WorldWideScience

Sample records for burning imaging studies

  1. A thematic study of the role of social support in the body image of burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Hodder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that social support is important for the development and mainte- nance of body image satisfaction for people who have sustained burn injuries. This qualitative study explored the specific mechanisms by which social support impacts the body image satisfaction of burn survivors, drawing on nine participants’ in depth accounts. Participants were recruited through a burns unit at a public hospital in South Australia. Interviews were conducted with nine female burn survivors aged between 24 and 65 (mean age 44.6. Participants described their perceptions about their appearance post burn and their social support experiences. Four themes were identified: acceptance, social comparison, talking about appearance concerns, and the gaze of others. Results indicate that for these participants, social support was an important factor in coming to terms with changes in appearance, specifically support that helps to minimise feelings of difference. Unhelpful aspects of social support were also identified included feeling that suffering was being dismissed and resenting the perceived expectation from supports to be positive. Social supports are important to consider in relation to body image for those working with people who have survived burn injuries.

  2. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and σΛ, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, γ and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (fΔμ) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between fΔμs in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the complete absence of

  3. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2004-12-19

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and {sigma}{sub {lambda}}, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, {gamma} and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu}) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between f{Delta}{mu}s in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the

  4. Assessing differences in phenology patterns between burned and non burned areas using MODIS and Landsat time series satellite images. A case study in Peloponnisos (Greece) and Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsias, Nikos; Bajocco, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus can be helpful for assessing, for example, phenology patterns between burned and non-burned areas. The aim of this study is to define phenological patterns for the fire ignition points in two Mediterranean study areas located in Italy (Sardinia) and Greece (Peloponnisos) and compare them with control points created after random sampling techniques restricted to certain buffer zones. Remotely sensed data from MODIS (2000-2015) and LANDSAT (1984-2015) satellites were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal of fire ignition points and of control points. Apart of the use of the original spectral data, we used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been derived and used to assess vegetation phenology in the fire-affected areas.

  5. Classification Methods of Skin Burn Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,methodsto automatically detect and categorize the severity of skin burn imagesusingvariousclassification techniquesare compared andpresented. A database comprisingofskin burn imagesbelonging to patients of diverseethnicity, genderand age areconsidered. First the images arepreprocessed andthen classifiedutilizingthe pattern recognitiontechniques:TemplateMatching(TM,Knearestneighbor classifier (kNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM.The classifier istrained fordifferentskin burn grades using pre-labeled images and optimizedfor the features chosen. This algorithmdeveloped,works as an automatic skin burn wound analyzerandaids in the diagnosisof burn victims

  6. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients.

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    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI.

  7. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated. PMID:1572860

  8. Skin Burns Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-yan

    In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.

  9. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

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    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  10. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Imaging Studies of in vitro Carcinoma and Normal Cells Utilizing a Mitochondrial Specific Dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Joseph Walsh

    2002-06-27

    Low temperature Nonphotochemical Hole Burning (NPHB) Spectroscopy of the dye rhodamine 800 (MF680) was applied for the purpose of discerning differences between cultured normal and carcinoma ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Both the cell lines were developed and characterized at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN), with the normal cell line having been transfected with a strain of temperature sensitive Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen (SV40) for the purpose of extending the life of the cell culture without inducing permanent changes in the characteristics of the cell line. The cationic lipophilic fluorophore rhodamine 800 preferentially locates in in situ mitochondria due to the high lipid composition of mitochondria and the generation of a large negative membrane potential (relative to the cellular cytoplasm) for oxidative phosphorylation. Results presented for NPHB of MF680 located in the cells show significant differences between the two cell lines. The results are interpreted on the basis of the NPHB mechanism and characteristic interactions between the host (cellular mitochondrial) and the guest (MF680) in the burning of spectral holes, thus providing an image of the cellular ultrastructure. Hole growth kinetics (HGK) were found to differ markedly between the two cell lines, with the carcinoma cell line burning at a faster average rate for the same exposure fluence. Theoretical fits to the data suggest a lower degree of structural heterogeneity in the carcinoma cell line relative to the normal cell line. Measurement of changes in the permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu}) were accomplished by measurement of changes in hole width in response to the application of an external electric field (the Stark effect), and found that {Delta}{mu} values for the carcinoma line were 1.5x greater than those of the SV40 antigen-free normal analogs. These findings are interpreted in terms of effects from the mitochondrial membrane potential. Results for HGK on the scale of

  11. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Imaging Studies of In Vitro Carcinoma and Normal Cells Utilizing a Mitochondrial Specific Dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Joseph Walsh

    2002-08-01

    Low temperature Nonphotochemical Hole Burning (NPHB) Spectroscopy of the dye rhodamine 800 (MF680) was applied for the purpose of discerning differences between cultured normal and carcinoma ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Both the cell lines were developed and characterized at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN), with the normal cell line having been transfected with a strain of temperature sensitive Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen (SV40) for the purpose of extending the life of the cell culture without inducing permanent changes in the characteristics of the cell line. The cationic lipophilic fluorophore rhodamine 800 preferentially locates in in situ mitochondria due to the high lipid composition of mitochondria and the generation of a large negative membrane potential (relative to the cellular cytoplasm) for oxidative phosphorylation. Results presented for NPHB of MF680 located in the cells show significant differences between the two cell lines. The results are interpreted on the basis of the NPHB mechanism and characteristic interactions between the host (cellular mitochondrial) and the guest (MF680) in the burning of spectral holes, thus providing an image of the cellular ultrastructure. Hole growth kinetics (HGK) were found to differ markedly between the two cell lines, with the carcinoma cell line burning at a faster average rate for the same exposure fluence. Theoretical fits to the data suggest a lower degree of structural heterogeneity in the carcinoma cell line relative to the normal cell line. Measurement of changes in the permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu})were accomplished by measurement of changes in hole width in response to the application of an external electric field (the Stark effect), and found that {Delta}{mu} values for the carcinoma line were 1.5x greater than those of the SV40 antigen-free normal analogs. These findings are interpreted in terms of effects from the mitochondrial membrane potential. Results for HGK on the scale of

  12. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution.

  13. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution. PMID:26915202

  14. In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns

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    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bennett, David B.; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S.; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-04-01

    A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d10-90/ λ~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology.

  15. Diagnosis of Burn Images using Template Matching, k-Nearest Neighbor and Artificial Neural Network

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    Malini Suvarna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop an automated method of determining the severity of skin burn wounds. Towards achieving this aim, a database of skin burn images has been created by collecting images from hospitals, doctors and the Internet. The initial pre-processing involves contrast enhancement in lab color space by taking luminance component. Various pattern analysis or pattern classifier techniques viz. Template Matching (TM, k Nearest Neighbor Classifier (kNN and Artificial Neural Network (ANN have been applied on skin burn images and a performance comparison of the three techniques has been made. The help of dermatologists and plastic surgeons has been taken to label the images with skin burn grades and are used to train the classifiers. The algorithms are optimized on pre-labeled images, by fine-tuning the classifier parameters. During the course of research, of the three classifier methods used for classification of burn images it has been observed that the ANN technique reflected the best results. This has been inferred based on the comparative studies of the three methods. In the ANN method the classification of the image of burns has been found to be the nearest to the actual burns. The efficiency of the analysis and classification of the ANN technique has been of the order of 95% for Grade-1 burns, 97.5% for Grade-2 burns and 95% for Grade-3 burns. As compared to 55%, 72.5% and 70% for Grade1, Grade2, and Grade 3 burns respectively for the TM Method and 67.5%, 82.5% and 75% for kNN method. It is therefore felt that the ANN technique could be applied to analyze and classify the severity of burns. This burn analysis technique could be safely used in remote location where specialists’ services are not readily available. The local doctors could use the analyzer and classify the grade of the burn with a good degree of accuracy and certainty. They could start preliminary treatment accordingly, prior to specialists’ services. This

  16. Numerical study of external burning flowfields

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    Bittner, Robert D.; Mcclinton, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the successful application of CFD to modeling an external burning flowfield. The study used the 2D, 3D, and PNS versions of the SPARK code. Various grids, boundary conditions, and ignition methodologies have been employed. Flameholding was achieved through the use of a subsonic outflow condition and a hot block located behind the step to ignite the fuel. Since the resulting burning produces a large subsonic region downstream of the cowl, this entire surface can be pressurized to the level of the back pressure. An evaluation of interactions between the ramjet exhaust and the external burning products demonstrate the complexity of this design issue. Ths code is now capable of evaluating the external burning effectiveness for flight vehicles using simple injector schemes, and the methodology can be readily applied to other external burning designs.

  17. Advances in biomedical imaging using THz technology with applications to burn-wound assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin; Sung, Jun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Bajwa, Neha; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing and image has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of applications where current hydration sensing techniques are insufficient. THz medical imaging is an expanding field of research and tissue hydration plays a key role in the contrast observed in THz tissue reflectance and absorbance maps. This paper outlines the most recent results in burn and corneal imaging where hydration maps were used to assess tissue status. A 3 day study was carried out in rat models where a THz imaging system was used to assess the severity and extent of burn throughout the first day of injury and at the 24, 48, and 72 hour time points. Marked difference in tissue reflectance were observed between the partial and full thickness burns and image features were identified that may be used as diagnostic markers for burn severity. Companion histological analysis performed on tissue excised on Day 3 confirms hypothesized burn severity. The results of these preliminary animal trials suggest that THz imaging may be useful in burn wound assessment where current clinical modalities have resolution and/or sensitivity insufficient for accurate diagnostics.

  18. The Research on Transient Burning Rate of Solid Propellant by Digital Image Processing

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    Xin Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the burn rate of the solid propellant that is the important parameter of transient burning, the new method named digital image processing is presented. In the article , the principle of digital image processing is analysed; The burning face of the sample in the each time is located according the image and the coordinates of the burning face is obtained. In experiment the transient burn rate is measured by digital image processing and the accuracy is acceptable.

  19. Zone-plate coded imaging of thermonuclear burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first high-resolution, direct images of the region of thermonuclear burn in laser fusion experiments have been produced using a novel, two-step imaging technique called zone-plate coded imaging. This technique is extremely versatile and well suited for the microscopy of laser fusion targets. It has a tomographic capability, which provides three-dimensional images of the source distribution. It is equally useful for imaging x-ray and particle emissions. Since this technique is much more sensitive than competing imaging techniques, it permits us to investigate low-intensity sources

  20. Burn imaging with a whole field laser Doppler perfusion imager based on a CMOS imaging array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpt, Heleen; Draijer, Matthijs; Hondebrink, Erwin; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne; Beerthuizen, Gerard; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2010-01-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) has been proven to be a useful tool in predicting the burn wound outcome in an early stage. A major disadvantage of scanning beam LDPI devices is their slow scanning speed, leading to patient discomfort and imaging artifacts. We have developed the Twente Optica

  1. Thermal parametric imaging in the evaluation of skin burn depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiński, Jacek; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Renkielska, Alicja; Nowakowski, Antoni

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the extent to which infrared (IR) thermal imaging may be used for skin burn depth evaluation. The analysis can be made on the basis of the development of a thermal model of the burned skin. Different methods such as the traditional clinical visual approach and the IR imaging modalities of static IR thermal imaging, active IR thermal imaging and active-dynamic IR thermal imaging (ADT) are analyzed from the point of view of skin burn depth diagnostics. In ADT, a new approach is proposed on the basis of parametric image synthesis. Calculation software is implemented for single-node and distributed systems. The properties of all the methods are verified in experiments using phantoms and subsequently in vivo with animals with a reference histopathological examination. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish objectively and quantitatively burns which will heal spontaneously within three weeks of infliction and which should be treated conservatively from those which need surgery because they will not heal within this period. PMID:17278587

  2. THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen—An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Moumita; Bhalla, Amar S.; Guo, Ruyan

    2016-01-01

    Significance: This review article puts together all the studies performed so far in realizing terahertz (THz) spectra as a probing mechanism for burn evaluation, summarizing their experimental conditions, observations, outcomes, merits, and demerits, along with a comparative discussion of other currently used technologies to present the state of art in a condensed manner. The key features of this noncontact investigation technique like its precise burn depth analysis and the approaches it follows to convert the probed data into a quantitative measure have also been discussed in this article. Recent Advances: The current research developments in THz regime observed in device design technologies (like THz time domain spectrometer, quantum cascade THz lasers, THz single-photon detectors, etc.) and in understanding its unique properties (like nonionizing nature, penetrability through dry dielectrics, etc.) have motivated the research world to realize THz window as a potential candidate for burn detection. Critical Issues: Application of appropriate medical measure for burn injury is primarily subjective to proper estimation of burn depth. Tool modality distinguishing between partial and full-thickness burn contributing toward correct medical care is indeed awaited. Future Directions: The overview of THz imaging as a burn assessment tool as provided in this article will certainly help in further nurturing of this emerging diagnostic technique particularly in improving its detection and accompanied image processing methods so that the minute nuances captured by the THz beam can be correlated with the physiological–anatomical changes in skin structures, caused by burn, for better sensitivity, resolution, and quantitative analysis. PMID:27602253

  3. Outlier detection and removal improves accuracy of machine learning approach to multispectral burn diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weizhi; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Squiers, John J; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E

    2015-12-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) was implemented to develop a burn tissue classification device to assist burn surgeons in planning and performing debridement surgery. To build a classification model via machine learning, training data accurately representing the burn tissue was needed, but assigning raw MSI data to appropriate tissue classes is prone to error. We hypothesized that removing outliers from the training dataset would improve classification accuracy. A swine burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and study an algorithm’s burn tissue classification abilities. After the ground-truth database was generated, we developed a multistage method based on Z -test and univariate analysis to detect and remove outliers from the training dataset. Using 10-fold cross validation, we compared the algorithm’s accuracy when trained with and without the presence of outliers. The outlier detection and removal method reduced the variance of the training data. Test accuracy was improved from 63% to 76%, matching the accuracy of clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons, the current gold standard in burn injury assessment. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care, this technology may improve the standard of burn care for patients without access to specialized facilities.

  4. Outlier detection and removal improves accuracy of machine learning approach to multispectral burn diagnostic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weizhi; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Squiers, John J.; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.

    2015-12-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) was implemented to develop a burn tissue classification device to assist burn surgeons in planning and performing debridement surgery. To build a classification model via machine learning, training data accurately representing the burn tissue was needed, but assigning raw MSI data to appropriate tissue classes is prone to error. We hypothesized that removing outliers from the training dataset would improve classification accuracy. A swine burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and study an algorithm's burn tissue classification abilities. After the ground-truth database was generated, we developed a multistage method based on Z-test and univariate analysis to detect and remove outliers from the training dataset. Using 10-fold cross validation, we compared the algorithm's accuracy when trained with and without the presence of outliers. The outlier detection and removal method reduced the variance of the training data. Test accuracy was improved from 63% to 76%, matching the accuracy of clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons, the current gold standard in burn injury assessment. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care, this technology may improve the standard of burn care for patients without access to specialized facilities.

  5. The importance of illumination in a non-contact photoplethysmography imaging system for burn wound assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weirong; Mohan, Rachit; Li, Weizhi; Zhang, Xu; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffery E.

    2015-02-01

    We present a non-contact, reflective photoplethysmogram (PPG) imaging method and a prototype system for identifying the presence of dermal burn wounds during a burn debridement surgery. This system aims to provide assistance to clinicians and surgeons in the process of dermal wound management and wound triage decisions. We examined the system variables of illumination uniformity and intensity and present our findings. An LED array, a tungsten light source, and eventually high-power LED emitters were studied as illumination methods for our PPG imaging device. These three different illumination sources were tested in a controlled tissue phantom model and an animal burn model. We found that the low heat and even illumination pattern using high power LED emitters provided a substantial improvement to the collected PPG signal in our animal burn model. These improvements allow the PPG signal from different pixels to be comparable in both time-domain and frequency-domain, simplify the illumination subsystem complexity, and remove the necessity of using high dynamic range cameras. Through the burn model output comparison, such as the blood volume in animal burn data and controlled tissue phantom model, our optical improvements have led to more clinically applicable images to aid in burn assessment.

  6. Exploration of the effects of burn parameters on THz wound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Sung, Shijun; Fishbein, Michael; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2015-08-01

    The high contrast resolution afforded by terahertz (1 THz = 1012 Hz) imaging of physiologic tissue continues to drive explorations into the utility of THz technology for burn wound detection. Although we have previously reported the use of a novel, reflective THz imaging technology to sense spatiotemporal differences in reflectivity between partial and full thickness burn wounds, no evidence exists of a one-to-one correlation between structural damage observed in histological assessments of burn severity and THz signal. For example, varying burn induction methods may all result in a common burn wound severity, however, burn features observed in parallel THz imagery may not be identical. Successful clinical translation of THz technology as a comprehensive burn guidance tool, therefore, necessitates an understanding of THz signal and its relation to wound pathophysiology. In this work, longitudinal THz imagery was acquired with a quartz (n = 2.1, 500 μm) window of cutaneous wounds induced with the same brand geometry and contact pressure but varying contact times (5, 7, and 10 seconds) in in vivo, pre-clinical rat models (n=3) over a period of 3 days. Though all burn wounds were evaluated to be deep partial thickness with histology, THz contrasts observed for each burn contact time were intrinsically unique. This is the first preliminary in vivo evidence of a many-to-one relationship between changes in THz contrast and burn severity as ascertained by histology. Future large-scale studies are required to assess whether these observed changes in THz contrast may be interpreted as physiological changes occurring over time, morphometric changes related to anatomical change, or electromagnetic changes between dielectric substrate windows and the underlying tissue.

