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  1. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

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    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  3. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Jimson; Rajesh, E.; R Jayasri Krupaa; M. Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  4. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome

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    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

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    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Objective: To review the current concepts regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Methods and methodology: A literature review was conducted on PubMed/Medline and Google scholar about the burning mouth syndrome and the representative articles were selected and reviewed. Conclusion: There is no universal consensus regarding diagnosis, etiology and treatment of BMS. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion which probably has multifactorial origin. Various pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments are available but it is difficult to achieve curative treatment so reassurance is of great importance while treating the patients. Combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, alpha lipoic acid and/or clonazepam has shown promising results.

  7. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

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    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

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    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  9. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

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    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management. PMID:27439272

  10. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

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    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride. PMID:25952601

  11. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

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    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder. PMID:26709657

  12. [Burning mouth syndrome - a joint biopsychosocial approach].

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    Arpone, Francesca; Combremont, Florian; Weber, Kerstin; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2016-02-10

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a medical condition that is often refractory to conventional diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Patients suffering from BMS can benefit from a biopsychosocial approach in a joint, medical-psychological consultation model. Such a consultation exists at Geneva University Hospitals, involving the collaboration of the maxillo-facial and oral surgery division and the division of liaison psychiatry and crisis intervention, in order to take into account the multiple factors involved in BMS onset and persistence. This article will describe BMS clinical presentation, and present an integrate approach to treat these patients. PMID:27039444

  13. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

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    Bilgen Erdoğan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  14. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgen Erdoğan; Murat Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

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    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: pathogenic and therapeutic concepts

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    Ferensztajn, Ewa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition characterized by pain, burning sensations and dryness within an oral mucosa, without any clinical changes of the latter. It occurs approximately seven times more frequently in women, mostly in perimenopausal age. The psychiatric aspect of BMS is significant: the most frequent co-morbidities are depression and anxiety disorders, and a number of psychotropic drugs play an essential role in its treatment. In the present review, the most important pathogenic and treatment concepts of BMS have been discussed. The BMS may be similar to neuropathic pain and has some related pathogenic elements with fibromyalgia and the restless leg syndrome. In primary BMS, the features of presynaptic dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons and deficiency of endogenous dopamine levels have been demonstrated. Other neurotransmitters such as serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine as well as hormonal and inflammatory factors may also play a role in the pathogenesis of BMS. In the pharmacological treatment of BMS a variety of drugs have been used including benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and atypical antipsychotic drugs. In the final part of the paper, the possibility of using atypical antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, in the treatment of BMS has been discussed. In the context of the recent studies on this topic, a case of female patient with the BMS lasting more than ten years has been mentioned, in whom the treatment with olanzapine brought about a rapid and significant reduction of symptoms. The probable mechanism of the therapeutic effect of olanzapine in BMS can include its effect on dopaminergic receptors and probably also on histaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic ones.

  17. An overview of burning mouth syndrome for the dermatologist.

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    Lewis, A K; Prime, S S; Cohen, S N

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an idiopathic burning pain affecting the oral mucosa, with no clinically apparent changes. It can present to a variety of health professionals including dermatologists. This article summarizes the important aspects of the condition, including theories of pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. PMID:26871710

  18. Prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population

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    Hakan Çolak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is defined as a chronic orofacial pain condition, characterized symptomatically by burning pain localized to the tongue and lips or may involve the entire oral cavity. The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms reported from international studies ranges from 0.6% to 15%. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burning mouth syndrome in adult Turkish population.Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect data on demographic characteristics, medical history and drugs taken by the patients and clinical examination was performed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 (500 men and 500 women randomly selected patients who attended attending to Kırıkkale University Dental Faculty Department of Restorative Dentistry.Results: BMS was diagnosed in 12 patients with 0.12% prevalence in 2 man and 10 women, with 1:5 ratio respectively. The most common site for BMS was tongue. Para functional habits were the most common local factor. According to visual analogue scale (VAS mean (±SD level of burning intensity was 5.45 (±1.69.Conclusions: Burning Mouth Syndrome in Turkish population has low prevalence and is more frequent in females.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment.

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    Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Coculescu, B I

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  20. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, E C; Tovaru, S; Coculescu, B I

    2014-09-15

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in clinically healthy oral mucosa. Incidence BMS diagnosed in the Department of Oral Medicine - Oral Pathology Dental Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest is 16,23%. The etiology of BMS remains far less known. This article makes an overview of the latest theories about possible etiopathogenic factors involved in the occurrence of BMS. PMID:25408745

  1. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, E C; Tovaru, S; Coculescu, B I

    2014-09-15

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in clinically healthy oral mucosa. Incidence BMS diagnosed in the Department of Oral Medicine - Oral Pathology Dental Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest is 16,23%. The etiology of BMS remains far less known. This article makes an overview of the latest theories about possible etiopathogenic factors involved in the occurrence of BMS.

  2. Epidemiological profile of elderly women with burning mouth symptoms

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    Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiological profile of elderly women with burning mouth symptoms. Methods: A cross sectional, quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study conducted in two phases: a determining the prevalence of burning mouth symptoms among 263 elderly women aged between 60 and 83 years who attended six public municipal community centers in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, b defining the epidemiological profile of respondents with burning mouth symptoms, through the variables: self-reported diseases, salivary flow, use of medications, dental prosthesis and oral hygiene habits. Data were organized by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences - SPSS version 15. Results: The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms in the group was 19% (n=50. Of these, 41 (82.0% reported the manifestation of the symptoms as a scalding sensation. Regarding the occurrence, the most referred sites were: tongue (48%; n=24 and gums (22%; n=11. Among elderly women, 24 (48.0% had daily symptoms. Regarding self-reported diseases and habits: 80.0% cited cardiovascular diseases, 74.0% (n=37 musculoskeletal illness and 62.0% (n=31 neurological disorders, besides 56.0% (n=28 present reduction of salivary flow; 70.0% (n=35 took medication, 66.0% (n=33 were users of dental prosthesis and 18.0% (n=9 did not brush their teeth. Conclusions: The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms in this group was 19%; scalding sensation was the main manifestation of the symptom and the tongue was the site of major symptomatology. The epidemiological profile of symptomatic elderly was distinguished by self-reported diseases and habits such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders, in addition to reduced salivary flow, as well as the use of medications and dental prosthesis.

  3. Suicidal Behavior in a Patient with Burning Mouth Syndrome

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    Konstantinos Kontoangelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic pain of the oral cavity is a long-term condition and like all other types of chronic pain is associated with numerous comorbidities such as depression or anxiety. Case Presentation. This is a case of a 93-year-old patient suffering from chronic oral cavity pain who repeatedly stabbed his palate due to ongoing local pain, over the last few months, which he could not further tolerate. The patient was suffering from depression and also a diagnosis of “burning mouth syndrome” (BMS was made. Discussion. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue or other oral sites. BMS has high psychiatric comorbidity but can occur in the absence of psychiatric diagnosis. Patients with multiple forms of pain must be considered as potential candidates for underdiagnosed depression (major and suicidal thoughts.

  4. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome.

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    Umezaki, Yojiro; Takenoshita, Miho; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS) ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder) 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. PMID:27279742

  5. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome

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    Umezaki Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yojiro Umezaki,1 Miho Takenoshita,2 Akira Toyofuku2 1Psychosomatic Dentistry Clinic, Dental Hospital, 2Psychosomatic Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. Keywords: burning mouth syndrome, low-dose aripiprazole, chronic pain

  6. [Glossodynia or burning mouth syndrome: equivalence or difference].

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    Redinova, T L; Redinov, I S; Val'kov, V A; Zlobina, O A; Kozhevnikov, S V

    2014-01-01

    The term "Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS)" is being used much more often than "Glossodynia", complicating diagnostic and treatment tactic choice. The aim of the study was to determine the difference between "Glossodynia" and "BMS" considering absence or presence of intraoral metal prosthetic devices and burning sensation in the mouth. To establish the frequency of glossodynia and BMS 2355 patient records were analyzed admitting consultation for oral diseases for the last 10 years. Clinically we examined 408 patients aged 40 to 70. The research results showed that 17% of patients complained of "burning mouth": 10.2% of them had these symptoms due to oral mucosa diseases; 58.0% had glossodynia, 27.4% had discomfort because of intolerance to metal prosthodontic materials and 4.4% had combined pathology. Glossodynia and intolerance to metal prosthodontic materials had much in common in terms of clinical features, but the last one may be specified by changes in saliva composition. BMS thus proved to be the common definition corresponding to various diseases of oral mucosa and intolerance to intraoral metal appliances, while glossoldynia is a distinct neurogenic disease which is difficult to treat and requires comprehensive approach involving neurologist and physician. PMID:25377573

  7. Burning mouth syndrome in Parkinson’s disease: dopamine as cure or cause?

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Elizabeth A.; Laughlin, Ruple S.

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome has been reported as being more common in Parkinson’s disease patients than the general population. While the pathophysiology is unclear, decreased dopamine levels and dopamine dysregulation are hypothesized to play a role. We report a patient with Parkinson’s disease who developed burning mouth syndrome with carbidopa/levodopa. Our patient had resolution of burning mouth symptoms when carbidopa/levodopa was replaced with a dopamine agonist. Based on our patient’s clini...

  8. Acupuncture and burning mouth syndrome: a pilot study.

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    Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Tarozzi, Marco; Varoni, Elena; Franchini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition most common in middle-aged and elderly women, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging from 0.5% to 5%. Defined by the International Headache Society as "an intraoral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found," BMS is considered a form of neuropathic pain. The management of BMS remains unsatisfactory. In this pilot study, we investigated the use of acupuncture in a small group of BMS patients. The study group, after 4 refusals, was composed of 10 BMS patients (9 females and 1 male; mean age, 65.2 years; range, from 48 to 80 years; mean duration of BMS, 2.6 years; SD ± 0.8 years). Oral pain/burning sensation (primary outcome) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health-related quality of life (secondary outcome) was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Acupuncture treatment lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 20 sessions. Patients reported a mean reduction in pain of 0.99 points on the VAS (max 2.1-min 0.1), which, although slight, was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test P acupuncture treatment seemed better able cope with their oral symptoms. PMID:23336607

  9. Burning mouth syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus.

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    Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    We present two cases of burning mouth syndrome (BMS)-of 8-month duration in a 61-year-old woman and of 2-year duration in a 63-year-old woman-both associated with increased levels of antivaricella zoster virus (VZV) IgM antibodies in serum and with pain that improved with antiviral treatment. Combined with our previous finding of BMS due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, we recommend evaluation of patients with BMS not only for VZV or HSV-1 DNA in the saliva, but also for serum anti-VZV and anti-HSV-1 IgM antibodies. Both infections are treatable with oral antiviral agents. PMID:27382016

  10. AN UPDATE ON BURNING MOUTH SYNDROME (A SELECTIVE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

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    Febrina Rahmayanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is one of the orofacial pain problems. BMS has been fefined as burning pain in the tongue or oral mucous membranes, usually without accompanying clinical and laboratory findings. BMS affecting mostly women, is a constant and aggravating source of discomfort for more than 1 million adults in the world. This paper provides updated information on burning mouth syndrome and current etiopathogenesis and treatment options are discussed.

  11. Therapeutic options in idiopathic burning mouth syndrome: literature review.

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    Miziara, Ivan; Chagury, Azis; Vargas, Camila; Freitas, Ludmila; Mahmoud, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagnosis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, α-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the long-term results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy. PMID:25992157

  12. The Clinical Analysis of 47 Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    目的:研究灼口综合征的临床特征及精神因素分析.方法:对47例灼口综合征患者的临床资料进行分析并用HAD记分方法对其精神因素进行评估.结果:BMS患者中女性患病率高,男女比率1:6.5,舌部发病最为多见,平均发病年龄为53岁,BMS患者均有不同程度的精神因素的影响.%Objective:To analyse the clinical nature and psychiatric assessment.Methods:47 patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) were investigated.The clinical nature including distribution of orafacial sites affected by BMS and psychiatric assessment by the way of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale were determined.Result:BMS affected females much more frequently than males, with a ratio of about 6.5∶1.The mean age of patients was around 53 years old. The most often affected site was the tongue and anxiety was a more important psychological factor in BMS than depression.

  13. Serum Interleukin-6 in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome and Relationship with Depression and Perceived Pain

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    Qianming Chen

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions. Serum interleukin-6 in patients with burning mouth syndrome is decreased and negatively correlated to chronic pain. Both psychological and neuropathic disorders might act as precipitating factors in BMS etiopathogenesis.

  14. Síndrome de boca ardiente Burning-mouth syndrome

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    Z.J. Casariego

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El "Sindrome de la boca ardiente" comprende "Glosodynia o Glosalgia". Significa dolor de la lengua. "Glosopyrosis", sensación de quemazón. Disestesia o parestesia es una experiencia de malestar dentro de la boca. "Glosodynia" es usado también cuando está involucrada toda la cavidad bucal. Objetivo. Realizar una revisión del tema y establecer la hipótesis que, este sindrome tendría un fondo psiconeuroinmunoendócrino relevante en el campo de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Promediando datos obtenidos, 80% de las mujeres sufren o han sufrido alguna vez de Glosodynia. Con un rango de 40 a 81 años de edad, media de 60 años, correspondiendo 2,9% al masculino y 15,7% al femenino. Localización: bordes de lengua 46%, dorso de lengua 46%, labios 50% y paladar 46%. La etiología permanece desconocida. La revisión está centrada en describir varios aspectos clínicos, inmunológicos, endocrinológicos y neuronales involucrados en la génesis, enfocando principalmente la relación con: la noradrenalina y las fibras amielínicas, los beta receptores, la histamina, la bradiquinina, las prostaglandinas, el eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-suprarrenal (HHS, el factor librador de corticotrofina (CRF y la adrenocorticotropina (ACTH, las Interleuquinas 1, 6, 8, 10 y 12, el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNFalfa, el factor de agregación plaquetaria (PAF, los adenocorticoides (AGC, los mastocitos, la proteína A1 (AP-1,The "Burning-Mouth-Syndrome" comprise "Glosodynia or Glosalgia" that means pain of the tongue. "Glosopyrosis": burning sensation." Dysesthesia or Paresthesia is a disconfortable experience inside the mouth. Glosodynia is used when the entire oral cavity is involved as well. The objective is to make a rewie about this syndrome and to postulate an hypothesis about etiology and diagnosis. Generally, about 80% of women suffer or once have suffered from Glosodynia. With a range of 40-81 years old, mean age 60 years old, correspond 2.9% male and 15

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Review of the Etiopathologic Factors and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellappally, Sajith

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by pain in the mouth with or with no inflammatory signs and no specific lesions. Synonyms found in literature include glossodynia, oral dysesthesia, glossopyrosis, glossalgia, stomatopyrosis, and stomatodynia. Burning mouth syndrome generally presents as a triad: Mouth pain, alteration in taste, and altered salivation, in the absence of visible mucosal lesions in the mouth. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during evening and at night. The etiopathogenesis seems to be complex and in a large number of patients probably involves interactions among local, systemic, and/or psychogenic factors. The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Management is always based on the etiological agents involved. If burning persists after local or systemic conditions are treated, then treatment is aimed at controlling neuropathic symptoms. Treatment of BMS is still unsatisfactory, and there is no definitive cure. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required to bring the condition under better control. The aim of this review was to discuss several aspects of BMS, update current knowledge, and provide guidelines for patient management. PMID:27207008

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: A review on its diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS, a chronic and intractable orofacial pain syndrome is characterized by the presence of burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of specific oral lesion. This condition affects chiefly of middle aged and elderly woman with hormonal changes or psychological disorders. In addition to burning sensation, patient with BMS also complains of oral mucosal pain, altered taste sensation, and dry mouth. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin, often idiopathic and its exact etiopathogenesis remains unclear. So far, there is no definitive cure for this condition and most of the treatment approaches, medications remains unsatisfactory. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this article is to present a review of epidemiology, clinical presentation, classification, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of BMS.

  17. Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for medication-resistant burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Y; Badran, B W; Gonzales, T S; George, M S

    2015-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a persistent and chronic burning sensation in the mouth in the absence of any abnormal organic findings. The pathophysiology of BMS is unclear and its treatment is not fully established. Although antidepressant medication is commonly used for treatment, there are some medication-resistant patients, and a new treatment for medication-resistant BMS is needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technology approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of depression. Recent studies have found beneficial effects of TMS for the treatment of pain. A case of BMS treated successfully with daily left prefrontal rTMS over a 2-week period is reported here. Based on this patient's clinical course and a recent pain study, the mechanism by which TMS may act to decrease the burning pain is discussed. PMID:25979192

  18. Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz Site-specific Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Mouth The mouth, or oral cavity, is the first part of ... lips and cheeks help hold food in the mouth and keep it in place for chewing. They ...

  19. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Oral Sensory Disorders: A Unifying Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Grushka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS is a sensory disorder which results in constant, bilateral burning pain of the tongue, lips, and other oral mucous membranes. Atypical odontalgia (AO is another sensory disorder, usually defined as a toothache-like pain for which no dental cause can be identified. Previous literature has suggested that AO is often associated with a concomitant temporomandibular disorder (TMD. This hypothesis paper explores the possibility that BMS, AO and TMD can be related through hyperactivity of both the sensory and motor components of the trigeminal nerve following loss of central inhibition as a result of taste damage in the chorda tympani and/or the glossopharyngeal nerves.

  20. The practical evaluation and management of patients with symptoms of a sore burning mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John C

    2016-01-01

    There are many etiologic factors to consider in a patient who presents with symptoms or sensations of a sore burning mouth. These range from local causes within the oral cavity to underlying systemic disease, including psychologic factors. This paper aims to describe the different clinical presentations and to outline a systematic approach to the evaluation and management of such patients. The clinician will be directed to the relevant diagnosis by following the traditional medical model of taking a focused history, performing a thorough clinical examination, considering the potential differential diagnoses, and requesting pertinent and appropriate investigations. The various differential diagnoses and broad treatment options will also be discussed and outlined. This paper will not, however, discuss burning mouth syndrome (oral dysesthesia), which is a diagnosis of exclusion, whereby the oral mucosa is clinically normal and there are no identifiable medical or dental causes to account for the patient's symptoms. PMID:27343959

  1. Involvement of peripheral artemin signaling in tongue pain: possible mechanism in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Takeda, Mamoru; Honda, Kuniya; Maruno, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Ayano; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely tongue pain hypersensitivity. We found that the mRNA expression of Artemin (Artn) in the tongue mucosa of patients with burning mouth syndrome was significantly higher than that of control subjects, and we developed a mouse model of burning mouth syndrome by application of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) diluted with 50% ethanol to the dorsum of the tongue. TNBS treatment to the tongue induced persistent, week-long, noninflammatory tongue pain and a significant increase in Artn expression in the tongue mucosa and marked tongue heat hyperalgesia. Following TNBS treatment, the successive administration of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist SB366791 or neutralizing anti-Artn antibody completely inhibited the heat hyperalgesia. The number of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α3 (GFRα3)-positive and TRPV1-positive trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the tongue significantly increased following TNBS treatment and was significantly reduced by successive administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody. The capsaicin-induced current in TG neurons innervating the tongue was enhanced following TNBS treatment and was inhibited by local administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody to the tongue. These results suggest that the overexpression of Artn in the TNBS-treated tongue increases the membrane excitability of TG neurons innervating the tongue by increasing TRPV1 sensitivity, which causes heat hyperalgesia. This model may be useful for the study of tongue pain hypersensitivity associated with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:26270588

  2. The role of xerostomia in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Alvarenga da Silva; José Tadeu Tesseroli de Siqueira; Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira; Silvia Regina Dowgan Tesseroli de Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To assess the efficacy of anti-xerostomic topical medication (urea 10%) in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Method : Thirty-eight subjects diagnosed with BMS according to the International Association for the Study of Pain guidelines were randomized to either placebo (5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 0.15% methyl paraben, and 10% glycerol in distilled water qsp 100 g) or treatment (urea 10%) to be applied to the oral cavity 3-4 times per day for 3 months. The patient...

  3. Involvement of peripheral artemin signaling in tongue pain: possible mechanism in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Takeda, Mamoru; Honda, Kuniya; Maruno, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Ayano; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely tongue pain hypersensitivity. We found that the mRNA expression of Artemin (Artn) in the tongue mucosa of patients with burning mouth syndrome was significantly higher than that of control subjects, and we developed a mouse model of burning mouth syndrome by application of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) diluted with 50% ethanol to the dorsum of the tongue. TNBS treatment to the tongue induced persistent, week-long, noninflammatory tongue pain and a significant increase in Artn expression in the tongue mucosa and marked tongue heat hyperalgesia. Following TNBS treatment, the successive administration of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist SB366791 or neutralizing anti-Artn antibody completely inhibited the heat hyperalgesia. The number of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α3 (GFRα3)-positive and TRPV1-positive trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the tongue significantly increased following TNBS treatment and was significantly reduced by successive administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody. The capsaicin-induced current in TG neurons innervating the tongue was enhanced following TNBS treatment and was inhibited by local administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody to the tongue. These results suggest that the overexpression of Artn in the TNBS-treated tongue increases the membrane excitability of TG neurons innervating the tongue by increasing TRPV1 sensitivity, which causes heat hyperalgesia. This model may be useful for the study of tongue pain hypersensitivity associated with burning mouth syndrome.

  4. Burning Mouth Syndrome due to Television Moans, an Enigma for Oral Physician: Treatment with Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Sheikh, Soheyl; Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Kasariya, Kartikaya; Buttan, Amit; Gupta, Maqul

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a relatively common disease that can severely affect the quality of life of the patient. It causes chronic orofacial pain or oral burning sensation even in the absence of any detectable organic cause. The etiology of BMS is complex and multifactorial. It has been associated with menopause, trigger events and even genetic polymorphisms. Although its etiology remains unclear, there is still much evidence that psychological elements like stress, anxiety or depression do play a significant role. There are several studies in the literature which only report the association of BMS with psychological factors. But to the best of our knowledge, there is no such case reported in the literature which has actually highlighted the management of such a case with psychogenic elements involved. In this case report, apart from discussing the role of psychological factors, the treatment of BMS with emphasis on counseling is also emphasized. Further, it is of interest to know that such patients with psychologically induced burning mouth syndrome have to be evaluated to their deepest details. Even their commonly overlooked gestures and habits like watching a particular television soap opera may be involved in their disease process. It can be concluded that psychological counseling in general dental practice can provide an effective cure for chronic oral burning sensation with psychological factors involved.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome – a common dental problem in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Ślebioda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by the presence of burning, paresthesia or pain of the oral mucosa in the absence of pathologic lesions revealed during the clinical examination [1-3]. Moreover, the pain may be accompanied by oral dryness, hypersensitivity to some food compounds and taste disorders [4-6]. Etiopathogenesis of this condition remains unclear. Potential local causative factors include among the others mechanical irritation, parafunctions and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system, contact allergy to dental materials and electro-galvanic phenomena. Potential systemic causes include diabetes mellitus, B group vitamin deficiency (vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, folic acid and iron deficiency, hormonal imbalance, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric and neurological disorders and drug-induced side effects. The hypothesis concerning the role of hormonal changes in the development of BMS seems to be confirmed by a high incidence of this condition in perimenopausal women [2, 7, 8]. Up to now, due to an unclear etiology of the disease, the treatment is very often ineffective and mainly symptomatic, which may exacerbate patient’s anxiety and discomfort. In this paper we present the main etiologic factors of the burning mouth syndrome. We discuss the basic diagnostic and therapeutic methods and the influence of hormonal replacement therapy on the course of BMS based on the current medical reports.

  6. Phototherapy on the Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Prospective Analysis of 20 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Lúcia de Fátima C; de Andrade, Samantha C; Nogueira, Gessé E C; Leão, Jair C; de Freitas, Patrícia M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the effect of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This prospective clinical study reports on preliminary outcomes of twenty volunteers diagnosed with BMS who have undergone the conventional treatment prior to laser phototherapy. LPT consisted of weekly sessions of LPT (660 nm), for a period of 10 weeks. The laser protocol consisted of the following parameters: 40 mW, 10 J cm(2) and 0.4 J per point, irradiation time of 10 s. In all sessions, the burning intensity was evaluated with a 10 cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The burning intensity evaluation by VAS was performed immediately before and after each LPT session. Nonparametric test of Wilcoxon was used for statistical analysis, considering a significance level of 5%. All volunteers reported reduced burning intensity in all sessions when compared to the previous one and reduction in VAS scores by up to 49% in the last clinical session when compared to the first session. When only the VAS baseline of the first session was compared with the consecutive sessions, there was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores in almost all sessions. The LPT may be an alternative treatment for the relief of oral burning symptoms in patients with BMS. PMID:26138316

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of low-level laser in improving the symptoms of burning mouth syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad; Rasti, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is common conditions that affects menopause women, patients suffer from sever burning sensation. Up to now there is no definitive treatment for this disease. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser (LLL) in improving the symptoms of burning mouth syndrome. Material and Methods Twenty patients with BMS were enrolled in this study; they were divided in two groups randomly. In the laser group, in each patient, 10 areas on the oral mucosa were selected and underwent LLL irradiation at a wavelength of 630 nm, and a power of 30 mW for 10 seconds twice a week for 4 weeks. In the placebo group, silent/off laser therapy was carried out during the same period in the same areas. Burning sensation and quality of life were evaluated. Results Burning sensation severity and quality of life in the two groups after intervention were different significant statistically, (p= 0.004, p= 0.01 respectively) .Patients in laser group had better results. Conclusions It can be concluded that low level laser might decrease the intensity of burning mouth syndrome. Key words:Pain, low-level laser, burning mouth syndrome, oral mucosa. PMID:26535101

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: controversial place as a symptom of Oro-dental pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, E C; Manole, G; Coculescu, B I; Purcărea, V L

    2015-01-01

    As defined by WHO experts, disease involves a change of the physical, mental and social welfare, generating chronic stress condition if unresolved. One of the symptoms almost constantly found in any condition is pain. This feeling manifests differently depending on the subjective perception. The burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is included in such a framework. The BMS is considered as one of the characteristic states of chronic stress syndromes associated with nonspecific clinical manifestations and requires special medical attention in terms of assessing and treating the condition. However, the insufficient knowledge of its etiopathogenic mechanisms requires comprehensive research undertaken on such a subject. PMID:26361508

  9. Evaluation of the response to treatment and clinical evolution in patients with burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo; López López, José

    2013-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study is to investigate the clinical evolution, the spontaneous remission of the symptomatology and the response to different treatments in a group of burning mouth syndrome patients. Study Design: the sample was formed by a group of patients that were visited in the Unit of Oral Medicine of the Dentistry Clinic of the University of Barcelona, from the year 2000 to 2011. After revising the clinical records of all the patients that had been under control for a period...

