systems are elsewhere. How can these two wake features be understood? Next we have an example from the solar wind. When asteroids collide in a disruptive collision, the solar wind strips the nano-scale charged dust from the debris forming a dusty plasma cloud that may be over 106km in extent and containing over 100 million kg of dust accelerated to the solar wind speed. How does this occur, especially as rapidly as it appears to happen? In this paper we illustrate a start on understanding these phenomena using multifluid MHD simulations but these simulations are only part of the answer to this complex problem that needs attention from a broader range of the community.

  15. An Overview of Science Education and Outreach Activities at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. DeLooper; A. DeMeo; P. Lucas; A. Post-Zwicker; C. Phillips; C. Ritter; J. Morgan; P. Wieser; A. Percival; E. Starkman; G. Czechowicz

    2000-11-07

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has an energetic science education program and outreach effort. This overview describes the components of the programs and evaluates the changes that have occurred in this effort during the last several years. Efforts have been expanded to reach more students, as well as the public in general. The primary goal is to inform the public regarding the fusion and plasma research at PPPL and to excite students so that they can appreciate science and technology. A student's interest in science can be raised by tours, summer research experiences, in-classroom presentations, plasma expos, teacher workshops and web-based materials. The ultimate result of this effort is a better-informed public, as well as an increase in the number of women and minorities who choose science as a vocation. Measuring the results is difficult, but current metrics are reviewed. The science education and outreach programs are supported by a de dicated core group of individuals and supplemented by other members of the PPPL staff and consultants who perform various outreach and educational activities.

  16. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, Pwomen than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, V.L. and Levine, J.D.

    1999-01-10

    The results of the 1997 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants, if any, that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. During Calendar Year 1997, PPPL's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) completed fifteen years of fusion experiments begun in 1982. Over the course of three and half years of deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma experiments, PPPL set a world record of 10.7 million watts of controlled fusion power, more than 700 tritium shots pulsed into the reactor vessel generating more than 5.6 x 1020 neutron and 1.6 gigajoules of fusion energy and researchers studied plasma science experimental data, which included "enhanced reverse shear techniques." As TFTR was completing its historic operations, PPPL participated with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington (Seattle) in a collaboration effort to design the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This next device, NSTX, is located in the former TFTR Hot Cell on D site, and it is designed to be a smaller and more economical torus fusion reactor. Construction of this device began in late 1997, and first plasma in scheduled for early 1999. For 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy in its Laboratory Appraisal report rated the overall performance of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory as "excellent." The report cited the Laboratory's consistently excellent scientific and technological achievements and its successful management practices, which included high marks for environmental management, employee health and safety, human resources administration, science education, and communications. Groundwater investigations continued under a voluntary agreement with the New Jersey

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginia L. Finley

    2002-04-22

    The results of the 2000 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 2000. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality -- an alternative energy source. The year 2000 marked the second year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion power plants. With its completion within budget and ahead of its target schedule, NSTX first plasma occurred on February 12, 1999. In 2000, PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program measured tritium in the air at on-site and off-site sampling stations. PPPL is capable of detecting small changes in the ambient levels of tritium by using highly sensitive monitors. The operation of an in-stack monitor located on D-site is a requirement of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) regulations with limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Also included in PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program, are precipitation, surface

  19. Rossby vortices, spiral structures, solitons astrophysics and plasma physics in shallow water experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nezlin, Mikhail V

    1993-01-01

    This book can be looked upon in more ways than one. On the one hand, it describes strikingly interesting and lucid hydrodynamic experiments done in the style of the "good old days" when the physicist needed little more than a piece of string and some sealing wax. On the other hand, it demonstrates how a profound physical analogy can help to get a synoptic view on a broad range of nonlinear phenomena involving self-organization of vortical structures in planetary atmo­ spheres and oceans, in galaxies and in plasmas. In particular, this approach has elucidated the nature and the mechanism of such grand phenomena as the Great of galaxies. A number of our Red Spot vortex on Jupiter and the spiral arms predictions concerning the dynamics of spiral galaxies are now being confirmed by astronomical observations stimulated by our experiments. This book is based on the material most of which was accumulated during 1981-88 in close cooperation with our colleagues, experimenters from the Plasma Physics Department of the...

  20. Introduction to Gyrokinetic Theory with Applications in Magnetic Confinement Research in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.M. Tang

    2005-01-03

    The present lecture provides an introduction to the subject of gyrokinetic theory with applications in the area of magnetic confinement research in plasma physics--the research arena from which this formalism was originally developed. It was presented as a component of the ''Short Course in Kinetic Theory within the Thematic Program in Partial Differential Equations'' held at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science (24 March 2004). This lecture also discusses the connection between the gyrokinetic formalism and powerful modern numerical simulations. Indeed, simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential modern tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was enabled by two key factors: (i) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (ii) access to powerful new computational resources.

  1. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  2. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects....

  3. On the Burning of Plutonium Originating from Light Water Reactor Use in a Fast Molten Salt Reactor—A Neutron Physical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient burning of the plutonium produced during light water reactor (LWR operation has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability indices of LWR operations. The work offers a comparison of the efficiency of Pu burning in different reactor configurations—a molten salt fast reactor, a LWR with mixed oxide (MOX fuel, and a sodium cooled fast reactor. The calculations are performed using the HELIOS 2 code. All results are evaluated against the plutonium burning efficiency determined in the Consommation Accrue de Plutonium dans les Réacteurs à Neutrons RApides (CAPRA project. The results are discussed with special view on the increased sustainability of LWR use in the case of successful avoidance of an accumulation of Pu which otherwise would have to be forwarded to a final disposal. A strategic discussion is given about the unavoidable plutonium production, the possibility to burn the plutonium to avoid a burden for the future generations which would have to be controlled.

  4. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  5. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  6. 血浆白蛋白水平在烧伤患者中预测死亡率的研究%Plasma albumin levels predict mortality in patients with burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建勇

    2014-01-01

    目的研究烧伤患者的血浆白蛋白水平是否能够预测死亡率。方法选取大于16岁烧伤患者,收集其临床资料,包括如简明烧伤严重指数(ABSI),血浆白蛋白,球蛋白,血脂等。ROC曲线下面积用来评估白蛋白对死亡率的预测。结果486人纳入本研究,83.1%患者的烧伤面积小于30%,16.9%的患者烧伤大于30%。最为常见的烧伤原因是火焰。患者工作情况,烧伤性质,全层烧伤,吸入性烧伤,血白蛋白在存活患者与死亡患者中的分布显著不同(P<0.05)。存活患者与死亡患者相比,烧伤面积,入院ABSI,总胆固醇,甘油三酯,球蛋白,白蛋白,总蛋白值有显著地差异(P<0.05)。白蛋白,总蛋白,白球蛋白比,球蛋白,总胆固醇,甘油三酯预测死亡率的ROC曲线下面积分别是0.861,0.852,0.836,0.756,0.744,0.372。结论入院时,白蛋白水平在烧伤患者中可以当做敏感性及特异性标记物来预测死亡率。%Objective To investigate whether the level of serum albumin to predict mortality in burn patients. Methods The clinical data in burn patients aged more than 16 years old were analyzed,including abbreviation of burn severity index(ABSI), plasma albumin, globulin, blood fat. The ROC curve was used to evaluate albumin level on mortality prediction...Results 486 people were included in this study,.and most of them with burn area were less than 30%. (83.1%),.only 16.9% of patients were more than 30%..The most common cause was a flame injury..Work situation,.burn properties, full-thickness burns, inhalation burn, blood albumin in the distribution of live and death in patients were significantly different (P<0.05). There was a significantly difference between survival patients and death patients, in burn area,.hospital ABSI, total cholesterol, triglycerides, globulin, albumin, total protein (P<0.05). The areas under ROC curve

  7. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Levine; V.L. Finley

    1998-03-01

    The results of the 1996 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the US Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. During Calendar Year 1996, PPPL's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) continued to conduct fusion experiments. Having set a world record on November 2, 1994, by achieving approximately 10.7 million watts of controlled fusion power during the deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma experiments, researchers turned their attention to studying plasma science experiments, which included ''enhanced reverse shear techniques.'' Since November 1993, more than 700 tritium-fueled experiments were conducted, which generated more than 4 x 10(superscript 20) neutrons and 1.4 gigajoules of fusion energy. In 1996, the overall performance of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was rated ''excellent'' by the US Department of Energy in the Laboratory Appraisal report issued in early 1997. The report cited the Laboratory's consistently excellent scientific and technological achievements and its successful management practices, which included high marks for environmental management, employee health and safety, human resources administration, science education, and communications. Groundwater investigations continued under a voluntary agreement with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. PPPL monitored for the presence of nonradiological contaminants, mainly volatile organic compounds (components of degreasing solvents) and petroleum hydrocarbons (past leaks of releases of diesel fuel from underground storage tanks). Also, PPPL's radiological monitoring program characterized the ambient, background levels of tritium in the environment and

  8. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  9. ECRH on ASDEX Upgrade - System Status, Feed-Back Control, Plasma Physics Results -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamm J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG ECRH system now delivers a total of 3.9 MW to the plasma at 140 GHz. Three new units are capable of 2-frequency operation and may heat the plasma alternatively with 2.1 MW at 105 GHz. The system is routinely used with X2, O2, and X3 schemes. For Bt = 3.2 T also an ITER-like O1-scheme can be run using 105 GHz. The new launchers are capable of fast poloidal movements necessary for real-time control of the location of power deposition. Here real-time control of NTMs is summarized, which requires a fast analysis of massive data streams (ECE and Mirnov correlation and extensive calculations (equilibria, ray-tracing. These were implemented at AUG using a modular concept of standardized real-time diagnostics. The new realtime capabilities have also been used during O2 heating to keep the first reflection of the non-absorbed beam fraction on the holographic reflector tile which ensures a well defined second pass of the beam through the central plasma. Sensors for the beam position are fast thermocouples at the edge of the reflector tile. The enhanced ECRH power was used for several physics studies related to the unique feature of pure electron heating without fueling and without momentum input. As an example the effect of the variation of the heating mix in moderately heated H-modes is demonstrated using the three available heating systems, i.e. ECRH, ICRH and NBI. Keeping the total input power constant, strong effects are seen on the rotation, but none on the pedestal parameters. Also global quantities as the stored energy are hardly modified. Still it is found that the central ion temperature drops as the ECRH fraction exceeds a certain threshold.

  10. Calculation of stochasticity threshold and universality for Hamiltonian systems - Plasma physics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Benkadda, M. S.

    The renormalization-group theory of Wilson (1975), as developed by Escande and Doveil (1981) is applied to characterize the transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom; the threshold of large-scale stochasticity and the degree of universality of these systems are obtained; and applications to problems in plasma physics are investigated. The problems considered include the movement of a charged particle in a packet of longitudinal waves, the movement of a charged particle in a magnetic bottle (as modeled by Chirikov, 1979, or by Cohen, 1979), and the response of nonlinear array of oscillators to simultaneous perturbation by two isolated resonances (as studied by Walker and Ford, 1969). Diagrams and graphs are provided.

  11. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. [magnetospheric experiments from space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Current work aimed at identifying the active magnetospheric experiments that can be performed from the Space Shuttle, and designing a laboratory to carry out these experiments is described. The laboratory, known as the PPEPL (Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory) consists of 35-ft pallet of instruments connected to a 25-ft pressurized control module. The systems deployed from the pallet are two 50-m booms, two subsatellites, a high-power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform. Missions are planned to last seven days, during which two scientists will carry out experiments from within the pressurized module. The type of experiments to be performed are outlined.

  12. Basic microscopic plasma physics unified and simplified by N-body classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Escande, Dominique; Elskens, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Debye shielding, collisional transport, Landau damping of Langmuir waves, and spontaneous emission of these waves are introduced, in typical plasma physics textbooks, in different chapters. This paper provides a compact unified introduction to these phenomena without appealing to fluid or kinetic models, but by using Newton's second law for a system of $N$ electrons in a periodic box with a neutralizing ionic background. A rigorous equation is derived for the electrostatic potential. Its linearization and a first smoothing reveal this potential to be the sum of the shielded Coulomb potentials of the individual particles. Smoothing this sum yields the classical Vlasovian expression including initial conditions in Landau contour calculations of Langmuir wave growth or damping. The theory is extended to accommodate a correct description of trapping or chaos due to Langmuir waves. In the linear regime, the amplitude of such a wave is found to be ruled by Landau growth or damping and by spontaneous emission. Using...