  7. Noninvasive measurement of burn wound depth applying infrared thermal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E.; Maltha, Ilse M.; Klaessens, John H.; Vet, Henrica C.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Zuijlen, Paul P.

    2016-02-01

    In burn wounds early discrimination between the different depths plays an important role in the treatment strategy. The remaining vasculature in the wound determines its healing potential. Non-invasive measurement tools that can identify the vascularization are therefore considered to be of high diagnostic importance. Thermography is a non-invasive technique that can accurately measure the temperature distribution over a large skin or tissue area, the temperature is a measure of the perfusion of that area. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of thermography for measuring burn wound depth. In a cross-sectional study with 50 burn wounds of 35 patients, the inter-observer reliability and the validity between thermography and Laser Doppler Imaging were studied. With ROC curve analyses the ΔT cut-off point for different burn wound depths were determined. The inter-observer reliability, expressed by an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, was found to be excellent. In terms of validity, a ΔT cut-off point of 0.96°C (sensitivity 71%; specificity 79%) differentiates between a superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn. A ΔT cut-off point of -0.80°C (sensitivity 70%; specificity 74%) could differentiate between a deep partial-thickness and a full-thickness burn wound. This study demonstrates that thermography is a reliable method in the assessment of burn wound depths. In addition, thermography was reasonably able to discriminate among different burn wound depths, indicating its potential use as a diagnostic tool in clinical burn practice.

  8. Perfusion of burn wounds assessed by Laser Doppler Imaging is related to burn depth and healing time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenberg, FWH; Beerthuizen, GIJM; ten Duis, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Average perfusion in various burn wounds was assessed using Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI). The time necessary for a complete healing of the wound was compared to the results of the LDI measurements. A certain depth of burn was associated with a typical pattern of perfusion in the course of time. There

  9. In vivo imaging of dermal collagen in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Optical assessment of skin burns is possible with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy due to its high sensitivity to thermal denaturation of collagen molecules. In contrast to previous studies that were performed using excised tissue specimens ex vivo, in this study, we demonstrated in vivo observation of dermal collagen fibers in living rat burn models with SHG microscopy. We confirmed that changes in SHG vanishing patterns in the SHG images depended on the burn degree. The results imply that SHG microscopy can be used as a low-invasiveness, highly quantitative tool for skin burn assessment.

  10. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Dubick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Normal iron handling appears to be disrupted in critically ill patients leading to hypoferremia that may contribute to systemic inflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp, an acute phase reactant protein that can convert ferrous iron to its less reactive ferric form facilitating binding to ferritin, has ferroxidase activity that is important to iron handling. Genetic absence of Cp decreases iron export resulting in iron accumulation in many organs. The objective of this study was to characterize iron metabolism and Cp activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients to determine if changes in Cp activity are a potential contributor to the observed hypoferremia. Material and Methods: Under Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board approved protocols, serum or plasma was collected from burn and non-burn trauma patients on admission to the ICU and at times up to 14 days and measured for indices of iron status, Cp protein and oxidase activity and cytokines. Results: Burn patients showed evidence of anemia and normal or elevated ferritin levels. Plasma Cp oxidase activity in burn and trauma patients were markedly lower than controls on admission and increased to control levels by day 3, particularly in burn patients. Plasma cytokines were elevated throughout the 14 days study along with evidence of an oxidative stress. No significant differences in soluble transferrin receptor were noted among groups on admission, but levels in burn patients were lower than controls for the first 5 days after injury. Conclusion: This study further established the hypoferremia and inflammation associated with burns and trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an early decrease in Cp oxidase activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients. The results support the hypothesis that transient loss of Cp activity contributes to hypoferremia and inflammation. Further studies are warranted to determine if decreased Cp activity increases the risk of

  11. Cost-effectiveness of laser Doppler imaging in burn care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hop (M. Jenda); J. Hiddingh (J.); C.M. Stekelenburg (C.); H.C. Kuipers (Hester); E. Middelkoop (Esther); M. Nieuwenhuis (Marianne); S. Polinder (Suzanne); M.E. van Baar (Margriet)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early accurate assessment of burn depth is important to determine the optimal treatment of burns. The method most used to determine burn depth is clinical assessment, which is the least expensive, but not the most accurate.Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a technique with which

  12. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  13. Quantitative long term measurements of burns in a rat model using spatial frequency domain imaging and laser speckle imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticorvo, Adrien; Rowland, Rebecca A.; Baldado, Melissa L.; Kennedy, Gordon T.; Saager, Rolf B.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to accurately assess burn wound severity in a timely manner is a critical component of wound management as it dictates the course of treatment. While full thickness and superficial burns can be easily diagnosed through visual inspection, burns that fall in between these categories are difficult to classify. Additionally, the ability to better quantify different stages of wound healing from a burn of any severity would be important for evaluating the efficacy of different treatment options. Here we present a longitudinal (28 day) study that employs spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) as non-invasive technologies to characterize in-vivo burn wounds and healing in a murine model. Burn wounds were created using an established technique of a brass comb heated to a given temperature and applied for a set amount of time. They were imaged immediately after the initial injury and then at 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following the injury. Biopsies were taken on the day of the injury in order to verify the extent of the burn damage as well as at different time points after the injury in order to visualize different stages of inflammation and healing. The results of this study suggest that the reduced scattering coefficient measured using SFDI and blood flow as measured using LSI have the potential to provide useful metrics for quantifying the severity of burn injuries as well as track the different stages associated with wound healing progression.

  14. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (pBurn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (ppatients, 9% recovered completely, 74.9% recovered partially (requiring further treatment), 1% underwent amputation, and 12.8% died. The lack of insurance coverage did not affect the survival of our geriatric burn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450.

  15. Study of Bacterial Infections among Burn Patients Hospitalized in Isfahan Burn Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faghri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Burn patients are at risk of acquiring infection because of destroy skin barrier, suppression of immunity, prolonged hospitalization, and invasive therapeutic and diagnostic procedure, risk of acquiring infection is high among burned patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence rate of bacterial etiology and infections among burn patients in the burn center of Isfahan. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted descriptive – cross sectional during a period of one year, (from august 2004 until September 2005. A total of 106 patients presenting with no signs and symptoms of infection within the first 48 hours of admission were included. CDC definition for nosocomial infections was applied. Each patient’s clinical examinations and records investigated daily. Swab culture, blood culture (during fever time, tissue culture from biopsy specimen of burn wound and urine culture obtained. The data were analyzed and interpreted using SPSS 10 Software, using Chi – square and Kappa Coefficient. P.value < 0.05 was significant. Results: One-hundred and six patients met the inclusion criteria, 91 (85/8% acquired at least one type of infection, including, urinary tract 28 (26/4%, blood stream 30 (28/3%, and burn wound 91(85/8%. Pseudomonas aeroginosa was the most common causative agent isolated from blood culture and swab culture, 27/42% and 54/4% respectively. Also, E.coli was the major casautive agent of urinary tract infections (6.4% isolated from urine culture of these burn patients.Conclusion: The results indicated that, biopsy from burn wounds and study of histopathologic specimen day by other day depends on blood and urine culture conditions overall can be effective for early detection of burn wounds infections.

  16. Burn patients' experience of pain management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.

  17. Burning Rate Studies of Energetic Double Base Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was carried out on the combustion characteristics of CMDB propellants containing ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, RDX and PETN. While ammonium and potassium perchlorates increased burning rates, other additives maintained either the same burning rate or reduced burning rates marginally. Propellants containing these additives showed marginally higher peak temperatures, indicating interaction among the species of double base propellant decomposition and those of additives.

  18. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  19. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  20. Photoacoustic imaging of intravenously injected photosensitizer in rat burn models for efficient antibacterial photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoi, Yasuyuki; Sato, Shunichi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2012-02-01

    For efficient photodynamic treatment of wound infection, a photosensitizer must be distributed in the whole infected tissue region. To ensure this, depth profiling of a photosensitizer is necessary in vivo. In this study, we applied photoacoustic (PA) imaging to visualize the depth profile of an intravenously injected photosensitizer in rat burn models. In burned tissue, pharmacokinetics is complicated; vascular occlusion takes place in the injured tissue, while vascular permeability increases due to thermal invasion. In this study, we first used Evans Blue (EB) as a test drug to examine the feasibility of photosensitizer dosimetry based on PA imaging. On the basis of the results, an actual photosensitizer, talaporfin sodium was used. An EB solution was intravenously injected into a rat deep dermal burn model. PA imaging was performed on the wound with 532 nm and 610 nm nanosecond light pulses for visualizing vasculatures (blood) and EB, respectively. Two hours after injection, the distribution of EB-originated signal spatially coincided well with that of blood-originated signal measured after injury, indicating that EB molecules leaked out from the blood vessels due to increased permeability. Afterwards, the distribution of EB signal was broadened in the depth direction due to diffusion. At 12 hours after injection, clear EB signals were observed even in the zone of stasis, demonstrating that the leaked EB molecules were delivered to the injured tissue layer. The level and time course of talaporfin sodium-originated signals were different compared with those of EB-originated signals, showing animal-dependent and/or drug-dependent permeabilization and diffusion in the tissue. Thus, photosensitizer dosimetry should be needed before every treatment to achieve desirable outcome of photodynamic treatment, for which PA imaging can be concluded to be valid and useful.

  1. Study on acute burn injury survivors and the associated issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Bayuo; Pius Agbenorku; Richcane Amankwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the phenomenon of surviving burn injury and its associated issues and concerns. Methods: A cross sectional survey approach was utilized to obtain data from one hundred burn survivors who were purposely selected. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze data. Results: Findings from the study indicate that burns from flames stood out as a major cause of burns. Physical discomfort/pain, anxiety, needing assistance in meeting self-care needs, financial and social limitations were identified as the major impact of the injury. Furthermore, participants perceived the existence of societal stigma. In addition, hope in God or a spiritual being as well as family support were the two key resources participants relied on to cope effectively. Conclusions: Surviving burn injury is associated with varied physical, social and psy-chological factors and survivors may need professional assistance to fully adjust after discharge.

  2. Analysis of the Spectral Characteristics of Pure Moxa Stick Burning by Hyperspectral Imaging and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin-long

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the spectra characteristics (SC) at wavelengths of 400~1000 nm and 2.5~15.5 μm of pure moxa stick (MS) during its 25-minute burning process using new spectral imaging techniques. Spectral images were collected for the burning pure MS at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the first time. The results showed that, at wavelengths of 400~1000 nm, the spectral range of the cross section of MS burning was 750~980 nm; the peak position was 860 nm. At wavelengths of 2.5~15.5 μm, the spectral range of the cross section of MS burning was 3.0~4.0 μm; the peak position was approximately 3.5 μm. The radiation spectra of MS burning include litter red and amount of infrared (but mainly near infrared) wavelengths. The temperature, blood perfusion, and oxygen saturation increase of Shenshu (BL23) after moxibustion radiation were observed too. According to mechanism of photobiological effects and moxibustion biological effects, it was inferred that moxibustion effects should be linked with moxibustion SC. This study provided new data and means for physical properties of moxibustion research.

  3. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1998-12-17

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  4. Cutaneous chemical burns in children - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Bechar, Janak; Bella, Husam; Moiemen, Naiem

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals is an unusual causation of cutaneous burns in children. The aim of this study is to look at childhood chemical burns and compare this to adult chemical burns from the same population. A total of 2054 patients were referred to the pediatric burns unit during the study period. This included 24 cutaneous chemical burns, equating to an incidence of 1.1%. Over half of the injuries occurred in the domestic setting. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) affected was 1.9%. When compared to a cohort of adult patients from the same population with cutaneous chemical burns, the TBSA affected was identical (1.9%) but distribution favored the buttock and perineum in children, rather than the distal lower limb in adults. Children presented earlier, had lower rates of surgical intervention and had a shorter length of stay in hospital (p Chemical burns in children are rare, but are becoming more common in our region. It is important to be aware of the characteristic distribution, etiology and need to identify children at risk of child protection issues.

  5. Static laser speckle contrast analysis for noninvasive burn diagnosis using a camera-phone imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragol, Sigal; Remer, Itay; Shoham, Yaron; Hazan, Sivan; Willenz, Udi; Sinelnikov, Igor; Dronov, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Lior; Bilenca, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is an established optical technique for accurate widefield visualization of relative blood perfusion when no or minimal scattering from static tissue elements is present, as demonstrated, for example, in LASCA imaging of the exposed cortex. However, when LASCA is applied to diagnosis of burn wounds, light is backscattered from both moving blood and static burn scatterers, and thus the spatial speckle contrast includes both perfusion and nonperfusion components and cannot be straightforwardly associated to blood flow. We extract from speckle contrast images of burn wounds the nonperfusion (static) component and discover that it conveys useful information on the ratio of static-to-dynamic scattering composition of the wound, enabling identification of burns of different depth in a porcine model in vivo within the first 48 h postburn. Our findings suggest that relative changes in the static-to-dynamic scattering composition of burns can dominate relative changes in blood flow for burns of different severity. Unlike conventional LASCA systems that employ scientific or industrial-grade cameras, our LASCA system is realized here using a camera phone, showing the potential to enable LASCA-based burn diagnosis with a simple imager.

  6. E P I DEMIOLOGY OF PAEDIATRIC BURNS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangpreet Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. These are the third most common injury causing death in children, following motor vehicle accidents and drowning accidents. AIM: To study the Epidemiological parameters for assessment of morbidity & mortality rate in pediatric burns and to form effective preventive strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was done at the Department of Surgery, PIMS, Jalandhar. Total 50 patients (n=50 up to age of 12 years, were included in the study retrospectively. Data regarding age, sex, demographic distribution, seasonal variation, Total body surface area (TBSA involved, type and place of burn injury, parent’s occupation, family size and mortality rate were noted and analysed. RESULT S: Total 50 patients (n =50 of which 32 were males and 18 females were included in the study. Mean age of burn injuries was 3.6 years. Scalds burns were the most common cause of burns followed by thermal burns. It involved mostly upper limbs (67%, anterio r trunk (56%, lower limbs (53%, face (4%, and posterior trunk including buttocks (16% . The time lapse from injury to presentation to hospital ranged from 1 hour to 3 weeks. Total body surface area burnt was ranged from 2 – 60%. Mean hospital duration was 12 . 4 days. Complications ranged from wound sepsis in 11 patients (22%, contractures of fingers in 3 patients ( 6 % and hypertrophic scarring in 8 patients (16% . After healing of wounds, patients were advised pressure garments and oil massage and night splint age regularly for six months. CONCLUSION: Children constitute a vulnerable group of burns. Most injuries occur in the home setting where effective control measures can be adopted. Advances have also made in resuscitation, intensive care, antimicrobi als, vascular access, nutritional support, and skin banking. Splintage, physiotherapy, massage and pressure garments also help in reducing the morbidity and overall long term burden over

  7. Measurement of Solid Rocket Propellant Burning Rate Using X-ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Matthew D.

    The burning rate of solid propellants can be difficult to measure for unusual burning surface geometries, but X-ray imaging can be used to measure burning rate. The objectives of this work were to measure the baseline burning rate of an electrically-controlled solid propellant (ESP) formulation with real-time X-ray radiography and to determine the uncertainty of the measurements. Two edge detection algorithms were written to track the burning surface in X-ray videos. The edge detection algorithms were informed by intensity profiles of simulated 2-D X-ray images. With a 95% confidence level, the burning rates measured by the Projected-Slope Intersection algorithm in the two combustion experiments conducted were 0.0839 in/s +/-2.86% at an average pressure of 407 psi +/-3.6% and 0.0882 in/s +/-3.04% at 410 psi +/-3.9%. The uncertainty percentages were based on the statistics of a Monte Carlo analysis on burning rate.

  8. 显微线圈MR皮肤成像判断烧伤程度的实验研究%Experimental Study of Microscopy Coil MR Imaging in the Judgment of Burn Degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余鸿鸣; 范海建; 李茗; 朱斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the value of MR imaging in judgment of burn degree using microscopy coil.Methods A total of 15 mini pigs were selected to make superficial Ⅱ degree,deep Ⅱ degree and Ⅲ degree bum wound models on both sides of the hip skin.The area of burn wound was measured.3 T MR scan,including T1WI,T2WI,PDW_SPAIR using microscopy coil was performed.The pathological findings of burn skin were compared with MR findings.Resuits The area of burn wounds of each degree measured on MRI was larger than general measurement (P < 0.05),and the depth of each burn degree on MRI had no difference to pathological depth measurement.Conclusion Skin microscopic coil MRI imaging is a noninvasive,accurate,objective method in the skin burn degree judgment.%目的 探讨利用显微线圈3 T MR皮肤成像判断皮肤烧伤程度的应用价值.方法 共15头中华小型猪,选取两侧臀部皮肤制备浅Ⅱ度、深Ⅱ度及Ⅲ度烧伤模型,测量烧伤大体范围.使用显微线圈,在3TMR扫描仪上行T1WI 、T2WI 、PDW-SPAIR成像.对烧伤皮肤切片行病理组织学观察与测量,并与MRI图像进行对照.结果 MRI测得的各度烧伤范围较大体范围更大(P<0.05),MRI对各度烧伤深度的判断与病理深度测量具有较高的一致性.结论 显微线圈3TMR皮肤成像是一种无创、准确、客观地判断皮肤烧伤程度的方法.

  9. Multispectral imaging burn wound tissue classification system: a comparison of test accuracies between several common machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squiers, John J.; Li, Weizhi; King, Darlene R.; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.