  10. Response to topical clonazepam in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Ma Eugenia; López López, José; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a difficult disease for patients and clinicians. Moreover, there is not a general consensus on how to treat the disease. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate BMS patients' response to topical clonazepam treatment. A double blind study was performed. Among a total of 66 patients, 33 were treated with tablets of clonazepam and another 33 were treated with a placebo. Symptoms were evaluated after 1 month and 6 months of treatment and scored on an analog...

  11. Fungiform papillae density in patients with burning mouth syndrome and xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; López-Jornet, Pía; Molino-Pagán, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze fungiform papillae density in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and xerostomia. Study design: In this cross-sectional clinical study, sixty patients were included (20 with BMS, 20 with xerostomia and 20 healthy controls). The fungiform papillae density was analyzed over a small region on the anterior tip of the tongue with the aid of a digital camera. The number of papillae was measured in an area of 19 mm2. Results: The patients with B...

  12. Effect of a local anesthetic lozenge in relief of symptoms in burning mouth syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treldal, Charlotte; Jacobsen, C B; Mogensen, Stine;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) often represent a clinical challenge as available agents for symptomatic treatment are few and often ineffective. The aim was to evaluate the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge on oral mucosal pain, xerostomia, and taste alterations in patients....... Assessment of oral mucosal pain, xerostomia, and taste alterations was performed in a patient diary on a visual analog scale (ranging from 0 to 100 mm) before and after the lozenge was dissolved. RESULTS: The bupivacaine lozenge significantly reduced the burning oral pain (P ... with BMS. METHODS: Eighteen patients (4 men and 14 women) aged 39-71 years with BMS were included in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Lozenges (containing bupivacaine or placebo) were administrated three times a day for 2 weeks for two separate treatment periods...

  13. Grey matter changes of the pain matrix in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Charlotte; Gransjøen, Anne Mari; Schlumberger, Gina; Grushka, Miriam; Frasnelli, Johannes; Singh, Preet Bano

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the mouth, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. Latest findings indicate that BMS could result from neuropathic trigeminal conditions. While many investigations have focused on the periphery, very few have examined possible central dysfunctions. To highlight changes of the central system of subjects with BMS, we analysed the grey matter concentration in 12 subjects using voxel-based morphometry. Data were compared with a control group (Ct). To better understand the brain mechanisms underlying BMS, the grey matter concentration of patients was also compared with those of dysgeusic patients (Dys). Dysgeusia is another oral dysfunction condition, characterized by a distorted sense of taste and accompanied by a reduced taste function. We found that a major part of the 'pain matrix' presented modifications of the grey matter concentration in subjects with BMS. Six regions out of eight were affected [anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, lobules of the cerebellum, insula/frontal operculum, inferior temporal area, primary motor cortex, dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC)]. In the anterior cingulate gyrus, the lobules of the cerebellum, the inferior temporal lobe and the DLPFC, pain intensity correlated with grey matter concentration. Dys also presented changes in grey matter concentration but in different areas of the brain. Our results suggest that a deficiency in the control of pain could in part be a cause of BMS and that BMS and dysgeusia conditions are not linked to similar structural changes in the brain. PMID:26741696

  14. Correlation between Burning Mouth Syndrome and Psychological Symptoms in Patients Attending to Zahedan Dental School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Bakhshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an oral burning sensation , usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. BMS is estimated to involve 1 to 5% of the adult population and is mostly reported within middle-aged women. The etiology of this disease is not thoroughly identified yet and there is a debate over the significance of Psychological factors in creating BMS. This study intended to examine the relationship between psychological factors with pain reports and psychosocial profiles of BMS patients to determine whether psychological factors are related to pain reports and burning mouth of patients. Therefore frequencies of psychological factors were analyzed. Methods: 30 patients with BMS participated in this study. They were homogenous regarding age, sex with the control group. In addition, education was possibly homogenized. The participants completed SCL-90 questionnaire for their anxiety, depression, somatic and psychotic symptoms to be scrutinized. Then, t-test was applied to analyze the research data. Results: Mean of anxiety(case20/8, control 9/53, depression(case 26/53, control 13/40, somatic(case 23/7, control 15/26 and psychotic(case 19/60, control 8/10 symptoms were higher in BMS group rather than in control groups. T-test results indicated there was no statically significant difference between BMS and control group in regard to psychological symptoms(p< 0.0001. Conclusion: The study findings indicate that psychological disorders may predispose the patients to the development of BMS.

  15. Co-occurrence of Pain Symptoms and Somatosensory Sensitivity in Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisset, Xavier; Calbacho, Valentina; Torres, Pilar; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle; Dallel, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic and spontaneous oral pain with burning quality in the tongue or other oral mucosa without any identifiable oral lesion or laboratory finding. Pathogenesis and etiology of BMS are still unknown. However, BMS has been associated with other chronic pain syndromes including other idiopathic orofacial pain, the dynias group and the family of central sensitivity syndromes. This would imply that BMS shares common mechanisms with other cephalic and/or extracephalic chronic pains. The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine whether BMS is actually associated with other pain syndromes, and to analyze cephalic and extracephalic somatosensory sensitivity in these patients. Methods This report followed the PRISMA Statement. An electronic search was performed until January 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane library, Wiley and ScienceDirect. Searched terms included “burning mouth syndrome OR stomatodynia OR glossodynia OR burning tongue OR oral burning”. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria (report of an association between BMS and other pain(s) symptoms or of cutaneous cephalic and/or extracephalic quantitative sensory testing in BMS patients), and a descriptive analysis conducted. Results The search retrieved 1512 reports. Out of these, twelve articles met criteria for co-occurring pain symptoms and nine studies for quantitative sensory testing (QST) in BMS patients. The analysis reveals that in BMS patients co-occurring pain symptoms are rare, assessed by only 0.8% (12 of 1512) of the retrieved studies. BMS was associated with headaches, TMD, atypical facial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic facial pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, joint pain, abdominal pain, rectal pain or vulvodynia. However, the prevalence of pain symptoms in BMS patients is not different from that in the age-matched general population. QST studies reveal no or inconsistent evidence of abnormal cutaneous cephalic

  16. Burning Mouth Syndrome in Zahedan; the Southeast of Islamic Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Heidari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue or other oral sites, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the main epidemiological and clinical features involved in burning mouth syndrome in Zahedan; southeast of Iran.Materials and Methods: In this case series study, 89 BMS patients were selected from those referred to the Department of the Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, and Khatam-ol-anbia, central hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, during2002 to 2003. The study group consisted of 62 female (69.7% and 27 male (30.3 %patients, with a mean age of 60.9 years, ranging from 40 to 89 years. In all cases a study protocol, specially designed for this disease was completed, including general, medical and oral information and an intraoral examination. Comparative and descriptivestatistical analysis was performed. The Chi-square test was considered significant at p<0.05.Results: The 50-59 years age group showed the highest prevalence among the studied cases (24.3%. The tongue was the most frequent location of symptoms, affected in 86 patients (96.6%. In addition to the burning sensation, 25.8% and 48.3% of the patientscomplained of oral dryness and dysgusia, respectively. Type III BMS was the most common subtype (50.6%. In women, 90.3% were postmenopausal. Type II diabetes was observed in 36% of the patients and 37.1% suffered from respiratory disease,23.6% from gastritis, 15.7% from liver diseases, 30.3% from renal disease, 40.4% fromhypertension and 43.8% had sleep disorders. Also, 52.8% revealed seasonal allergy,32.6% had temporomandibular joint disorders and 59.6% had poor oral hygiene.Conclusion: BMS is a complex and multifactorial disease process in which numerous possible etiologies must be eliminated before the proper treatment can be initiated.

  17. Epidemiological profile of elderly women with burning mouth symptoms - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p238

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiological profile of elderly women with burning mouth symptoms. Methods: A cross sectional, quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study conducted in two phases: a determining the prevalence of burning mouth symptoms among 263 elderly women aged between 60 and 83 years who attended six public municipal community centers in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, b defining the epidemiological profile of respondents with burning mouth symptoms, through the variables: self-reported diseases, salivary flow, use of medications, dental prosthesis and oral hygiene habits. Data were organized by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences - SPSS version 15. Results: The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms in the group was 19% (n=50. Of these, 41 (82.0% reported the manifestation of the symptoms as a scalding sensation. Regarding the occurrence, the most referred sites were: tongue (48%; n=24 and gums (22%; n=11. Among elderly women, 24 (48.0% had daily symptoms. Regarding self-reported diseases and habits: 80.0% cited cardiovascular diseases, 74.0% (n=37 musculoskeletal illness and 62.0% (n=31 neurological disorders, besides 56.0% (n=28 present reduction of salivary flow; 70.0% (n=35 took medication, 66.0% (n=33 were users of dental prosthesis and 18.0% (n=9 did not brush their teeth. Conclusions: The prevalence of burning mouth symptoms in this group was 19%; scalding sensation was the main manifestation of the symptom and the tongue was the site of major symptomatology. The epidemiological profile of symptomatic elderly was distinguished by self-reported diseases and habits such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders, in addition to reduced salivary flow, as well as the use of medications and dental prosthesis.

  18. Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome with special focus on taste dysfunction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkka-Palomaa, M; Jääskeläinen, S K; Laine, M A; Teerijoki-Oksa, T; Sandell, M; Forssell, H

    2015-11-01

    Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral condition characterized by burning pain often accompanied with taste dysfunction and xerostomia. The most compelling evidence concerning BMS pathophysiology comes from studies on the somatosensory system using neurophysiologic or psychophysical methods such as blink reflex, thermal quantitative sensory testing, as well as functional brain imaging. They have provided convincing evidence for neuropathic involvement at several levels of the somatosensory system in BMS pain pathophysiology. The number of taste function studies trying to substantiate the subjective taste disturbances or studies on salivary factors in BMS is much more limited, and most of them suffer from definitional and methodological problems. This review aims to critically evaluate the existing literature on the pathophysiology of BMS, paying special attention to the correctness of case selection and the methodology used in published studies, and to summarize the current state of knowledge. Based on the recognition of several gaps in the current understanding of the pathophysiology of BMS especially as regards taste and pain system interactions, the review ends with future scenarios for research in this area. PMID:25962669

  19. The role of xerostomia in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alvarenga da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To assess the efficacy of anti-xerostomic topical medication (urea 10% in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS. Method : Thirty-eight subjects diagnosed with BMS according to the International Association for the Study of Pain guidelines were randomized to either placebo (5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 0.15% methyl paraben, and 10% glycerol in distilled water qsp 100 g or treatment (urea 10% to be applied to the oral cavity 3-4 times per day for 3 months. The patients were evaluated before and after treatment with the following instruments: the EDOF-HC protocol (Orofacial Pain Clinic – Hospital das Clínicas, a xerostomia questionnaire, and quantitative sensory testing. Results : There were no differences in salivary flow or gustative, olfactory, or sensory thresholds (P>0.05. Fifteen (60% patients reported improvement with the treatments (P=0.336. Conclusion : In conclusion, there were no differences between groups, and both exhibited an association between reported improvement and salivation.

  20. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients with burning mouth syndrome and atypical odontalgia referred from psychiatric to dental facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Briley, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Miho Takenoshita1, Tomoko Sato1, Yuichi Kato1, Ayano Katagiri1, Tatsuya Yoshikawa1, Yusuke Sato2, Eisuke Matsushima3, Yoshiyuki Sasaki4, Akira Toyofuku11Psychosomatic Dentistry, 2Complete Denture Prosthodontics, 3Liaison Psychiatry and Palliative Medicine, 4Center for Education and Research in Oral Health Care, Faculty of Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and atypical odontalgia ...

  1. The impact of burning mouth syndrome on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Tarcília A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic disorder that is characterized by a burning sensation and a normal clinical appearance of the oral mucosa. This condition often affects the health-related quality of life in patients. As such, the aim of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life of patients with BMS and healthy controls, using the validated Portuguese versions of the SF-36 and OHIP-49 questionnaires. Methods A calculated sample of Brazilian patients with BMS (n = 26 was compared with a control group (n = 27, paired for gender and age. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics were obtained, and interviews were conducted using the SF-36 and OHIP-49. To evaluate the normality of the variables, we used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U-Test were used to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with BMS and controls Mann-Whitney U-test were carried out to compare SF-36 and OHIP-49 between BMS patients and controls. The significance level was set at 0.05. To compare the dimensions of the SF-36 and OHIP-49 between BMS patients and controls, we considered Bonferroni correction. So for comparison of the dimensions, the significance level was set at 0.00625 for SF-36 and at 0.00714 for OHIP-49. Results The clinical and demographic data were similar in both groups (P > 0.05. SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all domains for patients with BMS (P Conclusions BMS has a negative impact on the health-related quality of life of individuals, as can be shown by instruments such as the SF-36 and OHIP-49. So, the evaluation of quality of life might be useful for more information about the nature and severity of BMS, to evaluate the effects of treatment protocols, in order to improve their outcomes by means a humanized clinical practice.

  2. Síndrome de Boca Ardiente: actualización Burning Mouth syndrome: actualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Perdomo Lovera

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de la boca ardiente (SBA es una entidad nosológica, más frecuente en mujeres menopáusicas. Su principal característica es una sintomatología urente y/o dolorosa de la mucosa bucal (principalmente en la lengua, sin hallazgos clínicos aparentes que expliquen la aparición de esta sensación. Se encuentra relacionado con una serie de factores locales y sistémicos posibles desencadenantes, por lo que se considera de etiología multifactorial. El tratamiento va dirigido a mejorar la sintomatología y controlar los factores. Las terapias propuestas consistentes en control de factores locales, factores sistémicos y psicológicos y algunas indicaciones farmacológicas, proporcionan resultados mediocres. En términos generales, el SBA continúa siendo objeto de estudios en el ámbito de la medicina bucal en busca de un diagnóstico más preciso y de una terapéutica más eficaz.Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a nosological entity, frequent in women in the menopausal period, which principal characteristic is a burning and/or pain sensation of the oral cavity (principally in the tongue. However, the oral mucosa often appears normal, with no apparent organic cause to account for the symptomatology. This syndrome is found to be related which a series of local and systemic factors as possible cause. Therefore is to be considerate a pathology with multifactorial etiology. The treatment is directed to improve the symptomatology and to control the factors. The proposal therapies, related to the control of local, systemic and psychological factors and some pharmacological indications, provide poor results. In general terms the BMS is still the object of many studies in the environment of the oral medicine, in order to search several aspects of diagnose and a more effective therapy.

  3. Characteristics of middle-aged and older patients with temporomandibular disorders and burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mika; Iida, Takashi; Komiyama, Osamu; Masuda, Manabu; Uchida, Takashi; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Okubo, Masakazu; Shimosaka, Michiharu; Narita, Noriyuki; Niwa, Hideo; Kubo, Hideyuki; De Laat, Antoon; Kawara, Misao; Makiyama, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain intensities and psychosocial characteristics in middle-aged and older patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Subjects were selected according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (n = 705) and International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for BMS (n = 175). Patients were then divided into two age groups: 45-64 years (middle-aged, Group A) and 65-84 years (older, Group B). Pain intensity and depression and somatization scores were evaluated in both groups. In BMS patients, present and worst pain intensities were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A {4.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.0-5.2] vs. 3.5 [95% CI = 3.1-3.9] and 5.9 [95% CI = 5.2-6.4] vs. 5.0 [95% CI = 4.5-5.6], respectively; P < 0.05}, with no difference observed in TMD patients. The depression and somatization scores were significantly higher in Group A than in Group B among BMS patients [0.57 (95% CI = 0.45-0.69) vs. 0.46 (95% CI = 0.34-0.59) and 0.537 (95% CI = 0.45-0.63) vs. 0.45 (95% CI = 0.34-0.55); P < 0.05], with no difference observed in TMD patients. The results of the present study indicate that pain intensities and psychosocial characteristics in BMS appear to differ between middle-aged and older patients. PMID:26666859

  4. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

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    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Brain Responses to Noxious Heat Thermal Stimuli in Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, T; Imamura, Y; Kohashi, R; Dezawa, K; Nakaya, Y; Sato, Y; Watanabe, K; Morimoto, Y; Shizukuishi, T; Abe, O; Haji, T; Tabei, K; Taira, M

    2016-09-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic orofacial pain condition. Although the pathophysiology of BMS is not clearly understood, central and peripheral neuropathic mechanisms are thought to be involved. The authors compared brain response to noxious heat stimuli in 16 right-handed women with primary BMS and 15 sex- and age-matched right-handed healthy female controls. A thermal stimulus sequence of 32 °C to 40 °C to 32 °C to 49 °C was repeated 4 times in a cycle. Warm and noxious heat stimuli were delivered with a Peltier thermode placed on the right palm or right lower lip for 32 s each in a session. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained by recording echoplanar images with a block design. Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software was used to analyze the data. Patients and controls both reported feeling more pain during palm stimulation than during lip stimulation. Repetition of noxious heat stimulus on the lower lip but not on the palm induced habituation in brain activity in the cingulate cortex without reduction in pain perception. Multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between perceived pain intensity and suppression of brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex when the repeated thermal sequence was applied at the lower lip. Furthermore, the response of the parahippocampal area differed in BMS patients and controls when the same repeated thermal sequence was applied at the palm. The authors' findings indicate that BMS patients show specific brain responses due to impaired function of the central and peripheral nervous systems (clinical trial registration: UMIN000015002). PMID:27302878

  6. POSSIBLE CAUSES AND MANAGEMENT OF BURNING MOUTH SYNDROME%灼口综合征的病因及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹; 孙晓平

    2003-01-01

    灼口综合征(Burning Mouth Syndrome,BMS)临床发病率较高,在口腔粘膜病中占第三位,可能的诱发因素为局部过敏、刺激、感染;系统因素为更年期雌激素水平降低、营养缺乏、神经生理功能紊乱.而精神心理障碍可能是BMS最重要的原因.治疗的方法有去除局部刺激及感染、雌激素替代疗法,补充维生素及心理治疗,多种疗法联合治疗效果较好.

  7. High-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yukihiro; Kani, Koichi; Takano, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Fumihiro; Aota, Keiko; Takegawa, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tomoko; Kondo, Chika; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Azuma, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR) on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters). Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS. PMID:25386367

  8. High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters. Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS.

  9. Five Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome in Whom an Antidepressant (Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor) Was Not Effective, but Pregabalin Markedly Relieved Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Tokura, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Keizo; Nagashima, Wataru; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Umemura, Eri; Tachibana, Masako; Miyauchi, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Yuka; Arao, Munetaka; Ozaki, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) causes idiopathic pain or a burning sensation in clinically normal oral mucosa. Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic disease with an unknown etiology. Burning mouth syndrome is also idiopathic, and a consensus regarding diagnosis/treatment has not been reached yet. Recent studies have supported the suggestion that BMS is a neuropathic pain disorder in which both the peripheral and central nervous systems are involved. Tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline and amitriptyline), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (duloxetine and milnacipran), and antiepileptic drugs, potential-dependent calcium channel α2δ subunit ligands (gabapentine and pregabalin), are currently recommended as the first-choice drugs for neuropathic pain. In this study, we report 5 patients with BMS in whom there was no response to SNRI (milnacipran or duloxetine), or administration was discontinued because of adverse reactions, but in whom pregabalin therapy markedly reduced or led to the disappearance of pain in a short period. Pregabalin, whose mechanism of action differs from that of SNRIs, may become a treatment option for BMS patients who are not responsive to or are resistant to SNRIs. PMID:26166242

  10. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients with burning mouth syndrome and atypical odontalgia referred from psychiatric to dental facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Takenoshita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Miho Takenoshita1, Tomoko Sato1, Yuichi Kato1, Ayano Katagiri1, Tatsuya Yoshikawa1, Yusuke Sato2, Eisuke Matsushima3, Yoshiyuki Sasaki4, Akira Toyofuku11Psychosomatic Dentistry, 2Complete Denture Prosthodontics, 3Liaison Psychiatry and Palliative Medicine, 4Center for Education and Research in Oral Health Care, Faculty of Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS and atypical odontalgia (AO are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as “somatoform disorder”. From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Objective: To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Study design: Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients’ medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision.Results: The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress

  11. Síndrome da boca ardente: etiologia Burning mouth syndrome: etiology

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    Dafne Patrícia Cerchiari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome da Boca Ardente (SBA é caracterizada por dor na cavidade oral, com ou sem sinais inflamatórios, mas sem lesões específicas. Acomete geralmente mulheres na faixa etária entre 40 a 60 anos. A dor é do tipo queimação, de intensidade moderada a severa, sendo a língua o local mais acometido, podendo haver sensação dolorosa também em gengivas, lábios e mucosa jugal. Pode haver piora da intensidade dolorosa no decorrer do dia, nos estados de tensão, fadiga, ao falar muito, à ingestão de alimentos picantes e/ou quentes e melhora com alimentos frios, trabalho e distração. O objetivo desta revisão é contemplar as possíveis etiologias da SBA, agrupando-as em 4 grandes grupos para que melhor possam ser estudados: dor oral de causa local, sistêmica, emocional e idiopática. Sabendo dos diagnósticos diferenciais da síndrome, estabelecemos um protocolo para o manejo destes pacientes. Dentre as etiologias de dor bucal local, deve-se pesquisar as de causa dentária, alérgicas e infecciosas. Para as causas sistêmicas, pesquisar doenças do tecido conectivo, doenças endócrinas, neurológicas, deficiências nutricionais e as alterações das glândulas salivares que levam à xerostomia. A etiologia da SBA pode ser de difícil diagnóstico, muitas vezes com mais de um fator causando dor na boca. A realização de anamnese detalhada, exame físico geral, inspeção minuciosa da cavidade oral e orofaringe, além de exames laboratoriais são de fundamental importância, para evitar que o tratamento dos pacientes com esta síndrome, seja baseado em tentativa e erro.The Burning Month Syndrome (BMS is an oral mucosa pain - with or without inflammatory signs - without any specific lesion. It is mostly observed in women aged 40-60 years. This pain feels like a moderate/severe burning, and it occurs more frequently on the tongue, but it may also be felt at the gingiva, lips and jugal mucosa. It may worsen during the day, during stress

  12. 灼口综合征的误诊及原因分析%Analyze misdiagnosis of burning mouth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左健

    2011-01-01

    目的 对灼口综合征(BMS)的误诊情况进行分析,以指导临床工作.方法 收集近3年最终确诊为BMS的患者资料16例,调查其初诊与最终诊断符合率.结果 患者初诊曾诊断为:舌乳头炎5例;三叉神经痛2例;舌咽神经痛1例;干燥综合征1例;过敏1例;颌下腺炎1例;咽炎1例;口腔溃疡2例;只有2例初诊诊断为BMS.初诊误诊率达87.5%.结论 大部分灼口综合征被误诊误治,要减少灼口综合征的误诊误治,必须加强对灼口综合征的诊断与鉴别诊断能力.%Objective Analyze misdiagnosis of burning mouth syndrome(BMS) to guide clinical work. Method Collect 16 cases finally diagnosed as BMS nearly 3 years, Investigate the coincidence rate of the initial diagnosis and final diagnosis. Results The initial diagnosis of patients: 5 cases of lingual papillitis; trigeminal neuralgia in 2 cases;1 case of glossopharyngeal neuralgia; drying syndrome in 1 case; allergy in 1 case; submandibular gland inflammation in 1 case; pharyngitis, 1 case; oral ulcers in 2 cases; Only 2 patients were diagnosed as BMS. Misdiagnosis rate was 87.5%. Conclusion Most of BMS are misdiagnosis and mistreatment. To reduce the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of BMS, we must strengthen the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

  13. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; López, José López; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). A diode laser was used in 78 BMS patients who were randomly assigned into four groups: IR1W, n=20 (830 nm, 100 mW, 5 J, 176 J/cm2, 50 s, LLLT weekly sessions, 10 sessions); IR3W, n=20 (830 nm, 100 mW, 5 J, 176 J/cm2, 50 s, three LLLT weekly sessions, 9 sessions); red laser, n=19 (685 nm, 35 mW, 2 J, 72 J/cm2, 58 s, three LLLT weekly sessions, 9 sessions); and control-group (CG), n=19. Symptoms were assessed at the end of the treatment and eight weeks later; quality of life related to oral health was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Statistical analysis was carried out using repeated measures analysis of variance followed by the posthoc Tukey test. There was significant reduction of the symptoms in all groups at the end of the treatment, which was maintained in the follow-up. The scores of the IR1W and IR3W laser groups differed significantly from those of the CG. There was also a decrease in the OHIP-14 scores in the four groups. The IR3W laser group scores differed significantly from those of the CG. LLLT reduces the symptoms of BMS and may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the relief of symptoms in patients with BMS.