  13. Analytical solitons for Langmuir waves in plasma physics with cubic nonlinearity and perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qin [Wuhan Donghu Univ. (China). School of Electronics and Information Engineering; Mirzazadeh, M. [Guilan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Engineering Sciences

    2016-07-01

    We presented an analytical study on dynamics of solitons for Langmuir waves in plasma physics. The mathematical model is given by the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger equation with full nonlinearity and Kerr law nonlinearity. There are three techniques of integrability were employed to extract exact solutions along with the integrability conditions. The topological 1-soliton solutions, singular 1-soliton solutions, and plane wave solution were reported by Ricatti equation expansion approach and then the bright 1-soliton solution, singular 1-soliton solution, periodic singular solutions, and plane wave solution were derived with the help of trial solution method. Finally, based on the G'/G-expansion scheme, we obtained the hyperbolic function travelling wave solution, trigonometric function travelling wave solution, and plane wave solution.

  14. Analytical Solitons for Langmuir Waves in Plasma Physics with Cubic Nonlinearity and Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Mirzazadeh, M.

    2016-09-01

    We presented an analytical study on dynamics of solitons for Langmuir waves in plasma physics. The mathematical model is given by the perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation with full nonlinearity and Kerr law nonlinearity. There are three techniques of integrability were employed to extract exact solutions along with the integrability conditions. The topological 1-soliton solutions, singular 1-soliton solutions, and plane wave solution were reported by Ricatti equation expansion approach and then the bright 1-soliton solution, singular 1-soliton solution, periodic singular solutions, and plane wave solution were derived with the help of trial solution method. Finally, based on the G'/G-expansion scheme, we obtained the hyperbolic function travelling wave solution, trigonometric function travelling wave solution, and plane wave solution.

  15. Bifurcation physics of magnetic islands and stochasticity explored by heat pulse propagation studies in toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Narushima, Y.; Evans, T. E.; Ohdachi, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.

    2016-09-01

    Bifurcation physics of a magnetic island was investigated using the heat pulse propagation technique produced by the modulation of electron cyclotron heating. There are two types of bifurcation phenomena observed in a large helical device (LHD) and DIII-D. One is a bifurcation of the magnetic topology between nested and stochastic fields. The nested state is characterized by the bi-directional (inward and outward) propagation of the heat pulse with slow propagation speed. The stochastic state is characterized by the fast propagation of the heat pulse with electron temperature flattening. The other bifurcation is between the magnetic island with larger thermal diffusivity and that with smaller thermal diffusivity. The damping of toroidal flow is observed at the O-point of the magnetic island both in helical plasmas and in tokamak plasmas during a mode locking phase with strong flow shears at the boundary of the magnetic island. Associated with the stochastization of the magnetic field, the abrupt damping of toroidal flow is observed in LHD. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. This observation suggests that this flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport.

  16. Investigations on the Nature of Ceramic Deposits in Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Mauer, G.; Gindrat, M.; Wäger, R.; Vaßen, R.

    2017-01-01

    In Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) process, major fractions of the feedstock powder can be evaporated so that coatings are deposited mainly from the vapor phase. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results indicate that such evaporation occurs significantly in the plasma torch nozzle and even nucleation and condensation of zirconia is highly possible there. Experimental work has been performed to investigate the nature of the deposits in the PS-PVD process, in particular coatings from condensate vapor and nano-sized clusters produced at two spraying distances of 1000 mm and 400 mm. At long spraying distance, columns in the coatings have pyramidal tops and very sharp faceted microstructures. When the spraying distance is reduced to 400 mm, the tops of columns become relatively flat and a faceted structure is not recognizable. XRD patterns show obvious preferred orientations of (110) and (002) in the coatings sprayed at 400 mm but only limited texture in the coatings sprayed at 1000 mm. Meanwhile, a non-line of sight coating was also investigated, which gives an example for pure vapor deposition. Based on these analyses, a vapor and cluster depositions are suggested to further explain the formation mechanisms of high-quality columnar-structured PS-PVD thermal barrier coatings which have already shown excellent performance in cyclic lifetime test.

  17. Investigation of physical processes limiting plasma density in H-mode on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jernigan, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    A series of experiments was conducted on the DIII-D tokamak to investigate the physical processes which limit density in high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges. The typical H-mode to low confinement mode (L-mode) transition limit at high density near the empirical Greenwald density limit was avoided by divertor pumping, which reduced divertor neutral pressure and prevented formation of a high density, intense radiation zone (MARFE) near the X-point. It was determined that the density decay time after pellet injection was independent of density relative to the Greenwald limit and increased non-linearly with the plasma current. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity in pellet-fueled plasmas was observed at all power levels, and often caused unacceptable confinement degradation, except when the neutral beam injected (NBI) power was {le} 3 MW. Formation of MARFEs on closed field lines was avoided with low safety factor (q) operation but was observed at high q, qualitatively consistent with theory. By using pellet fueling and optimizing discharge parameters to avoid each of these limits, an operational space was accessed in which density {approximately} 1.5 {times} Greenwald limit was achieved for 600 ms, and good H-mode confinement was maintained for 300 ms of the density flattop. More significantly, the density was successfully increased to the limit where a central radiative collapse was observed, the most fundamental density limit in tokamaks.

  18. Plasma Physics Challenges of MM-to-THz and High Power Microwave Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booske, John

    2007-11-01

    Homeland security and military defense technology considerations have stimulated intense interest in mobile, high power sources of millimeter-wave to terahertz regime electromagnetic radiation, from 0.1 to 10 THz. While sources at the low frequency end, i.e., the gyrotron, have been deployed or are being tested for diverse applications such as WARLOC radar and active denial systems, the challenges for higher frequency sources have yet to be completely met for applications including noninvasive sensing of concealed weapons and dangerous agents, high-data-rate communications, and high resolution spectroscopy and atmospheric sensing. The compact size requirements for many of these high frequency sources requires miniscule, micro-fabricated slow wave circuits with high rf ohmic losses. This necessitates electron beams with not only very small transverse dimensions but also very high current density for adequate gain. Thus, the emerging family of mm-to-THz e-beam-driven vacuum electronics devices share many of the same plasma physics challenges that currently confront ``classic'' high power microwave (HPM) generators [1] including bright electron sources, intense beam transport, energetic electron interaction with surfaces and rf air breakdown at output windows. Multidimensional theoretical and computational models are especially important for understanding and addressing these challenges. The contemporary plasma physics issues, recent achievements, as well as the opportunities and outlook on THz and HPM will be addressed. [1] R.J. Barker, J.H. Booske, N.C. Luhmann, and G.S. Nusinovich, Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics (IEEE/Wiley, 2005).

  19. 严重延迟复苏烧伤休克患者血浆脑钠肽的变化%Change in plasma brain natriuretic peptide and its clinical significance in burn patients after delayed fluid resuscitation of shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永新; 詹新华; 郑静伟; 吴祖煌; 陈建崇; 朱剑仙; 谢包根; 刘世康

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the early change in plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in burn patients with long delayed fluid resuscitation of burn shock and its clinical significance.Methods Thirty-six burn patients with second and third degree of burn covering 32%- 92% total body surface area were enrolled for the study, among them 10 patients were complicated with serious heart failure (heart failure group), and 26 patients rallied from shock after delayed fluid resuscitation without heart failure (stable group).The level of plasma BNP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined at admission and 3 hours after hospitalization, and 24, 48, 72, 168 hours after the injury in both groups with electrochemiluminescence (ECL).Results Compared with stable group, the plasma BNP level (ng/L) of heart failure group at 3 hours after hospitalization, and 24, 48, 72 hours after the burn injury increased significantly (3 hours after hospitalization: 1 521.38±121.11 vs.391.36±63.27, 24 hours after burn: 2 516.86±193.25 vs.360.79±146.56, 48 hours after burn: 1 587.76±169.23 vs.398.92±77.46, 72 hours after burn: 974.45±166.33vs.283.43 ± 68.15, all P< 0.01), the level of LVEF lowered significantly (3 hours after hospitalization;0.33±0.03 vs.0.58±0.09, 24 hours after burn: 0.36±0.09 vs.0.60±0.10, 48 hours after burn: 0.35±0.08 vs.0.62±0.11, 72 hours after burn: 0.39±0.10 vs.0.64±0.10, all P<0.05).The levels of LDH (μmol·s-1·L-1)in stable group were 2.87±0.50 at admission,3.02±0.43 3hours after hospitalization,4.02±0.87 24 hours after burn, 6.90±0.87 48 hours after burn, 3.64±0.75 72 hours after burn, 2.670.45 168 hours after burn while in heart failure group, they were 2.97±1.40, 3.84±0.37, 4.29±0.45,8.50±0.38, 3.84±0.62, 2.30±0.38, respectively;and CK-MB (U/L) in stable group were 59.12±13.75at admission, 70.39 ±10.72 3 hours after hospitalization, 79.29 ±17

  20. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  1. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  2. Core Physics and Kinetics Calculations for the Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C.; Albright, D.

    2007-01-01

    Highly efficient, compact nuclear reactors would provide high specific impulse spacecraft propulsion. This analysis and numerical simulation effort has focused on the technical feasibility issues related to the nuclear design characteristics of a novel reactor design. The Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor (FPCR) is a shockwave-driven gaseous-core nuclear reactor, which uses Magneto Hydrodynamic effects to generate electric power to be used for propulsion. The nuclear design of the system depends on two major calculations: core physics calculations and kinetics calculations. Presently, core physics calculations have concentrated on the use of the MCNP4C code. However, initial results from other codes such as COMBINE/VENTURE and SCALE4a. are also shown. Several significant modifications were made to the ISR-developed QCALC1 kinetics analysis code. These modifications include testing the state of the core materials, an improvement to the calculation of the material properties of the core, the addition of an adiabatic core temperature model and improvement of the first order reactivity correction model. The accuracy of these modifications has been verified, and the accuracy of the point-core kinetics model used by the QCALC1 code has also been validated. Previously calculated kinetics results for the FPCR were described in the ISR report, "QCALC1: A code for FPCR Kinetics Model Feasibility Analysis" dated June 1, 2002.

  3. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics. Final report, fiscal years 1989--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA`s experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.

  4. On the coupling of fields and particles in accelerator and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    In accelerator and plasma physics it is generally accepted that there is no need to solve the dynamical equations for particles motion in manifestly covariant form, that is by using the coordinate-independent proper time to parameterize particle world-lines in space-time. In other words, in order to describe the dynamical processes in the laboratory frame there is no need to use the laws of relativistic kinematics. It is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particles momentum on the velocity in the second Newton's law. Therefore, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of result from particle dynamics treated according to Newton's laws in terms of the relativistic three-momentum and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell's equations in standard form. In previous papers we argued that this is a misconception. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail how to calculate the coupling between fields and particles in a correct way and how to develop a new algorithm for a particle tracking code in agreement with the use of Maxwell's equations in their standard form. Advanced textbooks on classical electrodynamics correctly tell us that Maxwell's equations in standard form in the laboratory frame and charged particles are coupled by introducing particles trajectories as projections of particles world-lines onto coordinates of the laboratory frame and by subsequently using the laboratory time to parameterize the trajectory curves. For the first time we showed a difference between conventional and covariant particle tracking results in the laboratory frame. This essential point has never received attention in the physical community. Only the solution of the dynamical equations in covariant form gives the correct coupling between field equations in standard form and particles trajectories in the laboratory frame. We conclude that previous theoretical and simulation results in

  5. Physics and Chemistry of MW Laser-induced Discharge in Gas Flows and Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    can be quasi-stationary coaxial plasma accelerators (MPC). This type of accelerators generates plasma jets of different gases (H2, He, N2, Ar) with...gas is ionizing and accelerating in discharge processing. For this regime the plasma gun generates the plasma jets of different gases3 (H2, He, N2...spectrometers. Spectrometers 1 and 2 are used for measuring of time behavior of single spectral lines, emitting in the focus area of plasma gun . Usually

  6. The physics and chemistry of dusty plasmas: A laboratory and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical work on dusty plasmas was conducted in three areas: collective effects in a dusty plasma, the role of dusty plasmas in cometary atmospheres, and the role of dusty plasmas in planetary atmospheres (particularly in the ring systems of the giant planets). Laboratory investigations consisted of studies of dust/plasma interactions and stimulated molecular excitation and infrared emission by charged dust grains. Also included is a list of current publications.

  7. Scientific Fellow of Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) and European Physical Society President Elect F. Wagner at ATLAS experiment with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni on 22 September 2006.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Scientific Fellow of Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) and European Physical Society President Elect F. Wagner at ATLAS experiment with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni on 22 September 2006.