    2016-03-01

    The clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons is currently the standard on which diagnostic and therapeutic decisionmaking regarding burn injuries is based. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has the potential to increase the accuracy of burn depth assessment and the intraoperative identification of viable wound bed during surgical debridement of burn injuries. A highly accurate classification model must be developed using machine-learning techniques in order to translate MSI data into clinically-relevant information. An animal burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and to study the burn tissue classification ability of several models trained via common machine-learning algorithms. The algorithms tested, from least to most complex, were: K-nearest neighbors (KNN), decision tree (DT), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), weighted linear discriminant analysis (W-LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), ensemble linear discriminant analysis (EN-LDA), ensemble K-nearest neighbors (EN-KNN), and ensemble decision tree (EN-DT). After the ground-truth database of six tissue types (healthy skin, wound bed, blood, hyperemia, partial injury, full injury) was generated by histopathological analysis, we used 10-fold cross validation to compare the algorithms' performances based on their accuracies in classifying data against the ground truth, and each algorithm was tested 100 times. The mean test accuracy of the algorithms were KNN 68.3%, DT 61.5%, LDA 70.5%, W-LDA 68.1%, QDA 68.9%, EN-LDA 56.8%, EN-KNN 49.7%, and EN-DT 36.5%. LDA had the highest test accuracy, reflecting the bias-variance tradeoff over the range of complexities inherent to the algorithms tested. Several algorithms were able to match the current standard in burn tissue classification, the clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons. These results will guide further development of an MSI burn tissue classification system. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care

  10. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MOIST EXPOSED BURN THERAPY/MOIST EXPOSED BURN OINTMENT ON MAINTAINING A PHYSIOLOGICAL MOIST ENVIRONMENT IN BURN WOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To verify the moisture maintaining effect of moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) in treating burn wound. Methods: Rabbit model with II degree burn wound was used in this study. Observations were conducted at 0 (before burn), 0.5, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours postburn. The data of wound water evaporation, wound appearance and pathological changes of the wounds were compared with that of the burn wounds treated with Vaseline or conventional dry exposed therapy. Results: It was found that wounds treated with MEBO had water evaporation close to that of normal skin and was significantly less than that of the wounds treated with dry exposed therapy (P<0.01) MEBO did not obstruct water evaporation from wound as Vaseline did(P<0.01).Wounds treated with MEBO had good permeability and adequate drainage. Conclusion: MEBO provided the wounds with a physiological moist environment

  12. Multispectral and Photoplethysmography Optical Imaging Techniques Identify Important Tissue Characteristics in an Animal Model of Tangential Burn Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Li, Weizhi; Rodriguez-Vaqueiro, Yolanda; Squiers, John J; Mo, Weirong; Lu, Yang; Plant, Kevin D; Sellke, Eric; King, Darlene R; Fan, Wensheng; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A; DiMaio, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Burn excision, a difficult technique owing to the training required to identify the extent and depth of injury, will benefit from a tool that can cue the surgeon as to where and how much to resect. We explored two rapid and noninvasive optical imaging techniques in their ability to identify burn tissue from the viable wound bed using an animal model of tangential burn excision. Photoplethysmography (PPG) imaging and multispectral imaging (MSI) were used to image the initial, intermediate, and final stages of burn excision of a deep partial-thickness burn. PPG imaging maps blood flow in the skin's microcirculation, and MSI collects the tissue reflectance spectrum in visible and infrared wavelengths of light to classify tissue based on a reference library. A porcine deep partial-thickness burn model was generated and serial tangential excision accomplished with an electric dermatome set to 1.0 mm depth. Excised eschar was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to determine the extent of burn remaining at each excision depth. We confirmed that the PPG imaging device showed significantly less blood flow where burn tissue was present, and the MSI method could delineate burn tissue in the wound bed from the viable wound bed. These results were confirmed independently by a histological analysis. We found these devices can identify the proper depth of excision, and their images could cue a surgeon as to the preparedness of the wound bed for grafting. These image outputs are expected to facilitate clinical judgment in the operating room.

  13. MR imaging findings of high-voltage electrical burns in the upper extremities: correlation with angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mi (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Suh, Kyung Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)), email: kyungjin.suh@gmail.com; Choi, Min Ho (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: A high-voltage electrical burn is often associated with deep muscle injuries. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, and this can lead to major amputations or sepsis. MRI has excellent soft tissue contrast and it may aid in differentiating the areas of viable deep muscle from the areas of non-viable deep muscle. Purpose: To describe the MR imaging findings of a high-voltage electrical burn in the upper extremity with emphasis on the usefulness of the gadolinium-enhanced MRI and to compare the MR imaging findings with angiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of six patients with high-voltage electrical burns who underwent both MRI and angiography at the burn center of our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The imaging features were evaluated for the involved locations, the MR signal intensity of the affected muscles, the MR enhancement pattern, the involved arteries and the angiographic findings (classified as normal, sluggish flow, stenosis or occlusion) of the angiography of the upper extremity. We assessed the relationship between the MR imaging findings and the angiographic findings. Results: The signal intensities of affected muscles were isointense or of slightly high signal intensity as compared with the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T1-weighted MR images. Affected muscles showed heterogenous high signal intensity relative to the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T2- weighted images. The gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse inhomogeneous enhancement or peripheral rim enhancement of the affected muscles. The angiographic findings of the arterial injuries showed complete occlusion in three patients, severe stenosis in two patients and sluggish flow in one patient. Of these, the five patients with complete occlusion or severe stenosis on angiography showed non-perfused and non-viable areas of edematous muscle on

  14. Methodology for the detection of land cover changes in time series of daily satellite images. Application to burned area detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Moreno-Ruiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a methodology for detection of observable phenomena at pixel level over time series of daily satellite images, based on using a Bayesian classifier. This methodology has been applied successfully to detect burned areas in the North American boreal forests using the LTDR dataset. The LTDR dataset represents the longest time series of global daily satellite images with 0.05° (~5 km of spatial resolution. The proposed methodology has several stages: 1 pre-processing daily images to obtain composite images of n days; 2 building of space of statistical variables or attributes to consider; 3 designing an algorithm, by selecting and filtering the training cases; 4 obtaining probability maps related to the considered thematic classes; 5 post-processing to improve the results obtained by applying multiple techniques (filters, ranges, spatial coherence, etc.. The generated results are analyzed using accuracy metrics derived from the error matrix (commission and omission errors, percentage of estimation and using scattering plots against reference data (correlation coefficient and slope of the regression line. The quality of the results obtained improves, in terms of spatial and timing accuracy, to other burned area products that use images of higher spatial resolution (500 m and 1 km, but they are only available after year 2000 as MCD45A1 and BA GEOLAND-2: the total burned area estimation for the study region for the years 2001-2011 was 28.56 millions of ha according to reference data and 12.41, 138.43 and 19.41 millions of ha for the MCD45A1, BA GEOLAND-2 and BA-LTDR burned area products, respectively.

  15. Development of a Burn Escharotomy Assessment Tool: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur, Rebecca; Holmes, James H; Johnson, James E; Molnar, Joseph A; Carter, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injuries can require escharotomies which are urgent, infrequent, and relatively high-risk procedures necessary to preserve limb perfusion and sometimes ventilation. The American Burn Association Advanced Burn Life Support© course educates surgeons and emergency providers about escharotomy incisions but lacks a biomimetic trainer to demonstrate, practice, or provide assessment. The goal was to build an affordable biomimetic trainer with discrete points of failure and pilot a validation study. Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics. PMID:26594860

  16. Development of a Burn Escharotomy Assessment Tool: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur, Rebecca; Holmes, James H; Johnson, James E; Molnar, Joseph A; Carter, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injuries can require escharotomies which are urgent, infrequent, and relatively high-risk procedures necessary to preserve limb perfusion and sometimes ventilation. The American Burn Association Advanced Burn Life Support© course educates surgeons and emergency providers about escharotomy incisions but lacks a biomimetic trainer to demonstrate, practice, or provide assessment. The goal was to build an affordable biomimetic trainer with discrete points of failure and pilot a validation study. Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics.

  17. Characteristics of burn deaths from 2003 to 2009 in a burn center: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality remains one of the most important end-point quality control parameters to evaluate a burn care system. We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS patterns of burn deaths in our center from January 2003 to December 2009. The mortality rate during this time period was 2.3%. Fifty-six patients died, including 49 males and 7 females. The mean survival time was 28.45 ± 24.60 days. The burn percentage was (76.70 ± 26.86 % total burn surface area (TBSA, with (27.74 ± 24.95 % deep-partial thickness burns and (46.88 ± 33.84 % full-thickness burns. Inhalation injury was diagnosed in 36 (64.29% patients. Patients who had undergone an operation, particularly in the first week post-burn, had a significantly longer survival time. An average of 5.50 ± 1.35 malfunctioning organs per patient and a mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score of 13.91 ± 3.65 were observed. The most frequently malfunctioning organs were involved in the respiratory, hematologic, circulatory, and central nervous systems. Most of the organ damage occurred during the first week post-burn, followed by 4 weeks later, with relatively less organ damage observed in the third week. Among patients with a TBSA over 50%, non-survivors had larger burn sizes (particularly larger full-thickness burns and a higher incidence of inhalation injury compared with survivors; non-survivors were also more likely to have microorganism-positive blood and sputum cultures. In conclusion, burn deaths are related to a higher burn percentage, inhalation injury, MODS, and infection. Early operation may help improve survival duration.

  18. Open questions in stellar helium burning studied with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of helium burning is the formation of the two elements, carbon and oxygen. The ratio of carbon to oxygen at the end of helium burning is crucial for understanding the final fate of a progenitor star and the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in Type II supernova. While an oxygen rich star is predicted to end up as a black hole, a carbon rich star leads to a neutron star. Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) are used as standard candles for measuring cosmological distances with the use of an empirical light curve-luminosity stretching factor. It is essential to understand helium burning that creates the carbon/oxygen white dwarf and thus the initial stage of SNIa. Since the triple alpha-particle capture reaction, 8Be(α, γ)12C, the first burning stage in helium burning, is well understood, one must extract the cross section of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction at the Gamow peak (300 keV) with high accuracy of approximately 10% or better. This goal has not been achieved, despite repeated strong statements that appeared in the literature. Constraints from the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N were shown to not sufficiently restrict the p-wave cross section factor; e.g. low values can not be ruled out. Measurements at low energies, are thus mandatory for measuring the elusive cross section factor for the 12O(α, γ)16O reaction. We are constructing a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for use with high intensity photon beams extracted from the HIγS-TUNL facility at Duke University to study the 16O(γ, α)12C reaction, and thus the direct reaction at low energies, as low as 0.7 MeV. This work is in progress. (author)

  19. Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, E.J.; Steenbergen, W.; Sjöberg, F.

    2001-01-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), is a further development in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Its advantage is that it enables assessment of microvascular blood flow in a predefined skin area rather than, as for LDF, in one place. In many ways this method seems to be more promising than LDF in

  20. Acupuncture and burning mouth syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Tarozzi, Marco; Varoni, Elena; Franchini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition most common in middle-aged and elderly women, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging from 0.5% to 5%. Defined by the International Headache Society as "an intraoral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found," BMS is considered a form of neuropathic pain. The management of BMS remains unsatisfactory. In this pilot study, we investigated the use of acupuncture in a small group of BMS patients. The study group, after 4 refusals, was composed of 10 BMS patients (9 females and 1 male; mean age, 65.2 years; range, from 48 to 80 years; mean duration of BMS, 2.6 years; SD ± 0.8 years). Oral pain/burning sensation (primary outcome) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health-related quality of life (secondary outcome) was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Acupuncture treatment lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 20 sessions. Patients reported a mean reduction in pain of 0.99 points on the VAS (max 2.1-min 0.1), which, although slight, was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test P acupuncture treatment seemed better able cope with their oral symptoms. PMID:23336607

  1. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sánchez M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population.MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a prospectively descriptive study, including 4 patients, and all of them were considered major burn patients, who underwent escharotomy with general anesthesia and neuromuscular relaxation. The main variable was the time for recovery of a TOF higher than 0.9 after the administration of sugammadex before extubation.RESULTS: Mean time of recovery from a TOF ratio higher than 0.9 following the administration of Sugammadex was of 4.95 min 95% CI (3.25-6.64, p= .53.CONCLUSIONS: The reversion of neuromuscular relaxation with sugammadex appears to be effective and safe in the burn patient. More analytical, comparative studies of larger populations would be necessary to confirm these data.

  2. Development and Validation of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale: Assessing Body Image among Burn-Injured Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John W.; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Roca, Robert; Munster, Andrew; Spence, Robert; Fauerbach, James A.

    1998-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) was administered to 165 burn victims. SWAP showed a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, r(a)=0.87); an 84-subject retest measured reliability (r(tt)=0.59). SWAP is both a reliable and valid measure of body image for a burn-injured population. (Author/MAK)

  3. Predictive Value of IL-8 for Sepsis and Severe Infections after Burn Injury - A Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Song, Juquan; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory response induced by burn injury contributes to increased incidence of infections, sepsis, organ failure, and mortality. Thus, monitoring post-burn inflammation is of paramount importance but so far there are no reliable biomarkers available to monitor and/or predict infectious complications after burn. As IL-8 is a major mediator for inflammatory responses, the aim of our study was to determine whether IL-8 expression can be used to predict post-burn sepsis, infections, and m...

  4. Management of severe burn injuries with topical heparin: the first evidence-based study in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Agbenorku, Pius; Fugar, Setri; Akpaloo, Joseph; Hoyte-Williams, Paa E; Alhassan, Zainab; Agyei, Fareeda

    2013-01-01

    Conventional therapy for burns has always produced a nightmarish illness for patients. The lack of the ability to prevent contractures often produces dysfunctional limbs and the ugly scars resulting from severe burns are an ongoing reminder of this lengthy painful illness. This study is to determine the effectiveness of topical heparin in burns management among some patients at the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Patients for this ...

  5. Factors associated with chemical burns in Zhejiang province, China: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Rui M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Methods Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. Results In this study, 417 victims (87.61% got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58% worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Conclusions Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns.

  6. Radioisotopic studies on pulmonary function in experimental burn shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disturbances in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, which can initiate severe complications, often lead to many therapeutic failures in burn shock. Early recognition of respiratory disturbances is often required to improve results of treatment of burn shock. The authors investigated changes in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in napalm-burnt rabbits using 133Xe. Simultaneously, they determined effect of treatment with cytochrome C on pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in animals burnt with napalm. It was found that in napalm-burnt rabbits burn shock was accompanied by a significant deterioration in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. The most marked changes were observed one and two days after burn. It was also found a beneficial effect of treatment with cytochrome C on alveolar ventilation. The authors pointed out the usefulness of radioisotopic investigations of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in burn shock. (author)

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of the Burn Injury Patients Records in the Emergency Department, an Epidemiologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Aksoy; Senay Arli; Ozlem Yigit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Burns can be very destructive, and severely endanger the health and lives of humans. It maybe cause disability and even psychological trauma in individuals. . Such an event can also lead to economic burden on victim’s families and society. The aim of our study is to evaluate epidemiology and outcome of burn patients referring to emergency department. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted by evaluation of patients’ files and forensic reports of burned patients’ r...

  8. Multiframe, Single Line-of-Sight X-Ray Imager for Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this LDRD project was to demonstrate high spatial and temporal resolution x-ray imaging using optical detectors, and in particular the VISAR and OHRV diagnostics on the OMEGA laser. The x-ray source being imaged was a backlighter capsule being imploded by 39 beams of the OMEGA laser. In particular this approach utilized a semiconductor with the side facing the backlighter capsule coated with a thin aluminum layer to allow x rays to pass through the metal layer and then get absorbed in the semiconductor. The other side of the semiconductor was AR coated to allow the VISAR or OHRV probe beam to sample the phase change of the semiconductor as the x rays were absorbed in the semiconductor. This technique is capable of acquiring sub-picosecond 2-D or 1-D x-ray images, detector spatial resolution of better than 10 um and the ability to operate in a high neutron flux environment expected on ignition shots with burning plasmas. In addition to demonstrating this technique on the OMEGA laser, several designs were made to improve the phase sensitivity, temporal resolution and number of frames over the existing diagnostics currently implemented on the OMEGA laser. These designs included both 2-d imaging diagnostics as well as improved 1-D imaging diagnostics which were streaked in time.