  14. Cinical efficacy of burning mouth syndrome treated by livial%利维爱治疗灼口综合征临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭解英; 吴颖芳; 韩为农; 方厂云

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of livial on postmenopause women with burning mouth syndrome. Methods Fifty six postmenopause women with burning mouth syndrome were randomly divided into two groups, 26 patients were treated with livial as the treatment group, 30 patients were treated with oryzanol and vitamin E as the control. To evaluate the effect, all the patients were observed in 3~6 months after therapy. Results The result showed that the total effective rate of the treatment group was 84.62% after 3 months, 88.46% after 6 months, and significantly higher than that in the control(P<0.005). Conclusion It is indicated that livial is safer and more effective than nylestriol in treatment with burning mouth syndrome.%目的:观察利维爱治疗绝经后女性灼口综合征的临床疗效。方法:将56例绝经后女性灼口综合征患者随机分为两组,治疗组26例给予利维爱治疗,对照组30例给予谷维素及维生素E治疗。分别于治疗3个月、6个月后观察症状改善情况。结果:用利维爱治疗3个月后总有效率为84 .62%,6个月后总有效率为88.46%,与对照组相比差异均有高度显著性(P<0.005)。结论:用利维爱治疗本病比尼尔雌醇更安全、有效。

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain alcohol  Products high in acid, such as citrus fruits and juices Ask your dentist and doctor for other helpful tips. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH ...

  16. Estudio clínico-epidemiológico sobre el síndrome de ardor bucal Clinical epidemiology study about the burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C López Carriches

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available En el síndrome de ardor bucal el paciente refiere un dolor crónico que no suele acompañarse de lesiones mucosas u otros signos clínicos. Aunque la lengua es la localización más importante, también afecta a los labios, el paladar y la mucosa yugal e incluso a la garganta y el suelo de la boca. Con el propósito de analizar los factores epidemiológicos y determinar si este síndrome se asocia con alguna alteración oral o sistémica se realizó un estudio sobre 25 pacientes con síndrome de ardor bucal que acudieron al servicio de Cirugía de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Se observó que tiene un componente psicógeno importantísimo presentando la mayoría de los pacientes unas características comunes y se puede afirmar que ciertos medicamentos como los antidepresivos influyen en este cuadro.In burning mouth syndrome, patient refers a chronic pain that is not usually accompanied by mucosal lesions or another clinic signs. Although tongue is the most important location, lips, palate, yugal mucosa even throat and mouth floor can be affected, too. On the purpose of analysing the epidemiological aspects and to decide if this syndrome is associated with oral or systemic alterations a study was carried out with 25 burning mouth syndrome patients that came to the Surgery Unit of School of Dentistry of University Complutense of Madrid. A very important psychological component has been observed and most of the patients presented quite common characteristic and it can be affirmed that certain medicines like antidepressive take influence in this syndrome.

  17. Estudio de una muestra de pacientes con síndrome de boca ardiente Study of a sample of patients with burning mouth syndrome

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    ME Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de boca ardiente (SBA es una enfermedad que, a pesar de conocerse desde hace muchos años, sigue planteando problemas de diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se manifiesta clínicamente como sensación de ardor o escozor en alguna zona de la mucosa oral, no existiendo ninguna lesión que pueda justificar dicha sintomatología. Se presenta fundamentalmente en mujeres postmenopáusicas, que suelen presentar sus molestias durante periodos prolongados. El ardor bucal puede acompañarse de otras alteraciones sensitivas, como sensación de sequedad o alteraciones gustativas. Objetivos: Estudiar una muestra de pacientes con SBA y describir los factores epidemiológicos, las enfermedades que padecen y los fármacos que consumen. Pacientes y métodos: La muestra estaba formada por 83 pacientes que consultaban en la clínica odontológica por ardor bucal. Se efectuó en todos ellos una historia clínica detallada y se registraron todas las características en una hoja de protocolo. Resultados: El 90,4% de los pacientes de nuestro estudio eran mujeres y sólo el 9,6% eran hombres. La media de edad de la muestra fue de 64,9 años. Todos los pacientes presentaban ardor en la lengua y el 64% lo presentaban en los labios. La mayoría de los pacientes estudiados (76% presentaban una evolución de más de 12 meses, mientras que los de menos de 6 meses únicamente llegaban al 6%. De los 83 pacientes estudiados, 52 presentaban trastornos psicológicos (63% y más de la mitad de ellos consumía algún fármaco psicoactivo. Conclusiones: Nuestra muestra de pacientes es equiparable a las descritas en otros estudios. El SBA predomina en mujeres postmenopáusicas, que presentan con gran frecuencia ansiedad y/o depresión.The burning mouth syndrome (BMS is known since many years ago, but it is still difficult to be diagnosed and treated. The unique clinical manifestation is a kind of burning sensation on the oral mucosa, without any lesions justifying this symptom

  18. Síndrome de ardor bucal: Actualización diagnóstica y terapéutica Burning mouth syndrome: Diagnostic and therapeutic actualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ros Lluch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de boca ardiente (SBA es una entidad patológica caracterizada por la presencia de síntomas crónicos de ardor o dolor en la mucosa bucal clínicamente normal. El SBA afecta principalmente a mujeres peri y posmenopáusicas. Su causa es desconocida, pero su relación con una compleja asociación de factores biológicos y psicológicos hace suponer una etiología multifactorial. Aunque se han encontrado tratamientos eficaces en casos particulares, se sigue buscando un tratamiento que resulte eficaz en la mayoría de los casos. Esta revisión hace especial referencia a los factores etiológicos y al tratamiento del síndrome.The burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by the presence of chronic symptoms of burning or pain in clinically normal oral mucosa. This syndrome primarily affects peri and postmenopausal women. The cause is unknown, but the relationship between the BMS and a complex association of biological and psychological factors suggest a multifactorial etiology. Although some treatments have been found effective in particular cases, the clinical searchers are still looking for a treatment that can be effective in most cases. This review makes particular reference to the etiological factors and the treatment of the syndrome.

  19. 老年人灼口综合征临床报告%Clinical report on geriatric burning mouth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青

    2004-01-01

    灼口综合征(Buming Mouth Sylldrome,BMS)又称舌痛症,是指发生于舌部及其口腔黏膜部位以烧灼样疼痛为主要表现的一组症候群,临床病变体征不明显。其发病与多种因素有关,多发于更年期妇女,特别是更年期综合征患者。本文对1995年以来诊治的15例60岁以上老年人灼口综合症患者的病因及治疗方法进行分析报告。

  20. Burning mouth complaints: clinical characteristics of a Brazilian sample Queixas de ardência bucal: características clínicas de amostra brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the clinical characteristics of burning mouth complaints (BMC in a series of Brazilian patients referred to a large teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 patients with burning mouth complaints were evaluated through a standardized protocol. RESULTS: 56 women and 10 men were examined, ranging in age from 35-83 years. The primary location of the complaints was reported to be the tongue. Thirty-six patients reported a precipitating event. The mean VAS pain levels were 7.5 in women and 6.11 in men. The average estradiol levels in women were low (OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características clínicas de pacientes brasileiros com queixas de ardência buccal atendidos em um hospital escola. MÉTODO: 66 pacientes com queixas de ardência bucal foram avaliados através de exame padronizado para esse tipo de queixa. RESULTADOS: 56 mulheres e 10 homens foram examinados consecutivamente. As idades variaram de 35-83 anos. A localização das queixas foi principalmente na língua e 36 pacientes relataram algum evento precipitante. A Escala Visual Analógica (EVA a intensidade da ardência (dor foi: mulheres 7.5 (média e homens 6.11 (média. Os níveis de estradiol foram baixos (<13 pg/ml; 80% dos pacientes relataram doença crônica associada, 55% usavam dentadura; 54% relataram xerostomia subjetiva; 48% distúrbios subjetivos do sono e 66% gosto fantasma. Não houve diferença da intensidade da EVA (p=0.139 ou dor pelo questionário McGill NWC (p=0.259 and PRI (p=0.276, entre os grupos com e sem eventos precipitantes. CONCLUSÕES: A existência de doenças crônicas associadas, o auto-relato de distúrbios do sono e as alterações de paladar indicam necessidade de avaliação sistêmica cuidadosa nesses pacientes; não houve diferenças entre os grupos com e sem evento precipitante.

  1. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome%综合治疗灼口综合征的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明; 柴慈秀; 王璐

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical curative ef ect of comprehensive treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Methods From 2010 February to 2013 December, 34 cases of MBS patients take comprehensive retrospective analysis of treatment. Results The 34 patients, after 3 months to 1.5 years fol ow-up, 22 cases were cured, accounting for 64.71%, 8 cases improved, 4 cases ineffective, accounted for 23.53%, accounted for 17.76%. Conclusion The occurrence and local, systemic, mental factors, so the treatment methods for dif erent diseases also shows diversification.%目的综合性治疗灼口综合征的临床疗效观察。方法从2010年2月~2013年12月对34例MBS患者采取综合性治疗回顾性分析。结果34例患者,经过3个月~1.5年的追踪观察,痊愈22例,占64.71%,好转8例,占23.53%,无效4例,占17.76%。结论其发生与局部、全身、精神因素相关,因此对不同疾病采取的治疗方法亦呈多样化。

  2. A Study on the Mental Health Status of Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome%灼口综合征患者心理健康状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建明; 陈立章; 彭解英; 凌天牖

    2003-01-01

    @@ 灼口综合征(Burning Mouth Syndrome,BMS)又名舌痛症,其病因不清,治疗极棘手.目前对BMS的病因研究涉及局部因素、全身疾病、心理因素等,其中心理因素占有重要地位[1,2].

  3. A randomized pilot study to assess the safety and the value of low-level laser therapy versus clonazepam in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Cafaro, Adriana; Garrone, Marco; Gambino, Alessio; Cabras, Marco; Romagnoli, Ercole; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Comparison between low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and clonazepam for treating burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients has never been documented; the aim of this study was to assess the effects of LLLT photobiomodulation versus medical therapy with clonazepam on BMS. Thirty-three patients (25 female, 8 male, mean age = 67.12) were randomly allocated to two different groups: the first one (group A, 18 patients) underwent two laser irradiation sessions weekly for 5 weeks, whereas the second one (group B, 15 patients) received topical clonazepam therapy [half a tablet (2 mg) in the mouth without swallowing for 3 min, three times a day for 21 days]. LLLT was delivered with a continuous wave 980-nm aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) diode laser and the output of 300 mW, delivering a Fluence of 10 J/cm(2), using a "spot technique," with an average power density of about 1 W/cm(2). The laser probe was held perpendicularly at a distance of about 2 mm from the mucosa. Visual analogue scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire, present pain intensity (PPI), and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) assessed sensation of pain. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Geriatric Depression Scale assessed levels of anxiety and depression. Twelve weeks after the end of treatment, patients treated with LLLT experienced a decrease in pain sensation reported for all the parameters analyzed: VAS (P = 0.004), McGill Pain Questionnaire (P = 0.002), PPI (P = 0.002), and OHIP-49 (P = 0.010). The group treated with clonazepam had less favorable results for VAS (P = 0.33), McGill Pain Questionnaire (P = 0.005), PPI (P = 0.013), and OHIP-49 (P = 0.25). Levels of anxiety and depression did not change statistically in any groups (P > 0.05). Comparing the two groups, LLLT appeared to be superior in improving pain perception, but statistically only at 8 weeks after the end of the protocol proposed (P = 0.026). Based on this preliminary trial, LLLT is capable

  4. A randomized pilot study to assess the safety and the value of low-level laser therapy versus clonazepam in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Cafaro, Adriana; Garrone, Marco; Gambino, Alessio; Cabras, Marco; Romagnoli, Ercole; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Comparison between low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and clonazepam for treating burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients has never been documented; the aim of this study was to assess the effects of LLLT photobiomodulation versus medical therapy with clonazepam on BMS. Thirty-three patients (25 female, 8 male, mean age = 67.12) were randomly allocated to two different groups: the first one (group A, 18 patients) underwent two laser irradiation sessions weekly for 5 weeks, whereas the second one (group B, 15 patients) received topical clonazepam therapy [half a tablet (2 mg) in the mouth without swallowing for 3 min, three times a day for 21 days]. LLLT was delivered with a continuous wave 980-nm aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) diode laser and the output of 300 mW, delivering a Fluence of 10 J/cm(2), using a "spot technique," with an average power density of about 1 W/cm(2). The laser probe was held perpendicularly at a distance of about 2 mm from the mucosa. Visual analogue scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire, present pain intensity (PPI), and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) assessed sensation of pain. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Geriatric Depression Scale assessed levels of anxiety and depression. Twelve weeks after the end of treatment, patients treated with LLLT experienced a decrease in pain sensation reported for all the parameters analyzed: VAS (P = 0.004), McGill Pain Questionnaire (P = 0.002), PPI (P = 0.002), and OHIP-49 (P = 0.010). The group treated with clonazepam had less favorable results for VAS (P = 0.33), McGill Pain Questionnaire (P = 0.005), PPI (P = 0.013), and OHIP-49 (P = 0.25). Levels of anxiety and depression did not change statistically in any groups (P > 0.05). Comparing the two groups, LLLT appeared to be superior in improving pain perception, but statistically only at 8 weeks after the end of the protocol proposed (P = 0.026). Based on this preliminary trial, LLLT is capable

  5. AURICULAR ACUPUNCTURE FOR BURNING MOUTH SYNDROME%耳针治疗灼口综合征的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳楠; 吴迎涛; 王万春

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解耳针治疗灼口综合征的效果.方法 灼口综合征病人80例,随机分为2组,实验组42例,采用耳针电刺激+耳压治疗;对照组38例,口服维生素B2、维生素E和谷维素治疗,30 d为1个疗程.疗程结束后,实验组停止电刺激,继续耳压治疗;对照组按原剂量口服药物.两组分别于治疗前、治疗1个疗程、治疗后3个月进行疼痛程度评定,并进行比较.结果 对照组治疗后3个月疼痛程度较治疗前及治疗1个疗程降低,差异有显著性(F=36.368,q=6.807、4.641,P<0.01);实验组治疗1个疗程、治疗后3个月疼痛程度均较治疗前降低,差异有显著性(F=24.191,q=3.808、8.513,P<0.01).实验组治疗1个疗程及3个月后疼痛程度较对照组降低,差异有显著性(t=18.000、17.902,P<0.05).结论 耳针治疗灼口综合征病人有效.%Objective To observe the efficacy of auricular acupuncture for burning mouth syndrome (BMS).Methods This study was carried out in 80 patients with BMS, who were randomized to experimental group (42 cases) and control group (38 cases).Patients in the experimental group were treated with combination of electric auricular acupuncture and ear pressing; those in treatment the control group with oral vitamin B2, vitamin E and oryzanolum, the time of therapy was 30 for both groups.After completion of the course, the electric stimulation was discontinued, while ear pressing continued in experiment group; to those in the control, the treatment was the same as previously.The degree of pain was evaluated and compared, in both groups, before and after one course and three months of treatment.Results After three months of treatment, the pain in the control group reduced compared with pre-therapy and after one treatment course, the differences were significant (F=36.368; q=6.807,4.641; P<0.01); after one course and three months of treatment, the pain in experimental group was lightened versus pre-therapy (F=24.191;q=3.808,8.513;P

  6. Mouth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your mouth is one of the most important parts of your body. Any problem that affects your mouth can make it hard to eat, drink or even smile. Some common mouth problems include Cold sores - painful sores on the ...

  7. Mouth and dental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Baat; I. van der Waal

    2009-01-01

    Summary This chapter contains sections titled: • Introduction • Periodontal disease • Dental caries • Odontogenic infections • Alveolar osteitis • Xerostomia and hyposalivation • Candidiasis • Angular cheilitis • Denture stomatitis • Burning mouth syndrome • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis • Recurrent

  8. Das Burning-Mouth-Syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Ettlin, Dominik; Lukic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Anhaltendes Brennen im Mundbereich ohne dokumetierbare Ursache kann die Lebensqualität beeinträchtigen und zu frustrierenden Arzt- bzw. Zahnarztbesuchen führen. Die Gründe des primären Mundbrennens sind noch weitgehend unklar und werden erforscht. Wegen der Schmerzlokalisation kommt der Zahnmedizin eine zentrale diagnostische und therapeutische Rolle zu. Der Beitrag beleuchtet das aktuelle Wissen zum Thema und gibt Hinweise zur Behandlung betroffener Patienten.

  9. A multiple variable analysis on the risk factors of burning mouth syndrome%灼口综合征危险因素的多因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立章; 高建明; 彭解英; 凌天牖

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and analyze the risk factors of burning mouth syndrome(BMS).Methods Eighty-seven consecutive patients with BMS and a randomly selected control group (n=82) were comprehensively investigated with the method of case-control study,and of logistic regression analysis.Results A regression equation which included 6 variables had been established by logistic regression analysis,indicating that the habit of tongue thrusting,biting lip,periodontitis,smoking,outcome of recent malmedication,depression were the principal risk factors,among which the weight of tongue thrusting was the most common one.Conclusion These data suggested the measures such as refraining from oral bad habits,removing local irritating factors,stopping smoke,good mental health status could help the prevention of BMS.%目的探讨灼口综合征的危险因素.方法应用成组病例对照研究方法,对87例灼口综合征患者及82例对照的危险因素进行了调查,并用Logistic回归分析方法进行综合探讨.结果 Logistic回归分析建立了一个包括6个自变量的回归方程,伸舌自检、咬唇、牙周炎、吸烟、不良的近期医疗结局、抑郁情绪为灼口综合征发病的主要危险因素,其中影响权重最大的因素为伸舌自检.结论戒除口腔不良卫生习惯、去除局部刺激因素、戒烟以及保持良好的情绪状态等可预防灼口综合征的发生.

  10. Síndrome de boca ardiente: Eficacia de la aplicación tópica de capsaicina. Estudio piloto Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical study about efficacy of topical capsaicin application. Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. León Espinosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de boca ardiente es un cuadro clínico complejo en el que el paciente manifiesta una sensación de escozor o ardor intrabucal sin que aparezcan lesiones clínicas objetivables. Objetivo: Valorar la eficacia mediante la aplicación de un gel de capsaicina a una concentración de 0.025 mg., en pacientes con síndrome de boca ardiente. Pacientes y método: Se estudiaron a un grupo de 29 pacientes a los que se les realiza un protocolo de recogida de datos que incluye anamnesis, historia médica, exploración bucal y pruebas complementarias. A 15 de dichos pacientes se les prescribe un gel de capsaicina y se les realiza un seguimiento durante varias semanas. Resultados: La eficacia de la capsaicina es relativamente baja, solo un 13% de los pacientes refiere una mejoría importante (con una disminución de mas de 3 puntos en las escalas analógico-visuales y un 6% mejoría parcial (disminución menor de 3 puntos con este tratamiento. Discusión: La estomatodinia es un cuadro clínico multifactorial que precisa de una mayor investigación tanto de su etiología como de su manejo terapéutico. Es de suma importancia realizar un correcto diagnóstico y explicar este al paciente para poder mantener unas metas realistas sobre las posibilidades de éxito.Burning mouth syndrome is a complex clinical condition, patients show a sensation of irritation or intraoral heat without objetivable clinical injuries. Objective: to value the effectiveness of a capsaicin 0,025% gel application in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Patients and methods: 29 patients with burning mouth syndrome was examined by means of anamnesis, medical history, oral explortation and complementary tests. 15 of these patients were administered a capsaicin gel and were examined for several weeks. Results: the effectiveness of capsaicin is relatively low, only 13% of patients refer an important improvement ( with a reduction more tha 3 points in the visual alalogical scales and

  11. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  12. 精神及神经因素在灼口综合征中的研究进展%Advancement in Research on Psychological and Neural Factors in Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉

    2013-01-01

    灼口综合征(BMS)是临床较常见的疾病,其病因不明,但精神心理及神经因素占突出地位.对病因的研究有助于提高该病的临床治愈率,以减轻患者痛苦.近年来国内外关于精神心理及神经因素在BMS中的研究较多.该文就BMS的精神心理因素、中枢神经因素、周围神经因素、分子机制等方面的研究进展进行论述.%Burning mouth syndrome is a common disease in the clinical practices.The etiology of burning mouth syndrome is unknown,but psychological and neural factors play important roles in it.However,the research on etiology would help to improve the clinical cure rate to relieve the suffering of the patients.There are lots of articles home and abroad in recent years.The literatures will be reviewed here in the following five parts: psychological factor, central nervous factor, peripheral nervous factor, and molecular mechanisms.

  13. Trench mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much. Risks include the following: Emotional stress Poor oral hygiene Poor nutrition Smoking Throat, tooth, or mouth infections ... prescribe antibiotics if you have a fever. Good oral hygiene is vital to the treatment of trench mouth. ...

  14. Mouth Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Mouth Sores Mouth Sores Patient Health Information News media ... in the oral/facial region. Tips to prevent mouth sores •Stop smoking. •Reduce stress. •Avoid injury to ...

  15. Twenty-Six Cases of Burning Mouth Syndrome Treated with Acupoint Injection in Combination with Xinhuang Tablets%穴位注射联合新癀片治疗灼口综合征26例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 陈虹林; 黎力

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of acupoint injection in combination with Xinhuang Tablets (XHT) on burning mouth syndrome.Methods:Fifty-two patients with burning mouth syndrome were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group,with 26 cases in each group.The ones in the control group were given oryzanol,vitamin B,vitamin E,while the ones in the treatment group were added mecobalamin injection for acupoint injection combined with XHT based on the treatment of the control group.Then the clinical curative effects,and the changes of mouth pain VAS scores before and after the treatment of the two groups were compared.Results:The effective rate of the control group was 53.8%,while that of the treatment group was 88.5%;And the difference between them had statistical significance (P < 0.05).After the treatment,VAS scores of the two groups were obviously lower than those of before the treatment;The treatment was better than the control group;And the differences between them had statistical significance (P < 0.05).Conclusion:Mecobalamin injection for acupoint injection combined with XHT has remarkable clinical curative effect on burning mouth syndrome,can greatly improve the patients' mouth pain or uncomfortable degree.%目的:观察穴位注射联合新癀片治疗灼口综合征的临床疗效.方法:将52例灼口综合征患者随机分为对照组和治疗组,每组各27例.对照组给予谷维素、B族维生素、维生素E治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上加用穴位注射甲钴胺注射液联合新癀片口服治疗.比较两组患者的临床疗效及治疗前后口腔疼痛VAS评分变化情况.结果:对照组有效率为53.8%,治疗组有效率为88.5%,两组有效率比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组患者治疗后VAS评分显著低于治疗前,且治疗组优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:穴位注射甲钴胺注射液联合新癀片能有效改善灼口综

  16. Mouth sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beverages and foods, spicy and salty foods, and citrus. Gargle with salt water or cool water. Eat ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cold Sores Mouth Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  17. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  18. 灼口综合征患者口腔念珠菌生物类型初探%Identification of oral Candida spieces in patients with burning mouth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曼; 陈谦明; 林梅; 李秉琦; 曾昕

    2002-01-01

    目的:了解灼口综合征(burning mouth syndrome,BMS)患者口腔念珠菌的生物类型.方法:采取漱口法对BMS患者和对照进行了口腔念珠菌的检测和API念珠菌生物类型鉴定.结果:BMS组的念珠菌检出率与对照组相比无统计学差异;第一型BMS的念珠菌检出率为28.1%,经危险度估计念珠菌检出阳性有发生第一型BMS的危险;两组受试者所分离的念珠菌均以白色念珠菌为主.结论:BMS组和对照组所分离的念珠菌均以白色念珠菌为主.念珠菌在第一型BMS的发生中,可能具有一定的作用.

  19. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Xerostomia Request Permissions Print to PDF Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  20. Clinical Study of Mecobalamin and Kangfuxin Liquid Combined with Psychological Treatment for Burning Mouth Syndrome%甲钴胺与康复新液配合心理治疗灼口综合征临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕; 陶江丰; 彭佳美

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical curative effect of mecobalamin and kangfuxin liquid combined with psychological treatment for the patients with burning mouth syndrome( BMS ). Methods 84 cases with BMS from Department of Stomatology of Jiangyin People's Hospital from Mar. 2010 to Mar. 2012 were randomly divided into two groups:the treatment group treated with mecobalamin and kangfuxin liquid and psychotherapy treatment; the control group treated with multivitamin formula. The clinical effects of each group were observed. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group and control group were 85. 7% and 52. 4% respectively. The difference was statistically significant (X2 - 13. 714, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Mecobalamin and kangfuxin liquid combined with psychological treatment for the BMS patients is significantly effective, and is worthy to be popularized.%目的 探讨甲钴胺与康复新液配合心理治疗灼口综合征(BMS)的临床疗效.方法 将江阴市人民医院口腔科2010年3月至2012年3月治疗的BMS患者84例,按随机数字表分为治疗组和对照组各42例,治疗组给予甲钴胺片与康复新液配合心理治疗,对照组给予金施尔康片治疗,观察两组的治疗效果.结果 治疗组与对照组的总有效率分别为85.7%、52.4%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=13.714,P<0.01).结论 甲钴胺与康复新液配合心理治疗BMS疗效显著,值得推广.

  1. Investigation on Mental Status and Its Related Factors of Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome%灼口综合征患者心理健康状况及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁福来; 单年禧; 苏彤

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨灼口综合征患者心理健康状况及相关因素.方法:采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、艾森克人格问卷简式量表中国版(EPQ-RSC)以及医学应对方式问卷(MCMQ)对60例灼口综合征患者和对照组进行测评.结果:灼口综合征患者抑郁、焦虑情绪明显高于对照组,“回避”和“屈服”应对方式与抑郁情绪呈正相关;精神质、神经质和掩饰性人格与抑郁、焦虑情绪呈正相关.结论:灼口综合征患者并发较高程度的抑郁、焦虑症状,同时不同人格类型与应对方式对其焦虑、抑郁有较大影响.%Objective: The present study aimed to observe mental status and its related factors of patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Methods: Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS), Self-rating Anxiety Scale(SAS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese(EPQ-RSC) and Medical Coping Model Questionnaire(MCMQ) were used to evaluate depression and anxiety symptoms, the personality features and coping style for patients with BMS (n=60) and the control group (n=60). Results: Patients with BMS experienced depression and anxiety significantly more than the control group. "Avoidant" and "compliant" coping style were positively correlated with depression; Psychoticism, neuroticism and concealment personality were positively correlated with both depression and anxiety. Conclusion: BMS patients are complicated with different degrees of anxiety and/or depression symptoms. Both the depression and anxiety state of BMS were greatly impacted by personality and coping model.