  8. Calculation of 2-temperature plasma thermo-physical properties considering condensed phases: application to CO2-CH4 plasma: part 1. Composition and thermodynamic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Rong, Mingzhe; Cressault, Yann; Yang, Fei; Niu, Chunping; Sun, Hao

    2016-10-01

    As the first part of this series of papers, a new calculation method for composition and thermodynamic properties of 2-temperature plasma considering condensed species under local chemical equilibrium (LCE) and local phase equilibrium assumption is presented. The 2-T mass action law and chemical potential are used to determine the composition of multiphase system. The thermo-physical properties of CO2-CH4 mixture, which may be a possible substitution for SF6, are calculated by this method as an example. The influence of condensed graphite, non-LTE effect, mixture ratio and pressure on the thermo-physical properties has been discussed. The results will serve as reliable reference data for computational simulation of CO2-CH4 plasmas.

  9. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Dubick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Normal iron handling appears to be disrupted in critically ill patients leading to hypoferremia that may contribute to systemic inflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp, an acute phase reactant protein that can convert ferrous iron to its less reactive ferric form facilitating binding to ferritin, has ferroxidase activity that is important to iron handling. Genetic absence of Cp decreases iron export resulting in iron accumulation in many organs. The objective of this study was to characterize iron metabolism and Cp activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients to determine if changes in Cp activity are a potential contributor to the observed hypoferremia. Material and Methods: Under Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board approved protocols, serum or plasma was collected from burn and non-burn trauma patients on admission to the ICU and at times up to 14 days and measured for indices of iron status, Cp protein and oxidase activity and cytokines. Results: Burn patients showed evidence of anemia and normal or elevated ferritin levels. Plasma Cp oxidase activity in burn and trauma patients were markedly lower than controls on admission and increased to control levels by day 3, particularly in burn patients. Plasma cytokines were elevated throughout the 14 days study along with evidence of an oxidative stress. No significant differences in soluble transferrin receptor were noted among groups on admission, but levels in burn patients were lower than controls for the first 5 days after injury. Conclusion: This study further established the hypoferremia and inflammation associated with burns and trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an early decrease in Cp oxidase activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients. The results support the hypothesis that transient loss of Cp activity contributes to hypoferremia and inflammation. Further studies are warranted to determine if decreased Cp activity increases the risk of

  10. Immunoelectron microscopic evidence for Tetherin/BST2 as the physical bridge between HIV-1 virions and the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hammonds

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin/BST2 was identified in 2008 as the cellular factor responsible for restricting HIV-1 replication at a very late stage in the lifecycle. Tetherin acts to retain virion particles on the plasma membrane after budding has been completed. Infected cells that express large amounts of tetherin display large strings of HIV virions that remain attached to the plasma membrane. Vpu is an HIV-1 accessory protein that specifically counteracts the restriction to virus release contributed by tetherin. Tetherin is an unusual Type II transmembrane protein that contains a GPI anchor at its C-terminus and is found in lipid rafts. The leading model for the mechanism of action of tetherin is that it functions as a direct physical tether bridging virions and the plasma membrane. However, evidence that tetherin functions as a physical tether has thus far been indirect. Here we demonstrate by biochemical and immunoelectron microscopic methods that endogenous tetherin is present on the viral particle and forms a bridge between virion particles and the plasma membrane. Endogenous tetherin was found on HIV particles that were released by partial proteolytic digestion. Immunoelectron microscopy performed on HIV-infected T cells demonstrated that tetherin forms an apparent physical link between virions and connects patches of virions to the plasma membrane. Linear filamentous strands that were highly enriched in tetherin bridged the space between some virions. We conclude that tetherin is the physical tether linking HIV-1 virions and the plasma membrane. The presence of filaments with which multiple molecules of tetherin interact in connecting virion particles is strongly suggested by the morphologic evidence.

  11. Advances in physical study of high enthalpy plasma jets of technological interest: emission spectra and plasma characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevtsev, A. A.; Chinnov, V. F.; Isakaev, E. Kh.; Markin, A. V.; Tazikova, T. F.; Tereshkin, S. A.

    1998-10-01

    Offers a comprehensive study of the emission spectra and plasma characteristics of high enthalpy atmospheric pressure argon and nitrogen jets produced by a high- current industrially important arc plasmatron with a vortex stabilized channel-anode (I4g/s, jet diameter at a minimum-6mm). The spectra are taken at different distances from the cathode in the 200-950nm region with a spectral resolution=3D0.01nm allowing a fine structure of vibronic bands to be essentially resolved except that due to the dublet (spin) splitting and Λ-doubling. Also derived (through the Abel inversion) are radial distributions of plasma components. The spectra obtained have been used for determining plasma composition, the electron component parameters (by atomic/ionic Stark half-widths and intensities) and the assessment of rotational and vibrational temperatures by simulating molecular bands.

  12. Construction of an Alpha Particle Spark Detector and Fusor for research in plasma physics and radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsulire, Olorunsola; Fils-Aime, Fabrice; Hecla, Jake; Short, Michael; White, Anne

    2016-10-01

    This project delves into the realms of plasma physics and nuclear engineering by exploring systems used to generate plasmas and detect radiation. Basic plasma processes can be explored using inertial electrostatic confinement, in a device commonly called a ``fusor''. The fusor will generate neutrons and x-rays. The breakdown of air within a spark gap can be achieved with alpha particles and the avalanche effect; and constitutes an Alpha Particle Spark Detector (APSD), relevant for studies of basic nuclear processes and detectors. In the fusor, preliminary data was collected on breakdown voltage versus pressure in an air plasma to see how well the current system and geometry match up with expectations for the Paschen curve. A stable plasma was observed, at voltages roughly consistent with expectations, and it was concluded that a more controlled gas introduction system is needed to maintain a steady plasma over wider pressure ranges, and will allow for introduction of D2 gas for the study of neutron and x-ray producing plasmas. This poster will discuss the design, construction, and initial operation of the Alpha Particle Spark Detector and the fusor as part of an Undergraduate Research Opportunity (UROP) project. MIT UROP Program and the NSE department.

  13. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginia L. Finley

    2004-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's (PPPL) operations. The results of the 2001 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for PPPL are presented and discussed. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 2001. PPPL has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The vision of the Laboratory is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality--a clean, alternative energy source. The Year 2001 marked the third year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion reactors. In 2001, PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program measured tritium in the air at on- and off-site sampling stations. PPPL is capable of detecting small changes in the ambient levels of tritium by using highly sensitive monitors. The operation of an in-stack monitor located on D-site is a requirement of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) regulations; also included in PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program, are water monitoring--precipitation, ground-, surface-, and waste-waters. PPPL's radiological monitoring program characterized the ambient, background levels of tritium in the environment and from the D-site stack; the data are presented in this report. Groundwater monitoring

  14. Plasma-Jet-Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF): Physics and Design for a Plasma Liner Formation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Scott; Cassibry, Jason; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Spherically imploding plasma liners are a potential standoff compression driver for magneto-inertial fusion, which is a hybrid of and operates in an intermediate density between those of magnetic and inertial fusion. We propose to use an array of merging supersonic plasma jets to form a spherically imploding plasma liner. The jets are to be formed by pulsed coaxial guns with contoured electrodes that are placed sufficiently far from the location of target compression such that no hardware is repetitively destroyed. As such, the repetition rate can be higher (e.g., 1 Hz) and ultimately the power-plant economics can be more attractive than most other MIF approaches. During the R&D phase, a high experimental shot rate at reasonably low cost (e.g., gun plasma-liner-formation experiment, which will provide experimental data on: (i) scaling of peak liner ram pressure versus initial jet parameters, (ii) liner non-uniformity characterization and control, and (iii) control of liner profiles for eventual gain optimization.

  15. Development of a Renormalization Group Approach to Multi-Scale Plasma Physics Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    with important kinetic non - Maxwellian particle distributions. These plasmas exhibit a range of length and time scales, making accurate simulation a...the plasmas ’ phase space for accurate reproduction of natural phenomena. These four goals offer an interlocking plan of attack to reach a full...anisotropic bimodal intermittent turbulence in space plasmas ” Phys. Plasmas . 11 (2004) 1287-1299.] to describe phenomena such as the scaling of the

  16. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  17. Summary Talk of the X Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Opher, Reuven

    2004-01-01

    Of the many important topics that were discussed at the workshop, I summarize and comment on 25 presentations, which I found to be particularly interesting. They fall into all of the areas covered in the conference: basic plasma phenomena, space and astrophysical plasmas, technological applications of plasma, and thermonuclear fusion.

  18. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  19. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to single-particle ICP-MS for the simultaneous characterization of AgNPs and determination of dissolved Ag in plasma and blood of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mičetić, Ivan; Benetti, Federico; Manodori, Laura; Cairns, Warren R L

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in medical devices as innovative antibacterial agents, but no data are currently available on their chemical transformations and fate in vivo in the human body, particularly on their potential to reach the circulatory system. To study the processes involving AgNPs in human plasma and blood, we developed an analytical method based on hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in single-particle detection mode. An innovative algorithm was implemented to deconvolute the signals of dissolved Ag and AgNPs and to extrapolate a multiparametric characterization of the particles in the same chromatogram. From a single injection, the method provides the concentration of dissolved Ag and the distribution of AgNPs in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, mass-derived diameter, number and mass concentration. This analytical approach is robust and suitable to study quantitatively the dynamics and kinetics of AgNPs in complex biological fluids, including processes such as agglomeration, dissolution and formation of protein coronas. The method was applied to study the transformations of AgNP standards and an AgNP-coated dressing in human plasma, supported by micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES) speciation analysis and imaging, and to investigate, for the first time, the possible presence of AgNPs in the blood of three burn patients treated with the same dressing. Together with our previous studies, the results strongly support the hypothesis that the systemic mobilization of the metal after topical administration of AgNPs is driven by their dissolution in situ. Graphical Abstract Simplified scheme of the combined analytical approach adopted for studying the chemical dynamics of AgNPs in human plasma/blood.

  20. Experimental benchmark of non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium plasma atomic physics codes; Validation experimentale des codes de physique atomique des plasmas hors equilibre thermodynamique local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagels-Silvert, V

    2004-09-15

    The main purpose of this thesis is to get experimental data for the testing and validation of atomic physics codes dealing with non-local-thermodynamical-equilibrium plasmas. The first part is dedicated to the spectroscopic study of xenon and krypton plasmas that have been produced by a nanosecond laser pulse interacting with a gas jet. A Thomson scattering diagnostic has allowed us to measure independently plasma parameters such as electron temperature, electron density and the average ionisation state. We have obtained time integrated spectra in the range between 5 and 10 angstroms. We have identified about one hundred xenon rays between 8.6 and 9.6 angstroms via the use of the Relac code. We have discovered unknown rays for the krypton between 5.2 and 7.5 angstroms. In a second experiment we have extended the wavelength range to the X UV domain. The Averroes/Transpec code has been tested in the ranges from 9 to 15 angstroms and from 10 to 130 angstroms, the first range has been well reproduced while the second range requires a more complex data analysis. The second part is dedicated to the spectroscopic study of aluminium, selenium and samarium plasmas in femtosecond operating rate. We have designed an interferometry diagnostic in the frequency domain that has allowed us to measure the expanding speed of the target's backside. Via the use of an adequate isothermal model this parameter has led us to know the plasma electron temperature. Spectra and emission times of various rays from the aluminium and selenium plasmas have been computed satisfactorily with the Averroes/Transpec code coupled with Film and Multif hydrodynamical codes. (A.C.)

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), conducted June 13 through 17, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team members are being provided by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PPPL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PPPL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environment problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A plan is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the PPPL Survey findings for inclusion in the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 70 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. On the Coupling of Fields and Particles in Accelerator and Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    In accelerator and plasma physics it is accepted that there is no need to solve the dynamical equations for particles in covariant form, i.e. by using the coordinate-independent proper time to parameterize particle world-lines in space-time: to describe dynamics in the laboratory frame, there is no need to use the laws of relativistic kinematics. It is sufficient to account for the relativistic dependence of particles momenta on the velocity in the second Newton's law. Then, the coupling of fields and particles is based on the use of result from particle dynamics treated according to Newton's laws in terms of the relativistic three-momentum and on the use of Maxwell's equations in standard form. Previously, we argued that this is a misconception. Here we describe in detail how to calculate the coupling between fields and particles in a correct way and how to develop a new algorithm for a particle tracking code in agreement with the use of Maxwell's equations in their standard form. Advanced textbooks on class...