  9. Shuffling strategy study of breeding-burning integrated fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breeding-burning integrated fast reactor uses burning assemblies to generate thermal power, meanwhile, converts 238U into 239Pu in the fertile assemblies. With periodical shuffling of assemblies, the reactor can maintain criticality for decades of years. To maintain long-term stability of the core reactivity, the core layout and shuffling strategy should balance the burning and the breeding of the assemblies. The scattered core layout and shuffling strategy ensures fast breeding of the fertile assemblies, and keeps stable core power distribution in whole life of the reactor. Moreover, at the end of the reactor life, the discharge burnups of different fuel assemblies are close to each other, which are about 250300 GW · d/t. This is important for breeding-burning integrated fast reactor to achieve very efficient utilization of uranium resource without reprocessing. (authors)

  10. Comparative study on effects of burn-blast combined injury and burn-firearm combined injury complicated with seawater immersion on vascular endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong; LAI Xi-nan; GE Heng-jiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively study the effects and mechanisms of burn-blast combined injury and burn-firearm combined injury complicated with seawater immersion on vascular endothelial cells. Methods: A total of 40 healthy adult hybrid dogs of both sexes, weighing 12-15 kg, were used in this study. Randomly-selected 20 dogs were established as models of burn-blast combined injury (the burn-blast injury group) and the other 20 dogs as models of burn-firearm combined injury (the burn-firearm injury group). Then the wounds of all the dogs were immediately immersed in seawater for 4 hours, and then they were taken out from the seawater. Blood samples were withdrawn from the central vein of the dogs before injury, and at 4, 7, 10, 20, and 28 hours after injury to measure the circulating endothelial cells and the von Willebrand factor. Results: Circulating endothelial cells increased significantly at 4 hours after injury in all the dogs. But they reached peak at 7 hours after injury in the burn-blast injury group and at 28 hours after injury in the burn-firearm injury group. The changes of circulating endothelial cells in the burn-blast injury group were significantly different from those in the burn-firearm injury group at 4, 7, 20, and 28 hours after injury (P<0.01). The von Willebrand factor reached peak at 4 hours after injury in the burn-blast injury group and at 28 hours in the burn-firearm injury group. The changes of von Willebrand factor in the burn-blast injury group were significantly different from those in the burn-firearm injury group at 4, 20, and 28 hours after injury (P<0.01).Conclusions: In burn-blast injury combined with seawater immersion, the vascular endothelial cells changed most significantly at 4 hours or 7 hours after injury, while burn-firearm injury combined with seawater immersion have the same at 20 hours or 28 hours after injury.

  11. An epidemiological study of 500 paediatric burn patients in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the epidemiological data of paediatric burn patients to determine the role of demographic distribution and epidemiological parameters for assessment of mortality rate and development of burn prevention strategy. Materials and Methods : Epidemiological data of 500 patients admitted to the Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit of B.J. Wadia Hospital, Mumbai over a period of six years (2000-2005 was reviewed from medical records. Age, sex, demographic distribution, seasonal variation, total body surface area (TBSA involved, type and place of burn injury, parental occupation, family size, first aid and mortality rate were studied. Result: Median age group for patient was 3.44 years (range one month to 14 years. The majority (24% of burns occurred in children between the one to two years age group. Male to female sex ratio was 1.38:1. Most of the patients were from the defined demographic region served by the hospital. A significant number of patients however were from outside this region. Burn injury occurred predominantly during winter. Most common type of burn was scalds which occurred mainly in domestic circumstances. In the majority of patients, less than 10% TBSA was involved. All patients were managed as per the unit protocol. Mortality rate was 10.4%. Mortality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Seventy-three per cent of the total deaths occurred in the patients coming from regions outside the demographic region served by the hospital. Parental occupation, family size and the first aid did not affect the mortality rate. Conclusion: Availability of a burn care unit in the vicinity can decrease the mortality rates in the paediatric burn patients. An intense and focused burn prevention campaign to educate the general population about dangerous aetiological factors will decrease the incidence of paediatric burns.

  12. Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve in Burn Injury: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Mustafa; Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Ciftci, Ozgur; Oguz, Hakan; Kostek, Osman; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The authors sought to evaluate coronary microvascular function and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in burn patients. In this study, 32 adult burn patients with partial or full-thickness scald burns that were hospitalized and treated were included. The control group was matched for age and sex and was composed of otherwise healthy volunteers. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography examinations and simultaneous laboratory tests for cardiac evaluation were performed on the sixth month after burn injury as well as with the control group. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the burn patients than in controls (5.17 ± 3.86 vs 2.42 ± 1.78; P = .001). Lateral isovolumic relaxation time was significantly higher in the burn injury group than in the control group (92.7 ± 15.7 vs 85.5 ± 8.3; P = .03). Baseline coronary diastolic peak flow velocity of the left anterior descending artery was similar in both groups. However, hyperemic diastolic peak flow velocity and coronary flow velocity reserve (2.26 ± 0.48 vs 2.94 ± 0.47; P < .001) were significantly lower in the burn injury group than in the control group. Coronary flow velocity reserve was significantly and inversely correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, burn ratio, creatinine, and mitral A-wave max velocity. At the sixth month of treatment, burn patients had high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels during this period, suggesting that inflammation still exists. In addition, subclinical coronary microvascular and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction can occur in burn patients without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. However, these results must be supported by additional studies.

  13. Long-term scar quality in burns with three distinct healing potentials: A multicenter prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goei, Harold; van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Hop, M Jenda; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K; Middelkoop, Esther; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-07-01

    The laser Doppler imager is used in cases of indeterminate burn depth to accurately predict wound healing time at an early stage. The laser Doppler imager classifies burns into three estimated healing potentials as follows: high, 21 days. At this time, the relationship between these healing potentials and long-term scar quality is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term scar quality of burns with three distinct healing potentials. The secondary objectives were to compare treatment strategies in intermediate wounds, to study the effect of the timing of surgery on low healing potential wounds and to identify predictors of reduced scar quality. Hence, in a prospective cohort study, scar quality was determined in patients whose burns were assessed with laser Doppler imaging. Scar Quality was assessed with objective and subjective measurement tools, including overall scar quality (Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale) as a primary outcome and color and elasticity parameters. A total of 141 patients (>19 months postburn) with 216 scars were included. Wounds with high and intermediate healing potential did not significantly differ regarding scar quality. Wounds with a low healing potential had a significantly lower scar quality. Analysis of 76 surgically treated low healing potential wounds showed no significant differences in the primary outcome regarding the timing of surgery (≤14 days vs. >14). Predictors of reduced long-term scar quality were darker skin type and multiple surgeries. In conclusion, scar quality was strongly related to the healing potential category. Scar quality was very similar in high and intermediate healing potential wounds. No positive effects were found on scar quality or on healing time in surgically treated wounds with intermediate healing potential, advocating a conservative approach. Further studies should focus on the optimal timing of surgery in low healing potential wounds. PMID:27102976

  14. Vertical distribution of agriculture crop residue burning aerosol observed by space-borne lidar CALIOP - A case study over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Shibata, T.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). It is also one of the main causes for dense atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) formation over South Asian region. Present study deals with spatial and vertical variability of aerosol optical and microphysical properties during the crop residue burning season (October and November) over the IGB. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire location data and MODIS AOD data confirms the crop residue burning activities over irrigated cropland of the IGB during October and November, 2009. Large values (> 0.7) of MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) backscatter (>0.006 km-1 sr-1 below 1.0 km altitude) are suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning. The increase in tropospheric columnar NO2 and surface CO concentration during October and November also emphasized the significant contribution of crop residue burning activities in enhanced anthropogenic pollution over the IGB. Vertical distribution of backscatter coefficients showed trapping of biomass (crop residues) burning aerosol within boundary layer. Spatial variation of aerosol backscatter and AOD showed large value above north-west part of IGB, major area of crop residue burning activities. The results of this study will be very useful in quantification of optical properties of atmospheric brown clouds and its effect on climate.

  15. Burns in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical...

  16. Ventilation strategies in burn intensive care: A retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consensus regarding optimal burns intensive care (BICU patient management is lacking. This study aimed to assess whether ventilation strategies, cardiovascular support and sedation in BICU patients have changed over time, and whether this affects outcome. A retrospective observational study comparing two 12-patient BICU cohorts (2005/06 and 2010/11 was undertaken. Demographic and admission characteristics, ventilation parameters, sedation, fluid resuscitation, cardiovascular support and outcome (length of stay, mortality data were collected from patient notes. Data was analysed using T-tests, Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. In our study cohort groups were equivalent in demographic and admission parameters. There were equal ventilator-free days in the two cohorts 10 ± 12.7 vs. 13.3 ± 12.2 ventilator free days; P = 0.447. The 2005/06 cohort were mechanically ventilated more often than in 2010/11 cohort (568 ventilator days/1000 patient BICU days vs. 206 ventilator days/1000 patient BICU days; P = 0.001. The 2005/06 cohort were ventilated less commonly in tracheostomy group/endotracheal tube spontaneous (17.8% vs. 26%; P = 0.001 and volume-controlled modes (34.4% vs. 40.8%; P = 0.001. Patients in 2010/11 cohort were more heavily sedated (P = 0.001 with more long-acting sedative drug use (P = 0.001 than the 2005/06 cohort, fluid administration was equivalent. Patient outcome did not vary. Inhalational injury patients were ventilated in volume-controlled (44.5% vs. 28.1%; P = 0.001 and pressure-controlled modes (18.2% vs. 9.5%; P = 0.001 more frequently than those without. Outcome did not vary. This study showed there has been shift away from mechanical ventilation, with increased use of tracheostomy/tracheal tube airway spontaneous ventilation. Inhalation injury patients require more ventilatory support though patient outcomes do not differ. Prospective trials are required to establish which strategies confer benefit.

  17. Epidemiological and socio-cultural study of burn patients in M. Y. Hospital, Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Ashish

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries have a high incidence of burn injuries, creating a formidable public health problem. The exact number of cases is difficult to determine: however in a country like India, with a population of over 1 billion, we would estimate 700,000 to 800,000 burn admissions annually. Objective: The study was done to investigate the epidemiology of various causations and their outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality. Also, the effect of social stigma and cultural issues associated with burns on the victim and his family was assessed. Materials and Methods: All burn cases (n=412 admitted to the burns unit of M. Y. Hospital, Indore over a period of one year (2005-2006 were investigated. The data regarding sex, age predisposition, geographical origin, mode and nature of injury were obtained by questionnaire-interview with the patient themselves. Clinical assessment was done in the form of depth and extent of injury and complications. In case of mortality, again various factors like age, sex and cause of death were analyzed. The data was analyzed by SPSS 11.0 version. The interrelationship between various factors was studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Burns were found more commonly in middle-aged groups. The incidence was more in females as an absolute number (70.3% as well as when stratified by age. Most burns were domestic, with cooking being the most prevalent activity. Flame (80.3% was the most common agent. Most of the cases of burn were accidental (67.7%. Moreover, the patients had third degree burn that leads to more mortality in our circumstances. Death occurred in more than one-half (62.3% of cases with septicaemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation (35.4% as the leading causes. When using logistic regression analysis, the outcome of the burn injury was significantly associated with degree, depth, extent and mode of injury. Conclusion: This series provides an overview of the most

  18. Feasibility study of advanced fuel burning nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been conducted to determine both physics, engineering and economic aspects of fusion power reactors based on magnetic confinement and on burning advanced fuels (AFs). DT burning Tokamaks are taken as reference concept. We show that the attractive features of advanced fuels, in particular of neutronlean proton-based AFs, can be combined, in appropriately designed AF reactors (high beta), with power densities comparable to or even higher than those achievable in DT Tokamaks. Moreover we identify physical requirements which would assure Q values well above unity. As an example a semi-open confinement scheme is analyzed based on a self-consistent plasma calculation. We find that a mirror, even if only ''semi-open'' as a result of strong diamagnetism, can barely be expected to achieve high Q values. Therefore confinement schemes such as compact tori, multipole surmacs etc. may be required to burn AFs. We conclude that the economics of AF reactors, as determined by the nuclear boiler power density, may be superior to that of DT-rectors if low recirculating power fractions can be obtained by appropriate plasma tayloring (high fractional transfer of fusion power to ions required). A more detailed investigation is suggested for proton-based fuel cycles. (orig.)

  19. Experimental study on composite solid propellant material burning rate using algorithm MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thunaipragasam Selvakumaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rocketry application, now-a-days instead of monopropellants slowly composite propellants are introduced. Burning rate of a solid state composite propellant depends on many factors like oxidizer-binder ratio, oxidizer particle size and distribution, particle size and its distribution, pressure, temperature, etc. Several researchers had taken the mass varied composite propellant. In that, the ammonium perchlorate mainly varied from 85 to 90%. This paper deals with the oxidizer rich propellant by allowing small variation of fuel cum binder ranging from 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by mass. Since the percent of the binder is very less compared to the oxidizer, the mixture remains in a powder form. The powder samples are used to make a pressed pellet. Experiments were conducted in closed window bomb set-up at pressures of 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2. The burning rates are calculated from the combustion photography (images taken by a high-speed camera. These images were processed frame by frame in MATLAB, detecting the edges in the images of the frames. The burning rate is obtained as the slope of the linear fit from MATLAB and observed that the burn rate increases with the mass variation of constituents present in solid state composite propellant. The result indicates a remarkable increase in burn rate of 26.66%, 20%, 16.66%, and 3.33% for Mix 1, 2, 3, 4 compared with Mix 5 at 7 MN/m2. The percentage variations in burn rate between Mix 1 and Mix 5 at 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2 are 25.833%, 32.322%, and 26.185%, respectively.

  20. A prospective clinical study of flow-mediated dilatation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Emin; Caliskan, Mustafa; Karagulle, Erdal; Aydogan, Cem; Oguz, Hakan; Kulaksizoglu, Sevsen; Yildirim, Erkan; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated endothelial function using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in burn patients. This study was done in burn patients with specific criteria on admission. Blood lipid profile at 1st day, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and FMD were assessed at 1st and 7th days, as well as at 1st and 3rd months. The highest values of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were detected on the 7th day, which were significantly higher than those at 1st and 3rd months. The lowest value of FMD was observed on the 7th day. FMD values were higher during the 1st month compared with the 7th day. The highest value of FMD was detected in the 3rd month. It was found that FMD values measured at 7th day and 1st month were significantly lower in patients with a burn percentage of 40 or greater. Our results suggest that inflammation is more prominent on 7th day following burn. The decrease in FMD values on 7th day after injury can be attributed to endothelial damage. The increase in FMD on 3rd month after burn is attributable to effective burn treatment and gradual decrease of inflammatory mediators. The data from this study suggest that there is endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in burn patients. This condition is more prominent in patients with a burn ratio greater than 40%. Burn patients more frequently have impaired FMD, which may be indicative of arterial endothelial dysfunction and a marker for increased atherosclerosis.

  1. Applications of visible near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging in burn injury assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Lorenzo; Sowa, Michael G.; Payette, Jeri R.; Hewko, Mark D.; Schattka, Bernhard J.; Matas, Anna; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2000-05-01

    The major objective of the project is to develop a noninvasive method to assess thermal burns. Currently, the diagnosis relies primarily upon visual assessment of the injury by a burn specialist and/or plastic surgeon. The diagnosis is based on the surface appearance of the wound to determine the type or depth of the burn. Near IR spectroscopic measurements of injured tissue provide an objective means of distinguishing between surface and subsurface changes related to the tissue injury. An acute porcine model is employed to investigate the potential of near IR spectroscopy to accurately distinguish between burns of varying severity in the early postburn period. Parallel factor analysis is used to investigate the spectral changes related to burns of varying severity. Burn injuries drastically alter the physical and optical properties of the tissue. Thermal destruction of cutaneous vasculature disrupts perfusion and oxygen delivery to the affected tissue. Tissue blood oxygenation decreases with increased severity of the burn. The result demonstrate that near IR spectroscopy may provide a new tool for objective clinical assessment of burn injuries.

  2. Treatment of partial thickness burns with Zn-hyaluronan: lessons of a clinical pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Juhász, I.; Zoltán, P.; Erdei, I.

    2012-01-01

    A clinical investigation to determine the effectiveness of Zn-hyaluronan gel for the treatment of partial thickness burns was carried out. 60 patients were enrolled in the study with an average of 3% TBSA burn. Exudation lasted 3 days, no infectious complications were observed. By day 14 the wounds of 52 patients have healed, average complete healing time was 10,5 days. An overall 93,3% healing rate was achieved within the planned observation period. Reduction of spontaneous and movementrelat...

  3. The dynamic experience of pain in burn patients: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Boluda, M T; Morales Asencio, J M; Carrera Vela, A; García Mayor, S; León Campos, A; López Leiva, I; Rengel Díaz, C; Kaknani-Uttumchandani, S

    2016-08-01

    Although pain is one of the main sources of suffering during the acute phase and rehabilitation in burn patients, it remains as a major challenge for burn care, and clinical management not always correlates with the experience felt by patients. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of pain from people who has suffered severe burns, to identify personal strategies used to cope with this challenging event. A qualitative phenomenological study with purposive sampling was carried out with severe burn patients admitted to a Burn Unit. Through individual in-depth interviews, verbatim transcription and content analysis, two main categories were isolated: a dynamic and changing experience of pain, from the onset to the hospital discharge, and diverse strategies developed by patients to cope with pain, being distraction the most frequently used. Pain experienced acquires its maximum intensity during wound care, and divergent patients' opinions about sedation are present. This study highlights how understanding subjective experiences is an invaluable aid to improve care in pain assessment and management. Furthermore, it points out the need to guarantee patient involvement in the organization and improvement of burn care, inasmuch as traditional professional centered approach is not ensuring an optimal management.

  4. Preserving self-concept in the burn survivors: A qualitative study

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    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injury is a devastating experience affecting all aspects of a person′s essence, including his/her identity and perception. These patients require complex cognitive efforts to redefine their identity to deal with difficult condition after burn injury and preserve self-concept. The experience of life after burn injury is generally a solitary one, closely related to the patients′ cultural and religious context. Therefore, this study was conducted aiming at investigating burn patients′ experiences regarding how to preserve self-concept in life after burn injury in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was carried out using qualitative content analysis and in-depth unstructured interviews with 17 surviving burn subjects. Results: During the qualitative content analysis process, the concept of "locating" as the essence of the participants′ experience was extracted as follows: (A self-exploration (exploring the changes in one′s life, (B others′ exploration (exploring the changes in the life of family members and the relationship between self and others, (C position evaluation (self-position analysis, and (D self-concept preservation. Conclusion: The present study has developed new understandings of mental experiences of burn patients′ self-concept by describing the concept of "self-locating." It helps us in classifying and understanding the concepts described in comprehensive theories developed in this area. They do this by focusing on what burn patients experience for choosing self-preservation strategies and having a meaningful life. The finding can be used as a conceptual framework for palliative care program in Iran.