  2. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health > Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being Treated With Chemotherapy ... Back to Top How Does Chemotherapy Affect the Mouth? Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat ...

  3. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  4. Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Healthy mouth, healthy body T he mouth is a window into the health of the body. It can show signs of nutri- tional ... Sjögren’s syndrome—may first become apparent because of mouth lesions or other oral problems. The mouth is ...

  5. 灼口综合征三叉神经诱发电位的初步研究%Assessment of trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials in burning mouth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨生; 高山; 王正坤; 刘士有; 李长福

    2001-01-01

    目的通过电生理学手段检测BMS患者痛阈值,记录三叉神经诱发电位变化,以期推测神经传导过程中的病理状态,进一步探讨其发病机制。方法以神经肌电图仪刺激患者舌背,共记录38个样本(灼痛者22,麻胀者10,对照组6)感知最小刺激量为痛阈,3倍阈值刺激舌神经,记录诱发电位中N3、N4的潜伏期及高峰电位的出现时间。结果灼痛组痛阈值降低,N3、N4潜伏期缩短,高峰电位出现明显提前,与其他两组比较具有显著性差异(P<0.01),麻胀组则呈相反趋势,与对照组比较无显著差异(P>0.05)。结论 BMS灼痛者神经兴奋性提高,对外界刺激易感;麻胀组则可能存在神经部分或完全传导阻滞。说明BMS灼痛报告真实可信,同时反映出神经传导过程中病理状态存在的可能性,显示出BMS可能存在的发病机制。%Objective The measurement of pain threshold (PT) and the assessment of trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials (TSEPs) were performed.In order to estimate the pathological conditions of nerve afferent and efferent pathways in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS),and explore the probable pathophysiological mechanisms in BMS.Methods The lingual dorsum of thirty eight samples in nineteen subjects (inclusion of 22 BMS with pain,10 of BMS with Dumb and 6 of control group) were stimulated by electroneuromyography.PT was measured as the minor stimulation intensity when the subjects were sensible,N3,P4 latency and spike potential latency o TSEP were recorded by stimulating lingual nerve.Results Pain thresholds were significantly lower,N3,P4 latencies were siginificantly shorter and spike potential appeared earlier in BMS with pain group (P<0.01) the opposite tendency of these values were presented in BMS with numb group (P>0.05).Conclusion The nerve sensibility is elevated in BMS with pain group and the patients are easily affected by etiological

  6. The effect of psychological nursing and relaxation training intervention on the improvement of the clinical psychology of patients with burning mouth syndrome%心理护理及放松训练干预对灼口综合征患者临床心理改善的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琛; 邹虹; 张萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of psychological nursing and relaxation training intervention on the clinical psychology of patients with burning mouth syndrome.Methods A total of 105 patients with burning mouth syndrome in our hospital from January 2010 to January 2011 were randomly divided into control group with 52 cases and experimental group with 53 cases.The two groups were all treated with routine treatment,the experimental group were intervened with relaxation training and psychological nursing based on the routine treatment,then the Zung self-evaluation table and SCL-90 score of two groups before and after the intervention at second and forth week were compared.Results The Zung self-evaluation table and SCL-90 score of experimental group after the intervention at second and forth week were all better than those of control group,there were all significant differences (all P < 0.05).Conclusions The psychological nursing and relaxation training intervention can effectively improve the bad psychology state of patients with burning mouth syndrome.%目的 探讨放松训练及心理护理对住院灼口综合征患者心理状态的影响.方法 将2010年1月至2011年1月于本院进行治疗的105例灼口综合征患者随机分为对照组52例和实验组53例,两组均进行常规治疗,实验组在此基础上进行放松训练和心理护理,后将两组患者干预前和干预2周、4周的Zung自评量及SCL-90量表评分进行比较.结果 干预后2周及4周实验组Zung焦虑自评量及SCL-90量表评分均明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 放松训练疗法及心理护理疗法可以改善灼口综合征患者的不良心理状态.

  7. Mouth and Teeth (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Mouth and Teeth KidsHealth > For Parents > Mouth and Teeth Print A ... lives. continue Basic Anatomy of the Mouth and Teeth The entrance to the digestive tract, the mouth ...

  8. 灼口综合征与焦虑抑郁症状的病例对照研究%A case-control study of burning mouth syndrome and symptoms of anxiety and depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏莎; 徐偲; 刘宏伟; 黄悦勤; 韩莹; 宋江园; 木冬冬; 季晓黎; 金建秋; 刘晓丹

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析灼口综合征(BMS)患者的焦虑及抑郁症状,探讨 BMS 的危险因素。方法:以口腔医院黏膜科诊断为 BMS 的147名患者作为病例组;以性别及年龄匹配的正常人群140人作为对照组,进行病例对照研究。采用自制的 BMS 危险因素问卷收集病例组和对照组的全身情况和药物史;采用焦虑自评量表和抑郁自评量表评价试验组和对照组的焦虑抑郁症状。统计方法包括 t 检验,χ2检验和 logistic 回归分析。结果:病例组焦虑症状评分高于对照组[(44.4±9.9)vs.(35.7±6.2)],病例组抑郁症状评分高于对照组[(48.1±11.6)vs.(37.5±8.9)],差异有统计学意义(P <0.001)。BMS 的危险因素为受教育程度低(OR =1.91,95%CI:1.04~3.49)、缺血性脑卒中史(OR =4.46,95%CI:1.87~10.95)、焦虑症状(OR =8.12,95%CI:2.60~25.37)及抑郁症状(OR =2.5795%CI:1.26~5.27)。结论:BMS是多因素导致的疾病,其中较低的受教育水平、缺血性脑卒中史、焦虑及抑郁症状是 BMS 的主要危险因素,对 BMS 的治疗应联合精神科,加强心理治疗手段。%Objective:To evaluate the anxiety and depression symptoms of burning mouth syndrome (BMS), and to explore risk factors to BMS.Method:In this case-control study,147 patients with BMS and 140 sex-and age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited.Three questionnaires were used to collect information of psychical and mental condition.The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)were applied to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression.The scores of SAS and SDS were statistically analyzed by t-test.The risk factors of BMS were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis.Result:The scores of SAS and SDS were higher in the patients with BMS than in the controls [SAS:(44.4 ±9.9)vs. (35.7 ±6.2);SDS:(48.1 ±11.6)vs.(37

  9. The efficacy of flupentixol and melitracen tablets in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome%氟哌噻吨美利曲辛片治疗伴郁抑性精神障碍灼口综合征的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永芬; 陈希平; 刘金丽; 任萍

    2011-01-01

    观察氟哌噻吨美利曲辛片(黛力新)对灼口综合征(BMS)的干预效应.纳入120例确诊的BMS患者,随机分成2组,试验组60人,服用氟哌噻吨美利曲辛片,每次1片,1次/d,晨服,连服6周;对照组60人服用谷维素,每次1粒,3次/d,连服6周.治疗前后观察患者的疼痛程度和发生频率.试验组痊愈32例,显效21例,有效6例,无效1例,总改善率80.5%;对照组改善率21.2%,差异有显著性(P<0.01).灼口综合征是心因性疾病,用抗抑郁药物黛力新治疗效果好.%120 patients with burning mouth syndrome were randomly and equally divided into two groups (n =60): Flupentixol and melitra-cen(deanxit) treatment group and oryzanol group (control). Deanxit was given at 20 mg daily for 6 consecutive weeks in deanxit group and oryzanol tablets at a dose of 3 tablets daily for 6 consecutive weeks in control group. Therapeutic effect was evaluated by pain rating. A total effective rate of 80.5% was obtained in deanxit group and 21.2% in the control(P<0.01). Flupentixol and melitracen tablet is effective in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome.

  10. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  11. 112 Cases of Flupentixol and Melitracen Tablets in the Treatment of De-pression Disorders Associated with Burning Mouth Syndrome%112例氟哌噻吨美利曲辛片治疗伴郁抑性精神障碍灼口综合征临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of burning mouth syndrome study of Flupentixol and melitracen tablets therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Methods in our hospital from 2013 May to 2014 May with burning mouth syndrome with de-pression of patients with mental disorder in 112 cases, according to randomly divided into study group and control group, 56 cases in each group, the study group was given Flupentixol and melitracen tablets in the treatment, the control group taking oryzanol therapy, two groups were treated for 6 week, clinical effects were compared between the two groups after treatment; according to Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score, compared two groups of patients after the treatment of depression, anxiety score. Results the clinical study group and the control group, the effective rate were 87.5%, 66.1%, the differ-ence was statistically significant (P < 0.05); the two groups after treatment HAMD, HAMA scores were lower than those before therapy, but compared to the same period, research group HAMD, the HAMA score was significantly lower than the control group, P < 0.05. Conclusion the burning mouth syndrome with depression disorder patients taking Flupentixol and melitracen tablets in the treatment, the exact clinical effects, and is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:探析灼口综合征伴抑郁性精神障碍患者进行氟哌噻吨美利曲辛片疗法的临床效果研究。方法选取该院2013年5月—2014年5月灼口综合征伴抑郁性精神障碍患者112例,根据随机数字表法分为研究组、对照组,每组56例,研究组服用氟哌噻吨美利曲辛片治疗,对照组服用谷维素疗法,两组均治疗6周,比较两组治疗后的临床效果;根据汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评分,比较两组患者治疗后抑郁、焦虑评分情况。结果研究组、对照组的临床有效率分别为87.5%、66.1%,

  12. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with infected people Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease is often ... and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth ...

  13. 灼口综合征患者静态唾液流量及泪液分泌量的相关研究%Study on non-stimulated salivary flow rates and lacrimal fluid flow in burning mouth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆乐; 吴国英; 顾宁

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨灼口综合征(burning mouth syndrome,BMS)患者静态唾液流速及泪液分泌量与其口干症状之间的相关性.方法 检测57例BMS患者和47例正常对照组静态唾液流速和泪液分泌量.结果 BMS组的平均静态唾液流速和泪液流量与对照组相比,具口干症状的BMS患者静态唾液流速和泪液流量不具口干症状的BMS患者相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 BMS患者口干症状与外分泌腺分泌障碍之间的无明显相关性.

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of Acupoint Injection of Vitamins B1 and B12 in the Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome%维生素B1、B12穴位注射治疗灼口综合征的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕华荣; 李红韦

    2002-01-01

    目的:提高治疗灼口综合征的临床疗效.方法:采用维生素B1、B12穴位注射治疗35例灼口综合征( Burning mouth syndrome ,BMS)患者,并以口服谷维素和复合维生素B治疗灼口综合征患者20例作为对照.结果:治疗组显效10例,有效23例,无效2例,总有效率达94.28%;对照组显效2例,有效7例,无效11例,总有效率45%(P<0.001).与对照组相比,疗效差异有显著性.结论:维生素B1、B12穴位注射治疗灼口综合征具有较好的疗效,且操作简便,经济实用,无明显副作用,又可重复治疗,可在临床上推广使用.

  15. Mouth of a lamprey

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Staff, Frontiers of Biogeography

    2013-01-01

    cover: Mouth of a Petromyzon marinus lamprey, taken at Aquarium Finisterrae (Coruña, Galicia, Spain). The original has been rotated. Picture by Drow male (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Drow_male), Creative Commons license.

  16. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth from decay It prevents infection by controlling bacteria and fungi in the mouth It makes it ... drinks often. Avoid drinks with caffeine, such as coffee, tea, and some sodas. Caffeine can dry out ...

  17. 灼口综合征患者血清IL-6、TNF-α的水平及意义%Serum levels of IL-6,TNF-α in patients with burning mouth syndrome and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管翠强; 焦艳军; 武云霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨灼口综合征(BMS)患者血清IL-6、TNF-α水平,以了解BMS的病因及发病机制,为进一步治疗提供理论依据. 方法 灼口综合征(BMS)组选择初诊患者22例,其中女性19例,男性3例.对照组为20例年龄、性别相似的健康人.在晨9:00平和状态下抽空腹静脉血2 ml,采用酶联免疫吸附实验(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)双抗体夹心法检测血清白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平,对所有数据进行统计分析. 结果 BMS组血清IL-6水平显著低于对照组(P<0.05),两组间TNF-α水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 BMS患者血清IL-6水平下降,可能导致其神经的防御、修复功能降低,有可能为BMS的治疗提供一条新的途径.%Objective To investigate the changes of serum IL-6 and TNF-α in patients with buming mouth syndrome( BMS) , and to provide a basis for the further treatment. Methods Twenty-two patients first diagnosed as BMS ( 19 females and 3 males) were enrolled. Twenty normal subjects with similar age and sex were chosen as controls. The fasting blood of 2 ml was drawn from the subjects under resting conditions in the moming to examine the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α by means of ELISA. The data were statisiically analyzed. Results Compared with controls , the serum level of IL-6 significandy decreased in BMS patients ( P < 0. 05 ) , but the level of TNF-α showed no significant change ( P>0. 05). Coaclusion The decrease of IL-6 in BMS patients may reduce the defense of nerve and nerve reparation,which might provide a new treatment way for BMS.

  18. [Electrostimulation for the treatment of a dry mouth feeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M J E J; Bots, C P; Brand, H S

    2015-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman suffered from a burning mouth feeling for 1.5 years and was referred by her dentist to a saliva clinic. At the clinic persistent xerostomia was diagnosed, and Sjögren's syndrome was suspected. After 1 year, a new measurement of the saliva secretion was carried out, which revealed a further decline in saliva secretion rate. The patient was consequently treated with an intra-oral electrostimulating device in order to stimulate the saliva secretion rate and reduce the feeling of a dry mouth. After 2 weeks, the patient experienced a considerable improvement of the subjective oral dryness. PMID:26465014

  19. [Electrostimulation for the treatment of a dry mouth feeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M J E J; Bots, C P; Brand, H S

    2015-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman suffered from a burning mouth feeling for 1.5 years and was referred by her dentist to a saliva clinic. At the clinic persistent xerostomia was diagnosed, and Sjögren's syndrome was suspected. After 1 year, a new measurement of the saliva secretion was carried out, which revealed a further decline in saliva secretion rate. The patient was consequently treated with an intra-oral electrostimulating device in order to stimulate the saliva secretion rate and reduce the feeling of a dry mouth. After 2 weeks, the patient experienced a considerable improvement of the subjective oral dryness.

  20. P2X3 receptor expression in lingual nerve fibres of patients with burning mouth syndrome%P2X3受体在灼口综合征患者舌组织神经纤维中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张齐梅; 聂敏海; 何毅; 周骢

    2016-01-01

    Patients with burning mouth syndrom(BMS,n =12)and patients with wisdom tooth removal(controls,n =9)were included. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis were used to quantify P2X3 receptor expression in lingual nerve fibres.A pain history and score were recorded on a visual analogue scale(VAS)prior to obtaining a lingual biopsy.The value of P2X3 receptor positive fibres in BMS and control subjects was 0.56 ±0.29 and 0.15 ±0.06 respectively(P <0.001).There was no significant correlation between P2X3 and VAS scores(R2 =0.012).Increased P2X3 may play a role in BMS but not correlated with the VAS score.%采用免疫组织化学技术结合图像分析系统检测 P2X3受体在12例灼口综合征(BMS)患者和9例正常对照组的舌组织神经纤维中的表达水平,平均吸光度值分别为0.56±0.29和0.15±0.06(P <0.001);P2X3受体表达水平与疼痛 VAS 评分无相关性(R2=0.012)。P2X3受体参与了 BMS 患者的慢性疼痛,但与疼痛程度无相关性。

  1. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > A Healthy Mouth for Your Baby A Healthy ... you about other things such as a healthy diet and fluoride that can keep your child’s mouth ...

  2. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 ...

  3. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... sick Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused with foot- ...

  4. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  5. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry;

    2015-01-01

    Foot‐and‐mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important, highly contagious disease of cloven‐hoofed animals characterised by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in, and around, the mouth. The causative agent, foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV), was the first mammalian virus...

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry;

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  7. Evidencia del síndrome neuropático en un estudio neurofisiológico e inmunohistoquímico de las fibras nerviosas en pacientes con síndrome de boca ardiente Evidence of neuropathic syndrome in an neurophysiologic and immunoistochemistry study of peripheal nervous fibres in Burning Mouth Syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Lauritano

    2003-04-01

    baja funcionalidad de las fibras nerviosas de pequeño calibre de la lengua en casi la mitad de los pacientes examinados. El examen histológico de la mucosa lingual evidenciaba una atrofia discreta en el 70% de los pacientes, mientras que la observación de las fibras nerviosas de pequeño calibre por medio de la inmunofluoresencia hacía suponer la presencia de alteraciones relacionadas con una polineuropatía de tipo periférico.Aims. Burning pain is considered characteristic of chronic neuropathic pain condition in general, and so me recent data seem to suggest peripheral or central nervous system involvement as possible underlying factor in BMS. This study was designed to determinate if burning mouth symptoms could be originated from a peripheal neuropathy of small diameter nerve fibres. Material and methods. The material of the study consisted of 25 patients (18 female, 7 male, 30-75 years; means 54 years. In all patients there were not: oral muco membranes lesions, oral muco membranes diseases, oral correlated diseases, oral dysfunctions, dental and periodontal diseases. Besides there were: no evidence of central nervous system pathology, no evidence of peripheral nervous system pathology, no presence of organic body disfunctions. AIIpatients didn't show significant alterations of blood investigations. AII patients were undermitted to our protocol including: oral and facial clinical examinations, neurological exam, blood investigations, Mc Gill Pain Questionnaire, VAS (visual analogical scale, biopsy of tongue mucosa with hystological and immunofluorescence exams, quantitative somatosensory thermotest and teletermography examination of tongue mucosa. ResuIts. These examinations have showed subclinical polineurophaty in 50% of patients. In particular were observed a loss of function in small diameter nervous fibres in about 50% of patients. Hystological exam of mucosal tongue revealed a moderate atrophy and alterations of structures. Conclusion. Etiology

  8. Analysis on psychological factors of recurrent aphthous ulcer,oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome%复发性阿弗他溃疡、口腔扁平苔藓及灼口综合征患者的心理因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方淳; 唐宇英; 胡亚莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨心理因素与复发性阿弗他溃疡(RAU)、口腔扁平苔藓(OLP)及灼口综合征(BMS)之间的关系,为临床诊疗提供参考.方法 将129例口腔黏膜病患者(其中,RAU组 42例,OLP组 42例,BMS组 45例)及76例健康人(对照组)纳入研究,详细填写性别、年龄、学历、饮食习惯、全身疾病等临床资料,并通过焦虑自评量表(SAS)及抑郁自评量表(SDS)进行评分.结果 病例组患者的SAS、SDS分值均高于对照组(P<0.05),BMS组患者的SDS分值明显高于RAU、OLP组患者(P<0.05);RAU组患者的SAS分值高于SDS分值,而BMS组患者的SDS分值高于SAS分值,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 心理障碍与RAU、OLP及BMS的发生存在一定的相关性,抑郁状态与BMS关系密切.%Objective To investigate the existing relation between the psychological factors with recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU),oral lichen planus(OLP) and burning mouth syndrome(BMS) to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods A total of 129 patients including 42 cases of RAU,42 cases of OLP and 4 5 cases of BMS were studied with 76 healthy people as the control group. Both groups were tested with SAS and SDS and the clinical information such as sex, age, degree, food habits and history of system diseases were collected. Results The scores of anxiety and depression in the patients group were higher than those in the control group. The depression scores in the BMS group were significantly higher than those in the RAU and OLP groups(P<0. 05). The anxiety scores in the RAU group was higher than the depression scores,but the depression scores in the BMS group were higher than the anxiety scores with statistical difference(P<0. 05). Conclusion The psychological disorder has certain relation with the occurrence of RAU,OLP and BMS. Depressive state is closely related with BMS.

  9. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ANNOUNCER: Many older people suffer from dry mouth-- the feeling that there is not enough saliva in the mouth. CARLA PROKOVSKY: My dry mouth is just always there. Periodically, during the ...

  10. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ANNOUNCER: Many older people suffer from dry mouth-- the feeling that there is not enough saliva in the mouth. CARLA PROKOVSKY: My dry mouth is just always there. Periodically, during ...

  11. Burns in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical...

  12. 灼口综合征患者心理健康状况与血清IL-6、TNF-α水平的关系%Correlation of psychological profiles with serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α in patients with burning mouth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管翠强; 焦艳军; 武云霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨灼口综合征(BMS)患者心理健康状况与血清IL-6、TNF-α水平的相关性.方法 实验组选择灼口综合征(BMS)初诊患者22例,其中女性19例,男性3例.对照组为20例年龄、性别相似的健康人.在晨9:00平和状态下抽空腹静脉血2 ml,采用酶联免疫吸附实验(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)双抗体夹心法检测血清白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平,采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)评定两组人群的心理健康状况.结果 实验组血清IL-6水平显著低于对照组(P<0.05),两组间TNF-α水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),SCL-90总分和9个因子得分实验组均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),绝经前妇女SCL-90总分和9个因子得分均高于绝经后妇女,其中躯体化、焦虑、敌对在两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).IL-6、TNF-α与精神因素无相关性.结论 精神因素在BMS的发生发展中起着极其重要的作用,但灼口综合征患者心理健康状况与血清IL-6、TNF-α水平无相关性.%Objective To explore the correlation of psychological profiles with serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Methods Twenty-two patients first diagnosed as BMS were enrolled ( 19 females and 3 males ). Twenty- normal subjects were chosen as controls with similar age and sex. The fasting blood of 2 ml was drawn from the subjects under restine conditions in the morning to examine the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α by ELISA. SCL-90 was used to evaluate the psychological profiles. Results Compared with controls, the serum level of IL-6 significantly decreased in BMS patients( P < 0.05 ), but the level of TNF-α had no significant change( P > 0.05 ). The scores of SCL-90 were significantly higher in BMS patients than those in the controls ( P < 0.05 ).SCL-90 scores were higher in the premenopausal women than that in postmenopausal women, and there was significant difference in somatization

  13. 佳蓉片治疗更年期妇女灼口综合征的疗效观察及其对血清性激素水平的影响%Therapeutic Effect of Jiarong Tablet on Burning Mouth Syndrome of Climacteric Female and Its Influence on the Level of Serum Gonadal Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛凯平; 周杰; 荣刚; 刘庆华

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察佳蓉片治疗更年期妇女灼口综合征(burning mouth syndrome,BMS)的临床疗效及其对患者血清性激素水平的影响.方法:将60例更年期妇女BMS患者按编码随机抽取方法分为佳蓉片组30例、空白对照组30例,空白对照组予以安慰剂,采用空心胶囊,应用视觉模拟定级法(visual analogous scale,VAS)评定两组治疗前后疼痛强度,应用疼痛指数法比较其临床疗效,并检测两组患者治疗前后血清性激素水平.结果:治疗前两组BMS患者VAS疼痛指数无显著性差异;1疗程后各组疼痛指数均较治疗前减少(P<0.01),佳蓉片组与空白对照组之问有统计学意义(P<0.01);2疗程后佳蓉片组疼痛指数均较治疗前和1疗程后明显减少(P<0.01),与空白对照组之间有统计学意义(P<0.01),空白对照组疼痛指数与治疗前比较有统计学意义,但与1疗程后比较无统计学意义.佳蓉片组的总有效率明显优于空白对照组(P<0.01).治疗前两组BMS患者雄激素水平无统计学意义;2疗程后与治疗前相比:佳蓉片组显著降低(P<0.01),空白对照组无差异,其差值比较两组之间有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:佳蓉片治疗更年期妇女BMS具有良好的临床疗效,降低更年期妇女雄激素水平,可能是其治疗更年期妇女BMS的作用机制之一.

  14. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-01-01

    A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. ...

  15. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame he...

  16. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have alcohol in them. You may use an antibacterial rinse 2 to 4 times a day for gum disease. Other tips for taking care of your mouth include: Avoiding foods or drinks that have a lot of sugar ...

  17. 10-minute consultation Dry mouth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Taubert; Eleanor M R Davies; Ian Back

    2007-01-01

    @@ A 67 year old man presents with a six week history of dry mouth (xerostomia). He has prostate cancer, which has spread to his spine, and he takes opiates for pain relief. Recently, he started taking an antidepressant.

  18. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  19. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  20. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  1. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....... METHODS: We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. RESULTS: A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most...... common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines...