  3. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Negatively Associated with Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Minority Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adar Emken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and physical activity (PA in minority female youth. Methods. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 39 females (mean age 9.2±0.9 years; 30 Latina, 9 African-American; 56% overweight. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Mean minutes per day spent in daily PA (DPA (≥3 metabolic equivalents (METs, moderate PA (MPA(4–7 METs, vigorous PA (VPA(≥7 METs, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA(≥4 METs were calculated. The association between adiponectin and PA, controlling for age, fat weight, lean weight, and insulin sensitivity (SI was analyzed using linear regression. Results. Adiponectin correlated with fat weight (r=-0.43, P<.01 and SI (r=0.52, P<.01. Minutes spent in DPA (β=-0.40, P=.02, MPA (β=-0.36, P=.04, or MVPA (β=-0.37, P=.03 were predictors of adiponectin in the adjusted model. Conclusions. Higher PA levels were related to lower adiponectin levels. Potential mechanisms include upregulation of adiponectin receptors or an increase in high-molecular weight adiponectin with increasing PA.

  4. Overview of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Plasma Physics Research at the University of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, John; Emmert, Gilbert; Kulcinski, Gerald; Bonomo, Richard; Alderson, Eric; Becerra, Gabriel; Garrison, Lauren; Hall, Karla; McEvoy, Aaron; Michalak, Matthew; Schuff, Craig

    2012-10-01

    In inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion devices, a voltage difference between nearly transparent electrodes accelerates ions to fusion-relevant velocities, typically in spherical geometry. University of Wisconsin IEC research has produced ˜10^8 steady-state and ˜10^10 pulsed DD neutrons per second, plus ˜10^8 D^3He protons per second [1]. The neutrons have been used to detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) and C-4 explosives; the protons have produced radioisotopes for positron emission tomography at proof-of-principle levels [1]. A new 300 kV, 200 mA power supply will begin operation in 2012, which should increase fusion reaction rates. Presently, the investigation of IEC plasma physics issues at the University of Wisconsin comprises: (1) theoretical analysis of ion and neutral flow through atomic or molecular gases; (2) negative-ion production; (3) fusion of DD, D^3He, and ^3He^3He; (4) converging ion beams; and (5) ion-surface interactions. Diagnostic development includes: (a) charged fusion product Doppler-shift and time-of-flight; (b) movable Faraday cup; and (c) double Langmuir probe.[4pt] [1] G.L. Kulcinski, et al., Fusion Science and Technology 56, 493, (2009).

  5. A Preliminary Study of the Relationship between Plasma Endothelin Level and Myocardial Damage at the Early Stage of Severe Burn%严重烧伤病人早期血浆内皮素变化与心肌损害关系的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟克勤; 马恩庆

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of plasma endothelin (ET) level on myocardial injury of severely burned patients. Method: Plasma ET level was determined by radio- immunoassay and plasma levels of CK-MB by automatic serum biochemical assay. Result: Plasma ET level increased significantly 12 hr post burn as compared with normal persons (P<0.01), plasma CK MB increased significantly within first 24 hr post burn. Plasma ET level was positive correlated to CK MB level. Conclusion: The results suggested that elevated plasma ET level may be involved in the damage of myocardium in the early stage of severe burn.%目的:探讨血浆内皮素(ET)变化与烧伤早期心肌损害的关系。方法:采用放免法检测5例严重烧伤病人烧伤早期血浆ET和ASCA仪测定血浆肌酸激酶同工酶(CK-MB)。结果:伤后12h血浆ET(106.0±1.6pg/ml,n=5)较正常人组(47.6±3.4pg/ml,n=8)明显升高。血浆CK-MB在伤后明显升高。相关分析显示,ET升高与CK-MB呈高度正相关。结论:血浆ET升高可能参与了烧伤早期的心肌损害。

  6. Magnetic shield for turbomolecular pump of the Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subir; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Pal, Rabindranath

    2011-01-01

    The turbo molecular pump of the Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental device is protected from damage by a magnetic shield. As the pump runs continuously in a magnetic field environment during a plasma physics experiment, it may get damaged owing to eddy current effect. For design and testing of the shield, first we simulate in details various aspects of magnetic shield layouts using a readily available field design code. The performance of the shield made from two half cylinders of soft iron material, is experimentally observed to agree very well with the simulation results.

  7. Effect of applying static electric field on the physical parameters and dynamics of laser-induced plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Elhassan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the LIBS technique – in particular its sensitivity, reproducibility and limit of detection – we studied the effect of applying a static electric field with different polarities on the emission spectra obtained in a typical LIBS set-up. The physical parameters of the laser-induced plasma, namely the electron density Ne and the plasma temperature Te, were studied under such circumstances. In addition to the spectroscopic analysis of the plasma plume emission, the laser-induced shock waves were exploited to monitor the probable changes in the plasma plume dynamics due to the application of the electric field. The study showed a pronounced enhancement in the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio of different Al, neutral and ionic lines under forward biasing voltage (negative target and positive electrode. On the other hand, a clear deterioration of the emission line intensities was observed under conditions of reversed polarity. This negative effect may be attributed to the reduction in electron-ion recombinations due to the stretched plasma plume. The plasma temperature showed a constant value in the average with the increasing electric field in both directions. This effect may be due to the fact that the measured values of Te were averaged over the whole plasma emission volume. The electron density was observed to decrease slightly in the case of forward biasing while no significant effect was noticed in the case of reversed biasing. This slight decrease in Ne can be interpreted in view of the increase in the rate of electron–ion recombinations due to the presence of the electric field. No appreciable effects of the applied electric field on the plasma dynamics were noticed.

  8. Development of Multistep and Degenerate Variational Integrators for Applications in Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Charles Leland

    Geometric integrators yield high-fidelity numerical results by retaining conservation laws in the time advance. A particularly powerful class of geometric integrators is symplectic integrators, which are widely used in orbital mechanics and accelerator physics. An important application presently lacking symplectic integrators is the guiding center motion of magnetized particles represented by non-canonical coordinates. Because guiding center trajectories are foundational to many simulations of magnetically confined plasmas, geometric guiding center algorithms have high potential for impact. The motivation is compounded by the need to simulate long-pulse fusion devices, including ITER, and opportunities in high performance computing, including the use of petascale resources and beyond. This dissertation uses a systematic procedure for constructing geometric integrators --- known as variational integration --- to deliver new algorithms for guiding center trajectories and other plasma-relevant dynamical systems. These variational integrators are non-trivial because the Lagrangians of interest are degenerate - the Euler-Lagrange equations are first-order differential equations and the Legendre transform is not invertible. The first contribution of this dissertation is that variational integrators for degenerate Lagrangian systems are typically multistep methods. Multistep methods admit parasitic mode instabilities that can ruin the numerical results. These instabilities motivate the second major contribution: degenerate variational integrators. By replicating the degeneracy of the continuous system, degenerate variational integrators avoid parasitic mode instabilities. The new methods are therefore robust geometric integrators for degenerate Lagrangian systems. These developments in variational integration theory culminate in one-step degenerate variational integrators for non-canonical magnetic field line flow and guiding center dynamics. The guiding center integrator

  9. Alfven mode stability and wave-particle interaction in the JET tokamak: prospects for scenario development and control schemes in burning plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, D [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Fasoli, A [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Borba, D [Associacao EURATOM/IST (Portugal); EDFA-CSU, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom); Baar, M de [FOM-Instituut Voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands); Bigi, M [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Brzozowski, J [NADA VR-Euratom Association, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Vries, P de [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of different ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating schemes, of error field modes, of the plasma shape and edge magnetic shear, and of the ion {nabla}B drift direction on the stability of Alfven eigenmodes (AEs). The use of multi-frequency or 2nd harmonic minority ICRF heating at high plasma density gives rise to a lower fast ion pressure gradient in the plasma core and to a reduced mode activity in the Alfven frequency range. Externally excited low-amplitude error fields lead to a much larger AE instability threshold, which we attribute to a moderate radial redistribution of the fast ions. The edge plasma shape has a clear stabilizing effect on high-n, radially localized AEs. The damping rate of n = 1 toroidal AEs is a factor 3 higher when the ion {nabla}B drift is directed towards the divertor. These results represent a useful step towards the extrapolation of current scenarios to the inclusion of fusion-born alpha particles in ITER, with possible application for feedback control schemes for the various ITER operating regimes.

  10. Pickup ion-mediated plasma physics of the outer heliosphere and very local interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.

    2016-12-01

    Observations of plasma and turbulence in the outer heliosphere (the distant supersonic solar wind and the subsonic solar wind beyond the heliospheric termination shock) made by the Voyager Interstellar Mission and the energetic neutral atom observations made by the IBEX spacecraft have revealed that the underlying plasma in the outer heliosphere and very local interstellar medium (VLISM) comprises distinct thermal proton and electron and suprathermal pickup ion (PUI) populations. Estimates of the appropriate collisional frequencies show that the multi-component plasma is not collisionally equilibrated in either the outer heliosphere or VLISM. Furthermore, suprathermal PUIs in these regions form a thermodynamically dominant component. We review briefly a subset of the observations that led to the realization that the solar wind-VLISM interaction region is described by a non-equilibrated multi-component plasma and summarizes the derivation of suitable plasma models that describe a PUI-mediated plasma.

  11. Transport hysteresis of core plasma, isotope effect, and H-mode physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.; Inagaki, S.

    2017-02-01

    This article assesses the understanding of and impact by the hysteresis in transport relation. The rapid changes of fluxes compared to slow changes of plasma parameters are overviewed for both edge barrier and core plasmas. The theoretical approaches to understanding the direct influence of heating power on turbulent transport are addressed. Based on this new theoretical framework, the ‘isotope effect’ of plasma confinement time is discussed. A trial explanation is given for this unresolved mystery in plasma confinement. The advanced data analysis method to research the hysteresis in gradient-flux relation is explained.

  12. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation.

  13. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  14. Analysis of a Relaxation Scheme for a Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation Occurring in Plasma Physics

    KAUST Repository

    Oelz, Dietmar

    2014-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a relaxation-type numerical scheme for a nonlinear Schrödinger equation arising in plasma physics. The scheme is shown to be preservative in the sense that it preserves mass and energy. We prove the well-posedness of the semidiscretized system and prove convergence to the solution of the time-continuous model. © 2014 © Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2014.

  15. Minor burns - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice can injure the tissue even more. If possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it ...

  16. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  17. Learn Not To Burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  18. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  19. Lagrangian formulation of the one-dimensional Vlasov equation. [in plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewak, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A new formulation of the one-dimensional Vlasov equation is derived which is analogous to the Kalman-transformed cold-plasma equations. The equations are shown to yield nonsecular, nonlinear approximations to a source or boundary-value problem. It is suggested that the formulation may have other applications in nonlinear plasma theory.

  20. Burn care professionals' attitudes and practices regarding discussions of sexuality and intimacy with adult burn survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Rutter, Cindy E; Lessard, Collette R; Pressman, Melissa Singer; Jost, Janet Cusick; Bosch, James; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2010-01-01

    Burn injury survival means coping with more than just the physical changes and disabilities often encountered after burn injury. Overall quality of life is important, and issues such as sexuality and intimacy are significant facets of quality of life. A literature review revealed limited research regarding current burn center practices related to sexuality and intimacy concerns of burn survivors and their partners. A 28-item survey, designed by seasoned burn care professionals and survivors, was distributed to burn care practitioners attending general sessions at several burn conferences in the United States. Seventy-one (86%) of the invited respondents completed the survey, with nursing representing the majority (63%). Mean tenure working in burn care was 10 years. Mean age of respondents was 40.5 years, with 75% being female and 25% male. Nearly half (47%) reported that specific staff was not designated to discuss sexuality and intimacy with survivors in their center. Sixty-two percent reported that special training regarding sexuality and intimacy was not available at their burn center. Only 14% of respondents indicated that they were "very comfortable" initiating conversation regarding these topics. Fifty-five percent said they were only likely to discuss sexuality and intimacy if the patient/partner initiated the discussion; however, 95% agreed that the patient should not have this responsibility. Although results represent findings from only 37 burn centers, the issues of sexuality and intimacy are not being effectively addressed in the participating centers. Designated staff to provide education is lacking, and there is limited comfort on the part of health care providers in initiating such conversations. These factors seem to often prevent burn care professionals from adequately addressing burn survivor's sexuality and intimacy needs and establish the need for further development of training and educational materials specific to sexuality, intimacy, and

  1. Physical processes of driven magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas: Zero guide field case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. Z.; Inoue, S.; Ono, Y.; Horiuchi, R.