  5. Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William E; Yokus, Hamdullah; Balci, Soner; Wilbert, David Shawn; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin Margaret

    2013-07-01

    Terahertz technologies have gained great amount of attention for biomedical imaging and tissue analysis. In this study, we utilize terahertz imaging to study the effects of hydrofluoric acid on both compact bone tissue and cartilage. We compare the differences observed in the exposure for formalin fixed and raw, dried, tissue as well as those resulting from a change in hydrofluoric (HF) concentration. Measurements are performed with THz-TDS, and a variety of spectroscopic-based image reconstruction techniques are utilized to develop contrast in the features of interest.

  6. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame he...

  7. Long-Term Propranolol Use in Severely Burned Pediatric Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, David N.; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Diaz, Eva C.; Hegde, Sachin; Jennings, Kristofer; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suri, Jaipreet S.; Lee, Jong O.; Williams, Felicia N.; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E.; Barrow, Robert E.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of propranolol given for 1 year on cardiac function, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in a prospective randomized single-center controlled study in pediatric patients with large burns. Summary Background Data Severe burns trigger a hypermetabolic response that persists for up to 2 years after burn. Propranolol given for 1 month post burn blunts this response. Whether propranolol administration for 1 year after injury provides a continued benefit is currently unclear. Methods One-hundred seventy nine pediatric patients with >30% total body surface area burns were randomized to receive control (n = 89) or 4 mg/kg/d propranolol (n = 90) for 12 months after burn. Changes in resting energy expenditure, cardiac function, and body composition were measured acutely at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postburn. Statistical analyses included techniques that adjust for non-normality, repeated measures, and regression analyses. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results Long-term propranolol treatment significantly reduced the percent of the predicted heart rate and percent of the predicted resting energy expenditure, decreased accumulation of central mass and central fat, prevented bone loss, and improved lean body mass accretion. There were very few adverse effects from the dose of propranolol used. Conclusions Propranolol treatment for 12 months, following thermal injury, ameliorates the hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic, hypercatabolic, and osteopenic responses in pediatric patients. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00675714. PMID:22895351

  8. Predictive Value of IL-8 for Sepsis and Severe Infections after Burn Injury - A Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Song, Juquan; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response induced by burn injury contributes to increased incidence of infections, sepsis, organ failure, and mortality. Thus, monitoring post-burn inflammation is of paramount importance but so far there are no reliable biomarkers available to monitor and/or predict infectious complications after burn. As IL-8 is a major mediator for inflammatory responses, the aim of our study was to determine whether IL-8 expression can be used to predict post-burn sepsis, infections, and mortality other outcomes post-burn. Plasma cytokines, acute phase proteins, constitutive proteins, and hormones were analyzed during the first 60 days post injury from 468 pediatric burn patients. Demographics and clinical outcome variables (length of stay, infection, sepsis, multiorgan failure (MOF), and mortality were recorded. A cut-off level for IL-8 was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical significance is set at (p<0.05). ROC analysis identified a cut-off level of 234 pg/ml for IL-8 for survival. Patients were grouped according to their average IL-8 levels relative to this cut off and stratified into high (H) (n=133) and low (L) (n=335) groups. In the L group, regression analysis revealed a significant predictive value of IL-8 to percent of total body surface area (TBSA) burned and incidence of MOF (p<0.001). In the H group IL-8 levels were able to predict sepsis (p<0.002). In the H group, elevated IL-8 was associated with increased inflammatory and acute phase responses compared to the L group (p<0.05). High levels of IL-8 correlated with increased MOF, sepsis, and mortality. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-8 may be a valid biomarker for monitoring sepsis, infections, and mortality in burn patients. PMID:25514427

  9. Electromyographic studies regarding denervation potentials in skeletal muscles at sites near and distant from the burn in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Simin; Mansoori, Korosh; Forogh, Bijan; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Ahadi, Tannaz; Chahardoli Razji, Mahnaz

    2016-04-01

    Changes in membrane AChRs in skeletal muscles located near or distant from burn injury similar to denervated muscles may make electrodiagnostic features indistinguishable from true neuropathic changes. The aim of this study was to examine electrodiagnostic changes of muscles at sites local and distant from the burn after thermal injuries due to neuromuscular junction dysfunction. A total of 40 adult male rats were randomly allocated to four groups. Rats in group 1 received thermal burn injury over gastrocnemius muscle of one leg and sham burn on the other leg. A 20-25% and 30-35% surface body area burn and also 30-35% surface body area sham burn were produced at distant site from gastrocnemius muscle in group 2, 3 and 4, respectively. To explore any fibrillation potential, the rats underwent serial electromyographic studies of bilateral gastrocnemius muscles over 5 weeks after burn injury. There were no denervation potentials either in muscles at sites distant from 20-25% and 30-35% of total body surface area burns or in muscles beneath the burn. In the present study on rats, thermal burn injury could not make fibrillation potentials in the electrodiagnostic study of muscles located near and distant from the burn site.

  10. Bacterial isolates from burn wound infections and their antibiograms: A eight-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Manjula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is an important cause of mortality in burns. Rapidly emerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic review of isolation patterns and antibiogram in the burn ward. Aim: Keeping this in mind, the present retrospective study from wounds of patients admitted to burns unit was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and the resistance pattern from the burn ward over a period of three years (June 2002 to May 2005 and was compared with the results obtained during the previous five years (June 1997-May 2002, to ascertain any change in the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: Bacterial isolates from 268 wound swabs taken from burn patients were identified by conventional biochemical methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed. Statistical comparison of bacterial isolates and their resistance pattern with previous five years data was done using c2 test. Results and Conclusions: During the period from 2002 to 2005 Pseudomonas species was the commonest pathogen isolated (51.5% followed by Acinetobacter species (14.28%, Staph. aureus (11.15%, Klebsiella species (9.23% and Proteus species (2.3%. When compared with the results of the previous five years i.e., 1997 to 2002, Pseudomonas species was still the commonest pathogen in the burns unit. However, the isolation of this organism and other gram-negative organisms had decreased in comparison to previous years. Newer drugs were found to be effective.

  11. Domestic incense burning and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Joseph Siu Kie; Wang, Feng; Lau, June Sze Man; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Incense burning is a powerful producer of carcinogens and has been considered as a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a case-control study and case-only analyses to investigate the effect of incense burning and its interaction with genetic background on NPC risk among Hong Kong Chinese. Between June 2010 and December 2012, we recruited 352 incident cases of NPC and 410 controls. We collected information on lifelong practice of domestic incense burning via interviews and genotyped 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes. We observed an increased NPC risk associated with daily burning in women [Adjusted OR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.66] but not in men. The adjusted OR for daily burning with poor ventilation was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 4.24), while that with good ventilation was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.98). Interactions between 2 SNPs (rs2074517 and rs4771436) and incense burning were significantly associated with NPC risk and tended to have a SNP exposure-response effect. Evidence for gene-environment interactions supported the knowledge that NPC is a multi-factorial disease resulting from the joint effects of environmental exposures and inherited susceptibility.

  12. Unplanned decannulation of tracheotomy tube in massive burn patients: a retrospective case series study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Dao-feng; MA bing; XIA Zhao-fan; L(U) Kai-yang; CHEN Xu-lin; YU Xi-ya; XI Hui-Jun; CHANG Fei; ZHU Shi-hui; TANG Hong-tai; LU Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Unplanned extubation is associated with adverse outcomes in intensive care unit.The massive burn patient differs from other critically ill patients in many ways.However,little is known about the unplanned decannulation (UD) in Burn Intensive Care Unit.This paper describes the special features of the circumstances and outcome of UD of tracheotomy tube in massive burn patients.Methods A case series study was performed between January 1999 and December 2008 and UD of tracheotomy tube was analyzed retrospectively.A total of 21 patients with 29 UD events were identified.Demographic data,diagnosis,intervention,UD events and outcome of UD patients were collected.Differences in proportions were compared using the chi-square (X2) or Fisher's exact test.Results Patients with UD were often burned with head and neck (67%) and combined with inhalation injury (62%).The majority of them (76%) were transferred patients,occurred early (55%) and were accidental UD (79%).UD events tended to happen in day shift (90%) and to be associated with the medical procedure that was performing by caregivers at besides (79%).Loose of the stabilizing rope,medical procedure and tracheotomy malposition were the main causes of UD.Early UD and reintubation failure were associated with patients' death.Conclusions UD happened to massive burn patients can lead to patient death.Careful management of respiratory tract was essential for massive burn patients.

  13. Tissue expander, a modality in the treatment of burn induced deformities: A 6-year study of patients with burn deformities admitted to Plastic Surgery Department of Imam Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Vash. MR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of tissue expander in the recent decade has revolutionized the plastic surgery. The tissue expansion technique is advantageous in body reconstruction because it makes it possible to resurface the defects resulting from excision of burn scars with neighboring skin similar in color and texture and superior to skin grafts or distant flaps. Treatment of burn alopecia was a major problem in the past, but with the application of tissue expander this deformity is treated. We have learned by experience that tissue expander should not be used in the limbs, because of the high risk of complications. The best locations for tissue expander are in order: Scalp, face, neck and trunk. The incidence of burn induced deformities in Iran is high. In this research, I analyze the use of TE in 130 patients with burn deformities. The variables studied were: Sex of patients (43.1% male, 56.9% female, age groups, level of education, occupation, the anatomical site of burn, extension of burn, volume of tissue expansion, the location of placing the TE and complications.

  14. Burn Depth Estimation Based on Infrared Imaging of Thermally Excited Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Hoswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1999-03-05

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5 C for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  15. A clinico-epidemiologic study of 892 patients with burn injuries at a tertiary care hospital in Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To analyze the causes, demographic and socio-cultural aspects, and the magnitude of burn injuries prospectively and to evaluate the outcome of treatment of patients admitted to burns ICU of tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods : A total of 892 burn patients admitted over a period of 6 years from January 2002 to December 2007 at tertiary care hospital in Punjab, India, were analyzed. Results : 54% patients were males. A majority of the patients, 704(79%, were in the age group of 15-45 years. Six hundred and thirty-four patients (72% sustained flame burns, while 17% and 7% sustained electrical and scald burns, respectively. A total of 470(53% patients sustained major two to three degree flame burns involving more than 45% of total body surface area (TBSA. The mortality rate was 40%, i.e. 357 patients died of burns and its related problems, in our study. Six hundred and thirty-nine patients (72% sustained burns in closed space of which 331 patients (52% sustained burns in kitchen. Seven hundred and seventy-nine patients sustained accidental burns. Burn victims were mainly Hindus and Sikhs. The mean hospital stay varied depending upon the percentage of burns. On an average, a patient with >45% TBSA burns received 15 whole blood transfusions. Split skin grafting was done in 416 patients. Most common complication encountered during their hospital stay was wound infection which was seen in 671 patients, followed by ARDS in 221 patients. The most common organisms causing wound infection were Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Conclusion : Developing country like India need an aggressive public education program so that people become more literate about various etiological factors causing burns and means of preventing them. Also needed are burn care hospitals which are easily accessible and affordable.

  16. Study of Temperature Gradient in Burning of Alternative Engine Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Assad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an approximate method for calculation of the temperature at a final stage of fuel-air mixture burning in a closed vessel that is a combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine (ICE. The paper contains calculation of temperature values for various fuel-air mixtures, shows nature of temperature changes and presents analysis of combustion product temperature behaviour modification and analyzed the behaviour in accordance with an initial pressure in the chamber. The paper reveals the fact that a combustion temperature is increasing for all mixtures when an initial pressure in combustion chamber is increased. The hydrogen-air mixture has the highest combustion temperature among investigated mixtures and products of propane conversion have the lowest one.The Maxe-effect has been investigated in combustion of hydrogen-air mixture and design formulaes have been obtained. Calculation of temperature difference of the first and last portions of combustion products has been made with due account of the Maxe-effect.The proposed approximate method for calculation of temperatures indices in the various zones of combustion chamber in view of the Mach effect makes it possible to forecast thermodynamic nature of combustion process while using alternative engine fuels for internal combustion engine.

  17. Viability of human composite tissue model for experimental study of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Miao; Kruse, Stephan; Pitsch, Heinz; Pallua, Norbert; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies of burns are primarily performed with animal models that have important anatomical and physiological differences relative to human systems. The aim of this study was to develop a human experimental burn model using composite tissue obtained from bariatric surgery. We established a new protocol to maintain viable sections of human cutaneous and subcutaneous (sub/cutaneous) tissue in vitro. Under the conditions selected, multiparametric flow cytometry and histological analysis confirmed the viability and integrity of the human sub/cutaneous tissue for at least 5 days. Furthermore, we utilized a precision McKenna burner to inflict burns on the human tissue model under well-defined thermal conditions in vitro. Our data showed a localized, temporally restricted polarization of the resident macrophages in the subcutaneous human tissue in response to specific thermal forces. Therefore, our model provides a useful alternative to animal studies for further detailed investigations of human responses to injuries and treatments. PMID:27585227

  18. Independent Predictive Factors of Hospitalization in a North-West Burn Center of Iran; an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high grade burn is one of the most devastating injuries with several medical, social, economic, and psychological effects. These injuries are the most common cause of accidental deaths after traffic injuries in both the developed and developing countries. Therefore this research was aimed to determine demographic characteristics of patients with burn injury admitted to the emergency department and identify predictive factors of hospitalization. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study, which is done in 20 March up to 20 September 2011 in emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Patients’ information including demographic characteristic, cause of burn, place of accident, anatomical areas burned, grading and percent of burning and disposition were gathered and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 statistical software. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of hospitalization in burned patients. Results: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled (54.4% female. The average age of those was 20.47±13.5 years. The prevalence of burn was significantly higher in ages under 20 years (p<0.001. Lower limb (37.5%, head and neck (21.25% and upper limb (17.5% were three frequent site of burn. The most common cause of burns was boiling water scalding (34.4%. Home related burn was significantly higher than other place (p<0.001. The most frequent percent of burn was <5% (46.25%. Finally 50 (31.25% cases hospitalized. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age under 20 years old (p=0.02 female gender (p=0.02, burning site (p=0.002, cause (p=0.005, place (p<0.001, grade (p<0.001, and percent (p<0.001 was related to disposition of patients. Stepwise multiple logistic regression showed female gender (OR=3.52; 95% CI: 1.57-7.88; p=0.002, work related burning (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.26-2.52; p=0.001, and burning over 5 percent (OR=2.15; 95% CI: 1.35-3.41; p=0.001 as

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of the Burn Injury Patients Records in the Emergency Department, an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Aksoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burns can be very destructive, and severely endanger the health and lives of humans. It maybe cause disability and even psychological trauma in individuals. . Such an event can also lead to economic burden on victim’s families and society. The aim of our study is to evaluate epidemiology and outcome of burn patients referring to emergency department. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted by evaluation of patients’ files and forensic reports of burned patients’ referred to the emergency department (ED of Akdeniz hospital, Turkey, 2008. Demographic data, the season, place, reason, anatomical sites, total body surface area, degrees, proceeding treatment, and admission time were recorded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare frequencies’ differences among single categorized variables. Stepwise logistic regression was applied to develop a predictive model for hospitalization. P<0.05 was defined as a significant level. Results: Two hundred thirty patients were enrolled (53.9% female. The mean of patients' ages was 25.3 ± 22.3 years. The most prevalence of burn were in the 0-6 age group and most of which was hot liquid scalding (71.3%. The most affected parts of the body were the left and right upper extremities. With increasing the severity of triage level (OR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.02-4.66; p=0.046, intentional burn (OR=4.7; 95% CI: 1.03-21.8; p=0.047, referring from other hospitals or clinics (OR=3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-6.6; p=0.001, and percentage of burn (OR=18.1; 95% CI: 5.42-62.6; p<0.001 were independent predictive factor for hospitalization. In addition, odds of hospitalization was lower in patients older than 15 years (OR=0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.91; p=0.035. Conclusion: This study revealed the most frequent burns are encountered in the age group of 0-6 years, percentage of <10%, second degree, upper extremities, indoor, and scalding from hot liquids. Increasing ESI severity, intentional burn, referring from

  20. Predictive Value of IL-8 for Sepsis and Severe Infections After Burn Injury: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Song, Juquan; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-03-01

    The inflammatory response induced by burn injury contributes to increased incidence of infections, sepsis, organ failure, and mortality. Thus, monitoring postburn inflammation is of paramount importance but, so far, there are no reliable biomarkers available to monitor and/or predict infectious complications after burn. As interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a major mediator for inflammatory responses, the aim of our study was to determine whether IL-8 expression can be used to predict postburn sepsis, infections, and mortality. Plasma cytokines, acute-phase proteins, constitutive proteins, and hormones were analyzed during the first 60 days after injury from 468 pediatric burn patients. Demographics and clinical outcome variables (length of stay, infection, sepsis, multiorgan failure [MOF], and mortality) were recorded. A cutoff level for IL-8 was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Statistical significance is set at P Patients were grouped according to their average IL-8 levels relative to this cutoff and stratified into high (H) (n = 133) and low (L) (n = 335) groups. In the L group, regression analysis revealed a significant predictive value of IL-8 to percent of total body surface area burned and incidence of MOF (P inflammatory and acute-phase responses compared with the L group (P burn patients.