  2. 灼口综合征患者血清细胞因子水平变化及疗效观察%Changes and curative effect of serum cell cytokine of burning mouth syndrome(BMS) patients before and after medical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玉芬

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨灼口综合征患者治疗前后血清IL-2、6和TNF-α水平的变化及疗效.方法 选择灼口综合征患者50例(病例组)予以氯硝西泮片2 mg,1次/d;氟西汀胶囊20 mg,1次/d,连用4周.观察并比较治疗前和治疗4周后血浆细胞因子IL-2、6和TNF-α水平的变化,并进行临床疗效观察.另选择同期在体检中心体检的健康者30例作为对照组.结果 治疗前病例组血清IL-2、6和TNF-α水平明显高于对照组(=4.31、2.97、3.84,均P<0.01).治疗4周后,患者血清IL-2、6和TNF-α水平均较治疗前明显下降(t=2.88、2.34、3.21,P<0.05或P<0.01).治疗4周后病例组治愈6例、显效14例和有效24例,临床总有效率高达88.0% (44/50).结论 灼口综合征患者存在血清IL-2、6和TNF-α水平的异常升高,可作为灼口综合征早期诊断的敏感血清学指标.血清IL-2、6和TNF-α水平的变化可作为灼口综合征患者治疗疗效随访和预后观察的指标.%Objective To discuss changes and curative effect of serum interleukin-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients before and after medical treatment.Methods 50 cases of BMS patients were selected as case group,and who were given Clonazepam tablets (2mg) and Fluoxetine capsules (20 mg) one time daily for 4 weeks.Observe and compare the changes of serum IL-2 and 6,and TNF-αof patients in two groups before and after 4 weeks' medical treatment,and proceeded with the clinical curative effect observation.Moreover,30 cases of healthy subjects who just took the physical examination in medical examination center(MEC) at that moment was the control group.Results The serum IL-2 and IL-6,and TNF-αlevels of patients in case group before medical treatment was obviously higher than those in control group (t =4.31,2.97,3.84,all P <0.01).After 4 weeks' medical treatment,serum IL-2 and IL-6,and TNF-αlevels of patients had obviously declined than before (t =2

  3. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns ... home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your ...

  4. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and tend to be more severe and cover a larger portion of the body than other scald burns. 9 10 11 A survey found that only 8 percent of adults felt ...

  5. Pediatric Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Children have unique physiologic, physical, psychological, and social needs compared with adults. Although adhering to the basic tenets of burn resuscitation, resuscitation of the burned child should be modified based on the child's age, physiology, and response to injury. This article outlines the unique characteristics of burned children and describes the fundamental principles of pediatric burn resuscitation in terms of airway, circulatory, neurologic, and cutaneous injury management. PMID:27600126

  6. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  7. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prokovsky has found that dry mouth affects her life in very basic ways. CARLA PROKOVSKY: And that ... Because dry mouth can cause problems in everyday life, people should seek help if they think they ...

  8. Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a herpes virus infection. Overview Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common illness of infants and ...

  9. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... saliva, cavities may occur. back to top Dry Mouth Treatments Your doctor or dentist may recommend oral ...

  10. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Mouth Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems How can diabetes affect my mouth? Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your ... Healthy gums Periodontitis What are the most common mouth problems from diabetes? The following chart shows the ...

  11. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  12. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I think they should consult their dentist or physician. ANNOUNCER: There is no cure for dry mouth ... and you have dry mouth, check with your doctor. He or she might change your medicine or ...

  13. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have ... day. search Features Can We Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? Mind Your Mouth Wise Choices Links To Prevent Gum ...

  14. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mouth is just always there. Periodically, during the day, I will have some saliva... ANNOUNCER: Carla Prokovsky ... dry mouth for more than a couple of days and it becomes an inconvenience or bother, I ...

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  16. Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Adelborg, Kasper; Dalgas, Christian;

    Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study.......Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study....

  17. [The pain from burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  18. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  19. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  20. Perineal Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh AEmmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Perineal burns are not common in childhood but when they occur, they can produce severe complications. Conservative management by open wound care and topical agents is effective in most cases. However, in deep burns and when control of infection proves problematic, diverting colostomy may be necessary to control infection and achieve wound healing and graft take. Burns wound excision and skin grafting may be required in such cases. Contractures of various forms may develop and require plastic...

  1. Airway Management of Post-burn Neck Contracture with Microstomia: Age Old Technique Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Jadeja;

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes airway management of a patient of post burn neck contracture with fixed flexion deformity and restricted mouth opening. Attempt to intubate the patient with fiberoptic bronchoscope failed so the neck contracture was released under tumescent anaesthesia. The patient was then intubated with the help of stylet.

  2. Pain in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  3. Critical issues in burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  4. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  5. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the b...

  6. Willingness to administer mouth-to-mouth ventilation in a first response program in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mecrow, Tom Stefan; Rahman, Aminur; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Rahman, Fazlur; Nusrat, Nahida; Scarr, Justin; Linnan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely mouth-to-mouth ventilation is critical to resuscitate drowning victims. While drowning is frequent, there are no lay persons trained in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rural Bangladesh. As part of a feasibility study to create a first response system in a conservative Islamic village environment, a pilot was undertaken to examine willingness to provide mouth-to-mouth ventilation for drowning resuscitation. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 721 participants ...

  7. Mouth Dissolving Film: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Patel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mouth Dissolvable films (MDFs evolved over the past few years from the confection and oral care markets in the form of breath strips and became a novel and widely accepted form by consumers. MDF which disintegrate or dissolve within 1min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Also, used for the taste masking of widely bitter tasted drugs which are most important for the paediatric patients. These drug delivery systems allow the medication to bypass the first pass metabolism thereby making the medication more bio available. Formulation of oral films involves the application of both aesthetic and performance characteristics such as plasticized hydrocolloids, active pharmaceutical ingredient, taste masking agent being laminated by solvent casting or hot melt extrusion. Solvent casting being the most preferred offers great uniformity of thickness and films have fine gloss and better physical properties. Oral strips are evaluated for various attributes such as thickness, Surface pH, folding endurance, disintegration and dissolution study. This review describes about the formulation methodology, evaluation parameter.

  8. MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S. D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mouth dissolving Tablets disintegrate and/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva extremely fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Mouth or Fast dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric and bedridden patients and in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms because of hand tremors and dysphagia. The technologies used for manufacturing fast-dissolving tablets are freeze-drying, spray-drying, molding, sublimation, sugar-based excipients, compression, and disintegration addition. As a result of increased life expectancy, the elderly constitute a large portion of the worldwide population today. These people eventually will experience deterioration of their physiological and physical abilities.

  9. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  10. Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those with Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those with Dry Mouth Article Chapters Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those ... dentist regularly Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Dry Mouth (Xerostomia) Acupuncture May Provide Relief from Dry Mouth ...

  11. Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouth Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being Treated With Radiation ... How Does Head and Neck Radiation Affect the Mouth? Doctors use head and neck radiation to treat ...

  12. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  13. A Burning Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ As heaping piles of garbage grow in cities and communities across China,a divide has formed over two possible solutions to this smelly problem: Should excessive mounds of trash be burned,or should it be buried?

  14. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  15. Management of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  16. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women an

  17. The effects of succinylcholine on mouth opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Spek, A F; Fang, W B; Ashton-Miller, J A; Stohler, C S; Carlson, D S; Schork, M A

    1987-10-01

    Mouth opening and the resistance to opening developed by the muscles of mastication were measured in 63 children anesthetized with halothane and relaxed with succinylcholine, pancuronium, or vecuronium. Measurement of mouth opening, induced by a constant test force, was made when each patient was deeply anesthetized, as judged by clinical parameters. Succinylcholine, vecuronium, or pancuronium was then administered. The mouth opening measurement was repeated immediately after the loss of limb muscle twitch response and 45 s following the loss of twitch response. For the 24 patients receiving succinylcholine, there was a significant reduction in mean mouth opening (P less than 0.0001) and a significant increase in jaw stiffness (P less than 0.0001) immediately after limb relaxation. Forty-five seconds after full limb relaxation was attained, the mean mouth opening was still reduced (P less than 0.0001) and the mean jaw stiffness was still increased (P less than 0.0003) in the succinylcholine group. Patients receiving either vecuronium or pancuronium did not show a significant change of mouth opening or jaw stiffness following limb relaxation. Three patients, who received succinylcholine, required several attempts at tracheal intubation due to increased resistance to mouth opening. Anesthesia and surgery proceeded in all patients. None of the patients developed malignant hyperthermia. In view of the fact that a reduction in mouth opening was a constant finding when succinylcholine was administered during halothane anesthesia, the assumption that isolated "masseter spasm" or jaw stiffness heralds malignant hyperthermia should be reconsidered. PMID:2889402

  18. Language Abstraction in Word of Mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.C. Schellekens (Gaby)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn word of mouth, consumers talk about their experiences with products and services with other consumers. These conversations are important sources of information for consumers. While word of mouth has fascinated researchers and practitioners for many years, little attention has been pai

  19. Advances in burn treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoda, LU; Vogt, PM

    2006-01-01

    The German-speaking burn specialist, organized in the DAV (Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsmedizin) held their yearly meeting in 2004 in Rottach-Egern, Bavaria. Participants from Switzerland, Germany and Austria found a high standing, very well organized and thorough program summoned by the host, Dr. Guido Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck, Munich. The topics consisted of reconstructive surgery, skin substitutes and replacement, advances in burn medicine over the last 10 years and bu...

  20. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  1. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  2. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Çil; Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7)

  3. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  4. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...

  5. Word of Mouth Marketing in Mouth and Dental Health Centers towards Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut Ekiyor; Asuman Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Influencing the shopping style of others by passing on the experiences of goods purchased or services received is a way of behavior that has its roots in history. The main objective of th is research is to analyze the effects of demographic factors within the scope of word of mouth marketing on the choices of mouth and dental health services. Consumers receiving service from mouth and dental health centers of the Turkish Republic Ministry o ...

  6. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  7. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  8. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Mouth Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dental and Craniofacial Research American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy Page Content On ...

  9. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient and be beneficial in terms of tooth decay, sores, infections, swallowing. ANNOUNCER: Your doctor may ... because having less saliva increases the chances of tooth decay or an infection in your mouth. By ...

  10. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if I'm not--don't have my water with me, or I'm not chewing gum ... through the night better. ANNOUNCER: Drinking lots of water or sugarless drinks can help keep your mouth ...

  11. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient and be beneficial in terms of tooth decay, sores, infections, swallowing. ANNOUNCER: Your doctor may also ... because having less saliva increases the chances of tooth decay or an infection in your mouth. By taking ...

  12. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the patient and be beneficial in terms of tooth decay, sores, infections, swallowing. ANNOUNCER: Your doctor may also ... because having less saliva increases the chances of tooth decay or an infection in your mouth. By taking ...

  13. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  14. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and you have dry mouth, check with your doctor. He or she might change your medicine or ... able to produce some saliva, your dentist or doctor might give you a medicine that helps the ...

  15. Automatic Mouth Localization Using Edge Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rizon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presented algorithms to detect mouth from color and intensity images. Approach: First, this algorithm detected the face region in the image and extracts intensity valleys from the face region. Next, the algorithm extracted iris candidates from the valleys and computed the costs for each pair of iris candidates. Finally, a pair of iris candidates was selected as irises by using the computed costs. Projection based method had been used to detect mouth corresponding to irises location. Results: By experiment, the proposed algorithm detected 90% of full mouth region for South East Asian database and 74% for European database. Conclusion: The algorithm was considered successful to detect mouth detection under variation of pose, illumination and orientation. For future improvement, more preprocessing steps might be needed to enhance and eliminate the effect of beard, moustache and illumination.

  16. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I will have some saliva... ANNOUNCER: Carla Prokovsky has found that dry mouth affects her life in ... glands work better. BRUCE BAUM: If the patient has some salivary gland tissue remaining and we can ...

  17. What Can I Do about Dry Mouth?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CARLA PROKOVSKY: I always have to supplement my food with water or a liquid. I always have ... find, as Carla did, that salty and spicy foods are painful to your dry mouth. CARLA PROKOVSKY: ...

  18. Health care professionals' willingness to do mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, B Z; Matheny, L

    1997-01-01

    To assess the willingness of physicians and nurses with training in basic cardiac life support to provide mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in both hospital and out-of-hospital settings, we surveyed all attendees at a monthly advanced life support course over a 1-year period. Of 622 attendees, 379 (61%) responded to our survey describing a variety of cardiac arrest scenarios. Less than half of the participants surveyed were willing to do mouth-to-mouth resuscitation on an unknown adult, male or fe...

  19. Understanding the power of word-of-mouth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Z. Gildin

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Word-of-mouth has been considered one of the most powerful forms of communication in the market today. Understanding what makes word-of-mouth such a persuasive and powerful communication tool is important to organizations that intend to build strong relationships with consumers. For this reason, organizations are concerned about promoting positive word-of-mouth and retarding negative word-of-mouth, which can be harmful to the image of the company or a brand. This work focuses on the major aspects involving word-of-mouth communication. Recommendations to generate positive word-of-mouth and retard negative word-of-mouth are also highlighted.

  20. Hand, foot and mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Muppa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is an acute viral illness with a distinct clinical presentation of oral and characteristic distal extremity lesions. Knowledge of this is important for the dentists as the oral lesions are the first clinical signs and sometimes may be the only sign because the condition occasionally may regress even before the lesions appear on the extremities. This case describes a 5-year-old boy in whom low-grade fever of 38.7°C and oral lesions were the initial manifestations. Proper diagnosis was established later based on the typical location of the initial intraoral ulcers on the soft palate followed by cutaneous lesions on the hands and feet with vesicle formation surrounded by an erythematous halo. The recognition of HFMD is important for both pediatricians and pedodontists as oral manifestations are the first signs and may mimic many other conditions like acute herpetic gingivostomstomatitis, apthous stomatitis, chickenpox, erythema multiformae and misdiagnosis may involve an inappropriate prescription of medication.

  1. MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS: A FUTURE COMPACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava Saurabh; Bala Rajni; Joshi Baibhav; Rana A.C; Singla Vikas

    2012-01-01

    An orally disintegrating tablet or mouth dissolving tablet (MDT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited amount of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. MDTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. A variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among the dosage forms developed to facilitate ease of medication, the mouth dissolving tablet (MDT) is one of the m...

  2. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason A; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. PMID:26958895

  3. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  4. PLASTIC SURGERY AND BURNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Objective Endotoxin as the inciting agentof cytokines and other mediators, whose highlevel expression correlates with the septicshock and MOF, has been the one of leadingcauses of death in ICU. Methods For treatingsepsis and MOF caused by endotoxin, the anti-lipid A of LPS antibody was used. 19 burned

  5. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  6. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  7. Friction Burns: Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A; Raibagkar, S.C.; Vora, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This epidemiological study deals with 60 patients with friction burns between January 2004 and January 2006. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 years, with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (56 patients), and the lower limb was the most frequently affected part of the body. Patient management was performed according to the degree of the burn injury. It is suggested that most friction burn injuries are neglected on admissio...

  8. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  9. Burn epidemiology and cost of medication in paediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Sağlam, Zeynep

    2012-09-01

    Burns are common injuries that cause problems to societies throughout the world. In order to reduce the cost of burn treatment in children, it is extremely important to determine the burn epidemiology and the cost of medicines used in burn treatment. The present study used a retrospective design, with data collected from medical records of 140 paediatric patients admitted to a burn centre between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Medical records were examined to determine burn epidemiology, medication administered, dosage, and duration of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was completed for all variables; chi-square was used to examine the relationship between certain variables. It was found that 62.7% of paediatric burns occur in the kitchen, with 70.7% involving boiling water; 55.7% of cases resulted in third-degree burns, 19.3% required grafting, and mean duration of hospital stay was 27.5 ± 1.2 days. Medication costs varied between $1.38 US dollars (USD) and $14,159.09, total drug cost was $46,148.03 and average cost per patient was $329.63. In this study, the medication cost for burn patients was found to be relatively high, with antibiotics comprising the vast majority of medication expenditure. Most paediatric burns are preventable, so it is vital to educate families about potential household hazards that can be addressed to reduce the risk of a burn. Programmes are also recommended to reduce costs and the inappropriate prescribing of medication.

  10. Word of Mouth Marketing in Mouth and Dental Health Centers towards Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Ekiyor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influencing the shopping style of others by passing on the experiences of goods purchased or services received is a way of behavior that has its roots in history. The main objective of th is research is to analyze the effects of demographic factors within the scope of word of mouth marketing on the choices of mouth and dental health services. Consumers receiving service from mouth and dental health centers of the Turkish Republic Ministry o f Health constitute the environment of the research. The research conducted in order to determine the mouth and dental health center selection of consumers within the scope of word of mouth marketing. The research has been conducted in Ankara through simpl e random sampling. The sample size has been determined as 400. In terms of word of mouth marketing which has been determined as the third hypothesis of the study, as a result of the analysis of the statistical relationship between mouth and dental health c enter preference and demographic factor groups, it has been determined that there is a meaningful difference in terms of age, level of education, level of income and some dimensions of marital status and that no meaningful difference has been found in term s of gender. It has been attempted to determine the importance of word of mouth marketing in healthcare services

  11. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N

    2009-01-01

    Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently...

  12. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  13. Burns and beauty nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  14. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  15. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual....... Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context of the...... Greek fire-walking rituals. As a cognitive ethnography, the book aims to identify the social, psychological and neurobiological factors which may be involved and to explore the role of emotional and physiological arousal in the performance of such ritual. A study of participation, experience and meaning...

  16. Burns and beauty nails

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Bélanger; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. T...

  17. The mouth and dis/ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society. PMID:27352472

  18. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  19. Dermoid cyst in the mouth floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dermoid cyst account for the 0.01 % of all cysts of buccal cavity. Its more frequent location is in the mouth floor. This is the case of a female patient aged 19 who approximately 7 years noted an increase of volume under tongue growing gradually and noting outside face and the discomfort at to speak and to chew. Complementary studies were conducted and under general anesthesia a surgical exeresis was carried out by intrabuccal approach achieving excellent esthetic and functional results. Histopathologic diagnosis matched with a dermoid cyst of mouth floor. Patient has not lesion recurrence after three years after operation. We conclude that the Dermoid cyst of mouth floor appear as benign tumor of middle line. The intrabuccal exeresis demonstrates esthetic and functional benefits. (author)

  20. Cryotherapy for treatment of mouth mucocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaldeep K Aulakh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mucocele is a common salivary gland disorder that most commonly affects young adults. A 35-year-old female patient reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, with the chief complaint of swelling on the left side of floor of mouth. The aim of this case report is to present the management of mucocele present in floor of the mouth in a young female patient using liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. The present case report has also discussed mechanism of action, current protocol of cryosurgery with emphasis on clinical pros and cons along with the clinical outcomes.

  1. Dry mouth: aging and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, Mahvash

    2002-10-01

    Dry mouth is a common complaint among older adults, and the aging process is erroneously considered by many to be the primary cause. The subjective complaint of dry mouth (xerostomia) is not always associated with objective evidence of a reduced saliva flow rate (salivary gland hypofunction). Moreover, there are patients who have reduced saliva flow rates and are asymptomatic. Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are associated with sundry oral and systemic complications and affect the quality of an individual's life. This article includes the common causes of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction and addresses the common complications of and routine therapeutic modalities available for these conditions in the elderly.

  2. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  3. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  4. E-Cigs May Damage Cells in Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159657.html E-Cigs May Damage Cells in Mouth Findings suggest a possible increase in the risk ... The oral cavity is the portion of the mouth behind the teeth and gums. The researchers believe ...

  5. Keep Your Mouth Healthy: Oral Care for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Keep Your Mouth Healthy Oral Care for Older Adults Oral health ... decay. You can take steps to keep your mouth healthy throughout your lifetime. And if you’re ...

  6. [The organization of burn care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques

    2002-12-15

    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  7. Tokamak burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  9. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  10. Prognosis and treatment of burns.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R; Heimbach, D

    1996-01-01

    Survival rates for burn patients in general have improved markedly over the past several decades. The development of topical antibiotic therapy for burn wounds, the institution of the practice of early excision and grafting, and major advances in intensive care management have all contributed to this success. In this review we address these 3 important advances in the modern treatment of burn injuries and provide a brief historical overview of these accomplishments and others, emphasizing spe...

  11. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  12. Animal Models in Burn Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the...

  13. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  14. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  15. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  16. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. PMID:26671147

  17. Developmental plasticity, straight from the worm's mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity in response to environmental conditions (polyphenism) plays an important role in evolutionary theory. Analyzing the nematode taxon Pristionchus, Ragsdale et al. demonstrate that a single gene underlies the nematode's ability to develop distinct mouth forms in response to environmental changes. PMID:24209614

  18. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  20. Language abstraction in word of mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.C. Schellekens; P.W.J. Verlegh; A. Smidts

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the language that consumers use in word of mouth. For both positive and negative product experiences, we demonstrate that consumers use more abstract terms when they describe experiences that are in line with the valence of their product attitude. This effect cannot be explain

  1. Alongshore sediment bypassing as a control on river mouth morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Nardin, William; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    River mouths, shoreline locations where fluvial and coastal sediments are partitioned via erosion, trapping, and redistribution, are responsible for the ultimate sedimentary architecture of deltas and, because of their dynamic nature, also pose great management and engineering challenges. To investigate the interaction between fluvial and littoral processes at wave-dominated river mouths, we modeled their morphologic evolution using the coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Model experiments replicate alongshore migration of river mouths, river mouth spit development, and eventual spit breaching, suggesting that these are emergent phenomena that can develop even under constant fluvial and wave conditions. Furthermore, we find that sediment bypassing of a river mouth develops though feedbacks between waves and river mouth morphology, resulting in either continuous bypassing pathways or episodic bar bypassing pathways. Model results demonstrate that waves refracting into the river mouth bar create a zone of low alongshore sediment transport updrift of the river mouth, which reduces sediment bypassing. Sediment bypassing, in turn, controls the river mouth migration rate and the size of the river mouth spit. As a result, an intermediate amount of river discharge maximizes river mouth migration. The fraction of alongshore sediment bypassing can be predicted from the balance between the jet and the wave momentum flux. Quantitative comparisons show a match between our modeled predictions of river mouth bypassing and migration rates observed in natural settings.

  2. How to manage burns in primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns.

  3. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  4. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  5. Bad advice; bad burn: a new problem in burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, L; Slater, H; Goldfarb, I W

    1990-01-01

    Deep partial-thickness burns had been inflicted on the perineal area of an infant who was recently treated in our Burn Center. The burns were a result of advice to the patient's mother by a pediatrician. The doctor told her to use a hair dryer to prevent diaper rash. We surveyed pediatricians, well-baby clinics, and pediatric nurse practitioners in our area and found that approximately half of them advised the use of hair dryers to treat or prevent diaper rash. We tested four widely available hand-held hair dryers to determine potential for inflicting burn injury. All of the dryers are capable of delivering air heated to at least 53 degrees C after 2 minutes of use. We believe that warnings against the use of hair dryers for perineal hygiene should be included in burn prevention programs.

  6. Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group. Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in BMS were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy subjects: mean 34.1 ± 9.7 versus 7.3 ± 3.0 pg/mL; P < .001 . Patients with BMS had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 compared to control: mean 30.8 ± 5.6 versus 5.2 ± 2.8 pg/mL; P < .001 . In patients with BMS, IL-2 and IL-6 levels in saliva are elevated, correlating with the severity of illness.

  7. Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Daria Simcic; Sonja Pezelj-Ribaric; Renata Gržic; Jelena Horvat; Gordana Brumini; Miranda Muhvic-Urek

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group). Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in BMS wer...

  8. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  9. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  10. The biology of burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Lars H; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Mailänder, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Burn injury is a complex traumatic event with various local and systemic effects, affecting several organ systems beyond the skin. The pathophysiology of the burn patient shows the full spectrum of the complexity of inflammatory response reactions. In the acute phase, inflammation mechanism may have negative effects because of capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury and the development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later-stage processes of wound healing. In this review, we are attempting to present the current science of burn wound pathophysiology and wound healing. We also describe the evolution of innovative strategies for burn management.

  11. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  12. Hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on mouth bar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Christopher R.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kolker, Alexander S.

    2013-04-01

    While river deltas are one of the major repositories for sediments and carbon on Earth, there exists a paucity of field data on the formation of distributary mouth bars—one of their key features. Here we present results from an experiment that tested a model of mouth bar development using hydroacoustic, optical, sedimentary, and geochemical tools on a mouth bar in a crevasse splay near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Our results validate an existing model for mouth bar development, which we extend to explain mouth bar stratigraphy. We propose that changes across a hydrological cycle are important for mouth bar development, resulting in a stratigraphy that has alternating fine and coarse grain sediments. Results also indicate that sand is carried up to 6 km from the main stem of the Mississippi River, despite repeated channel bifurcations, which has important implications for our interpretation of the rock record, understanding of coastal sedimentary systems, and the restoration of large deltas.

  13. Social media: the word of mouth revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garven, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Many dental practices today find themselves uncertain about the new social media universe, and in particular with how to relate to younger patients. The power of social networking is its immediate access to the word of mouth exchange of information, and the word of mouth avenue itself is recognized as the single most effective form of advertising. To tap into that phenomenon, begin by investing a small amount of time and effort to understand the basics of social networking. Sign up for Facebook and Twitter. First-hand experience interacting in a social network is the vital first step. The bottom line is simply this: To begin to understand this new arena of communication, you first have to join the conversation.

  14. [Oral medicine 2. Treatment of dry mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2012-11-01

    Treatment of dry mouth starts with determining the salivary gland function by measuring the unstimulated and stimulated flow rate.Treatment depends on these measurements. Iffunctioning salivary gland tissues with saliva producing potential are present, stimulation of the salivary glands by gum chewing or sucking sugar-free sweets is recommended. Salivary gland stimulation may also be achieved using medications, acupuncture and electrostimulation. If stimulation is insufficient, moistening the oral mucosa with a sip ofwater regularly during the day is one of the easiest and most effective methods of easing dry mouth. In addition, the use of saliva replacement therapy might be beneficial, but only with proper instruction. With regard to the caries risk in dentate patients, a fluoride rinse or gel should be prescribed.

  15. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, B J; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many Danish communities, school-based fluoride programs are offered to children with high caries risk in adjunct to tooth brushing. The purpose of this field trial was to compare the caries-preventive effectiveness of two different fluoride programs in 6-12 year olds. BASIC RESEARCH...... different schools were enrolled after informed consent and their class unit was randomly allocated to one of two fluoride programs. INTERVENTIONS: One group received a semi-annual fluoride varnish applications (FV) and the other group continued with an existing program with fluoride mouth rinses once per...... in caries development over two years among children participating in a school-based fluoride varnish or mouth rinse program....