    2015-10-01

    The key physical processes of the electron and ion dynamics, the structure of the electric and magnetic fields, and how particles gain energy in the driven magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas for the zero guide field case are presented. The key kinetic physics is the decoupling of electron and ion dynamics around the magnetic reconnection region, where the magnetic field is reversed and the electron and ion orbits are meandering, and around the separatrix region, where electrons move mainly along the field line and ions move mainly across the field line. The decoupling of the electron and ion dynamics causes charge separation to produce a pair of in-plane bipolar converging electrostatic electric field ( E→ e s ) pointing toward the neutral sheet in the magnetic field reversal region and the monopolar E→ e s around the separatrix region. A pair of electron jets emanating from the reconnection current layer generate the quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field, which causes the parallel electric field ( E→ || ) from E→ i n d to accelerate particles along the magnetic field. We explain the electron and ion dynamics and their velocity distributions and flow structures during the time-dependent driven reconnection as they move from the upstream to the downstream. In particular, we address the following key physics issues: (1) the decoupling of electron and ion dynamics due to meandering orbits around the field reversal region and the generation of a pair of converging bipolar electrostatic electric field ( E→ e s ) around the reconnection region; (2) the slowdown of electron and ion inflow velocities due to acceleration/deceleration of electrons and ions by E→ e s as they move across the neutral sheet; (3) how the reconnection current layer is enhanced and how the orbit meandering particles are accelerated inside the reconnection region by E→ i n d ; (4) why the electron outflow velocity from the reconnection region reaches super-Alfvenic speed

  2. On burning a lump of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless has an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative size of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  3. On burning a lump of coal

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  4. Partial Burn Laws in Propellant Erosive Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Finjakov

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and computer methods were developed for investigating the combustion phenomena in the propellants which burn in streams of hot gas flowing along the burn surfaces of the propellants. The experimental investigations allowed establishment of different dependencies for erosive burning. Computer solutions of the problem for double-base (DB propellants showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The suggested variant of modified theory considers the change of heat release in solids, the real burn surface roughness, the nonisothermality of boundary layer and the effect of gas mass blow from the propellant burn surface into the gas stream. This modified theory was used for studying burn laws at 30-1000 atm and up to gas stream sound velocities for different DB propellants. It was found that gas stream leads to splitting of the propellant burn laws, m = bp/sup v/. Pressure power (v, in this case depends on gas stream velocity (W, diameter of the propellant tube canal (d and gas stream temperature (T/sub w/. It is because of this that these burn laws were named partial burn laws. They have the form (m = bp/sup w(omega/ w,d,T/sub w/ -const. The dependencies w(omega = f(w,d,T/sub w/ were obtained by the modified theory. It was found that omega values mainly decrease when pressure increases beginning from ~200 to 400 atm and they can decrease up to w(omega = 0,1- 0,3. Similar results can be obtained for composite propellants.

  5. Progress in Understanding Error-field Physics in NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Menard, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.P. Gerhardt, J.-K. Park, S.A. Sabbagh, J.W. Berkery, A. Egan, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B. LeBlanc, Y.Q. Liu, A. Sontag, D. Swanson, H. Yuh, W. Zhu and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-05-19

    The low aspect ratio, low magnetic field, and wide range of plasma beta of NSTX plasmas provide new insight into the origins and effects of magnetic field errors. An extensive array of magnetic sensors has been used to analyze error fields, to measure error field amplification, and to detect resistive wall modes in real time. The measured normalized error-field threshold for the onset of locked modes shows a linear scaling with plasma density, a weak to inverse dependence on toroidal field, and a positive scaling with magnetic shear. These results extrapolate to a favorable error field threshold for ITER. For these low-beta locked-mode plasmas, perturbed equilibrium calculations find that the plasma response must be included to explain the empirically determined optimal correction of NSTX error fields. In high-beta NSTX plasmas exceeding the n=1 no-wall stability limit where the RWM is stabilized by plasma rotation, active suppression of n=1 amplified error fields and the correction of recently discovered intrinsic n=3 error fields have led to sustained high rotation and record durations free of low-frequency core MHD activity. For sustained rotational stabilization of the n=1 RWM, both the rotation threshold and magnitude of the amplification are important. At fixed normalized dissipation, kinetic damping models predict rotation thresholds for RWM stabilization to scale nearly linearly with particle orbit frequency. Studies for NSTX find that orbit frequencies computed in general geometry can deviate significantly from those computed in the high aspect ratio and circular plasma cross-section limit, and these differences can strongly influence the predicted RWM stability. The measured and predicted RWM stability is found to be very sensitive to the E × B rotation profile near the plasma edge, and the measured critical rotation for the RWM is approximately a factor of two higher than predicted by the MARS-F code using the semi-kinetic damping model.

  6. New Basic Physics Derived from Laser Plasma Interaction (lirpp Vol. 10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Heinrich

    2016-10-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * VARIOUS PHENOMENA * COMPLETION OF THE EQUATION OF MOTION BY NONLINEAR FORCES * NONLINEAR PRINCIPLE * CONTAINMENT FORCE OF HADRONS IN NUCLEI AND PHASE TRANSITION INTO QUARK GLUON PLASMA * Acknowledgements * References

  7. 60th Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics: 6th Laser-plasma interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A; Jaroszinski, D A

    2009-01-01

    Presents diagnostic methods, experimental techniques, and simulation tools used to study and model laser-plasma interactions. This book discusses the basic theory of the interaction of intense electromagnetic radiation fields with matter.

  8. Spectral and Atomic Physics Analysis of Xenon L-Shell Emission From High Energy Laser Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Daniel; Kemp, G. E.; Widmann, K.; Benjamin, R. D.; May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Liedahl, D.; Moore, A. S.; Blue, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of the L-shell (n =2) radiation in mid to high-Z ions is useful for probing plasma conditions in the multi-keV temperature range. Xenon in particular with its L-shell radiation centered around 4.5 keV is copiously produced from plasmas with electron temperatures in the 5-10 keV range. We report on a series of time-resolved L-shell Xe spectra measured with the NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) in high-energy long-pulse (>10 ns) laser produced plasmas at the National Ignition Facility. The resolving power of the NXS is sufficiently high (E/ ∂E >100) in the 4-5 keV spectral band that the emission from different charge states is observed. An analysis of the time resolved L-shell spectrum of Xe is presented along with spectral modeling by detailed radiation transport and atomic physics from the SCRAM code and comparison with predictions from HYDRA a radiation-hydrodynamics code with inline atomic-physics from CRETIN. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, Maastricht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    This report references the EURATOM-CEA association contributions presented at the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, in Maastricht (Netherlands) the 14-18 June 1999. Two invited papers and 24 contributed papers are proposed. They deal with: tokamak devices; particle recirculation in ergodic divertor; current profile control and MHD stability in Tore Supra discharges; edge-plasma control by the ergodic divertor; electron heat transport in stochastic magnetic layer; bolometry and radiated power; particle collection by ergodic divertor; study and simulation of pa impurities; line shape modelling for plasma edge conditions; dynamical study of the radial structure of the fluctuations measured by reciprocating Langmuir probe in Tore Supra; up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations; Halo currents in a circular tokamak; real time measurement of the position, density, profile and current profile at Tore Supra; poloidal rotation measurement by reflectometry; interpretation of q-profile dependence of the LH power deposition profile during LHCD experiments; ICFR plasma production and optimization; improved core electron confinement; measurement of hard X-ray emission profile; modelling of shear effects on thermal and particles transport; ion turbulence; current drive generation based on autoresonance and intermittent trapping mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  10. [The pain from burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  11. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) achieved first plasma at 3:05 a.m. on December 24, 1982. During the course of the year, the plasma current was raised to a maximum of 1 MA, and extensive confinement studies were carried out with ohmic-heated plasmas. The most important finding was that tokamak energy confinement time increases as the cube of the plasma size. The Princeton Large Torus (PLT) carried out a number of high-powered plasma-heating experiments in the ion cyclotron frequency range, and also demonstrated for the first time that a 100-kA tokamak discharge can be built up by means of rf-waves in the lower hybrid range, without any need for inductive current drive by the conventional tokamak transformer system. The Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX) demonstrated that substantial improvements in plasma confinement during intense neutral-beam heating can be obtained by means of either a magnetic divertor or a mechanical scoop limiter. The S-1 spheromak experiment has come into operation, with first plasma in January 1983, and machine completion in August. The soft X-ray laser development experiment continues to make strong progress towards the demonstration of laser amplification. Thus far, a single-pass gain of 3.5 has been achieved, using the 182 A line of CVI. Theoretical MHD-stability studies have shed new light on the nature of the energetic-ion-driven ''fishbone instability,'' and the utilization of the bean-shaping technique to reach higher beta values in the tokamak.

  12. Plasma treatment of fiber facets for increased (de)mating endurance in physical contact fiber connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Voss, Kevin; De Witte, Martijn; Radulescu, Radu; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    It is known that cleaving an optical fiber introduces a number of irregularities and defects to the fiber's end-face, such as hackles and shockwaves. These defects can act as failure initiators when stress is applied to the end-face. Given the fiber's small diameter of 125 ffm, a large amount of mechanical stress can be expected to be applied on its end-face during the mating-demating cycle. In addition, a connector in a fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network can be expected to be mated and demated more than 30 times during its lifetime for purposes such as testing, churning, or provisioning. For this reason, the performance of a connector that displays low optical loss when first installed can dramatically degrade after few mating-demating cycles and catastrophic connector failure due to end-face breakage is likely. We present plasma discharge shaping of cleaved fiber tips to strongly improve the endurance of the fibers to repeated mating-demating cycles. We quantify the dependency of the plasma-induced surface curvature of the fiber tip on the plasma duration and on the position of the fiber tip within the plasma cloud. Finally we present data showing the improved endurance of fibers that are exposed to plasma compared to conventional as-cleaved fibers.

  13. The unexpected confluence of plasma physics and climate science: On the lives and legacies of Norman Rostoker and Sherry Rowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Norman Rostoker Memorial Symposium brought together approximately 150 attendees to share their recent work and to reflect on the contributions of Norman Rostoker to the field of plasma physics and the advancement of fusion as a source of renewable clean energy. The field has changed considerably in a few short decades, with theoretical advances and technological innovations evolving in lock step. Over those same decades, our understanding of human induced climate change has also evolved; measurable changes in Earth's physical, chemical, and biological processes have already been observed, and these will likely intensify in the coming decades. Never before has the need for clean energy been more pronounced, or the need for transformative solutions more pressing. As scientists work with legislators, journalists, and the public to take actions to address the threat of climate change, there is much to be learned from the legacies of innovators like Norman Rostoker, who have tackled complex problems with scientific insight and determination even when the odds were stacked against them. I write this from the perspective on an Earth system scientist who studies photosynthesis and the biogeochemistry of the oceans, and my statements about plasma physics and Norman Rostoker are based on information I gathered from the colloquium and from many enjoyable conversations with his friends and colleagues.

  14. Aerobic exercise capacity after burn injury in children and adolescentsin the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim; Beerthuizen, Gerard I,J.M; van der Woude, Lucas; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne; Mouton, Leonora J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Burn injuries have a major impact on the patient’s physical and psychological functioning. The consequences can, especially for pediatric burns, persist long after the injury. Loss of physical fitness after burns seems logical, considering inflammatory and stress responses and a lo

  15. Physical mechanism determining the radial electric field and its radial structure in a toroidal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, Katsumi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Itoh, Sanae [and others

    1994-10-01

    Radial structures of plasma rotation and radial electric field are experimentally studied in tokamak, heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices. The perpendicular and parallel viscosities are measured. The parallel viscosity, which is dominant in determining the toroidal velocity in heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices, is found to be neoclassical. On the other hand, the perpendicular viscosity, which is dominant in dictating the toroidal rotation in tokamaks, is anomalous. Even without external momentum input, both a plasma rotation and a radial electric field exist in tokamaks and heliotrons/torsatrons. The observed profiles of the radial electric field do not agree with the theoretical prediction based on neoclassical transport. This is mainly due to the existence of anomalous perpendicular viscosity. The shear of the radial electric field improves particle and heat transport both in bulk and edge plasma regimes of tokamaks. (author) 95 refs.