  1. In vivo time-lapse imaging of skin burn wound healing using second-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Wound healing is a process to repair the damaged tissue caused by thermal burn, incised wound, or stab wound. Although the wound healing has many aspects, it is common for dynamics of collagen fiber, such as decomposition, production, or growth, to be closely related with wound healing. If such the healing process can be visualized as a timelapse image of the collagen fiber in the same subject, one may obtain new findings regarding biological repairing mechanisms in the healing process. In this article, to investigate the temporal modoification of dermal collagen fiber in the burn wound healing, we used second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy, showing high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional sectioning, minimal invasiveness, deep penetration, the absence of interference from background light, and in vivo measurement without additional staining. Since SHG light arises from a non-centrosymmetric triple helix of three polypeptide chains in the collagen molecule, SHG intensity sensitively reflects the structure maturity of collagen molecule and its aggregates. A series of time-lapse SHG images during the wound healing process of 2 weeks clearly indicated that condensation and melting of dermal collagen fibers by the deep dermal burn, decomposition of the damaged collagen fibers in the inflammation phase, production of new collagen fibers in the proliferation phase, and the growth of the new collagen fibers in the remodeling phase. These results show a high potential of SHG microscopy for optical assessment of the wound healing process in vivo.

  2. Studies on Composite Extrudable Propellant with varied Burning Rate Pressure Index 'n'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Varghese

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of composite propellantextrusion technique and the study of burning rate pressure indices nwith respect to compositional variations. The n is found to vary from0.35 to plateau and plateau to mesa by suitable compositionalmodifications. Compositional influence on burning rate with specificreference to plateau and mesaburning additives is described. Detailsof the process parameters like fluidity of the slurry, extrusion pressure,extrusion rate and die-swell are presented. This propellant is based onISRO-CTPB binder using ISRO-AP as oxidizer. Ammonium perchlorate (AP particle size variation and inclusion of additives likePVC, lead stearate, ammonium sulphate, lithium fluoride etc. are foundto influence the burning rate pressure index n.

  3. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....... METHODS: We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. RESULTS: A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most...... common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines...

  4. Urban-Rural Dichotomy of Burn Patients in Georgia and South Carolina: A Geographic Information System Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Mohammad Anwarul Huq; Haque, Akhlaque; Mullins, Robert Fred; Fiebiger, Barbara; Hassan, Zaheed

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a 4-year (2006-2009) cross-section of epidemiological burn injury data from Georgia and South Carolina. The results from the study show that the burn patients from rural areas differ from their urban counterparts in terms of relative burn injury incidence. Younger population groups that live in lower socioeconomic status communities especially in the urban areas are at a higher risk than other population groups. The differences in the types of burns in the urban-rural communities can give us further insights to the patients' association with injury sites. The presence of fewer burn injury treatment and care facilities in rural areas and the high incidence of burn in low-income communities in the urban areas should carry important policy implications for health planners. This study will enable researchers to understand the epidemiology of burn injuries at the local and national levels in the United States. It also carries important implications for using Geographic Information Systems for studying spatial distribution of burn injuries for disaster planning and mitigation of burn injuries.

  5. Computational study of single-expansion-ramp nozzles with external burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungster, Shaye; Trefny, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    A computational investigation of the effects of external burning on the performance of single expansion ramp nozzles (SERN) operating at transonic speeds is presented. The study focuses on the effects of external heat addition and introduces a simplified injection and mixing model based on a control volume analysis. This simplified model permits parametric and scaling studies that would have been impossible to conduct with a detailed CFD analysis. The CFD model is validated by comparing the computed pressure distribution and thrust forces, for several nozzle configurations, with experimental data. Specific impulse calculations are also presented which indicate that external burning performance can be superior to other methods of thrust augmentation at transonic speeds. The effects of injection fuel pressure and nozzle pressure ratio on the performance of SERN nozzles with external burning are described. The results show trends similar to those reported in the experimental study, and provide additional information that complements the experimental data, improving our understanding of external burning flowfields. A study of the effect of scale is also presented. The results indicate that combustion kinetics do not make the flowfield sensitive to scale.

  6. A retrospective study of drug prescribing pattern in burns patients in a tertiary care rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palak Agrawal

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Females are more vulnerable to burn injuries. Polypharmacy was observed in prescriptions. Systemic antibiotic should be used with caution to prevent emergence of resistant microorganisms. Results of the present study indicate that some aspects of drug treatment need to be rationalized in order to achieve better patient care. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1446-1452

  7. Analysis of factorial time-course microarrays with application to a clinical study of burn injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baiyu; Xu, Weihong; Herndon, David; Tompkins, Ronald; Davis, Ronald; Xiao, Wenzhong; Wong, Wing Hung; Toner, Mehmet; Warren, H. Shaw; Schoenfeld, David A.; Rahme, Laurence; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Hayden, Douglas; Mason, Philip; Fagan, Shawn; Yu, Yong-Ming; Cobb, J. Perren; Remick, Daniel G.; Mannick, John A.; Lederer, James A.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; West, Michael A.; Shapiro, Michael B.; Smith, Richard; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun; Storey, John; Mindrinos, Michael; Tibshirani, Rob; Lowry, Stephen; Calvano, Steven; Chaudry, Irshad; West, Michael A.; Cohen, Mitchell; Moore, Ernest E.; Johnson, Jeffrey; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Baker, Henry V.; Efron, Philip A.; Balis, Ulysses G.J.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Ochoa, Juan B.; Sperry, Jason L.; Miller-Graziano, Carol L.; De, Asit K.; Bankey, Paul E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Minei, Joseph P.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Hunt, John L.; Horton, Jureta; Cobb, J. Perren; Brownstein, Bernard; Freeman, Bradley; Maier, Ronald V.; Nathens, Avery B.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Gibran, Nicole; Klein, Matthew; O’Keefe, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Time-course microarray experiments are capable of capturing dynamic gene expression profiles. It is important to study how these dynamic profiles depend on the multiple factors that characterize the experimental condition under which the time course is observed. Analytic methods are needed to simultaneously handle the time course and factorial structure in the data. We developed a method to evaluate factor effects by pooling information across the time course while accounting for multiple testing and nonnormality of the microarray data. The method effectively extracts gene-specific response features and models their dependency on the experimental factors. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional time-course data can be handled by our approach. The method was used to analyze the impact of age on the temporal gene response to burn injury in a large-scale clinical study. Our analysis reveals that 21% of the genes responsive to burn are age-specific, among which expressions of mitochondria and immunoglobulin genes are differentially perturbed in pediatric and adult patients by burn injury. These new findings in the body’s response to burn injury between children and adults support further investigations of therapeutic options targeting specific age groups. The methodology proposed here has been implemented in R package “TANOVA” and submitted to the Comprehensive R Archive Network at http://www.r-project.org/. It is also available for download at http://gluegrant1.stanford.edu/TANOVA/. PMID:20479259

  8. In vivo studies of antibacterial effect of human amniotic membrane use in treatment of burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study consist to put in evidence one of essential characteristic of amniotic membrane in occurrence the antibacterial effect. The article describes a study which compared the microbiological and clinical results of the application of freeze-dried gamma sterilized amniotic membrane with that of the conventional treatment(flamazine, greased gauze), in 100 patients with intermediate burns and deep burns with small surface, the bacterial population of various types of microorganisms was well controlled using quantitative bacterial culture techniques, immediately after accident, during treatment and at the last of treatment. The bacterial counts were significantly diminished mean of 10 4 UFC/cm2 to mean of 10 3 UFC/cm2, after 4 days in no infected burns and mean of 10 6 UFC/cm2 to mean of 10 3 UFC/cm2, after 5 days in infected burns, the same reduction was registered after 16 to 25 days with the conventional treatment. It is concluded that use of amniotic membrane control infection, minimize pain and promote wound healing

  9. Recent lung imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide lung imaging procedures have been available for 11 years but only the perfusion examination has been used extensively and mainly for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (P.E.). Its ability to reveal localized ischemia makes it a valuable test of regional lung function as well as a useful diagnostic aid in P.E. Although it had been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing P.E. from COPD. In this review emphasis is placed on our recent experience with both of these inhalation procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests and roentgenography for the early detection of COPD in population studies. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging for a functional diagnosis of P.E. Two new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging, performed after the inhalation of radioactive gases and/or rapidly absorbed radioaerosols are described. The experimental basis for their potential clinical application in pulmonary embolism detection is presented

  10. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H; Maghsoudi H; Soudmand-Niri M; Ranjbar F; Mashadi-Abdollahi H

    2011-01-01

    Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological con...

  11. Preliminary evidence of early bone resorption in a sheep model of acute burn injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gordon L; Xie, Yixia; Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Liangjun; Hu, Minyi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-03-01

    Treatment with bisphosphonates within the first 10 days of severe burn injury completely prevents bone loss. We therefore postulated that bone resorption occurs early post burn and is the primary explanation for acute bone loss in these patients. Our objective was to assess bone for histological and biomechanical evidence of early resorption post burn. We designed a randomized controlled study utilizing a sheep model of burn injury. Three sheep received a 40 % total body surface area burn under isoflurane anesthesia, and three other sheep received cotton-smoke inhalation and served as control. Burned sheep were killed 5 days post procedure and controls were killed 2 days post procedure. Backscatter scanning electron microscopy was performed on iliac crests obtained immediately postmortem along with quantitative histomorphometry and compression testing to determine bone strength (Young's modulus). Blood ionized Ca was also determined in the first 24 h post procedure as was urinary CTx. Three of three sheep killed at 5 days had evidence of scalloping of the bone surface, an effect of bone resorption, whereas none of the three sheep killed at 2 days post procedure had scalloping. One of the three burned sheep killed at 5 days showed quantitative doubling of the eroded surface and halving of the bone volume compared to sham controls. Mean values of Young's modulus were approximately one third lower in the burned sheep killed at 5 days compared to controls, p = 0.08 by unpaired t test, suggesting weaker bone. These data suggest early post-burn bone resorption. Urine CTx normalized to creatinine did not differ between groups at 24 h post procedure because the large amounts of fluids received by the burned sheep may have diluted urine creatinine and CTx and because the urine volume produced by the burned sheep was threefold that of the controls. We calculated 24 h urinary CTx excretion, and with this calculation CTx excretion/24 h in the burned sheep was

  12. Application of spectral hole burning to the study of in vitro cellular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovich, Nebojsa

    1999-11-08

    Chapter 1 of this thesis describes the various stages of tumor development and a multitude of diagnostic techniques used to detect cancer. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the aspects of hole burning spectroscopy important for its application to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 3 gives general descriptions of cellular organelles, structures, and physical properties that can serve as possible markers for the differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Also described in Chapter 3 are the principles of cryobiology important for low temperature spectroscopy of cells, characterization of MCF-10F (normal) and MCF-7 (cancer) cells lines which will serve as model systems, and cellular characteristics of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT), which was used as the test probe. Chapters 4 and 5 are previously published papers by the author pertaining to the results obtained from the application of hole burning to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 4 presents the first results obtained by spectral hole burning of cellular systems and Chapter 5 gives results for the differentiation of MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells stained with APT by an external applied electric (Stark) field. A general conclusion is presented in Chapter 6. Appendices A and B provide additional characterization of the cell/probe model systems. Appendix A describes the uptake and subcellular distribution of APT in MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells and Appendix B compares the hole burning characteristics of APT in cells when the cells are in suspension and when they are examined while adhering to a glass coverslip. Appendix C presents preliminary results for a novel probe molecule, referred to as a molecular thumbtack, designed by the authors for use in future hole burning applications to cellular systems.

  13. Is Real-Time Feedback of Burn-Specific Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Clinical Settings Practical and Useful? A Pilot Study Implementing the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin F; Kazis, Lewis E; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Goverman, Jeremy; Fagan, Shawn P; Wang, Chao; Kim, Julia; Sheridan, Robert L; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2016-01-01

    Long-term follow-up care of survivors after burn injuries can potentially be improved by the application of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). PROMs can inform clinical decision-making and foster communication between the patient and provider. There are no previous reports using real-time, burn-specific PROMs in clinical practice to track and benchmark burn recovery over time. This study examines the feasibility of a computerized, burn-specific PROM, the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire (YABOQ), with real-time benchmarking feedback in a burn outpatient practice. The YABOQ was redesigned for formatting and presentation purposes using images and transcribed to a computerized format. The redesigned questionnaire was administered to young adult burn survivors (ages 19-30 years, 1-24 months from injury) via an ipad platform in the office before outpatient visits. A report including recovery curves benchmarked to a nonburned relatively healthy age-matched population and to patients with similar injuries was produced for the domains of physical function and social function limited by appearance. A copy of the domain reports as well as a complete copy of the patient's responses to all domain questions was provided for use during the clinical visit. Patients and clinicians completed satisfaction surveys at the conclusion of the visit. Free-text responses, included in the satisfaction surveys, were treated as qualitative data adding contextual information about the assessment of feasibility. Eleven patients and their providers completed the study for 12 clinical visits. All patients found the ipad survey and report "easy" or "very easy" to use. In nine instances, patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that it helped them communicate their situation to their doctor/nurse practitioner. Patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that the report helped them understand their course of recovery in 10 visits. In 11 visits, the patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that

  14. Fenoldopam use in a burn intensive care unit: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotant Casey L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fenoldopam mesylate is a highly selective dopamine-1 receptor agonist approved for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies that may have a role at low doses in preserving renal function in those at high risk for or with acute kidney injury (AKI. There is no data on low-dose fenoldopam in the burn population. The purpose of our study was to describe our use of low-dose fenoldopam (0.03-0.09 μg/kg/min infusion in critically ill burn patients with AKI. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to our burn intensive care unit (BICU with severe burns from November 2005 through September 2008 who received low-dose fenoldopam. Data obtained included systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, vasoactive medication use, urine output, and intravenous fluid. Patients on concomitant continuous renal replacement therapy were excluded. Modified inotrope score and vasopressor dependency index were calculated. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, Wilcoxson signed rank, and chi-square tests were used. Differences were deemed significant at p Results Seventy-seven patients were treated with low-dose fenoldopam out of 758 BICU admissions (10%. Twenty (26% were AKI network (AKIN stage 1, 14 (18% were AKIN stage 2, 42 (55% were AKIN stage 3, and 1 (1% was AKIN stage 0. Serum creatinine improved over the first 24 hours and continued to improve through 48 hours (p p p p = NS. Modified inotrope score and vasopressor dependency index both decreased over 48 hours (p p = 0.0012. Conclusions These findings suggest that renal function was preserved and that urine output improved without a decrease in systolic blood pressure, increase in vasoactive medication use, or an increase in resuscitation requirement in patients treated with low-dose fenoldopam. A randomized controlled trial is required to establish the efficacy of low-dose fenoldopam in critically ill burn patients with AKI.

  15. The impact of burn-up credit in criticality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays optimization goes with everything. So French engineering firms try to demonstrate that fuel transport casks and storage pools are able to receive assemblies with higher 235U initial enrichments. Fuel Burnup distribution contributes to demonstrate it. This instruction has to elaborate a way to take credit of burnup effects on criticality safety designs. The calculation codes used are CESAR 4.21-APOLLO 1-MORET III. The assembly studied (UO2) is irradiated in a French Pressurized Water Reactor like EDF nuclear power reactor: PWR 1300 MWe, 17 x 17 array. Its initial enrichment in 235U equals 4.5%. The studies exposed in this report have evaluated the effects of: i) the 15 fission products considered in Burnup Credit (95Mo, 99Tc, 101Ru, 103Rh, 109Ag, 133Cs, 143Nd, 145Nd, 147Sm, 149Sm, 150Sm, 151Sm, 152Sm, 153Eu, 155Gd), ii) the calculated abundances corrected or not by fixed factors, iii) the choice of one cross sections library used by CESAR 4.21, iu) the zone number elected in the axial burnup distribution zoning, u) the kind of cut applied on (regular/optimized). Two axial distribution profiles are studied: one with 44 GWd/t average burnup, the other with 20 GWd/t average burnup. The second one considers a shallow control rods insertion in the upper limit of the assembly. The results show a margin in reactivity about 0.045 with consideration of the 6 most absorbent fission products (103Rh, 133Cs, 143Nd, 149Sm, 152Sm, 155Gd), and about 0.06 for all Burnup Credit fission products whole. Those results have been calculated with an average burnup of 44 GWj/t. In a conservative approach, corrective factors must be apply on the abundance of some fission products. The cross sections library used by CESAR 4.21 (BBL 4) is sufficient and gives satisfactory results. The zoning of the assembly axial distribution burnup in 9 regular zones grants a satisfying calculation time/result precision compromise. (author)

  16. The haematopoietic response to burning: studies in a splenectomized animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, S F; Vautrin, R; Katz, J

    1987-02-01

    Several haematopoietic changes occur following burning. These changes are important because they may effect a patient's ability to fight infection and to heal wounds. Studies of haematopoiesis in burned humans are difficult because of the complexity of these patients and because of the difficulty of collecting specimens. We therefore established a mouse model of these haematopoietic events; however, this model differed from the human situation as all three haematopoietic cell lines were being produced by the murine spleen. In this paper, we modified the model by removing the spleen and then repeating our previous studies. After splenectomy, granulocyte production, murine mortality and body weight did not change. Compared with the original model, the modified splenectomy model could not expand erythropoiesis. The result was greater anaemia. This model is, now, a closer simulation of the human situation and will prove useful in studies of haematopoiesis after thermal injury. PMID:3828854

  17. Experimental Study on the Burning Behavior of Pool Fires in Rooms with Different Wall Linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie; Jomaas, Grunde

    2011-01-01

    An experimental test series, comprising 10 experiments with varying pool sizes, lining materials and amounts of liquid burning, was conducted under free burn and room burn conditions. The thermal feedback from the enclosure (ISO 9705 Room Corner Test facility) enhanced the burning rate of the pools...