  16. Social media: the word of mouth revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garven, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Many dental practices today find themselves uncertain about the new social media universe, and in particular with how to relate to younger patients. The power of social networking is its immediate access to the word of mouth exchange of information, and the word of mouth avenue itself is recognized as the single most effective form of advertising. To tap into that phenomenon, begin by investing a small amount of time and effort to understand the basics of social networking. Sign up for Facebook and Twitter. First-hand experience interacting in a social network is the vital first step. The bottom line is simply this: To begin to understand this new arena of communication, you first have to join the conversation. PMID:21287815

  17. A Personalized Word of Mouth Recommender Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chihli Hung

    2008-01-01

    Word of mouth (WOM) has a powerful effect on consumer behavior. Manually collecting WOM is very time-consuming in the era of the Internet. An automatic WOM recommender model is useful for both marketers and consumers. There are many different product features and thus many consumer choices. Each individual consumer has different preferences and these preferences may be changed deliberately or unwittingly. However, most existing WOM recommender models do not adapt to user preferences. This stu...

  18. MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS: A FUTURE COMPACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An orally disintegrating tablet or mouth dissolving tablet (MDT is a drug dosage form available for a limited amount of over-the-counter (OTC and prescription medications. MDTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. A variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among the dosage forms developed to facilitate ease of medication, the mouth dissolving tablet (MDT is one of the most widely employed commercial products. As our society is becoming increasingly aged, the development of mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric, and bedridden patients and for active patients who are busy and travelling and may not have access to water. Such formulations provide an opportunity for product line extension in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms (viz., solutions, suspensions, tablets, and capsules because of hand tremors and dysphagia. Oral delivery is currently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery having the highest patient compliance. Recent development in fast disintegrating technology mainly works to improve the disintegration quality of these delicate dosage forms without affecting their integrity. This article focuses on the patented technologies available and the advances made so far in the field of fabrication of mouth dissolving tablets. Apart from the conventional methods of fabrication, this review also provides the detailed concept of some unique technologies like freeze drying, direct compression, spray drying, tablet molding, sublimation, fast dissolving films cotton candy process, along with their advantages and limitations.

  19. Dry Mouth - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Boca seca Ukrainian (Українська) Dry Mouth with Cancer Treatment Сухість у роті під час лікування раку - ...

  20. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  1. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  2. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  3. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  4. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  5. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  6. [Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Boulos, J P; Bichet, J C; Jacquin, F

    2001-06-01

    The deep burns of the face can lead to horrible scars functionally and aesthetically. Treatment of these scars need several surgical interventions frequently and during many years. In our region we deal with this type of wounds as team work, multidisciplinary approach carrying out many process starting by emergency treatment of acute burns till the social rehabilitation. The expansion technique was great help in improving the shape of scars, by using the expanding skin as full thickness grafts. Reconstruction of the anatomical units and application of aesthetic techniques (like rhinoplasty, lifting, tattooing and autologous fat injections) participate equally in improving the quality of results. Many examples of treatments of burns scars are shown.

  7. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  8. Autopsy report for chemical burns from cresol solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo; Nagasaki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Cresol, which is used as a disinfectant and insecticide, has erosive effects on epidermal and epithelial tissues in the body. Oral exposure causes gastrointestinal corrosive injuries as a direct chemical burn. We report herein a case of suicidal poisoning by ingestion of cresol solution. An octogenarian man with depression was found dead approximately 14 h after exposure to less than 500 mL of saponated cresol solution. Macroscopically, corrosive lesions such as red-to-brown-colored epithelium and edematous thickening of walls were seen in the skin, mouth, oral cavity, esophagus, and stomach. Histopathologically, coagulative necrosis and vascular dilatation were detected from mucosal to muscular layers in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Congestive edema of the lungs, edematous changes in the brain, and proximal tubular necrosis of the kidneys were seen, suggesting acute circulatory disturbance due to shock. This human case offers valuable information on the direct irritation and shock induced by systemic exposure to corrosive substances.

  9. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry...

  10. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  11. Hair dryer burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  12. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  13. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Çizmeci; Samet Vasfi Kuvat

    2011-01-01

    Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are generea...

  14. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  15. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  16. Burn treatment in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, M; Lumenta, D B; Andel, H; Kamolz, L P; Frey, M

    2009-12-01

    The population of elderly patients is expected to rise continuously over the next decades due to global demographic changes. The elderly seem to be most vulnerable to burns and their management remains undoubtedly a challenge. A clear age margin for elderly patients is not yet defined, but most studies adhere to the inclusion of patients 65 years and above, but the general condition and social situation must be taken into account. The understanding of the physiological basis of aging and its related pathophysiological changes has only marginally influenced treatment and decision making in elderly burn patients. When looking at treatment regimens currently applied in elderly burn patients, the discussion of standards in intensive care as well as surgical strategies is ongoing. However, trends towards a moderate, non-aggressive resuscitation approach and careful inclusion of key parameters like physiological age, pre-burn functional status and premorbid conditions, seem to be useful guidelines for interdisciplinary treatment decisions. Once ordered for surgical treatment, the amount of body surface area operated in one session should be adapted to the general status of the patient. Even if older burn victims have a reported higher mortality rate than younger patients, improved therapeutic options have contributed to a reduced mortality rate even in the elderly over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will give an overview of the current literature and will draw attention to specific topics related to this important subpopulation of burn patients.

  17. Case study – Delta restoration at a steep river mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Terrier, Stéphane; De Cesare, Giovanni; Schleiss, Anton; André, S; Lecomte, E.; De Montmollin, G.

    2015-01-01

    The mouth of the Baye de Clarens torrent in Switzerland is currently constrained by lateral training walls, sequent sills and a bridge with a low hydraulic capacity. Due to a bed load trap upstream, few sediments reach the mouth. To improve flood protection and reestablish a natural dynamic mouth, a project of a delta with restored bed load was designed. In order to ensure that this newly formed delta guarantees flood protection and results in a sustainable sediment management, a physical mod...

  18. Hand, foot and mouth disease - a short case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, that was once considered a disease of cattle, has been emerging as a common human childhood disease in the last few years. It is a viral disease characterized by a brief febrile illness and typical vesicular rashes. In rare cases, patients may also develop neurological complications. This report describes a case of hand, foot and mouth disease, presented with typical clinical features in the South Indian region. Key words:Hand, foot and mouth disease, viral lesio...

  19. Understanding the power of word-of-mouth.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Z. Gildin

    2003-01-01

    Word-of-mouth has been considered one of the most powerful forms of communication in the market today. Understanding what makes word-of-mouth such a persuasive and powerful communication tool is important to organizations that intend to build strong relationships with consumers. For this reason, organizations are concerned about promoting positive word-of-mouth and retarding negative word-of-mouth, which can be harmful to the image of the company or a brand. This work focuses on the major asp...

  20. Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication and Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana; Colleoni, Elanor

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word......-of-mouth communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer...

  1. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  2. Novel sensors for the Artificial Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghlaf, Lyes; Mielle, Patrick; Maratray, Jacques; Launay, Jérôme; Temple-Boyer, Pierre; Salles, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Similarly to human chewing, tasty compounds are released in saliva during the food piece mastication in the `Artificial Mouth', and so, are available continuously. Glutamate is present in numerous food, as taste enhancer, has a nice and sought "umami" taste, specific receptors and different inter individual sensitivities, and is a fair marker of the release of tasty compounds. The three sensors (for pH, salt, or glutamate concentration) have the same size, so they are easily interchangeable. Up to now, only one kind of parameter may be analysed at a time by the different sensors. Nevertheless, combined electrodes may be developed in the future.

  3. Word of mouth in social learning: The effects of word of mouth advice in the smartphone market

    OpenAIRE

    Head, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this thesis is to examine word of mouth advice and its relationship with product sales and market shares in the context of the smartphone market. The thesis aims to determine the key properties of valuable word of mouth advice from a consumer's perspective and seeks to identify the effects of sources and transmission methods on the valuation of word of mouth advice. Furthermore, the thesis aims to clarify the market wide effects of positive word ...

  4. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  5. Epidemiology of severe burn injuries in a Tertiary Burn Centre in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Barzelighi, H.; Alaghehbandan, R.; Motevallian, A.; Alinejad, F.; Soleimanzadeh-Moghadam, S.; Sattari, M.; A R Lari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary burn centre in Tehran, Iran. A hospital-based cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with burn injuries was conducted in Motahari Burn and Reconstruction Center in Tehran from August to December 2010. Medical records of all hospitalized burn patients were reviewed and pertinent information was captured. A total of 135 patients with severe burns requiring hospitalizat...

  6. Waste: energy to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerated, transformed into fuel or a gas, waste is a versatile source of energy. It is as once a problem and a resource that is increasingly the focus of green policies. According to the 2009 World Waste Survey, between 3.4 and 4 billion tons of waste are produced each year worldwide. Leading the pack is China, with 300 million tons produced in 2005, followed closely by the United States, with 238 million tons. But the United States wins the per capita count with 760 kg of waste produced per year per inhabitant; Australia comes in second. In Europe, 500 kg of waste is produced per capita per year for a total of 2 billion tons generated annually, and a growth rate of 10% in ten years' time. Between 2/3 and 3/4 of these waste materials are sorted, and a portion of them is recycled. The rest is either carted away to a dumping ground, or incinerated. But this waste is primarily domestic, and still contains energy, energy that can be recovered. The added bonus is two-fold: an additional source of energy is created by transforming waste, called waste-to- wheel or waste-to-energy (WTE), and the decomposition of organic waste does not give off GHGs. Two ways are known today to transform wastes into energy: the thermal process, where heat is extracted from the waste (and sometimes converted into electricity), and the non-thermal process, which comprises collecting energy in a chemical form (biogas, biofuel). Both technologies depend on the type of waste to be treated: plastic materials, household refuse, fermentable elements, sludge residue from sewage treatment plants, agricultural waste, forestry industry waste, etc. The thermal process is by far the most widely employed. 74% of waste is incinerated in Japan, and around 30 to 55% in most European countries. The second process does not burn waste and is better suited to wet and organic matter, i.e., to waste that contains quantities of biomass: fermentable waste, sludge, agricultural waste and the gas given off at

  7. [Ergotherapy of severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerl, U; Resag, I

    1995-04-01

    Occupational therapy for severely burned patients includes individual exercise programmes, activities of daily living (ADL), assessment of the need for technical aids, splinting and pressure bandages, as well as psychological and social support. There are different focal points in the three stages of treatment. In the burn-care unit (first stage), if necessary, the patient is provided with splints. At this time the first contact is made. In the burn-care ward (second stage), the occupational therapy is focused on individual exercise programmes, dynamic splinting, ADL, and preparation for discharge from hospital. In the outpatient department (third stage), the aims of occupational therapy are: providing the patients with pressure bandages, checking of splints, assessment of the need for technical aids and special support if the patients have difficulties at home and work. PMID:7761866

  8. Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Law; A. Mol

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary science draws on different traditions for knowing and acting, and mobilises different kinds of materials and techniques. This article explores these differences and their tensions for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in the UK in 2001. It shows that when they talk of foot and mouth

  9. A Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Mouth Clean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Kozisek, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped…

  10. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  11. Temporal and spatial variations of the Huanghe River mouth bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zuosheng; ZHANG Yong; LIU Zhan; WEI Helong; HE Shufeng

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the bathymetric records of 371 survey sections in the present Huanghe mouth area from 1996 to 2001, the temporal and spatial variations of the Huanghe mouth bars were studied by using GIS technology. The variation of the mouth bars is closely related to the water and sediment discharges from the Huanghe River to the sea that has been decreasing drastically in recent years, and to coastal hydrodynamic regimes. The characteristics of the mouth bars are unique in contrast with those of other estuaries in the world (1) The mouth bars of the Huanghe River consist of many small sandbars. Usually the sandbars are of ellipse-shape with the long axis of about 1~6 km, and short axis of about 1~4 kin. The long axis is parallel to the principal direction of tidal current, and the short axis is variable, depending on the local dynamics. The crest of the sandbars is only about 0.4 m below the water surface at low tide. They are distributed within an area of 20 km2, not far from the river mouth area. The present mouth bars are in small-medium size, quite different from the large one formed during the 1970s and 1980s, when the river sediment discharge was several times larger than that after 1996. (2) The scale of a river mouth bar is related to the river discharge of that year. In 1997 sediment discharge from the Huanghe River was 42 Mt, and the mouth bar consisted of several small scattered sandbars. In 1998 the size of mouth bars was much larger thar that in 1997, as the sediment discharge from the Huanghe River increased to 363 Mt. Variation of the mouth bars largely depends on the sediment discharge with a correlation coefficient of 0.78. The calculation of the volume of the mouth bar area shows that about 30%~40% of the river's into-sea sediment is deposited in the mouth bar area. (3) Compared with other large estuaries in the world, the Huanghe mouth bars have three unique features in responding to its high sediment concentration: small size, steep

  12. Future Therapies in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, Erica I; Subramanian, Madhu; Arnoldo, Brett D; Phelan, Herb A; Wolf, Steven E

    2016-10-01

    Since the 1940s, the resuscitation of burn patients has evolved with dramatic improvements in mortality. The most significant achievement remains the creation and adoption of formulae to calculate estimated fluid requirements to guide resuscitation. Modalities to attenuate the hypermetabolic phase of injury include pharmacologic agents, early enteral nutrition, and the aggressive approach of early excision of large injuries. Recent investigations into the genomic response to severe burns and the application of computer-based decision support tools will likely guide future resuscitation, with the goal of further reducing mortality and morbidity, and improving functional and quality of life outcomes. PMID:27600132

  13. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  14. Fluorescence Measurement of Burned Skin Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Nguyen, Hue; Malko, Anton; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.

    2011-03-01

    Early removal of affected tissues from burn patients can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since burns continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that burns trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore it is important to locate and identify the burn (area and thickness) so that it can be removed as quickly as possible. Our project explores the use of autofluorescence as a tool to identify the burned tissues from healthy ones. Here we present that our fluorescence results show differences between burned and normal skin in both its spectra and lifetime.

  15. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in Mouth Breathers: Clinical Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha, Renata Andrade da

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The child who chronically breathes through the mouth may develop a weakness of the respiratory muscles. Researchers and clinical are seeking for methods of instrumental evaluation to gather complementary data to clinical evaluations. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate breathing muscles in the child with Mouth Breathing. Objective To develop a review to investigate studies that used evaluation methods of respiratory muscle strength in mouth breathers. Data Synthesis  The authors were unanimous in relation to manovacuometry method as a way to evaluate respiratory pressures in Mouth Breathing children. Two of them performed with an analog manovacuometer and the other one, digital. The studies were not evaluated with regard to the method efficacy neither the used instruments. Conclusion There are few studies evaluating respiratory muscle strength in Mouth Breathing people through manovacuometry and the low methodological rigor of the analyzed studies hindered a reliable result to support or refuse the use of this technique.

  16. River Mouth Management In Malaysia– An Overview of Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Pedersen, C.

    2012-01-01

    and optimization phases. Examples demonstrating the use of numerical modeling as an engineering tool for previous river mouth improvement works are highlighted to reiterate its value in river mouth engineering and hopefully serve as motivation for future usage.......Dredging and structural interventions have been applied for centuries in attempts to train and regulate river mouths and tidal inlet systems. The notoriously dynamic nature of river mouths and tidal inlets complicate any intervention and applied intervention schemes are frequently seen to display...... limited and sometimes even defective functionality. The latter is often due to lack of proper river mouth management which rely on solid assessment tools and a regard for implications of derived and external impacts. Inevitably, interventions will create an array of secondary problems (derived impacts...

  17. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; Werf, van der G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    [1] In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires ofte

  18. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing

  19. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  20. To Burn or not to Burn: Making the Burning of Chocolate Hills of Bohol, Philippines Carbon Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel T. Bantayan; Margaret M Calderon; Flocencia B. Pulhin; Canesio D. Predo; Rose Ann C. Baruga

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current management regime of burning vis-à-vis burning with carbon offsets for the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (CHNM) in Bohol, Philippines. The current scheme of burning to maintain the grass-covered (tree-less) and brown hills to sustain tourist arrivals is seen as environmentally unsound and inconsistent with existing environmental laws. The study estimated the carbon loss from burning and compared the carbon loss value with the tourism income ...

  1. A Personalized Word of Mouth Recommender Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihli Hung

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Word of mouth (WOM has a powerful effect on consumer behavior. Manually collecting WOM is very time-consuming in the era of the Internet. An automatic WOM recommender model is useful for both marketers and consumers. There are many different product features and thus many consumer choices. Each individual consumer has different preferences and these preferences may be changed deliberately or unwittingly. However, most existing WOM recommender models do not adapt to user preferences. This study proposes a conceptual WOM recommender model, which contains WOM collecting, document processing, recommending and user preference processing phases. More specifically, the self-organizing map (SOM is used to store and abstract user preferences. This proposed WOM model makes recommendations to consumers or users according to their adaptive preferences.

  2. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  3. WORD OF MOUTH ON SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raluca CHIOSA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the access to information, the Internet has transformed people lifestyle, their preference for products, how they relate to brands. Perceived as an open space, without limitation, social media has become the main channel for expression of word-of-mouth, with both positive and negative effects. Thus The Internet has allowed the development of WOM, making it contemporary in our technological world. This paper examines the motives for adopting WOM behavior, forms of WOM, the WOM model and principles, directions of WOM research. Brand engagement has made consumers more powerful in terms of requirements and evaluation of product/brand, more demanding and impatient in brand communication and market response.

  4. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  5. Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth movements increase perceived food palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Boecker, Lea

    2016-04-01

    We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1-2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat. PMID:26792766

  6. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns.

  7. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  8. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate. PMID:27089804

  9. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  11. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL

    2002-01-01

    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally use

  12. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation and severity of hydrofluoric acid burns vary considerably, making management particularly challenging. Given that current knowledge of HF burns is derived from small case series, case reports, animal studies and anecdotal evidence, this narrative review discusses the current understanding of the effects associated with severe hydrofluoric acid burns, describing the mechanism of injury, systemic toxicity and treatment options.

  13. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support.

  14. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D K; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  15. Efficacy of mouth opening exercises in treating trismus after maxillectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wei-hong; AO Hong-wei; LIN Qing; XU Zhen-gang; ZHANG Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with maxillary tumor often suffer from trismus after maxillectomy,which could turn out to be a permanent sequela without proper intervention.In this study,the efficacy of mouth opening exercises in preventing and treating trismus was observed in patients with maxillary tumor early after their operations.At the same time,radiotherapy as an influencing factor for the mouth opening exercises was evaluated.Methods In this study,22 patients with maxillary oncology began their mouth opening exercises at an early stage (1-2 weeks) after maxillectomy.They were divided into two groups based on the principle of voluntariness:11 patients in group 1 chose TheraBites as their instruments of mouth opening exercises,and the other 11 in group 2 chose stacked tongue depressors to help their exercises.All participants were trained to exercise 3-5 times a day,30-40 oscillations at one time,with a 2-second pause at their maximum possible mouth open position.The maximal interincisor distances (MID) of patients were measured and recorded by a single investigator every week after the beginning of the mouth opening exercises.Medical information and the responses of patients were also recorded.Initial and final MIDs were calculated by SPSS 13.0.Results The changes of the mouth aperture every week during exercises in both groups were described in figures,and there were statistical increases in the final MIDs compared with the initial ones.However,no significant differences were achieved between groups 1 and 2 (P >0.05).Radiotherapy seemed to have no negative impact on the mouth opening results during the exercises.Conclusion Physical mouth opening exercises should be executed early after maxillectomy for the prevention and treatment of trismus,especially for those who had radiotherapy as part of antitumor treatments.

  16. New type of sauna-related burn: conductive contact burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree burn on the right medial thigh area with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the burn was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related burns.

  17. Classification Methods of Skin Burn Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,methodsto automatically detect and categorize the severity of skin burn imagesusingvariousclassification techniquesare compared andpresented. A database comprisingofskin burn imagesbelonging to patients of diverseethnicity, genderand age areconsidered. First the images arepreprocessed andthen classifiedutilizingthe pattern recognitiontechniques:TemplateMatching(TM,Knearestneighbor classifier (kNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM.The classifier istrained fordifferentskin burn grades using pre-labeled images and optimizedfor the features chosen. This algorithmdeveloped,works as an automatic skin burn wound analyzerandaids in the diagnosisof burn victims

  18. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries t...

  19. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  20. Burn Resuscitation in the Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael; Jeng, James; Moghazy, Amr

    2016-10-01

    Intravenous (IV) cannulation and sterile IV salt solutions may not be options in resource-limited settings (RLSs). This article presents recipes for fluid resuscitation in the aftermath of burns occurring in RLSs. Burns of 20% total body surface area (TBSA) can be resuscitated, and burns up to 40% TBSA can most likely be resuscitated, using oral resuscitation solutions (ORSs) with salt supplementation. Without IV therapy, fluid resuscitation for larger burns may only be possible with ORSs. Published global experience is limited, and the magnitude of burn injuries that successfully respond to World Health Organization ORSs is not well-described. PMID:27600127

  1. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  2. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  3. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  4. Southeast U.S. burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

  5. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations. PMID:9559811

  6. Polarized Reflectance Measurement of Burned Skin Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.

    2011-10-01

    In the US, there are over 400,000 burn victims with 3,500 deaths in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that early removal of burn tissues can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since burns continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that burns trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore, it is important to distinguish burn areas so that it can be removed. The problem with this is that it is difficult to recognize the margins of the burn area. In our project, we use polarized reflectance as a tool to identify the burned tissues from unburned ones.

  7. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy.

  8. Septicemia: The Principal Killer of Burns Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is a major problem in many areas of the world and it has been estimated that 75% of all deaths following burns are related to infection. Burns impair the skin’s normal barrier function thus allowing microbial colonization of the burn wounds and even with the use of topical antimicrobial agents, contamination is almost unavoidable. It is therefore essential for every burn institution to determine its specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, time related changes in predominant flora and antimicrobial resistance profiles. This would allow early management of septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics before the results of microbiologic culture becomes available, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality. We attempted to examine the factors affecting risk of infection; strategies for infection control and prevention in burn victims.

  9. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries. PMID:21991218

  10. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  12. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Çizmeci

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are genereally adequate for first-degree burns. However, topical antibacterial agents are usually required for second to third-degree wounds. Standart treatment for the open wound without epithelization is autologous skin grafting. In cases where more than 50% of the skin surface in affected, autologus donor skin may not be enough. For these cases, epidermal cell culture in vitro may be used. Mesenchymal stem cell applications which have immunosupressive effects should be utilized in cases where cells need to be prepared as allografts. (Journal of the Turkish Society intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 51-4

  13. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  14. Effects of Electronic Word - of - Mouth Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.

  15. MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM AND THEIR PATENT: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Udhan Ravindra Radhakisan; Vijayalaxmi Chavan; Nitin Tribhuvan

    2012-01-01

    Now days the researchers are focusing on the fast dissolving dosage form (FDDF’s).The fast dissolving dosage forms includes the mouth dissolving tablets, mouth dissolving thin films .The alternative words used for these dosage forms are fast disintegrating, orodispersible, fast dissolving. The oral thin film technology (OTF’s) is a dissolvable film technology have evolved from a purely confectionery novelty from a drug delivery platform. The OTH dosage form dissolves in the moth without nee...

  16. Development and quality evaluation of aonla mouth freshner

    OpenAIRE

    Barwal, Vishal Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Nutritive and palatable mouth freshners were prepared from dehydrated aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) pulp of ‘Desi’ and ‘Banarsi’ cultivars by mixing carboxy methyl cellulose, gums, arecanut, cardamom, sugar and milk powder at different proportions as a substitute for pan masala, tobacco and gutka. Mouth fresheners developed were packed in high density polyethylene pouches (HDPE, 100 gauge), stored at ambient conditions (8–20 °C, 60%RH) and analysed for physico-chemical and sensory qualit...

  17. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Veena, KM; H. Jagadishchandra; Sham S Bhat; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of...

  18. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Jansiski Motta; Joanna Carolina Bachiega; Carolina Cardoso Guedes; Lorena Tristão Laranja; Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with th...

  19. Substantial Effects of Word of Mouth Marketing in Telecommunications Industry

    OpenAIRE

    KIRISCIOGLU, HAZAR KUTAY

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest responsibilities of today’s marketing managers is to use their financial and labour resources in the most efficient way. However, any kind of traditional marketing method which is designed and spread by the seller is both costly and less influential on customer’s buying behaviour. Word of Mouth, which can simply be explained as any marketing action that leads to earn customer recommendation, (Word of Mouth Marketing Association) helps organizations to burst their sales reve...

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth...

  1. [Oral medicine 1. Causes and clinical symptoms of dry mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare providers do not always recognize dry mouth and the problems associated with it. The symptoms of dry mouth and the patterns of complaints associated with it are the feeling that the mouth is dry; foamy or very watery saliva; a red appearance of the mucosa under a denture and the excessive presence of remaining food particles on the mucosa or the denture. The most serious detrimental aspect of dry mouth complaints is a reduced secretion of saliva, but afeeling ofa dry mouth can also exist without an objectively assessed hyposalivation. The most important causes of dry mouth are the side effects ofmedications, systemic diseases, radiotherapy in the head and neck region and occasionally a psychiatric disorder. Early recognition of the symptoms and the establishment ofa precise diagnosis are essential for proper treatment and for optimizing the quality of life of the patient. Basic investigation consists of an extensive patient history, inspection of the head and neck region and the oral cavity, evaluation ofthefunctioning of the salivary glands, and, if necessary, additional investigations.

  2. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcar, Josiane Marques; Bueno, Izabele Rafael; Massan, Ana Carolina Silva; Torezan, Roberta Pereira; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouth breathing, the test of logistic regression was used and its magnitude was calculated through Odds Ratio. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the rate of returned questionnaires was 84.5%. The prevalence of the mouthbreathing over this population was 56.8%. The average age was 7 years old (6-9). There was no significant statistical difference between genders, considering 49.1% male and 50.9% female. The final model of logistic regression identified the variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores as factors that predict the occurrence of the mouth-breathing. The prevalence of mouthbreathing was similar to related in the literature. The variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores may be factors that predict the occurrence of mouth-breathing.