  16. P24 Plasma Physics Summer School 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory Summer lecture series for students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Bruno [Univ Nevada, Reno; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, William S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weber, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Awe, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yong Ho [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-07

    This report covers the 2012 LANL summer lecture series for students. The lectures were: (1) Tom Intrator, P24 LANL: Kick off, Introduction - What is a plasma; (2) Bruno Bauer, Univ. Nevada-Reno: Derivation of plasma fluid equations; (3) Juan Fernandez, P24 LANL Overview of research being done in p-24; (4) Tom Intrator, P24 LANL: Intro to dynamo, reconnection, shocks; (5) Bill Daughton X-CP6 LANL: Intro to computational particle in cell methods; (6) Kirk Flippo, P24 LANL: High energy density plasmas; (7) Thom Weber, P24 LANL: Energy crisis, fission, fusion, non carbon fuel cycles; (8) Tom Awe, Sandia National Laboratory: Magneto Inertial Fusion; and (9) Yongho Kim, P24 LANL: Industrial technologies.

  17. Effects of Surgical and Physical Therapy on Functional Reconstruction post Severe Burn%外科手术结合物理治疗对严重烧伤后功能重建的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 王甲汉; 杨磊; 李志清; 任加良

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of surgical and physical therapy on functional reconstruction post severe burn. Methods 21 patients with severe burn accepted comprehensive rehabilitation, while the other 18 cases accepted surgical therapy only. Modified Barthel Index and Vancouver Scar Scale were applied to assess their activities of daily living (ADL) and scar recovery 3 months, 1 year or 2 years post injury. Results Compared with the control group, the observation significantly improved in ADL and scar recovery with fewer opera-tions (P<0.01). Conclusion The surgical and physical therapy facilitates to improve the functional recovery post severe burn.%目的:评估外科手术结合物理治疗对严重烧伤后功能重建的影响。方法39例严重烧伤患者中,21例(观察组)接受规范化功能康复体系治疗,18例(对照组)仅定期返院接受外科手术治疗。手术和物理治疗分别在烧伤治疗中心和医学康复中心完成。采用改良Barthel指数和温哥华瘢痕量表观测患者伤后3个月、1年和2年的日常生活活动能力及体表瘢痕康复情况。结果与对照组相比,观察组日常生活活动能力明显提高(P<0.01),体表瘢痕明显改善(P<0.01),整形手术总次数明显减少(P<0.01)。结论外科手术结合物理治疗可提高严重烧伤后期功能障碍矫正效果。

  18. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  19. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  20. Proceedings of the US-Japan workshop and the satellite meeting of ITC-9 on physics of high beta plasma confinement in innovative fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Satoru [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high {beta} plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high {beta} systems; Formation of high {beta} plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Cluster and SOHO - A joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rudolf; Domingo, Vicente; Shawhan, Stanley D.; Bohlin, David

    1988-01-01

    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed.

  2. Solving kinetic equations with adaptive mesh in phase space for rarefied gas dynamics and plasma physics (Invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolobov, Vladimir [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805, USA and The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Arslanbekov, Robert [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Frolova, Anna [Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers.

  3. Plasma Measurements: An Overview of Requirements and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth M. Young

    2008-01-04

    This paper introduces this special issue on plasma diagnostics for magnetic fusion devices. Its primary purpose is to relate the measurements of plasma parameters to the physics challenges to be faced on operating and planned devices, and also to identify the diagnostic techniques that are used to make these measurements. The specific physics involved in the application of the techniques will be addressed in subsequent chapters. This chapter is biased toward measurements for tokamaks because of their proximity to the burning plasma frontier, and to set the scene for the development work associated with ITER. Hence, there is some emphasis on measurements for alpha-physics studies and the needs for plasma measurements as input to actuators to control the plasma, both for optimizing the device performance and for protection of the surrounding material. The very different approach to the engineering of diagnostics for a burning plasma is considered, emphasizing the needs for new calibration ideas, reliability and hardness against, and compatibility with, radiation. New ideas take a long time to be converted into "work-horse" sophisticated diagnostics so that investment in new developments is essential for ITER, particularly for the measurement of alpha-particles.

  4. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  5. Physics of Nonmagnetic Relativistic Thermal Plasmas. Ph.D. Thesis - Calif. Univ., San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed treatment of the kinematics of relativistic systems of particles and photons is presented. In the case of a relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of particles, the reaction rate and luminosity are written as single integrals over the invariant cross section, and the production spectrum is written as a double integral over the cross section differential in the energy of the produced particles (or photons) in the center-of-momentum system of two colliding particles. The results are applied to the calculation of the annihilation spectrum of a thermal electron-positron plasma, confirming previous numerical and analytic results. Relativistic thermal electron-ion and electron-electron bremsstrahlung are calculated exactly to lowest order, and relativistic thermal electron-positron bremsstrahlung is calculated in an approximate fashion. An approximate treatment of relativistic Comptonization is developed. The question of thermalization of a relativistic plasma is considered. A formula for the energy loss or exchange rate from the interaction of two relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann plasmas at different temperatures is derived. Application to a stable, uniform, nonmagnetic relativistic thermal plasma is made. Comparison is made with other studies.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of dust produced in a N2-CH4 RF plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouni, F.; Adande, G.; Thissen, R.; Alcouffe, G.; Szopa, C.; Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Laprévote, O.; Quirico, E.; Brissaud, O.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.

    2008-09-01

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated using a Capacitively Coupled Plasma discharge produced in a N2-CH4 mixture. The produced solid particles are analysed ex-situ. Chemical properties are deduced from: elemental composition, FTIR and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Optical properties are deduced from reflectivity in visible and IR range.

  7. Microdevice for plasma separation from whole human blood using bio-physical and geometrical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Kumar, Y. V. BalaVarun; Agrawal, Amit; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research work, we present a simple and efficient passive microfluidic device for plasma separation from pure blood. The microdevice has been fabricated using conventional photolithography technique on a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane, and has been extensively tested on whole blood and enhanced (upto 62%) hematocrit levels of human blood. The microdevice employs elevated dimensions of about 100 μm; such elevated dimensions ensure clog-free operation of the microdevice and is relatively easy to fabricate. We show that our microdevice achieves almost 100% separation efficiency on undiluted blood in the flow rate range of 0.3 to 0.5 ml/min. Detailed biological characterization of the plasma obtained from the microdevice is carried out by testing: proteins by ultra-violet spectrophotometric method, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone, and conducting random blood glucose test. Additionally, flow cytometry study has also been carried on the separated plasma. These tests attest to the high quality of plasma recovered. The microdevice developed in this work is an outcome of extensive experimental research on understanding the flow behavior and separation phenomenon of blood in microchannels. The microdevice is compact, economical and effective, and is particularly suited in continuous flow operations. PMID:27279146

  8. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  9. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  10. Effect of an oxygen plasma on the physical and chemical properties of several fluids for the Liquid Droplet Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Coles, Carolyn E.

    1987-01-01

    The Liquid Droplet Radiator is one of several radiator systems currently under investigation by NASA Lewis Research Center. It involves the direct exposure of the radiator working fluid to the space environment. An area of concern is the potential harmful effects of the low-Earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment on the radiator working fluid. To address this issue, seven candidate fluids were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The fluids studied included Dow Corning 705 Diffusion Pump Fluid, polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane, both of which are experimental fluids made by Dow Corning, Fomblin Z25, made by Montedison, and three fluids from the Krytox family of fluids, Krytox 143AB, 1502, and 16256, which are made by DuPont. The fluids were characterized by noting changes in visual appearance, physical state, mass, and infrared spectra. Of the fluids tested, the Fomblin and the three Krytoxes were the least affected by the oxygen plasma. The only effect noted was a change in mass, which was most likely due to an oxygen-catalyzed depolymerization of the fluid molecule.

  11. Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 1404: Cluster Plasma Physics Revealed by an Infalling Early-type Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Roediger, Elke; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM), as a magnetized and highly ionized fluid, provides an ideal laboratory to study plasma physics under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved on Earth. NGC 1404 is a bright elliptical galaxy that is being gas stripped as it falls through the ICM of the Fornax Cluster. We use the new Chandra X-ray observations of NGC 1404 to study ICM microphysics. The interstellar medium of NGC 1404 is characterized by a sharp leading edge, 8 kpc from the Galaxy center, and a short downstream gaseous tail. Contact discontinuities are resolved on unprecedented spatial scales (0.″5 = 45 pc) due to the combination of the proximity of NGC 1404, the superb spatial resolution of Chandra, and the very deep (670 ks) exposure. At the leading edge, we observe sub-kiloparsec-scale eddies generated by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) and put an upper limit of 5% Spitzer on the isotropic viscosity of the hot cluster plasma. We also observe mixing between the hot cluster gas and the cooler galaxy gas in the downstream stripped tail, which provides further evidence of a low viscosity plasma. The assumed ordered magnetic fields in the ICM ought to be smaller than 5 μG to allow KHI to develop. The lack of an evident magnetic draping layer just outside the contact edge is consistent with such an upper limit.

  12. New type of sauna-related burn: conductive contact burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree burn on the right medial thigh area with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the burn was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related burns.

  13. Characterization, optimization and surface physics aspects of in situ plasma mirror cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Eric; Sics, Igors; Reyes-Herrera, Juan; Perez Sempere, Carlos; Lopez Alcolea, Juan Josep; Langlois, Michel; Fernandez Rodriguez, Jose; Carlino, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Although the graphitic carbon contamination of synchrotron beamline optics has been an obvious problem for several decades, the basic mechanisms underlying the contamination process as well as the cleaning/remediation strategies are not understood and the corresponding cleaning procedures are still under development. In this study an analysis of remediation strategies all based on in situ low-pressure RF plasma cleaning approaches is reported, including a quantitative determination of the optimum process parameters and their influence on the chemistry as well as the morphology of optical test surfaces. It appears that optimum results are obtained for a specific pressure range as well as for specific combinations of the plasma feedstock gases, the latter depending on the chemical aspects of the optical surfaces to be cleaned.

  14. 3D particle tracking velocimetry using dynamic discrete tomography for plasma physics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseev, Dmitry; Alpers, Andreas; Gritzmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) is a diagnostic technique which is widely used for studying flows, combustion, and plasmas. Current tomographic particle tracking methods are based on the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique and used for reconstructing the distribution of multi......-pixel sized particles as greylevel images. Reconstructions obtained by these methods do not necessarily match the experimental data. We propose a new algorithm which can be used for tracking dust particles in tokamaks and stellarators, as well as in low-temperature and complex plasmas. The dynamic discrete...... tomography algorithm is efficient for data from two projection directions and exact. The non-uniqueness can be detected and tracked individually. The algorithm performance is proportional to N3 on average where N is the number of particles in the reconstruction. There is a room for further improvement...

  15. The strange physics of low frequency mirror mode turbulence in the high temperature plasma of the magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror mode turbulence is the lowest frequency perpendicular magnetic excitation in magnetized plasma proposed already about half a century ago by Rudakov and Sagdeev (1958 and Chandrasekhar et al. (1958 from fluid theory. Its experimental verification required a relatively long time. It was early recognized that mirror modes for being excited require a transverse pressure (or temperature anisotropy. In principle mirror modes are some version of slow mode waves. Fluid theory, however, does not give a correct physical picture of the mirror mode. The linear infinitesimally small amplitude physics is described correctly only by including the full kinetic theory and is modified by existing spatial gradients of the plasma parameters which attribute a small finite frequency to the mode. In addition, the mode is propagating only very slowly in plasma such that convective transport is the main cause of flow in it. As the lowest frequency mode it can be expected that mirror modes serve as one of the dominant energy inputs into plasma. This is however true only when the mode grows to large amplitude leaving the linear stage. At such low frequencies, on the other hand, quasilinear theory does not apply as a valid saturation mechanism. Probably the dominant processes are related to the generation of gradients in the plasma which serve as the cause of drift modes thus transferring energy to shorter wavelength propagating waves of higher nonzero frequency. This kind of theory has not yet been developed as it has not yet been understood why mirror modes in spite of their slow growth rate usually are of very large amplitudes indeed of the order of |B/B0|2~O(1. It is thus highly reasonable to assume that mirror modes are instrumental for the development of stationary turbulence in high temperature plasma. Moreover, since the magnetic field in mirror turbulence forms extended though slightly oblique magnetic bottles, low parallel energy particles can be trapped

  16. Critical issues in burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  17. Pain in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  18. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  19. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  20. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  1. Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Alexandre de Souza; da Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote(®) was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations "physical activity and homocysteine", "training and homocysteine", and/or "exercise and homocysteine". After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.

  2. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  3. Burn patients' experience of pain management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.