  18. Histological and bacteriological studies of burn wounds treated with boiled potato peel dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, M H; Vartak, A M; Patil, A; Davies, J W

    1990-04-01

    Histological and clinical studies have been made on comparable burn wounds covered with either boiled potato peels affixed to gauze bandages or gauze dressings alone; both dressings were applied over a thin layer of 5 per cent silver sulphadiazine. Compared with treatment with plain gauze dressings, the application of the potato peel dressing reduced or eliminated dessication, permitted the survival of superficial skin cells and hastened epithelial regeneration. Bacteriological studies showed that the potato peels had no intrinsic antibacterial activity, the wounds beneath both dressings showing either no growth or, on most occasions, the same bacterial species. The easy availability of potato peels and gauze bandages on to which they can be affixed, the simplicity of the preparation of this dressing, the ease of sterilization and its low cost of production make this the dressing of choice for burn wounds in our developing country. PMID:2350410

  19. ASSISTANCE FOR BURNED SINK PATIENTS AT HOSPITAL BY THE PERSPECTIVE OF INFECTION CONTROL: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Pires Damaceno

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The infection in burnings is very common, involve of the main mechanism of defense: the skin. Thus,this study aimed to identify and to analyze the measures adopted for the prevention and control of the infectionsrelated to this area. The research was constituted by a case study and data were obtained from systemizeobservation and of a questionnaire applied to the teams medical and of nursing of a unit of handling of burnnings ofthe city of Goiânia. The results showed deficiencies related to the infection control and pointed to the need of thetrainmen and update in infection control as direct patient’s care as in articles processing used for this care.Therefore the adequacy of procedure to the prevention and control of the nosocomial infections becomesnecessary.

  20. High-Resolution Optical Studies on C-Phycocyanin via Photochemical Hole Burning

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, J; Scheer, Hugo; Zickendraht-Wendelstadt, Barbara; Haarer, D.

    1981-01-01

    We have shown that both the native C-phycocyanin and its corresponding free biline chromophore undergo reversible, low-temperature photochemistry. We attribute this photochemistry to reversible proton-transfer processes and utilize the observed photoreaction for photochemical hole burning (PHB). Using narrow-band PHB experiments, we have been able to perform high-resolution optical studies and show that the protein-chromophore assembly forms a very rigid structure. The results lead to the ...

  1. The role of xerostomia in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Alvarenga da Silva; José Tadeu Tesseroli de Siqueira; Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira; Silvia Regina Dowgan Tesseroli de Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To assess the efficacy of anti-xerostomic topical medication (urea 10%) in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Method : Thirty-eight subjects diagnosed with BMS according to the International Association for the Study of Pain guidelines were randomized to either placebo (5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 0.15% methyl paraben, and 10% glycerol in distilled water qsp 100 g) or treatment (urea 10%) to be applied to the oral cavity 3-4 times per day for 3 months. The patient...

  2. Evaluation of burn depth with infrared thermogrphic image%应用红外热像仪评估烧伤创面深度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓云; 唐洪泰; 夏照帆; 葛绳德; 陈玉林

    2001-01-01

    目的 应用红外热像仪结合临床判断评估烧伤创面深度,为早期准确诊断烧伤创面深度提供客观依据。方法根据临床表现及创面愈合情况将创面分成浅Ⅱ度、深Ⅱ度、偏浅、深Ⅱ度偏深和Ⅲ度 4个组,红外热像仪检测创区及对照区红外热像图,取点分析随时间变化创面温度与深度的关系。结果浅Ⅱ度创面温度在各时间点均升高,深Ⅱ度偏浅创面温度随时间变化无确定性,深Ⅱ度偏深创面在伤后早期温度轻度降低,Ⅲ度创面温度至术前一直低于创周温度。结论浅Ⅱ度、Ⅲ度创面早期温度变化较有规律性,而深Ⅱ度创面温度差异较大,需结合临床指标来判断深度,以提高诊断准确率。%Objective We evaluate the depth of burn by infrared imaging combining with clinical judgement, which provides an objective foundation for determinating the burn depth at a early time.Methods According to clinical representation and wound healing status, we divide the wound to four groups: superficial burn, superficial to partial burn, partial to full- thickness burn, and full- thickness burn. First, we take images of wounds and controled regions, then analyse the relationship between the temperature and the depth of wounds with the change of time. Results The temperature of superficial wounds rises at all times, that of superficial to partial burn wounds changes indefinitely, that of partial to full- thickness burn drops slightly at very early time after injury,and that of full- thickness wounds drops.Conclusion Temperature changes in superficial and full- thickness burn wounds have regularity,while that of partial burn wounds has large discrepancy and needs clinical guideline to determinate the burn depth.

  3. High voltage electrical burn injuries in teenage children: case studies with similarities (an indian perspective)

    OpenAIRE

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K.; Babu, M.; Mathivanan,; B. Ramachandran; Balasubramanian, S.; Raghuram, K

    2013-01-01

    From 1992 to 2012, a total of 911 paediatric burns were admitted and treated at Kanchi Kamakoti Childs Trust Hospital Intensive Burn Care Unit, of these 28 children had suffered electrical injuries and burns. 7 teenagers suffered high voltage electrical burn injuries: 2 were involved in train accidents which caused fatal electrical injuries, and 5 had electrical burn injuries caused by similar types of accidents, requiring Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) care, repeated surgeries and ext...

  4. Studies on the Effects of RDX Particle Size on the Burning Rate of Gun Propellants

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    A.G.S. Pillai

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic properties of RDX-based propellants are highly dependent on the particle size of RDX used. The effect of RDX particle size on the burning rate and pressure exponent of the gun propellant was studied. Propellant formulation containing RDX to extent of 60 per cent in the composition was processed with varying particle size of RDX. Finished propellants in heptatubular and cord geometry were evaluated for ballistic aspects by closed vessel firing in a 700 cc vessel at a loading density of 0.18 g/cc. The data obtained clearly indicate that increase in particle size of RDX increases the burning rate as well as the pressure exponent.

  5. Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study

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    Arindam Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared. Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05 in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment. Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar.

  6. Anti-inflammatory agents’ effect on esophageal alkali burn: An experimental study

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    Semih Koçyiğit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Corrosive burns of the esophagus are some reports demonstrating that the stricture ratio exceeds 50% in the case of a severe burn. In this experimental animal study of rats, we aimed to investigate the effects of the anti-inflammatory agents in esophageal alkali burns. Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats, weighing from 220 to 250 gr, were used in the study. And following a starving period of 12 hours, we provided general anesthesia with intramuscular ketamin HCL (90 mg/kg and xylazine (10mg/kg. A corrosive burn just like the corrosive esophagitis was done under general anesthesia. The rats were divided into four groups (7 rats for each. The intraluminal area of 1cm in the esophagus of the rats of the first group was washed using serum physiologic (1 ml. Group II received parenteral antibiotic treatment. Group III received antibiotic and dexamethasone regiment, while the Group IV received antibiotic and prednisolone. Each animal was sacrificed on the 21st day, and their abdominal esophagus was resected for histopathological investigation. The submucosal increase in the collagen, damage to the muscularis mucosa and to the tunica muscularis were three parameters demonstrating the injury histopathologically. Results: There was no injury in the Group I. There was injury in each parameter in the Group II, III, and IV compared with Group I. In the comparison between Group II and III, there was less injury in the Group III. In comparison with Group II there was also significant injury in the muscularis mucosa and the tunica muscularis in the Group I (p<0.05. Conclusion: Prednisolone may decrease the new collagen synthesis that progresses up to muscularis mucosa, but the effect on the lowering the stricture formation is not better than dexamethasone.

  7. Antibacterial properties of tualang honey and its effect in burn wound management: a comparative study

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    Nasir Nur-Azida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of honey as a natural product of Apis spp. for burn treatment has been widely applied for centuries. Tualang honey has been reported to have antibacterial properties against various microorganisms, including those from burn-related diagnoses, and is cheaper and easier to be absorbed by Aquacel dressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antibacterial properties of tualang honey dressing and to determine its effectiveness as a partial thickness burn wound dressing. Methods In order to quantitate the bioburden of the swabs, pour plates were performed to obtain the colony count (CFU/ml. Swabs obtained from burn wounds were streaked on blood agar and MacConkey agar for bacterial isolation and identification. Later, antibacterial activity of Aquacel-tualang honey, Aquacel-Manuka honey, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel- plain dressings against bacteria isolated from patients were tested (in-vitro to see the effectiveness of those dressings by zone of inhibition assays. Results Seven organisms were isolated. Four types of Gram-negative bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., and three Gram-positive bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CONS and Streptococcus spp., were isolated. Total bacterial count decreased on day 6 and onwards. In the in-vitro antibacterial study, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel-Manuka honey dressings gave better zone of inhibition for Gram positive bacteria compared to Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. However, comparable results were obtained against Gram negative bacteria tested with Aquacel-Manuka honey and Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. Conclusions Tualang honey has a bactericidal as well as bacteriostatic effect. It is useful as a dressing, as it is easier to apply and is less sticky compared to Manuka honey. However, for Gram positive bacteria, tualang honey is not as effective as usual care

  8. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

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    Sibel Yilmaz sahin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  9. Study on burn-up credit and minor actinide in post-irradiation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accuracy of burnup calculation for actinide is very important as to the study of burn-up credit. For minor-actinides such as Am243 and Cm244, however, typical burnup calculation codes are not accurate enough. The accuracy for both nuclides was studied by using the SWAT code. The study showed that the C/E values of both nuclides could be improved at the same time by changing the cross section of Pu242. A study of burnup calculation related to the cross section of Pu242 should be performed to improve the accuracy for both nuclides. (author)

  10. A comparative study of the effect of different topical agents on burn wound infections

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    Katara Gunjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical agents are used to treat burn wound infections. Aims and Objective: The present work was aimed to find out the in vitro efficacy of different topical agents against burn wound pathogens. Settings and Design: Randomly selected gram-positive (29 and gram-negative bacterial (119 isolates from burn wound cases admitted in burn unit of Choithram Hospital and Research Centre, Indore, were included in the in vitro activity testing for silver nitrate, silver sulphadiazine (SSD, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, nitrofuran, soframycin, betadine, benzalkonium chloride and honey by growth inhibition on agar medium. Materials and Methods: Multidrug-resistant isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were checked for different topical agents. 1% topical agent was mixed with Mueller-Hinton agar. Two microlitres of bacterial suspension adjusted to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard was spread over the topical agent containing plates. The plates without the topical agent were used as control plates. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 37΀C. Results: SSD (148/148, silver nitrate (148/148 and chlorhexidine (148/148 showed excellent activity against all the pathogens. Neosporin had poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (4/44 Proteus spp. (2/4 and group D streptococci (1/4. Betadine did not show activity against the bacterial isolates in the presence of organic matter. Honey did not exert any antimicrobial activity under the study conditions. Conclusion: SSD, silver nitrate and chlorhexidine have excellent activity against all the bacterial pathogens and could be used empirically, while identification of the infective agent is required for selecting the alternative topical agents such as nitrofuran, soframycin, and benzalkonium chloride.

  11. Emission characters of particulate concentrations and dry deposition studies for incense burning at a Taiwanese temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng

    2002-05-01

    Suspended particulate concentrations were measured at the Tzu Yun Yen temple in the Taichung region of Taiwan. The temple performs traditional incense burning. A universal sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler with a dry deposition plate were used to measure the particulate concentrations. The results show that the average PM2.5/PM10 ratio was 74% during the incense burning period at this temple. In addition, the average suspended particulate (PM10) element concentration of anthropogenic element Zn (495 ng/m3) was higher than the other anthropogenic elements (Pb, Mn, Ni, and Cd). Furthermore, the average mass size distribution was bimodal with major peaks occurring at 0.32-0.56 microm and 5.6-10 microm during the incense burning period. The dry deposition velocities of Cd used fine particulates (PM2.5) and suspended particulate (PM10) mode were 1.86 and 0.99 cm/s in this study, respectively.

  12. The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K.L. [The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center; Jaafar, A.B.; Tong, S.L. [Alam Sekitar Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-07-01

    The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PMIO). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 {mu}g m{sup -3} at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 {mu}g m{sup -3} at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U:R, higher > C{sub 22} < C{sub 20} for n-alkanoic acids, higher > C{sub 20}/ < C{sub 20} for n-alkanols, a shift in C{sub max

  13. Demographic and circumstantial accounts of burn mortality in Cape Town, South Africa, 2001-2004: An observational register based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burns are a persisting public health problem in low- and middle-income countries; however, epidemiologic data for these settings is scarce. South Africa is no exception although there is an emerging knowledge base, especially for paediatric burns. The current study describes the epidemiology of burn mortality across the lifespan in Cape Town (2.9 million inhabitants in 2001, one of the six South African metropolitan centres. Methods The distribution of burn mortality across socio-demographic groups and also their circumstances of occurrence were investigated using four year (2001 to 2004 surveillance data from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (n = 1024 cases. Results Burn mortality occurred at a rate of 7.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3-8.3. Males sustained fatal rates 2.2 times more than that for females (p Conclusion Besides paediatric burns, the high prevalence and circumstances of occurrence of burns among middle age men are a source of concern. There are reasons to believe that this over-representation is a reflection of detrimental living conditions, life-style and poor socio-economic status. It is recommended that there be greater prioritisation of prevention activities that involve the control or management of kerosene heat sources, the provision of alternatives to flammable housing materials, and the implementation of strategies to reduce harmful drinking practices.

  14. Global modeling study of soluble organic nitrogen from open biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akinori; Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E.

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) species from large fires may contribute to enrichment of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. Here we use an atmospheric chemistry transport model to investigate the supply of soluble organic nitrogen (ON) from open biomass burning to the ocean. The model results show that the annual deposition rate of soluble ON to the oceans (14 Tg N yr-1) is increased globally by 13% with the increase being particularly notable over the tropical oceans downwind from the source regions. The estimated deposition of soluble ON due to biomass burning from the secondary formation (1.0 Tg N yr-1) is close to that from the primary sources (1.2 Tg N yr-1). We examine the secondary formation of particulate C-N compounds (i.e., imidazole, methyl imidazole, and N-containing oligomers) from the reactions of glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO) with ammonium (NH4+) in wet aerosols and upon cloud evaporation. These ON sources result in a significant contribution to the open ocean (1.3 Tg N yr-1), suggesting that atmospheric processing in aqueous-phase may have a large effect. We compare the soluble ON concentration in aerosols with and without open biomass burning as a case study in Singapore. The model results demonstrate that the soluble ON concentration in aerosols is episodically enriched during the fire events, compared to the case without smoke simulations. At the same time, the model results show that the daily soluble ON concentration can be also enhanced in the case without smoke simulations, compared to the monthly averages. These results may suggest that both the primary source strength of ON and the secondary formation rates of ON should be taken into consideration when using in-situ observations to constrain the calculated soluble ON burden due to biomass burning. More accurate quantification of the soluble ON burdens both with and without smoke sources is therefore needed to assess the effect of biomass burning on bioavailable

  15. Studying phase structure of burned ferrous manganese ores by method of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shayakhmetov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the given article there are presented the results of studying the phase structure of burned ferrous manganese ores of Zhomart and Zapadny Kamys deposits of by the method of Mossbauer spectroscopy. There is established a variety of iron location forms in the studied materials and their quantitative content that allows to define the degree of completing regenerative processes at magnetizing roasting, and also the processes of formation of solid solutions (Fe1-XMX3O4 and stabilization of Fe1-XO from eutectoid disintegration at cooling.

  16. Study on the Agricultural Residues Burning and PM2.5 Change in China by Remote Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuai; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhong, Guosheng; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural residues are materials left over from the production of crops. The total amount of agricultural residues in China is about 660 million tons every year, while a large proportion of that is burnt directly on the croplands. Agricultural residues burning is a significant source of air pollution in developing countries including China. In this study, the MODIS MOD14A1 products were used to derive the daily fire spots of China. Then, the agricultural residues burning spots were obtained by extracting with the area of croplands which is from MODIS MCD12Q1 products. After vectorization of agricultural residues burning pixels and with the help of fishnet, the burning density distribution maps were eventually completed. According to the statistics, there were 71,237 pixels of agricultural residues burning in 2014. The pixels mainly focused on April, June and October, the number of which were 11,628, 10,912 and 20,965 respectively. The results show that the distribution of agricultural residues burning is closely connected with ploughing and harvesting activities and it is more severe in north China. The air quality data of 150 cities in China were also used to obtain the daily and monthly distribution maps of PM2.5 by Kriging interpolation method. The maps indicate that the PM2.5 is always higher in north China than that in south China. Comparing the results of agricultural residues burning points with the results of PM2.5, we found the agricultural residues burning can cause the PM2.5 increase, especially in June, the agricultural residues burning region was spatially and temporally consistent with the PM2.5 increase region in this month.

  17. Impact of agriculture crop residue burning on atmospheric aerosol loading – a study over Punjab State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the impact of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties during October 2006 and 2007 over Punjab State, India using ground based measurements and multi-satellite data. Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD and Ångström exponent (α values exhibited larger day to day variation during crop residue burning period. The monthly mean Ångström exponent "α" and turbidity parameter "β" values during October 2007 were 1.31±0.31 and 0.36±0.21, respectively. The higher values of "α" and "β" suggest turbid atmospheric conditions with increase in fine mode aerosols over the region during crop residue burning period. AURA-OMI derived Aerosol Index (AI and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 showed higher values over the study region during October 2007 compared to October 2006 suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning.