  3. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  4. Mouth colour is a reliable signal of need in begging canary nestlings

    OpenAIRE

    R., initials Kilner

    1997-01-01

    Begging passerine chicks display brightly coloured mouths as they solicit food from their parents. Despite a range of hypotheses, the function of vivid nestling mouth colour remains unknown. Here I report that mouth colour functions as a signal of need in canary nestlings, in the days immediately following hatching. Changes in mouth colour accurately reflect a nestling's state of need: the more food deprived the chick, the more intensely coloured its mouth. In controlled experiments with two ...

  5. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  6. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2016 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 21. Christiani DC. Physical and chemical ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 94. Mazzeo AS, Price LA, ...

  7. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Matin, B.; Karami Matin, R.; Ahmadi Joybari, T.; Ghahvehei, N.; M Haghi; M. Ahmadi; S. Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned bod...

  8. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  9. How to manage a minor burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabrielle

    2016-07-20

    Rationale and key points This article outlines the technique for dressing a minor burn. The nurse should be aware of national burn care referral guidance, and have the knowledge and skills to establish the severity and extent of a burn. The nurse should also be able to determine whether referral to a regional specialist centre is required. » The extent and severity of a burn determines its ongoing management. » The burn wound requires regular evaluation, since its appearance and management needs can change over time. » Competence in general wound care is essential for nurses undertaking this procedure. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: » The classification of burn depth and guidelines for specialist referral. » How you think this article will change your practice. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27440365

  10. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment...

  11. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...... management addresses and alleviates these complications. The aim of our study was to compare clinical guidelines for pain management in burn patients in selected European and non-European countries. We included pediatric guidelines due to the high rate of children in burn units. METHOD: The study had...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn...

  12. Betaine-containing toothpaste relieves subjective symptoms of dry mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderling, E; Le Bell, A; Kirstilä, V; Tenovuo, J

    1998-04-01

    Subjects with dry mouth often experience irritation of the oral mucosa when using sodium lauryl sulfate containing products for oral hygiene. Betaine, or trimethylglycine, reduces skin-irritating effects of ingredients of cosmetics such as sodium lauryl sulfate. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a betaine-containing toothpaste with a regular toothpaste on the oral microbial flora, the condition of the oral mucosa, and subjective symptoms of dry mouth in subjects with chronic dry mouth symptoms. Thirteen subjects with chronic dry mouth symptoms and with a paraffin-stimulated salivary flow rate < or = 1 mL/min participated in the double-blind crossover study. Ten subjects had a very low salivary flow rate (< or = 0.6 mL/min). The subjects used both experimental toothpastes (with or without 4% betaine) twice a day for 2 weeks. Oral examinations and microbiologic sample collections were made at the base lines preceding the two experimental periods and at the end. Standardized questions on subjective symptoms of dry mouth were used when the subjects were interviewed at the end of the two experimental periods. No study-induced significant changes were observed in the microbiologic variables (plaque index, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, Candida species) or in the appearance of the oral mucosa. The use of the betaine-containing toothpaste was, however, associated with a significant relief of several subjective symptoms of dry mouth. Betaine appears thus to be a promising ingredient of toothpastes in general and especially of toothpastes designed for patients with dry mouth. PMID:9669455

  13. Neuroendocrine Stress Response after Burn Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Some aspects of the stress response during acute intensive care for severe burns are described and quantified by measuring hormonal and neuroendocrine patterns and relating these to organ function in the short term. This includes an assessment of whether there are markers for the severity of stress that are better than conventional descriptors of the severity of a burn in predicting failing organ function. P-CgA after a major burn injury is an independent and better predictor of organ dysfunc...

  14. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  15. Epidemiology and Statistical Modeling in Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun

    2010-01-01

    An important issue in assessing the epidemiology of injuries, including burns, is the investigation of appropriate methodologies and statistical modeling techniques to study injuries in an efficient and trustworthy manner. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze epidemiological patterns and assess the appropriateness of supervised statistical models to investigate burn risks and patterns. This thesis contains four papers: the first two concern descriptive epidemiology of burns in Arda...

  16. Fluid management in major burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberal Mehmet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely accepted fact that severe fluid loss is the greatest problem faced following major burn injuries. Therefore, effective fluid resuscitation is one of the cornerstones of modern burn treatment. The aim of this article is to review the current approaches available for modern trends in fluid management for major burn patients. As these current approaches are based on various experiences all over the world, the knowledge is essential to improve the status of this patient group.

  17. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashreky S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  18. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  19. ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbi Practice Guidelines Committee

    2016-08-01

    Practice guidelines (PGs) are recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries, and are designed to define optimal evaluation and management. The first PGs for burn care addressed the issues encountered in developed countries, lacking consideration for circumstances in resource-limited settings (RLS). Thus, the mission of the 2014-2016 committee established by the International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) was to create PGs for burn care to improve the care of burn patients in both RLS and resource-abundant settings. An important component of this effort is to communicate a consensus opinion on recommendations for burn care for different aspects of burn management. An additional goal is to reduce costs by outlining effective and efficient recommendations for management of medical problems specific to burn care. These recommendations are supported by the best research evidence, as well as by expert opinion. Although our vision was the creation of clinical guidelines that could be applicable in RLS, the ISBI PGs for Burn Care have been written to address the needs of burn specialists everywhere in the world. PMID:27542292

  20. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn. PMID:19692919

  2. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  3. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  4. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Moody

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  5. A Study on the Metaphoric Expressions Involving the English and Chinese MOUTH%英汉"Mouth"(口)的隐喻研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴石梅

    2010-01-01

    隐喻是人类理解周围世界的一种认知方式.从"mouth"(口)向非人体域的映射和"mouth"(口)向人体域的其他器官之间的映射两个层面,比较英汉语"mouth"(口)词汇的隐喻表达,并揭示英汉语中"mouth"(口)隐喻特点和两种语言中"mouth"(口)词汇隐喻构建异同.

  6. Medical management of paediatric burn injuries: best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leo K P; Martin, Hugh C O; Holland, Andrew J A

    2012-04-01

    Burns commonly occur in children and their first aid remains inadequate despite burn prevention programmes. While scald injuries predominate, contact and flame burns remain common. Although typically less severe injuries overall than those in adults, hypertrophic scarring complicating both the burn wound and even donor sites occur more frequently in children. The heterogeneous nature of burn wounds, coupled with the difficulties associated with the early clinical assessment of burn depth, has stimulated the application of novel technologies to predict burn wound outcome. This review explores current best practice in the management of paediatric burns, with a focus on prevention, optimal first aid, resuscitation, burn wound prediction and wound management strategies.

  7. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  8. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  9. WATER POLLUTION IN THE RIVER MOUTHS AROUND BOHAI BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng LIU; Zhao-Yin WANG; Yun HE

    2003-01-01

    Twelve water samples were collected and analyzed. The samples were taken from the river mouths around Bohai Bay including the Jiyun, New Yongding, Haihe, Dagu, Duliujian, Qingjinghuang, Qikou, Dakou, and Yellow Rivers, and tested for concentrations of heavy metals, arsenic, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The results show that the river mouths are polluted and the water quality exceeds Class V of the Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water (EQSSW). The main pollutants are Hg, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The concentrations of the other pollutants are within Class Ⅱ of the Standard. The Hg content in the Haihe River mouth is now 10 times higher than it was 20 years ago, indicating that the accelerating water pollution has reached an alarming level. The high concentrations of N and P cause eutrophication of the waters.Analysis indicates that the terrestrial pollutants and nutrients are the main cause of frequently occurring red tides in the Bohai Sea.

  10. ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH: HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ABĂLĂESEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of Web 2.0 (or social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Blogger, and various forums and communities, online users from all over the world have been exposed to a completely new means of information sharing: electronic word of mouth (e-WOM. Due to the fact that it is a recent research phenomenon, its definition is difficult to be phrased and similar to traditional word-of-mouth, the theoretical framework of e-WOM is not very clear. This complex concept is linked to viral marketing, user generated content, stealth marketing, opinion sharing, decision making and other aspects. Considering the multiple areas that e-WOM has an influence on, this article presents an overview of what has been researched with respect to this subject. Using the findings of this paper, it may be possible to set up the base of a conceptual model to measure electronic word of mouth.

  11. Service Experience Influence on Generating Positive Word-of-mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose the purpose of this study is to study the effects of relationship benefits on relationship quality and aspects of service quality and the subsequent influence on word-of-mouth behavior. Design/methodology/approach the paper reports results from statistical techniques of linear structural relations that utilizes data from 300 consumers across a range of services. Findings results indicate a significant positive path connecting confidence benefits and functional quality, the relationship between special treatment benefits and technical quality is supported. The positive relation of confidence benefits, special treatment benefits and social benefits on relationship quality are also supported. Furthermore, it is found that functional quality; technical quality and relationship quality is related to word-of-mouth. Originality/value the study investigates the role of relationship benefits in increasing perceptions of quality while also providing an analysis of the differential role of functional, technical and relationship quality in enhancing customers’ word-of-mouth intentions.

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Coprocessed Excipient for Mouth Dissolving Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi PP and Mundada AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate Ocimum bascilium mucilage coprocessed with Mannitol as a novel super disintegrant. Coprocessed excipients were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated in the formulation of mouth dissolving tablets of Terbutaline sulphate. Formulated mouth dissolving tablets were characterised for physicochemical parameters like hardness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time, drug content and in vitro drug release behaviour. The outcomes of physicochemical evaluation of formulations showed that all developed formulations had desirable features. The coprocessed mucilage (Mannitol: Mucilage exhibited disintegration within 8 sec at the concentration of 1 gm: 65 mg as compared to the coprocessed Mannitol: SSG which disintegrated within 11 sec at the concentration of 1 gm: 85 mg. The developed excipient showed improvement in parent excipient functionalities and proving coprocessed mucilage of Ocimum bascilium to be an excellent novel superdisintegrant in mouth dissolving formulation and thus it can be exploited commercially.

  13. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.

  14. Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

  15. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  16. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296

  17. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  18. Skin Dendritic Cells in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    D’Arpa, N.; D’Amelio, L.; Accardo-Palumbo, A.; Pileri, D.; Mogavero, R.; Amato, G.; Napoli, B.; Alessandro, G.; Lombardo, C.; F. Conte

    2009-01-01

    The body's immunological response to burn injury has been a subject of great inquiry in recent years. Burn injury disturbs the immune system, resulting in a progressive suppression of the immune response that is thought to contribute to the development of sepsis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that possess the ability to stimulate naïve T cells.

  19. BURN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF Euphorbia hirta

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan,; Reddy, D. Narishma

    2006-01-01

    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  20. A ring burn--electric or contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S; Al-Baker, A

    1990-02-01

    A circumferential band of deep burn affecting the ring finger sustained by a car electrician is presented. Although it was caused by short circuiting the car battery by a metal spanner and the ring he was wearing, the injury was purely a contact burn. PMID:2322399

  1. 'Sabbath' electric plate burn: a ritual hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmeir, P; Sagi, A; Rosenberg, L; Picard, E; Ben Yakar, Y

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the burns caused by an electric hot plate which is used by orthodox Jews for keeping food and liquids warm during the Sabbath (Saturday). An illustrative case is presented and the preventable aspects of this particular burn are discussed.

  2. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. Jeschke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p  0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  3. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  4. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  5. Epidemiology of major burns at the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanimé, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Burn care is one of the few areas in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with burn injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal burns, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural areas and burned body surface (BBS) w...

  6. WORD OF MOUTH – FROM VERBALLY COMMUNICATION TO COMMUNICATION ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raluca CHIOSA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become essential in linking the brand with consumers. This enables them to share their opinions, preferences or experiences with others. The paper seeks to provide the concept of word-of-mouth, starting from the definition, characteristics, to manifestation in the online environment and the effects on consumer behavior, creating opportunities for word-of-mouth marketing. Social Media become important in building a brand, as consumer reactions can be decisive in enhancing or destroying it. For effective use of social media tools, brands need to identify the influential people among consumers, to capture the recommendations received from the users and measure their impact.

  7. Disaster in agriculture: or foot and mouth mobilities

    OpenAIRE

    John Law

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an exploration of the dynamics of the outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the United Kingdom in 2001. Following Perrow’s analysis of the catastrophic breakdown of technological systems, the author treats the UK agricultural system as a set of flows that are both tightly coupled and complex. This suggests that the stability of the agricultural system is precarious, and that when it is disrupted (as it was with the arrival of the foot and mouth virus) the consequences may be lar...

  8. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  9. Clinker Burning Kinetics and Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira

    dimensions, rotation velocity, temperature, gas composition, heat transfer phenomena, etc. These conditions can only be partly simulated in ordinary lab-scale experiments. Thus, the objectives of this project have been to establish test equipment to simulate the industrial clinker burning process......The industrial cement process is subject to several changes in order to reduce the high energy consumption and thereby increase the profitability of cement production. These changes also affect the core of the entire cement producing process: the clinker formation in the rotary kiln. Thus, in order...... to maintain or even improve clinker quality (and output), we need a better understanding of the development of clinker properties inside the kiln to react upon the impact of process changes. Clinker formation in industrial rotary kilns is very complex due to a vast number of interacting parameters: kiln...

  10. Numerical study of external burning flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Robert D.; Mcclinton, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the successful application of CFD to modeling an external burning flowfield. The study used the 2D, 3D, and PNS versions of the SPARK code. Various grids, boundary conditions, and ignition methodologies have been employed. Flameholding was achieved through the use of a subsonic outflow condition and a hot block located behind the step to ignite the fuel. Since the resulting burning produces a large subsonic region downstream of the cowl, this entire surface can be pressurized to the level of the back pressure. An evaluation of interactions between the ramjet exhaust and the external burning products demonstrate the complexity of this design issue. Ths code is now capable of evaluating the external burning effectiveness for flight vehicles using simple injector schemes, and the methodology can be readily applied to other external burning designs.

  11. Modern trends in fluid therapy for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricklebank, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The majority of burn centres use the crystalloid-based Parkland formula to guide fluid therapy, but patients actually receive far more fluid than the formula predicts. Resuscitation with large volumes of crystalloid has numerous adverse consequences, including worsening of burn oedema, conversion of superficial into deep burns, and compartment syndromes. Resuscitation fluids influence the inflammatory response to burns in different ways and it may be possible, therefore to affect this response using the appropriate fluid, at the appropriate time. Starches are effective volume expanders and early use of newer formulations may limit resuscitation requirements and burn oedema by reducing inflammation and capillary leak. Advanced endpoint monitoring may guide clinicians in when to 'turn off' aggressive fluid therapy and therefore avoid the problems of over-resuscitation.

  12. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  13. Coping with severe burns in the early stage after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Zoran; Brajković, Lovorka; Gregurek, Rudolf; Micković, Vlatko

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury characteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were interviewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no statistically significant gender differences in various coping strategies. Avoidance was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression and hopelessness. The percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) and localization of burns were not associated with coping patterns. Implications for the assessment and management of burn injured patients were discussed.

  14. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (<16 years) and adults (16–65 years). Five-hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  15. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution.

  16. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution. PMID:26915202

  17. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care.

  18. Calcium and ER Stress Mediate Hepatic Apoptosis after Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction post-burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis post-burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacri...

  19. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, V K

    2012-01-01

    Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock wh...

  20. Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Burn Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jawad, F.H.; Sahib, A.S.; Al-Kaisy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Burns are a major health problem worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity in addition to causing changes in the quality of life of burn patients. Utilizing antioxidant therapeutic strategies depending on new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of burns-related "oxidative stress" may be considered a promising step in burns management. This study involved 180 burn patients of varying age and either sex and with varying burns percentages. The patients were subdivided into six groups (A, ...

  1. The Research State of Burning Mouth Syndrome%灼口综合征的研究状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾远平; 何克新

    2005-01-01

    近几年来灼口综合征发病率呈上升趋势,已成为一种常见的粘膜病.研究灼口综合征的病因和治疗对提高灼口综合征的治疗水平有积极的意义.本文综述了近年来灼口综合征病因和治疗方面的研究进展.

  2. 灼口综合征的发病因素%Pathogenic Factors of Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琳; 谭德昭

    2003-01-01

    灼口综合征(BMS)是指发生于口腔粘膜以灼痛感觉为主的一组症候群,其发生与局部、全身、精神心理等多种因素相关.常不伴有明显的临床损害体征,也无明显的组织病理学特征.发病因素多不明确.近年来,许多学者的研究焦点集中到内分泌功能紊乱和精神心理因素,认为BMS为更年期雌激素下降或因精神心理因素问题导致一系列的口腔不适症状,对因治疗可收到良好的效果.

  3. Combined therapy for burning mouth syndrome%灼口综合征的综合治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢云德; 林实

    2002-01-01

    @@ 灼口综合征(BMS)是以舌部为主要发病部位,以粘膜烧灼样疼痛为主要表现的一组综合征,其发生与局部、全身和精神因素等多种因素有关[1].BMS是临床上最常见的口腔粘膜病之一,也是口腔医师在临床治疗中感到十分棘手的一个问题[2].笔者从1998年9月~2000年10月,对60例BMS患者采用一般治疗外应用中医中药、心理治疗等综合治疗,取得较好的疗效,报告如下.

  4. Randomized crossover comparison of the laryngeal mask airway classic with i-gel laryngeal mask airway in the management of difficult airway in post burn neck contracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to compare the performance of i-gel supraglottic airway with cLMA in difficult airway management in post burn neck contracture patients and assess the feasibility of i-gel use for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening. Methods: Prospective, crossover, randomized controlled trial was performed amongst forty eight post burn neck contracture patients with limited mouth opening and neck movement. i-gel and cLMA were placed in random order in each patient. Primary outcome was overall success rate. Other measurements were time to successful ventilation, airway leak pressure, fiberoptic glottic view, visualization of square wave pattern. Results: Success rate for the i-gel was 91.7% versus 79.2% for the cLMA. i-gel required shorter insertion time (19.3 seconds vs. 23.5 seconds, P=0.000. Airway leak pressure difference was statistically significant (i-gel 21.2 cm H20; cLMA 16.9 cm H 2 0; P=0.00. Fiberoptic view through the i-gel showed there were less epiglottic downfolding and better fiberoptic view of the glottis than cLMA. Overall agreement in insertion outcome for i-gel was 22/24 (91.7% successes and 2/24(8.3% failure and for cLMA, 19/24 (79.16% successes and 5/24 (16.7% failure in the first attempt. Conclusion: The i-gel is cheap, effective airway device which is easier to insert and has better clinical performance in the difficult airway management of the airway in the post burn contracture of the neck. Our study shows that i-gel is feasible for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening in post burn neck.

  5. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  6. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cardoso de Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.METHODS: Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected.RESULTS: The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.CONCLUSION: According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted.

  7. Scenarios for eradicating foot-and-mouth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E.J.; Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Vlieger, de J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Research project commissioned by the Ministery of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. With the help of desk-research and input-output analysis quantitative information is assembled about the differences in cost for agribusiness and tourism of two eradication scenarios for foot-and-mouth di

  8. Mosaic Structure Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from a...

  9. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is of critical importance to ongoing and future efforts to decrease the impact of FMD in endemic regions and prevent incursions to disease-free territories. The importance of the early phase of virus-host interaction lies in two ke...

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease: global status and Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The di...

  11. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterback, Riikka; Vuorinen, Tytti; Linna, Mervi; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2009-09-01

    During fall 2008, an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with onychomadesis (nail shedding) as a common feature occurred in Finland. We identified an unusual enterovirus type, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), as the causative agent. CVA6 infections may be emerging as a new and major cause of epidemic HFMD.

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects...

  13. The MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, R L; Nordlund, J J; Barich, L; Brown, T

    1990-07-01

    We describe a 42-year-old man with features of both Behçet's disease and relapsing polychondritis. The term MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage) has previously been used to describe similarly affected patients. We discuss the diagnostic criteria and pathogenetic mechanisms.

  14. Word-of-mouth is more than recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Word-of-mouth (WOM) is often operationalized as recommendations, which is only one among several aspects of WOM. Therefore, a focus on recommendations is likely to misrepresent what customers say to other customers. Our empirical study found support for this argument: we found that the sender...

  15. Novel antiviral therapeutics to control foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, thus prior to this time vaccinated animals are still susceptible to the disease. Our group has previously shown that swine inoculated with 1x10...

  16. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  17. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Seroprevalence in Cattle in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Weerdmeester, K.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van Froukje; Moormann, R.J.M.; Dekker, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotypes in Eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. We carried out a cross-sectional study from February to June 2011 in E

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease: Host range and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Mowat, N.

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter the host range of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) under natural and experimental conditions is reviewed. The routes and sites of infection, incubation periods and clinical and pathological findings are described and highlighted in relation to progress in understanding the pathogenesis...

  19. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  20. ONYCHOMADESIS IN A CHILD - SEQUELAE OF HAND - FOOT - MOUTH DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikrishnan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hand – Foot – Mouth disease of coxsackie a virus and Enteroviruses. With symptoms like fever, sore throat, followed by Maculopapular and vesicular lesions around the oral cavity, palms and soles and recently adding to the list is onychomadesis. As a result of nail matrix function arrest, there is transverse ridging (beau’s lines, temporary loss of nail plate.

  1. The Effect of Customer Satisfaction on Word of Mouth Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Taghizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, customer satisfaction is an important issue for organizations. Being a winner or loser is based on the percentage of customers that they have retained. This is why many scholars and researchers have continually stressed the importance of customer satisfaction. On the other hand, customer is one of the most important stakeholders in any organization because, without the customer, the organization probably will not succeed. So a customer behavioral intentions and responses, is one of the main concepts in the marketing literature has been studied. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of customer satisfaction on word of mouth communication. Data were collected with questionnaire instruments. Model was developed and tested with structural equation model using data collected from the 412 Iranian bank customers. The results show that employee competence has a negative effect on word of mouth communication. Reliability has a positive effect on word of mouth communication and physical evidence has positive effect on word of mouth communication.

  2. Foot-and-mouth Disease Transmission in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Weerdmeester, K.; Dekker, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), more information is needed on the spread of the disease at local, regional and inter-regional level. The aim of this review is to identify the role that animal husbandry, trade and wildlife have on the transmission of FMD and to provide

  3. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Preliminarily Diagnosed as Hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A case in which a dental student with hand, foot, and mouth disease was told he had "medical student disease" (MSD), or hypochondriasis, is related; literature pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of MSD is reviewed, and the importance of care in approaches to both students and patients are discussed. (MSE)

  4. Recurring hand foot mouth disease in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Dias; Meena Dias

    2012-01-01

    Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus A-16, a type of enterovirus. Individual cases and outbreaks of HFMD occur worldwide. There are reports of HFMD epidemics from India. Recurrence of HFMD is very rare. We report here, a sporadic case of recurrent HFMD.

  5. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Nick J.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

  6. ONYCHOMADESIS IN A CHILD - SEQUELAE OF HAND - FOOT - MOUTH DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikrishnan; Poornima; Murugan; Mahalakshmi; Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Hand – Foot – Mouth disease of coxsackie a virus and Enteroviruses. With symptoms like fever, sore throat, followed by Maculopapular and vesicular lesions around the oral cavity, palms and soles and recently adding to the list is onychomadesis. As a result of nail matrix function arrest, there is transverse ridging (beau’s lines), tempo...

  7. Electronic word of mouth: Challenges for consumers and companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Willemsen

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that, as a consumer decision aid, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) provides opportunities to both consumers and companies. By relying on eWOM, consumers believe that they are better able to make informed purchase decisions. By incorporating eWOM in their business strategies, co

  8. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  9. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma involving floor of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sah Kunal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basaloid squamous cell carcinomas of oral mucosa are uncommon. Majority of them can be differentiated from squamous cell carcinoma by their aggressive clinical course and their histopathological features. This case report presents a case of 70-year-old male with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma involving the floor of the mouth.

  10. Hydrodynamic Aspects at Vitória Bay Mouth, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA A.A. GARONCE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understading the hydrodynamic behavior and suspended particulated matter (SPM transport are of great importance in port regions such as Vitória Harbor, which is located at Vitória Bay, Vitória – ES, Brazil. Vitória Bay is an estuary that has not been systematically assessed through a temporal analysis in order to identify its hydrodynamics characteristics and SPM exchange. This study aims to investigate salt and suspended particulate matter flux at the estuarine mouth of Vitória Bay by understanding the temporal variation of salinity, temperature and tidal currents within the water column and at the channel crosssection. Results showed that the estuarine mouth tended to present partial stratification periods during neap tides and little stratification in spring tides. The circulation pattern was mainly influenced by the tide, with little influence from river discharge. With regard to the SPM, the mouth of the estuary tended to show low concentrations, with the highest values occurring during the dry season. A close relationship between momentary discharge, SPM and salt fluxes was observed. Despite all the data was collected at the mouth of the estuary, the system showed an importation trend of salt in all cycles and SPM importation for three of the four studied tidal cycles. Thus, Vitoria Bay is not exporting SPM to the adjacent inner shelf.

  11. Characterization of residual coke during burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, C.L.; Jablonski, E.L.; Parera, J.M. (Inst. de Investigaciones in Catalisis y Petroquimica, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)); Frety, R. (Conventionne a l' Univ. Claude Bernard, Lyon I (France))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper coke remaining from the partial burning of coke deposited during the commercial re-forming of naphtha on a Pt-Re/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst is studied. Burning temperatures are 623-923 K, and the remaining coke is characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, IR, [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and chemical analysis. After coke is burned at 673 K, the residual coke shows the minimum value in the H/C ratio and the maximum in the thickness of the aromatic layers, degree of organization, C==O concentration, binding energy of C 1s, peak width, and g value. This agrees with the model of coke burning: at low temperatures, the burning is selective; the more hydrogenated and amorphous carbonaceous species are burnt first. At high temperatures, the burning is nonselective and all species are simultaneously burnt. Coke is partially oxidized during burning, and intermediate species with C==O and C--OH groups are formed.