  4. 严重烧伤患者外周血高迁移率族蛋白B-1水平的检测及其临床意义%Detection of plasma high mobility group box-1 protein in severely burned patients and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖锦华; 王亚萍; 朱华燕; 潘宇红; 黄璇

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测严重烧伤后患者血浆高迁移率族蛋白B-1 (HMGB1)水平的变化并探讨其临床意义.方法 用酶联免疫吸附试验法检测77例严重烧伤患者血浆HMGB1水平,同步检测肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)含量,并与30名健康对照组进行比较.结果 77例严重烧伤患者按烧伤面积分为3组,A组31例,烧伤总面积30%~49%,B组25例,烧伤总面积50%~69%,C组21例,烧伤总面积70%~95%;烧伤患者血浆HMGB1及TNF-α水平在A组为(22.15±6.34) ng/ml、(89.26±21.41)pg/ml,B组为(26.24±9.71)ng/ml、( 132.45±76.32)pg/ml,C组为(36.45±11.63)ng/ml、(213.61±87.45) pg/ml,对照组为(2.17±1.13)ng/ml、(45.32±13.84)pg/m1,烧伤各组HMGB1及TNF-α水平明显高于对照组(P<0.01);24例特大面积烧伤患者根据预后情况分为生存组和死亡组进行动态观察,两组患者血浆HMGB1水平在伤后第1天即显著升高(P<0.01),在伤后3~21 d,死亡组明显高于生存组(P<0.05),而TNF-α含量在伤后第3~7 d达高峰,以后逐渐下降,到21d时生存组与死亡组相比已差异无统计学意义.结论 严重烧伤后HMGB1的表达异常升高,HMGB1作为重要的晚期炎症介质和TNF-α相互诱生相互作用,参与严重烧伤后全身炎症反应综合征的病理生理过程,动态观察其水平变化有助于烧伤患者病程监测及预后判断.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the changes of plasma high mobility group box-1 protein ( HMGB1) in severely burned patients and its clinical significance. METHODS The plasma HMGB1 and TNF-α levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) simultaneously in all patients and were compared with 30 healthy control subjects. RESULTS Totally 77 burned patients were involved in this study, and they were divided into three burn size groups: 30%-49% total body surface area(TBSA) burn(group A, n = 31), 50% - 69% TBSA burn (group B, n = 25) and 70%-95% TBSA burn(group C, n = 21). The levels of HMGB2 and TNF

  5. EDITORIAL: Special section on the physics and technology of plasma heating by ICRF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie; Van Eester, Dirk

    2006-07-01

    This special section brings together much of what is currently at the forefront of ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) research. Which theories are people working on? Where is progress being made? What results are being obtained? The present Nuclear Fusion section on ICRF is not—and was explicitly meant not to be—an overview or review of ICRF systems, research achievements or theories. It is more a snapshot of the leading edge of the investigations. It is based, in part, on presentations to the 16th Topical Conference on RF Power in Plasmas, Park City, Utah, USA, April 2005. The forefront of ICRF research currently being actively pursued covers a wide range of topics: theoretical, experimental and technological. As can be expected, most of the papers in this section have direct relevance to ITER. Elements that will be important in ITER, and that are being addressed and developed in the papers, are the presence of fast particles with their influence on wave propagation and damping, the non-linear mechanisms in the edge—in particular close to the wave launcher—and steady-state aspects. Specific ITER components as well as RF scenarios are studied. Continued efforts to improve the analytical description of wave damping and absorption and the availability of gradually more powerful computers led to significant progress in incorporating the effect of particles with non-thermal velocity distributions—the presence of which has already become significant in present-day machines due to massive RF and/or NBI heating which forces the particles away from thermo-dynamical equilibrium (Brambilla et al, Jaeger et al). The exact role that RF-created and fusion-born fast particles will play is still a matter of lively debate. As shown in the papers by Choi et al and Pinsker et al, the presence of energetic particles is a significant factor in the wave absorption, even at high harmonics. Accounting for the actual magnetic topology allows the capture of RF induced

  6. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory - 1995 Highlights. Fiscal Year 1995, 1 October 1994--30 September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this Highlights Report is to present a brief overview of the Laboratory`s significant research accomplishments during the fiscal year 1995. The activities covered in this report include advances on the large projects, such as the discovery of the Enhanced Reversed Shear mode on the TFTR and the engineering design developments in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project, as well as the significant progress made in plasma theory, small-scale experiments, technology transfer, graduate education, and the Laboratory`s outreach program in science education.

  7. Plasma kisspeptin and ghrelin levels are independently correlated with physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Haas, Verena; Ahnis, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = -0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = -0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p  0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in the regulation of physical activity in anorexia nervosa.

  8. Energetic particle physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Zonca; G.Y. Fu; S.J. Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The confinement properties of energetic (EsslMeV) ions are a crucial aspect of burning plasmas since they are present both as fast particles generated via additional heating and current drive systems as well as charged fusion products. In the first case, successful plasma operations rely on the possibility of controlling plasma current and flow profiles via neutral beam injection (NBI) and plasma temperature profiles by both NBI and ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH). In the second case, fusion alpha particles must provide a significant fraction of the local power density, which is ultimately necessary for the sustainment of the plasma burning.

  9. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project and the Tokamak Physics Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-27

    If the US is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Fusion energy has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion energy would provide a substantially reduced environmental impact as compared with other forms of energy generation. Since fusion utilizes no fossil fuels, there would be no release of chemical combustion products to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are no fission products formed to present handling and disposal problems, and runaway fuel reactions are impossible due to the small amounts of deuterium and tritium present. The purpose of the TPX Project is to support the development of the physics and technology to extend tokamak operation into the continuously operating (steady-state) regime, and to demonstrate advances in fundamental tokamak performance. The purpose of TFTR D&D is to ensure compliance with DOE Order 5820.2A ``Radioactive Waste Management`` and to remove environmental and health hazards posed by the TFTR in a non-operational mode. There are two proposed actions evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA). The actions are related because one must take place before the other can proceed. The proposed actions assessed in this EA are: the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR); to be followed by the construction and operation of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Both of these proposed actions would take place primarily within the TFTR Test Cell Complex at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The TFTR is located on ``D-site`` at the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, and is operated by PPPL under contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  10. Physics and potentials of fissioning plasmas for space power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Fissioning uranium plasmas are the nuclear fuel in conceptual high-temperature gaseous-core reactors for advanced rocket propulsion in space. A gaseous-core nuclear rocket would be a thermal reactor in which an enriched uranium plasma at about 10,000 K is confined in a reflector-moderator cavity where it is nuclear critical and transfers its fission power to a confining propellant flow for the production of thrust at a specific impulse up to 5000 sec. With a thrust-to-engine weight ratio approaching unity, the gaseous-core nuclear rocket could provide for propulsion capabilities needed for manned missions to the nearby planets and for economical cislunar ferry services. Fueled with enriched uranium hexafluoride and operated at temperatures lower than needed for propulsion, the gaseous-core reactor scheme also offers significant benefits in applications for space and terrestrial power. They include high-efficiency power generation at low specific mass, the burnup of certain fission products and actinides, the breeding of U-233 from thorium with short doubling times, and improved convenience of fuel handling and processing in the gaseous phase.

  11. The snowflake divertor, physics of a new concept for power exhaust of fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunt, Tilmann; Feng, Yuehe [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching/Greifswald (Germany); Canal, Gustavo; Reimerdes, Holger [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Fusion reactors based on the tokamak design will have to deal with very high heat loads on the divertor plates. One of the approaches to solve this heat load problem is the so called 'snowflake divertor', a magnetic configuration with two nearby x-points and two additional divertor legs. In this contribution we report on 'EMC3-Eirene' simulations of the plasma- and neutral particle transport in the scrape-off layer of the swiss tokamak TCV of a series of snowflake equilibria with different values of σ, the distance between the x-points normalized to the minor radius of the plasma. The constant anomalous transport coefficients were chosen such that the power- and particle deposition profiles at the primary inner strike point match the Langmuir probe measurements for the σ=0.1 case. At one of the secondary strike points, however, a significantly larger power flux than that predicted by the simulation was measured by the probes, indicating the presence of an enhanced transport across the primary separatrix. We discuss the possible reason for this enhanced transport as well as its scaling with machine size. Another prediction from the simulation is that the density as well as the radiation maximum are moving from the recycling region in front of the plates upwards to the x-point.

  12. Laser plasma physics in shock ignition – transition from collisional to collisionless absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimo O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Shock Ignition is considered as a relatively robust and efficient approach to inertial confinement fusion. A strong converging shock, which is used to ignite the fuel, is launched by a high power laser pulse with intensity in the range of 1015 − 1016 W/cm2 (at the wavelength of 351 nm. In the lower end of this intensity range the interaction is dominated by collisions while the parametric instabilities are playing a secondary role. This is manifested in a relatively weak reflectivity and efficient electron heating. The interaction is dominated by collective effects at the upper edge of the intensity range. The stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering (SBS and SRS respectively take place in a less dense plasma and cavitation provides an efficient collisionless absorption mechanism. The transition from collisional to collisionless absorption in laser plasma interactions at higher intensities is studied here with the help of large scale one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC simulations. The relation between the collisional and collisionless processes is manifested in the energy spectrum of electrons transporting the absorbed laser energy and in the spectrum of the reflected laser light.

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  14. Clinical characteristics and treatment of burn wound sepsis in extensive burn patients: successful experience with eight cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴家科; 盛志勇; 杨红明

    2000-01-01

    Eight burn wound sepsis patients, in which 6 cases were diagnosed as MODS and two as septic shock, were treated consecutively in our hospital from September 1997 to October 1998. The plasma concentration of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and LPS were assayed before and after surgical intervention, as well as when the patients' vital signs became stable. The results showed: ①The patients' conditions abruptly deteriorated when the burn wound sepsis emerged;②The major cause related to burn wound sepsis was extensive burn injuries, with large areas of deep burn remaining open; ③Although wound swabs taken on admission revealed the presence of colonization by many pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was one of the most frequent bacteria isolated from the subeschar tissue; ④The plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF and LPS before surgical intervention were significantly higher than that after surgical intervention (P<0.05) ;⑤The lowest level of the inflammatory mediators was observed when the patients' conditions became stable, as compared with before surgical intervention (P<0. 001).These findings suggest that the clinical characteristics of burn wound sepsis are abrupt deterioration of the general condition and prominent septic symptoms, often complicated by MODS. The main cause of burn wound sepsis is the presence of a large area of open deep burn wounds, which should be excised and covered early. LPS and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathogenesis of burn wound sepsis. Although success in treating these patients is the result of appropriate application of multiple treatments, early, aggressive and thorough surgical excision of invasive burn infectious tissue and closure of wound play a crucial role in the successful treatment of patients complicated by burn wound sepsis. Other treatments are adjuvant but also important.

  15. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  16. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin. (author)

  17. Nonlinear physics and energetic particle transport features of the beam-plasma instability

    CERN Document Server

    Carlevaro, Nakia; Montani, Giovanni; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study transport features of a one-dimensional beam-plasma system in the presence of multiple resonances. As a model description of the general problem of a warm energetic particle beam, we assume $n$ cold supra-thermal beams and investigate the self-consistent evolution in the presence of the complete spectrum of nearly degenerate Langmuir modes. A qualitative transport estimation is obtained by computing the Lagrangian Coherent Structures of the system on given temporal scales. This leads to the splitting of the phase space into regions where the local transport processes are relatively faster. The general theoretical framework is applied to the case of the nonlinear dynamics of two cold beams, for which numerical simulation results are illustrated and analyzed.

  18. A Selected Library of Transport Coefficients for Combustion and Plasma Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloutman, L.D.

    2000-08-01

    COYOTE and similar combustion programs based on the multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations require the mixture viscosity, thermal conductivity, and species transport coefficients as input. This report documents a model of these molecular transport coefficients that is simpler than the general theory, but which provides adequate accuracy for many purposes. This model leads to a computationally convenient, self-contained, and easy-to-use source of such data in a format suitable for use by such programs. We present the data for various neutral species in two forms. The first form is a simple functional fit to the transport coefficients. The second form is the use of tabulated Lennard-Jones parameters in simple theoretical expressions for the gas-phase transport coefficients. The model then is extended to the case of a two-temperature plasma. Lennard-Jones parameters are given for a number of chemical species of interest in combustion research.

  19. New foundations and unification of basic plasma physics by means of classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Escande, Dominique F; Elskens, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The derivation of Debye shielding and Landau damping from the $N$-body description of plasmas requires many pages of heavy kinetic calculations in classical textbooks and is done in distinct, unrelated chapters. Using Newton's second law for the $N$-body system, we perform this derivation in a few steps with elementary calculations using standard tools of calculus, and no probabilistic setting. Unexpectedly, Debye shielding is encountered on the way to Landau damping. The theory is extended to accommodate a correct description of trapping or chaos due to Langmuir waves, and to avoid the small amplitude assumption for the electrostatic potential. Using the shielded potential, collisional transport is computed for the first time by a convergent expression including the correct calculation of deflections for all impact parameters. Shielding and collisional transport are found to be two related aspects of the repulsive deflections of electrons.