  12. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  13. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-tao YANG; Yu-xiang LI; San-jiu YING

    2014-01-01

    Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  14. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  15. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations.

  16. Mouthing behaviour of children aged between 3 and 36 months in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbekkers, L.P.A.; Groot, M.E.; Lekkerkerk, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Aim of this study (part of a larger project to determine if PVC softened toys with phthalates could possibly cause health risks for children due to mouthing) was to quantify duration of mouthing in infants of 3 to 36 months, to specify on what products they mouth and to determine differences between

  17. Mouth opening in patients irradiated for head and neck cancer : A prospective repeated measures study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, J. I.; Dijkstra, P. U.; van Leeuwen, M.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Langendijk, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aims of this prospective cohort study were (1) to analyze the course of mouth opening up to 48 months post-radiotherapy (RT), (2) to assess risk factors predicting decrease in mouth opening, and (3) to develop a multivariable prediction model for change in mouth opening in a large sample

  18. Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren’s Syndrome If your eyes and mouth feel as dry as a desert, there are ... long-lasting, uncomfortable dryness in your eyes and mouth, along with fatigue or pain and swelling in ...

  19. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  20. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Cooper, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  1. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  2. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI.

  3. In vitro effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinses on polyspecies biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Bernhard; Meier, Andräé

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Zurich polyspecies biofilm model to compare the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine mouth rinses available on the Swiss market. As positive and negative controls, aqueous 0.15% CHX solution and water were used, respectively. In addition, Listerine® without CHX was tested. Biofilms in batch culture were grown in 24- well polystyrene tissue culture plates on hydroxyapatite discs in 70% mixed (1:1 diluted) unstimulated saliva and 30% complex culture medium. During the 64.5-hour culturing period, the biofilms were exposed to the test solutions for 1 minute twice a day on two subsequent days. Thereafter, the biofilms were dip-washed 3 times in physiological NaCl. Following the last exposure, the incubation of biofilms was continued for another 16 h. They were then harvested at 64.5 h. The dispersed biofilms were plated on 2 agar media. After incubation, colonies (CFU) were counted. All solutions containing CHX as well as Listerine ® significantly reduced the number of microorganisms in biofilms. According to their efficacy, the mouth rinses were classified into 2 groups. The two Curasept ADS solutions, Parodentosan, and the Listerine® mouth rinse reduced the number of total CFU by 3 log10 steps. This seems sufficient for a long-lasting prophylactic application. The two PlakOut® mouth rinses and the CHX control fell into the other group, where the number of CFU was reduced by 7 log10 steps. These mouth rinses are predestined for short-term therapeutic use. However, reversible side effects must be taken into account. It has thus far not been possible to formulate CHX products with effective ADS (Anti Discoloration System) additives without reducing antimicrobial activity. PMID:21656386

  4. Diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective-To determine the diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in dogs.Sample Population-Prospective series of 226 dogs referred for dental treatment without previous full-mouth radiographic views being available. Procedure-In a prospective nested case-control analysis of multiple outcomes in a hospital cohort of dogs presented for dental treatment, full-mouth radiographic views were obtained prior to oral examination and charting. After treatment, clinical and radiographic findings were compared, with reference to presenting problems, main clinical findings, additional information obtained from the radiographs, and unexpected radiographic findings. The importance of the radiographic findings in therapeutic decision-making was assessed. Results-The main clinical findings were radiographically confirmed in all dogs. Selected presenting problems and main clinical findings yielded significantly increased odds ratios for a variety of other conditions, either expected or unexpected. Radiographs of teeth without clinical lesions yielded incidental or clinically important findings in 41.7 and 27.8% of dogs, respectively, and were considered of no clinical value in 30.5%. Radiographs of teeth with clinical lesions merely confirmed the findings in 24.3% of dogs, yielded additional or clinically essential information in 50.0 and 22.6%, respectively, and were considered of no value in 3.1%. Older dogs derived more benefit from full-mouth radiography than did younger dogs. Incidental findings were more common in larger dogs. Clinical Relevance-Diagnostic yield of full-mouth radiography in new canine patients referred for dental treatment is high, and the routine use of such radiographs is justifiable

  5. Classification of mouth movements using 7 T fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichner, M. G.; Jansma, J. M.; Salari, E.; Freudenburg, Z. V.; Raemaekers, M.; Ramsey, N. F.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. A brain-computer interface (BCI) is an interface that uses signals from the brain to control a computer. BCIs will likely become important tools for severely paralyzed patients to restore interaction with the environment. The sensorimotor cortex is a promising target brain region for a BCI due to the detailed topography and minimal functional interference with other important brain processes. Previous studies have shown that attempted movements in paralyzed people generate neural activity that strongly resembles actual movements. Hence decodability for BCI applications can be studied in able-bodied volunteers with actual movements. Approach. In this study we tested whether mouth movements provide adequate signals in the sensorimotor cortex for a BCI. The study was executed using fMRI at 7 T to ensure relevance for BCI with cortical electrodes, as 7 T measurements have been shown to correlate well with electrocortical measurements. Twelve healthy volunteers executed four mouth movements (lip protrusion, tongue movement, teeth clenching, and the production of a larynx activating sound) while in the scanner. Subjects performed a training and a test run. Single trials were classified based on the Pearson correlation values between the activation patterns per trial type in the training run and single trials in the test run in a ‘winner-takes-all’ design. Main results. Single trial mouth movements could be classified with 90% accuracy. The classification was based on an area with a volume of about 0.5 cc, located on the sensorimotor cortex. If voxels were limited to the surface, which is accessible for electrode grids, classification accuracy was still very high (82%). Voxels located on the precentral cortex performed better (87%) than the postcentral cortex (72%). Significance. The high reliability of decoding mouth movements suggests that attempted mouth movements are a promising candidate for BCI in paralyzed people.

  6. Hypnosis for the treatment of burn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D R; Everett, J J; Burns, G L; Marvin, J A

    1992-10-01

    The clinical utility of hypnosis for controlling pain during burn wound debridement was investigated. Thirty hospitalized burn patients and their nurses submitted visual analog scales (VAS) for pain during 2 consecutive daily wound debridements. On the 1st day, patients and nurses submitted baseline VAS ratings. Before the next day's would debridement, Ss received hypnosis, attention and information, or no treatment. Only hypnotized Ss reported significant pain reductions relative to pretreatment baseline. This result was corroborated by nurse VAS ratings. Findings indicate that hypnosis is a viable adjunct treatment for burn pain. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:1383302

  7. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  8. The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-lin

    2009-01-01

    Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.

  9. Sediment availability on burned hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Moody, John A.; Smith, Hugh G.; Noske, Philip J.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2013-12-01

    describes the inherent resistance of soil to erosion. Hillslope erosion models typically consider erodibility to be constant with depth. This may not be the case after wildfire because erodibility is partly determined by the availability of noncohesive soil and ash at the surface. This study quantifies erodibility of burned soils using methods that explicitly capture variations in soil properties with depth. Flume experiments on intact cores from three sites in western United States showed that erodibility of fire-affected soil was highest at the soil surface and declined exponentially within the top 20 mm of the soil profile, with root density and soil depth accounting for 62% of the variation. Variation in erodibility with depth resulted in transient sediment flux during erosion experiments on bounded field plots. Material that contributed to transient flux was conceptualized as a layer of noncohesive material of variable depth (dnc). This depth was related to shear strength measurements and sampled spatially to obtain the probability distribution of noncohesive material as a function of depth below the surface. After wildfire in southeast Australia, the initial dnc ranged from 7.5 to 9.1 mm, which equated to 97-117 Mg ha-1 of noncohesive material. The depth decreased exponentially with time since wildfire to 0.4 mm (or < 5 Mg ha-1) after 3 years of recovery. The results are organized into a framework for modeling fire effects on erodibility as a function of the production and depletion of the noncohesive layer overlying a cohesive layer.

  10. Simulation of burning tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To simulate dynamical behaviour of tokamak fusion reactors, a zero-dimensional time-dependent particle and power balance code has been developed. The zero-dimensional plasma model is based on particle and power balance equations that have been integrated over the plasma volume using prescribed profiles for plasma parameters. Therefore, the zero-dimensional model describes the global dynamics of a fusion reactor. The zero-dimensional model has been applied to study reactor start-up, and plasma responses to changes in the plasma confinement, fuelling rate, and impurity concentration, as well as to study burn control via fuelling modulation. Predictions from the zero-dimensional code have been compared with experimental data and with transport calculations of a higher dimensionality. In all cases, a good agreement was found. The advantage of the zero-dimensional code, as compared to higher-dimensional transport codes, is the possibility to quickly scan the interdependencies between reactor parameters. (88 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs.)

  11. The ALMR actinide burning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) actinide burning system is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to bring its unique capabilities to fruition for deployment in the early 21st century. The system consists of four major parts: the reactor plant, the metal fuel and its recycle, the processing of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel to extract the actinides, and the development of a residual waste package. This paper addresses the status and outlook for each of these four major elements. The ALMR is being developed by an industrial group under the leadership of General Electric (GE) in a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Department of Energy. This effort is nearing completion of the advanced conceptual design phase and will enter the preliminary design phase in 1994. The innovative modular reactor design stresses simplicity, economics, reliability, and availability. The design has evolved from GE's PRISM design initiative and has progressed to the final stages of a prelicensing review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); a safety evaluation report is expected by the end of 1993. All the major issues identified during this review process have been technically resolved. The next design phases will focus on implementation of the basic safety philosophy of passive shutdown to a safe, stable condition, even without scram, and passive decay heat removal. Economic projections to date show that it will be competitive with non- nuclear and advanced LWR nuclear alternatives

  12. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  13. Radioactivity released from burning gas lantern mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzelschwab, J W; Googins, S W

    1984-04-01

    Gas lantern mantles contain thorium to produce incandescence when lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. Although only thorium is initially present on the mantle, the thorium daughters build up, some over a period of weeks and some over a period of years, and significant quantities of these daughters are present when the mantle is used. Some of these daughters are released when the lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. The amounts of radioactivity released during burning is studied by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by the daughters. Results of this study show that some of the radium (224Ra and 228Ra) and more than half the 212Pb and 212Bi is released during the first hour of a burn. The actual amounts release depend on the age of the mantle.

  14. Nutrition and Metabolic Support in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Ergin Özcan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury results in a dramatic increase of the basal metabolic rate. Severe burn injury nearly doubles resting energy expenditure and hypermetabolism associated with burn results in a loss of body fat stores and a loss of visceral and structural protein mass. The clinical effects of these changes include immunosuppression, delayed wound healing, and generalized muscle weakness. Post burn, the metabolic and catabolic responses are prolonged in severity and time course, lasting weeks to months in contrast to the days and weeks observed in other injuries. Nutrition support provides the substrates and nutrients to prevent the complications of deficiencies as well as supporting wound healing, and recovery from hormonal and metabolic abnormalities after thermal injury. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 21-5

  15. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreational Safety Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention ... keep our children safe and secure and help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step ...

  16. On burning a lump of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless has an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative size of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  17. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  18. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model...... is induced immediately by the burns and lasts about 24 h dependent on the intensity of the heat stimulus. The burns heal without sequela. A study of the reproducibility of pain assessments in the burn model has shown that measures based on repeated measurements were significantly more reproducible than......Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects...

  19. On burning a lump of coal

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  20. Predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months post-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Meyer, Walter J.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Ojeda, Sylvia; Huddleston, Joanna; Stevens, Pamela; Børsheim, Elisabet; Suman, Oscar E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injury is a dramatic event with acute and chronic consequences including insulin resistance. However, factors associated with insulin resistance have not been previously investigated. Purpose To identify factors associated with long-term insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Methods The study sample consisted of 61 pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months after the burn injury, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. To assess insulin resistance, we calculated the area under the curve for glucose and insulin. The diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were used to define individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Additional data collected include body composition, anthropometric measurements, burn characteristics and demographic information. The data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Approximately 12% of the patients met the criteria for impaired glucose metabolism. After adjusting for possible confounders, burn size, age and percent body fat were associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for all). Time post-burn and lean mass were inversely associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, older age predicted higher insulin area under the curve. Conclusion A significant proportion of pediatric injury survivors suffer from glucose abnormalities 24–36 months post-burn. Burn size, time post-burn, age, lean mass and adiposity are significant predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Clinical evaluation and screening for abnormal glucose metabolism should be emphasized in patients with large burns, older age and survivors with high body fat. PMID:24918945

  1. Influence of early post-burn enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes of patients with extensive burns

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guozhong; Huang, Jiren; Yu, Junjie; Zhu, Yugang; Cai, Liangliang; Gu, Zaiqiu; Su, Qinghe

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis commonly occurs in severe post-burn patients, often resulting in death. We aimed to evaluate the influence of early enteral feeding on outcomes in patients with extensive burns, including infection incidence, healing and mortality. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients with extensive burns, 35 who had received early enteral nutrition and 25 who had received parenteral nutrition. Average healing time, infection incidence and mortality were clinically observed. Hemoglobin and serum alb...

  2. Characteristics of burn deaths from 2003 to 2009 in a burn center: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality remains one of the most important end-point quality control parameters to evaluate a burn care system. We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS patterns of burn deaths in our center from January 2003 to December 2009. The mortality rate during this time period was 2.3%. Fifty-six patients died, including 49 males and 7 females. The mean survival time was 28.45 ± 24.60 days. The burn percentage was (76.70 ± 26.86 % total burn surface area (TBSA, with (27.74 ± 24.95 % deep-partial thickness burns and (46.88 ± 33.84 % full-thickness burns. Inhalation injury was diagnosed in 36 (64.29% patients. Patients who had undergone an operation, particularly in the first week post-burn, had a significantly longer survival time. An average of 5.50 ± 1.35 malfunctioning organs per patient and a mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score of 13.91 ± 3.65 were observed. The most frequently malfunctioning organs were involved in the respiratory, hematologic, circulatory, and central nervous systems. Most of the organ damage occurred during the first week post-burn, followed by 4 weeks later, with relatively less organ damage observed in the third week. Among patients with a TBSA over 50%, non-survivors had larger burn sizes (particularly larger full-thickness burns and a higher incidence of inhalation injury compared with survivors; non-survivors were also more likely to have microorganism-positive blood and sputum cultures. In conclusion, burn deaths are related to a higher burn percentage, inhalation injury, MODS, and infection. Early operation may help improve survival duration.

  3. Stability of Rocket Flight during Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1967-10-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the rocket motion during burning is discussed taking into consideration gravity, aerodynamic forces and torques. Conditions for stabilizing the rocket motion are investigated. Analysis for initial and final phases of burning is given separately. Stability regions of the projected motions on two dimensional co-ordinate planes are obtained and thereby stability region of the actual motion is derived. Stability diagrams illustrate statically and dynamically stable and unstable regions.

  4. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter; Stollwerck, Peter. L.; Stang, Felix H.; Siemers, Frank; Namdar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the in...

  5. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namdar, T; Siemers, F; Stollwerck, PL; Stang, FH; Mailänder, P; de Lange, T

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia.Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality?Method: Retrospective study for the i...

  6. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003.

  7. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  8. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    OpenAIRE

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira; Ariadne da Silva Fonseca; Maísa Tavares de Souza Leite; Luciana Soares dos Santos; Adélia Dayane Guimarães Fonseca; Conceição Vieira da Silva Ohara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fe...

  9. Van burn-out naar bevlogenheid

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekx, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Het fenomeen burn-out is tegenwoordig niet meer uit de media weg te denken. Steeds meer mensen gaan ten onder aan werkstress en geraken opgebrand. Dat heeft niet alleen voor de persoon in kwestie negatieve gevolgen, zowel mentaal als lichamelijk, maar ook voor de organisatie. Een minder bekend en relatief nieuw begrip is bevlogenheid of engagement, de tegenhanger van burn-out. Bevlogen mensen zijn energiek, voelen zich betrokken bij de organisatie en kunnen lang en onvermoeibaar doorgaan met ...

  10. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  11. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  12. [Treatment of pain in children burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Pommier, C; Robert, A; Comparin, J P; Foyatier, J L

    1997-03-01

    Burn injury is considered by children as one of the most painful traumas (just after bone factures). Burn pain in children can and must be controlled as well as for adult patients, with almost identical techniques. Continuous pain from injury and intermittent pain caused by therapeutic procedures must be evaluated and treated separately. Due to very high levels of nociception, satisfactory management of procedural pain requires the use of opioid therapy. Non pharmacological methods are meaningless if pharmacological treatment is not optimal.

  13. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  14. Early Sequential Excision of Chemical Burns - our Experience in Riyadh Burns Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the treatment of chemical burns in a burns unit in Saudi Arabia in the 10-yr period 1993 to 2003. In 1993, in line with new approaches, the protocol for treating deep chemical burns in the first 48 h was modified to employ sequential excision followed by a second-look approach after 24 h, at which stage autografts/homografts were effected, depending upon the extent of the burn and having ascertained that the wound was bleeding and that there was no necrotic tissue. Resul...

  15. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries.

  16. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively. PMID:26813059

  17. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  18. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  19. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. PMID:27395025

  20. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  1. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  2. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  3. Skin Burns Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-yan

    In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.

  4. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Dubick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Normal iron handling appears to be disrupted in critically ill patients leading to hypoferremia that may contribute to systemic inflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp, an acute phase reactant protein that can convert ferrous iron to its less reactive ferric form facilitating binding to ferritin, has ferroxidase activity that is important to iron handling. Genetic absence of Cp decreases iron export resulting in iron accumulation in many organs. The objective of this study was to characterize iron metabolism and Cp activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients to determine if changes in Cp activity are a potential contributor to the observed hypoferremia. Material and Methods: Under Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board approved protocols, serum or plasma was collected from burn and non-burn trauma patients on admission to the ICU and at times up to 14 days and measured for indices of iron status, Cp protein and oxidase activity and cytokines. Results: Burn patients showed evidence of anemia and normal or elevated ferritin levels. Plasma Cp oxidase activity in burn and trauma patients were markedly lower than controls on admission and increased to control levels by day 3, particularly in burn patients. Plasma cytokines were elevated throughout the 14 days study along with evidence of an oxidative stress. No significant differences in soluble transferrin receptor were noted among groups on admission, but levels in burn patients were lower than controls for the first 5 days after injury. Conclusion: This study further established the hypoferremia and inflammation associated with burns and trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an early decrease in Cp oxidase activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients. The results support the hypothesis that transient loss of Cp activity contributes to hypoferremia and inflammation. Further studies are warranted to determine if decreased Cp activity increases the risk of

  5. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    2003-01-01

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2 grou

  6. MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM AND THEIR PATENT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udhan Ravindra Radhakisan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Now days the researchers are focusing on the fast dissolving dosage form (FDDF’s.The fast dissolving dosage forms includes the mouth dissolving tablets, mouth dissolving thin films .The alternative words used for these dosage forms are fast disintegrating, orodispersible, fast dissolving. The oral thin film technology (OTF’s is a dissolvable film technology have evolved from a purely confectionery novelty from a drug delivery platform. The OTH dosage form dissolves in the moth without need of water and within 10-15 seconds is the novelty of this dosage form. On the basis of this novelty many patents are available in the US country. Intraoral delivery is particularly beneficial to patients with special needs that are unable to tolerate traditional oral (entral/through GI track administration due to nausea, vomiting or dysphasia. Many pharmaceutical companies focusing on this Oral thin film technology. Today, this film technology is approved by is approved by FDA.

  7. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians Part 5: Risk Factors (Other).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2015-10-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team, in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team an overview of other cancer risk factors agents, such as human papilloma viruses (HPV) and irradiation. PMID:26685475

  8. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians Part 3: Risk Factors (Traditional: Tobacco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2015-06-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team, in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This article offers the dental team an overview of the main cancer risk factors, tobacco and alcohol, betel and other chewing habits, and environmental factors. PMID:26964449

  9. Markkinoinnin keinot & word-of-mouth sosiaalisessa mediassa

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Jussi; Saarinen, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitetään sosiaalisessa mediassa tehtävän markkinoinnin vaikutuskeinoja ja näissä palveluissa leviävän word-of-mouth -ilmiön vaikutuksia nuorten kuluttajakäyttäytymiseen. Tutkimuksen taustalla ovat aiheen ajankohtaisuus ja merkittävyys nykypäivän markkinoinnissa. Työn tavoitteina on selvittää, kuinka sosiaalisessa mediassa leviävä word-of-mouth vaikuttaa markkinoinnin onnistumiseen ja nuorten kuluttajakäyttäytymiseen. Lisäksi selvitetään, mitä tapahtuu tilanteessa,...

  10. Customer Protest: Exit, Voice or Negative Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvang, B. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the three forms of protest the propensity of word of mouth (WOM seems to be the most common, and the most exclusive form of protest seems to be exit. The propensity for voice lies in between. The costs linked to voice influence the propensity for WOM. The customers seem to do an evaluation between the three forms of protest, yet the rational picture of the customers should be moderated.Leaders should improve their treatment of the customers making complaints. The more they can treat customer complaints in an orderly and nice way the less informal negative word of mouth activity they will experience and they will reduce the exit propensity and lead the customers to the complain organisation. They should also ensure that their customers feel they get equal treatment by the staff.

  11. Wave-induced oscillations in large-mouthed harbours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattioli, F.; Tinti, S. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    The response of rectangular large-mouthed harbours to exciting monochromatic plane waves, particularly to waves with rays not orthogonal to the straight coastline, has been numerically investigated. Some of the transversal modes are found to be strongly excited, though in narrow frequency bands. The first transversal mode is quite relevant, especially in harbours with transversal size greater than the length. It can be reasonably suspected that the mechanism of excitation may be rather different from that prescribed by the theory in the case of narrow mouth. Particularly, it has been found that the eigenmodes of the basin with zero elevation on the entrance line play a primary role in determining the harbour response, especially in the excitation of the pure transversal modes.

  12. Restricted mouth opening and trismus in oral oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Jacob, Jayan

    2014-06-01

    Restricted mouth opening (RMO) and trismus are terms commonly used in oral oncology in instances where there is difficulty in mouth opening. The term trismus in oral oncology is mainly used to indicate the radiation-induced fibrosis of the muscles of mastication. The treatment given for RMO as reported in the literature is given for muscular dysfunction trismus, whereas RMO in oral oncology can occur owing to various reasons other than muscular dysfunction. RMO occurs in various conditions of the oral cavity; in posterior pharyngeal infection, where it is termed reflectory trismus; in oral submucous fibrosis; in oral mucosal disorders; in the use of certain drugs; and in minor dental procedures of the posterior oral cavity. The usage of the term trismus in all RMO cases would complicate the treatment; thus, the word should not be used in all RMO cases.

  13. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Norbury, William B.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn ...

  14. Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Iran: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; M. Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury remains a serious and devastating issue faced by developing countries. It is also true, however, that the developed world still tackles many of the challenges caused by burns. In order to reduce this problem through preventive programs, the characteristics of this type of injury must be studied and well documented in each setting. Our study aims to show the epidemiology, demographic distribution and clinical outcomes of burns patients referred to Motahari Burn Hospital, the burn c...

  15. Aetiology and Outcome of Elderly Burn Patients in Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H. Maghsoudi; Ghaffari, A

    2009-01-01

    Background. Geriatric patients, usually defined as being 65 years of age or over, now make up about 10% of the major burn population. Main aim. To conduct a prospective study of elderly burn patients, analysing the predictive value of age, gender, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation trauma, pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. Methods. A 10-year prospective study of burn victims hospitalized in a major burn centre in Iran was conducted to analyse the association between age, pe...

  16. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is...

  17. International Pork Trade and Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shang-Ho; Reed, Michael R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2012-01-01

    International pork trade has not only been influenced by trade agreements but also altered by consumer perceptions on disease-infected animals. This study uses a gravity model with fixed-effects to investigate how pork trade is affected by foot-and-mouth disease among 186 countries. Results confirm that pork export falls when an exporting country develops FMD. Exporters with a vaccination policy have larger negative impacts than those with a slaughter policy. Further, pork importers that deve...

  18. Epidemiology of mouth cancer in 1989: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, P; Macfarlane, G J; Maisonneuve, P; Zheng, T; Scully, C.; Tedesco, B

    1990-01-01

    The oral cavity and pharynx combined is the sixth commonest site of cancer in both sexes. In many countries the mortality rate is increasing among younger men born since approximately 1910-1920. A causal role in the aetiology of mouth cancer has been established for tobacco use, both smoking and chewing, separately and in conjunction with betel-quid chewing; with alcohol consumption and, less certainly, with other factors such as poor oral hygiene, nutritional factors and certain occupational...

  19. Segmenting Full-Mouth Reconstruction to Enable Financial Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Lawrence D

    2016-06-01

    Restorative full-mouth reconstruction dental treatment may be cost prohibitive for many patients. This case report, which involves a male patient who presented with severe attrition, discusses a method for delivering treatment while dispersing its cost over several years. In addition, the article demonstrates how a stable occlusion can be obtained inexpensively. The end result of the segmented treatment remained optimal and esthetic. PMID:27517476

  20. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET OF ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanushali Akash K; Chaudhari Pallavi M.; Sonawane Tushar D; Solanki Nitika D

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the mouth dissolving tablets of isosorbide mononitrate. Drug delivery systems are becoming more complex as pharmaceutical scientist acquires better understanding of the physicochemical and biochemical parameters pertinent to their performance. Over the last decade, the demand of fast disintegrating tablet has been growing mainly for geriatric and pediatric patients, because of swallowing difficulties, the characteristics of fast disin...