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1993-- September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project is well into the experimental phase of its deuterium-tritium (D-T) program, with the objective to derive the maximum amount of experimental data on the behavior of tokamak plasmas containing a significant population of energetic alpha particles. Since the initial D-T experiments in December 1993, the operational performance of the TFTR, as well as the required tritium-handling and machine maintenance procedures in an activated environment, have improved markedly, so that D-T operation has now become essentially routine, while fully conforming with all of the safety and environmental requirements. During the D-T phase, the machine and auxiliary-systems parameters have also been increased, most notably the toroidal field (to 5.6 T) and the neutral-beam power (to 40 MW). The radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron-range of frequencies (ICRF) has been increased to 11 MW.

  1. 连续性血浆滤过吸附辅助治疗烧伤脓毒症的临床研究%Clinical study on continuous plasma filtration absorption treatment for burn sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟爱华; 任勇; 杨浪; 贺立新; 曾盛; 刘强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of continuous plasma filtration absorption (CPFA) treatment on burn sepsis.Methods Thirty burn patients with sepsis hospitalized in Beijing Fengtai You'anmen Hospital from July 2009 to October 2012 were treated by CPFA for twice besides routine treatment.The blood samples were collected at five sites (A,B,C,D,and E,respectively) of blood purification equipment before and after CPFA,before and after hemoabsorption,and before hemofiltration.The plasma levels of TNF-α,IL-1 β,IL-6,IL-10,interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA),soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) Ⅰ,and sTNFR-Ⅱ from sites A,C,and E were determined with ELISA before CPFA was performed for the first time,and those from sites B and D were determined with ELISA after CPFA was performed for the first time.Plasma levels of the above-mentioned cytokines from sites A and B were determined with ELISA before CPFA and after CPFA was performed for the second time.The data of plasma levels of IL-1β,IL-1 RA,sTNFR-Ⅰ,sTNFR-Ⅱ,and TNF-α before CPFA and after CPFA was performed for the second time were collected for calculation of the ratios of IL-1 RA to IL-1β and sTNFR-Ⅰ plus sTNFR-Ⅱ to TNF-α.The expression rate of human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) on the CD14 positive monocytes,acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ score,body temperature,pulse,respiratory rate,and leukocyte count of patients were evaluated or recorded before CPFA and after CPFA was performed for the second time.Patients'condition was observed.Data were processed with paired t test.Results The plasma levels of TNF-o,IL-1β,IL-6 and IL-10 from site B after CPFA was performed for the second time were significantly lower than those from site A before CPFA was performed for the first time (with t values respectively 7.05,5.23,4.73,2.37,P values below 0.01).After CPFA was performed for the first time,the plasma levels of TNF-α,IL-1β,and IL-6 from site D were

  2. Gravitational radiation of a vibrating physical string as a model for the gravitational emission of an astrophysical plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, R A

    2014-01-01

    The vibrating string is a source of gravitational waves which requires novel computational techniques, based on the explicit construction of a conserved and renormalized (in a classical sense) energy-momentum tensor. The renormalization is necessary to take into account the effect of external constraints, which affect the emission considerably. Vibrating media offer in general a testing ground for reconciling conflicts between General Relativity and other branches of physics; however, constraints are absent in sources like the Weber bar, for which the standard covariant formalism for elastic bodies can also be applied. Our solution method is based on the linearized Einstein equations, but relaxes other usual assumptions like far-field approximation, spherical or plane wave symmetry, TT gauge and source without internal interference. The string solution is then adapted to give the radiation field of a transversal Alfven wave in a rarefied plasma, where the tension is produced by an external static magnetic fie...

  3. Physics of the intermediate layer between a plasma and a collisionless sheath and mathematical meaning of the Bohm criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, N. A.; Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, CCCEE, Universidade da Madeira Largo do Municipio, 9000 Funchal (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    A transformation of the ion momentum equation simplifies a mathematical description of the transition layer between a quasi-neutral plasma and a collisionless sheath and clearly reveals the physics involved. Balance of forces acting on the ion fluid is delicate in the vicinity of the sonic point and weak effects come into play. For this reason, the passage of the ion fluid through the sonic point, which occurs in the transition layer, is governed not only by inertia and electrostatic force but also by space charge and ion-atom collisions and/or ionization. Occurrence of different scenarios of asymptotic matching in the plasma-sheath transition is analyzed by means of simple mathematical examples, asymptotic estimates, and numerical calculations. In the case of a collisionless sheath, the ion speed distribution plotted on the logarithmic scale reveals a plateau in the intermediate region between the sheath and the presheath. The value corresponding to this plateau has the meaning of speed with which ions leave the presheath and enter the sheath; the Bohm speed. The plateau is pronounced reasonably well provided that the ratio of the Debye length to the ion mean free path is of the order of 10{sup -3} or smaller. There is no such plateau if the sheath is collisional and hence no sense in talking of a speed with which ions enter the sheath.

  4. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  5. Management of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  6. Extracorporeal blood purification in burns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Katharina; Stewart, Ian J; Kreyer, Stefan F X; Scaravilli, Vittorio; Cannon, Jeremy W; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Chung, Kevin K

    2014-09-01

    A prolonged and fulminant inflammatory state, with high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, is seen after extensive thermal injury. Blood purification techniques including plasma exchange, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and adsorbing membranes have the potential to modulate this response, thereby improving outcomes. This article describes the scientific rationale behind blood purification in burns and offers a review of literature regarding its potential application in this patient cohort.

  7. Burn-injured adolescents report gaining multiple developmental benefits and improved life skills as a result of burn camp attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Pressman, Melissa S; Takach, Oliver P; Bay, R Curtis; Croteau, Renee; Hansen, Linda D; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotally, burn camp has been reported to be a positive developmental and rehabilitative experience for attendees; there is little empirical data to support this belief. This study sought to explore whether burn camp either directly or indirectly elicits positive development outcomes in pediatric burn survivors or increases their psychosocial well-being and achievement. The Youth Experience Survey 2.0, a 66-item self-report inventory designed to measure developmental experiences in an organized youth activity, was administered to children aged 11 to 18 years attending summer burn camp. One hundred and ten burn-injured youth, 58 male and 52 female, reported that burn camp had positively impacted their lives through improved identity exploration, goal-setting and problem-solving abilities, increased physical activity, communication, emotional regulation, and time management skills (P camp for more than 5 years resulted in greater improvement. Study results support the burn camp experience as a far-reaching and positive developmental activity. Participants credited the camp experience with helping them with identity formation and reflection, improved social interactions, and increased initiative; all positive developmental outcomes for youth. Results suggest that burn camp participation not only helps burn-injured youth to deal with their burns but also assists them in the development of social and basic life skills, which will allow them to navigate the transition from youth to adulthood, more effectively and successfully.

  8. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  9. Burns and epilepsy--review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnani, Alfredo; Müller, Bruno Rafael; Oliveira, Andrea Fernandes; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-03-01

    Decompensation of epilepsy in burned patients may be caused by several factors. Burn is a classic etiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and evolves into two physiological phases. The first 48h after injury corresponds to the first phase involving severe hypovolemic shock. The second phase corresponds to the hypermetabolic response to burns. Altered pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsant drugs is observed. Albumin and other plasma proteins are reduced, leading to increased free fraction of phenytoin, resulting in greater clearance and a lower total drug concentration. Associated with metabolic changes of burned patient, this fact predisposes to seizures in epileptic burned patients. The authors present the case of an epileptic 36-year-old-woman who developed recurrent seizures after a thermal injury, despite using the same medications and doses of anticonvulsant drugs of last 12 years, with controlled epilepsy.

  10. Sexuality after burn in Brazil: survey of burn health-care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Monica Sarto; Daher, Ricardo Piccolo; Gragnani, Alfredo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2011-12-01

    Patients who survive a major burn must live with emotional and physical sequela. In a literature review, we found that sexuality concerns of burn victims are rarely a focus of therapy. After suggestions from Rimmer et al. [12], using their questionnaire translated into Portuguese, we held a survey of burn-care professionals at the VII Brazilian Burn Congress. More than 120 practitioners from 41 centres, aged in average 41.2 years (1 standard deviation 10.96), completed the survey. A proportion of 63.7% were female, and 58.1% were Caucasians; 37.1% were physicians, 20.9% nurse practitioners and 16.9 were occupational therapists/physical therapists (OTs/PT)s. Psychologists made up 3.2%. Only 28% of the respondents felt comfortable in initiating a conversation about sexual intimacy with their patients. The vast majority believed it should be done by the psychologist. Only 38% felt their burn centre did an adequate job in that area. When compared with a study of our country's general population, we find similar results indicating that intimacy, sexuality and sexual intercourse are considered most important in a relationship. There is a significant lack of literature in sexuality after burn; most likely meaning it is ignored by most centres. There is a need for other similar surveys to be performed, as well as a collective consciousness of the need for discussions about sexuality with patients and their partners, providing counselling and treatment, when need.

  11. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  12. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  13. Study on acute burn injury survivors and the associated issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Bayuo; Pius Agbenorku; Richcane Amankwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the phenomenon of surviving burn injury and its associated issues and concerns. Methods: A cross sectional survey approach was utilized to obtain data from one hundred burn survivors who were purposely selected. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze data. Results: Findings from the study indicate that burns from flames stood out as a major cause of burns. Physical discomfort/pain, anxiety, needing assistance in meeting self-care needs, financial and social limitations were identified as the major impact of the injury. Furthermore, participants perceived the existence of societal stigma. In addition, hope in God or a spiritual being as well as family support were the two key resources participants relied on to cope effectively. Conclusions: Surviving burn injury is associated with varied physical, social and psy-chological factors and survivors may need professional assistance to fully adjust after discharge.

  14. The role of exercise in the rehabilitation of patients with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Craig; Hardee, Justin P; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2015-01-01

    Severe burn trauma results in persistent skeletal muscle catabolism and prolonged immobilization. We hypothesize that structured rehabilitative exercise is a safe and efficacious strategy to restore lean body mass and physical function in burn victims. Here, we review the evidence for the utility of rehabilitative exercise training in restoring physiological function in burn survivors.

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  18. Burns Caused by Medical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    fear of litigation, patients with such injuries, even if the injuries are minor, arc often referred to a burn center for care. Burn injury...the potential burn hazards found elsewhere in the hospital. Even fewer studies have addressed the burn risks posed by medical therapy administered...35. Mills GH, Ralph S). Bums due to pulse oximetry [ letter ]. Anaesthesia 1992j47:276·7. 36. Shdlock: FG, Kana! E. Burns associated with the use of

  19. Physical Limitations of Empirical Field Models: Force Balance and Plasma Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng

    2002-06-18

    In this paper, we study whether the magnetic field of the T96 empirical model can be in force balance with an isotropic plasma pressure distribution. Using the field of T96, we obtain values for the pressure P by solving a Poisson-type equation {del}{sup 2}P = {del} {center_dot} (J x B) in the equatorial plane, and 1-D profiles on the Sun-Earth axis by integrating {del}P = J x B. We work in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials. Our results lead to the conclusion that the T96 model field cannot be in equilibrium with an isotropic pressure. We also analyze in detail the computation of Birkeland currents using the Vasyliunas relation and the T96 field, which yields unphysical results, again indicating the lack of force balance in the empirical model. The underlying reason for the force imbalance is likely the fact that the derivatives of the least-square fitted model B are not accurate predictions of the actual magnetospheric field derivatives. Finally, we discuss a possible solution to the problem of lack of force balance in empirical field models.

  20. Technical issues in the conduct of large space platform experiments in plasma physics and geoplasma sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    Large, permanently-manned space platforms can provide exciting opportunities for discoveries in basic plasma and geoplasma sciences. The potential for these discoveries will depend very critically on the properties of the platform, its subsystems, and their abilities to fulfill a spectrum of scientific requirements. With this in mind, the planning of space station research initiatives and the development of attendant platform engineering should allow for the identification of critical science and technology issues that must be clarified far in advance of space station program implementation. An attempt is made to contribute to that process, with a perspective that looks to the development of the space station as a permanently-manned Spaceborne Ionospheric Weather Station. The development of this concept requires a synergism of science and technology which leads to several critical design issues. To explore the identification of these issues, the development of the concept of an Ionospheric Weather Station will necessarily touch upon a number of diverse areas. These areas are discussed.