  18. [The pain from burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  19. Water First Aid Is Beneficial In Humans Post-Burn: Evidence from a Bi-National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Wood

    Full Text Available Reported first aid application, frequency and practices around the world vary greatly. Based primarily on animal and observational studies, first aid after a burn injury is considered to be integral in reducing scar and infection, and the need for surgery. The current recommendation for optimum first aid after burn is water cooling for 20 minutes within three hours. However, compliance with this guideline is reported as poor to moderate at best and evidence exists to suggest that overcooling can be detrimental. This prospective cohort study of a bi-national burn patient registry examined data collected between 2009 and 2012. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnitude of effects of water cooling first aid after burn on indicators of burn severity in a large human cohort.The data for the analysis was provided by the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ. The application of first aid cooling prior to admission to a dedicated burn service, was analysed for its influence on four outcomes related to injury severity. The patient related outcomes were whether graft surgery occurred, and death while the health system (cost outcomes included total hospital length of stay and admission to ICU. Robust regression analysis using bootstrapped estimation adjusted using a propensity score was used to control for confounding and to estimate the strength of association with first aid. Dose-response relationships were examined to determine associations with duration of first aid. The influence of covariates on the impact of first aid was assessed.Cooling was provided before Burn Centre admission for 68% of patients, with at least twenty minutes duration for 46%. The results indicated a reduction in burn injury severity associated with first aid. Patients probability for graft surgery fell by 0.070 from 0.537 (13% reduction (p = 0.014. The probability for ICU admission fell by 0.084 from 0.175 (48% reduction (p<0.001 and hospital length of stay

  20. Liposomes-in-Hydrogel Delivery System with Mupirocin: In Vitro Antibiofilm Studies and In Vivo Evaluation in Mice Burn Model

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Hurler; Sørensen, Karen K.; Adyary Fallarero; Pia Vuorela; Nataša Škalko-Basnet

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have proposed mupirocin-in-liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system as advanced delivery system with the potential in treatment of burns. In the current studies, we evaluated the system for its cytotoxicity, ability to prevent biofilm formation, act on the mature biofilms, and finally determined its potential as wound treatment in in vivo mice burn model. The system was found to be nontoxic against HaCaT cells, that is, keratinocytes. It was safe for use and exhibited antibiofilm ...

  1. Burn injury, gender and cancer risk: population-based cohort study using data from Scotland and Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Janine M; Bauer, Jacqui; Fear, Mark W.; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M; Boyd, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of cancer and potential gender effects in persons hospitalised with burn injury. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study using record-linkage systems in Scotland and Western Australia. Participants Records of 37 890 and 23 450 persons admitted with a burn injury in Scotland and Western Australia, respectively, from 1983 to 2008. Deidentified extraction of all linked hospital morbidity records, mortality and cancer records were provided by the Infor...

  2. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India

    OpenAIRE

    Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located ...

  3. Comparative study of pulsed and steady-state tokamak reactor burn cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four distinct operating modes have been proposed for tokamaks. Our study focuses on capital costs and lifetime limitations of reactor subsystems in an attempt to quantify sensitivity to pulsed operation. Major problem areas considered include: thermal fatigue on first wall, limiter/divertor; thermal energy storage; fatigue in pulsed poloidal field coils; out-of-plant fatigue and eddy current heating in toroidal field coils; electric power supply costs; and noninductive driver costs. We assume a high availability and low cost of energy will be mandatory for a commercial fusion reactor, and we characterize improvements in physics and engineering which will help achieve these goals for different burn cycles

  4. Biomass burning studies and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    1991-01-01

    IGAC is an ambitious, decade-long and global research initiative concerned with major research challenges in the field of atmospheric chemistry; its chemists and ecosystem biologists are addressing the problems associated with global biomass burning (BMB). Among IGAC's goals is the achievement of a fundamental understanding of the natural and anthropogenic processes determining changes in atmospheric composition and chemistry, in order to allow century-long predictions. IGAC's studies have been organized into 'foci', encompassing the marine, tropical, polar, boreal, and midlatitude areas, as well as their global composite interactions. Attention is to be given to the effects of BMB on biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Response to topical clonazepam in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Ma Eugenia; López López, José; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a difficult disease for patients and clinicians. Moreover, there is not a general consensus on how to treat the disease. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate BMS patients' response to topical clonazepam treatment. A double blind study was performed. Among a total of 66 patients, 33 were treated with tablets of clonazepam and another 33 were treated with a placebo. Symptoms were evaluated after 1 month and 6 months of treatment and scored on an analog...

  6. Case study: The World is Burning (Krogerup Højskole), DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    2007-01-01

    .g. knowledge sharing on the political situation effecting less economically developed countries at local and national level. Secondly the course seems to respond to the need of enhancing internal political efficacy among the young population. In fact, as a recent research report on political efficacy1 has....... The course The World is Burning, which is being the specific objective of an in-depth case study, is, to the authors? acknowledgement, a unique example of non formal learning activity aimed at rising political awareness among well-educated young adults in Denmark, which is worth special attention for several...

  7. Optimization studies for the prism alternative oxide core, and its response to the actinide burning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PRISM advanced liquid metal reactor is designed by General Electric in a reference solution equipped by a metal fuelled core. An alternative oxide core is studied by General Electric and ENEA in the frame of a collaboration existing since 1989. This paper deals with the ENEA contribution on the oxide solution, aimed at the core optimization both from safety parameters and fuel cycle economy points of view. Moreover, synthetic information about ENEA evaluations about the minor actinide burning capability of the PRISM oxide core are given. (author)

  8. Study of the External Neutron Source Effect on TRU Burning in a Sub-critical Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Zafar Iqbal; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    One of the drawback points of nuclear power is the production of highly radioactive and long lasting waste isotopes during power production. Therefore, most important design requirement of future nuclear option should have a potential to burn selectively long-lived fission products (LLFP) and long-lived minor actinides (LLMA). However, there is no way to burn them selectively in the reactor core. Practical method of waste transmutation should rely on selective separation of them from spent nuclear fuel of power plants. Under the proliferation concern, direct separation of trans-uranic isotopes (TRU) from pyro-reprocessing plant became a feasible option in our country. Even though social political agreement is not matured as well as technical feasibility, current study is done based on basic assumptions; TRU and LLFP is separated from spent fuel of nuclear power plants. The remaining neutrons (among the external 3%) very few in number (less than 1% in any case) being very energetic (above three MeV or so) do cause much more fissions per neutron than their counterparts but, because of their overall low population they do not have any significant and decisive influence in the overall reactor performance. Currently, entire study is limited to the source neutron energy of 20 MeV only. In future, it is expected to get reasonably plausible fixed source dependent difference in the TRU burning by using tabulated data for the neutrons of higher energy (up to 250 MeV at least). Secondly, a clearer picture is expected if the TRU loading was increased from the current value of 133 kg to few metric tons, as is the case in most of the existing reactors.

  9. Study of the External Neutron Source Effect on TRU Burning in a Sub-critical Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the drawback points of nuclear power is the production of highly radioactive and long lasting waste isotopes during power production. Therefore, most important design requirement of future nuclear option should have a potential to burn selectively long-lived fission products (LLFP) and long-lived minor actinides (LLMA). However, there is no way to burn them selectively in the reactor core. Practical method of waste transmutation should rely on selective separation of them from spent nuclear fuel of power plants. Under the proliferation concern, direct separation of trans-uranic isotopes (TRU) from pyro-reprocessing plant became a feasible option in our country. Even though social political agreement is not matured as well as technical feasibility, current study is done based on basic assumptions; TRU and LLFP is separated from spent fuel of nuclear power plants. The remaining neutrons (among the external 3%) very few in number (less than 1% in any case) being very energetic (above three MeV or so) do cause much more fissions per neutron than their counterparts but, because of their overall low population they do not have any significant and decisive influence in the overall reactor performance. Currently, entire study is limited to the source neutron energy of 20 MeV only. In future, it is expected to get reasonably plausible fixed source dependent difference in the TRU burning by using tabulated data for the neutrons of higher energy (up to 250 MeV at least). Secondly, a clearer picture is expected if the TRU loading was increased from the current value of 133 kg to few metric tons, as is the case in most of the existing reactors

  10. A STUDY OF METALLO-BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN BLOOD SAMPLES OF BURNED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Septicaemia is a life threatening complication of severely burned patients. Among many organisms invading blood stream Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known for its powerful antibiotic resistance mechanisms which increasingly limit the choices for treatment. Among many such resistance mechanisms it is the metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL which confers resistance to Carbapenem group of antibiotics, one of the final resorts to fight them. The present study was undertaken to detect MBL producing P. aeruginosa using phenotypic method from blood samples of burned patients as well as to know their drug sensitivity pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose 67 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from blood samples of admitted burned patients were subjected to susceptibility testing to antipseudomonal drugs by disc diffusion test and those found to be Carbapenem resistant were subjected to Imipenem - EDTA combined disk synergy test for MBL detection. RESULT: Out of 67 isolates of P.aeruginosa, 19 (28.4% were found to be Carbapenem resistant and 11 (16.4% were MBL producers. A particularly important feature was that the MBL producers were highly resistant to the antibiotics tested than the non-producers. However all of them were susceptible to Colistin and Polymixin B. CONCLUSION: This study has made us to think that a constant vigil and careful selection of antibiotics are necessary to keep prevalence of MBL producing P.aeruginosa in check. The accurate identification and reporting of MBL producing P. aeruginosa will aid infection control practitioners in preventing the spread of these multidrug-resistant isolates

  11. Landsat-Based Detection and Severity Analysis of Burned Sugarcane Plots in Tarlac, Philippines Using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloloy, A. B.; Blanco, A. C.; Gana, B. S.; Sta. Ana, R. C.; Olalia, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    The Philippines has a booming sugarcane industry contributing about PHP 70 billion annually to the local economy through raw sugar, molasses and bioethanol production (SRA, 2012). Sugarcane planters adapt different farm practices in cultivating sugarcane, one of which is cane burning to eliminate unwanted plant material and facilitate easier harvest. Information on burned sugarcane extent is significant in yield estimation models to calculate total sugar lost during harvest. Pre-harvest burning can lessen sucrose by 2.7% - 5% of the potential yield (Gomez, et al 2006; Hiranyavasit, 2016). This study employs a method for detecting burn sugarcane area and determining burn severity through Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) using Landsat 8 Images acquired during the late milling season in Tarlac, Philippines. Total burned area was computed per burn severity based on pre-fire and post-fire images. Results show that 75.38% of the total sugarcane fields in Tarlac were burned with post-fire regrowth; 16.61% were recently burned; and only 8.01% were unburned. The monthly dNBR for February to March generated the largest area with low severity burn (1,436 ha) and high severity burn (31.14 ha) due to pre-harvest burning. Post-fire regrowth is highest in April to May when previously burned areas were already replanted with sugarcane. The maximum dNBR of the entire late milling season (February to May) recorded larger extent of areas with high and low post-fire regrowth compared to areas with low, moderate and high burn severity. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to analyse vegetation dynamics between the burn severity classes. Significant positive correlation, rho = 0.99, was observed between dNBR and dNDVI at 5% level (p = 0.004). An accuracy of 89.03% was calculated for the Landsat-derived NBR validated using actual mill data for crop year 2015-2016.

  12. Pegase: safety studies - experimental study of burn-out risks in transient operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment out-of-pile experimental set up is proposed simulating the breakage of a pipe supplying the core of the reactor Pegase. The two fast phenomena, depressurization of the vessel and flow reversal, are reproduced. The aluminium heating channel has the same shape as that of the reactor channel but has twice the heat capacity. The starting conditions are V= 4.50 and 6 m/sec., TE = 50 and 60 degrees C and PE = 4 bars. The results show that the critical flux PHIC varies with the flow-rate from 45 to 60 W/cm2 in the case where there is no power reduction. For fluxes of 90 W/cm2 the results lead to the conclusion that the hot channel attains a state of burn-out after 0.1 sec. and that its temperature reaches 500 C in 0.8 sec. The hydrodynamic conditions in the channels after the accident involve periodic expulsion (0.2 to 0.5 sec.), characteristic of boiling at low pressure. A study of the steady state flow redistribution through a by-pass has given flux redistribution PHIR of 190 W/cm2 for a flow rate of 4.5 m/sec. at 50 and of 175 W/cm2 at 60 C. These values increase which has to be made between the critical flux PHIC during the periodic expulsion conditions and the flux redistribution PHIR during the steady state, has been shown. (author)

  13. Using satellite image-based maps to improve sugarcane straw burning emission estimates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D.; Longo, K.; Rudorff, B.; Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S. R.; Stockler, R.; Pereira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the last decade, the global demand for biofuel production has been increasing every year due to the growing need for energy supply security and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG). Currently, sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels and Brazil is already the world's largest sugarcane producer, devoting almost 50% of it to ethanol production. The state of São Paulo is the major sugarcane producer in this country, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 million hectares were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The assessment and monitoring of sugarcane burning impacts are fundamental in order to mitigate the negative impacts of pre-harvest burning and consolidate the environmental benefits of sugarcane ethanol. Although some official inventories created by the Brazilian government have indicated the prevalence of emissions from sugarcane straw burning in total agricultural residue emissions, specific information about emissions of gases and aerosols during pre-harvest burning of sugarcane is still scarce in Brazil. This study aimed to contribute to the improvement of estimates of emissions from sugarcane burning through the use of specific parameters for sugarcane straw burning and a method which has avoided underestimations resulting from the unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. In this investigation, emissions of several air pollutants released by sugarcane burning during the harvest season were estimated through the integrated use of remote sensing based maps of sugarcane burned area and a numerical tool for the state of São Paulo from 2006 to 2011. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1,130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOX, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this

  14. Toxic shock syndrome toxin level in wound samples of hospitalized children with burn: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Javadinia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS, a dangerous consequence of Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The early detection for infections of Staphylococcus aureus in burned children is very important, also the pre-vention for consequences of TSST-1. Fever is one of the most noticeable sign in burned children. On the other hand, fever is one of the important consequences of TSST-1 pro-duction. Methods: This study aimed to assess the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 level in the wound’s specimens of two groups febrile and afebrile in the hospitalized burned chil-dren in Motahari hospital Tehran, Iran in the year 2013. In this case-control study, 90 children who admitted to the burn unit, divided in two groups of 45 patients: febrile (cases group and afebrile (control group. All of burned children under went wound biopsy, and then all of wound’s specimens were tested by PCR for specific primer of toxin producing genome. Finally all of data collected and statistically analyzed. This data include group febrile and afebrile, demographic characteristics, percentage of burned surface severity and result of PCR. Results: The positive result for PCR test, production of TSST-1 in febrile burned chil-dren (cases group was 37.7% and in afebrile burned children (control group was 11.1% that this different was statistically significant (P=0.003. The mean and stan-dard deviation for percentage of burned surface (severity in samples with positive re-sult for PCR test was 30.9±16.93 and in samples with negative result for PCR test was 20.09±11.02 that this different was statistically significant (P=0.01. There was no dif-ference between positive PCR result and negative PCR result of age and sex. Conclusion: Direct association was approved between the production of TSST-1 and the occurrence of fever in burned children. Increased surface severity of burns also re-lated to the production of TSST-1. Further research is recommended.

  15. A STUDY ON ROLE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF TOPICAL OINTMENT AND ITS OUTCOME AMONG BURN PATIENTS : AN INTERESTING FOLLOW UP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury causes major bulk of the surgical emergencies. Burn infection makes the burn wound complicated causes considerable mortality and morbidity. Timely and effective use of antimicrobial and topical dressings revolutionizes burn care by decreasing invasive wound infection. The administration of broad - spectrum antibiotics on routine basis is likely to en courage. The emergence of resistant organism therefore, timely and judicial use of antibiotics is essential for better result. MATERIAL AND METHOD S: The present study was carried out in 160 burns and scald admitted in surgical wards in Department of General Surgery, SGMH and S.S. Medical College, Rewa ( M. P. during period of one year. The cases are fully recorded and thoroughly studied with the aim of establishing the incidence, mode of burn and causes of burn, source of burn, clothing at timed incidence, time and place of incidence and detail clinical assessment. On admission resuscitation started with intravenous fluid, calculated according to the Parkland formula and prophylactic antibiotic giv en in all the patients after sampling for culture and sensitivity. Symptomatic and supportive treatment added as per need. RESULTS : Out of 160 patients, majority of the patient belong to 21 – 40 year 48.1%. Majority of patient ( 34.4% had total body surfac e burn area burnt between 21 - 40% and 12.5% patient had burnt area 61 - 80%. Maximum ( 50.0% complain of irritation was reported by the patients to whom Silver sulphadizine was applied while least ( 10% by the patients to whom nadoxin e was applied. CONCLUSION : The incident of invasive infection and overall mortality was significantly reduced after the introduction into clinical practice of topical burn wound anti - microbial agent, our study shows that the most effective topical antimicrobial agent in burn patie nt is Nadoxine.

  16. A case study on biomass burning aerosols: effects on aerosol optical properties and surface radiation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, biomass burning aerosols from eastern Europe were transported extensively to Finland, and to other parts of northern Europe. They were observed as far as in the European Arctic. In the first part of this paper, temporal and spatial evolution and transport of these biomass burning aerosols are monitored with MODIS retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD imagery at visible wavelengths (0.55 μm. Comparison of MODIS and AERONET AOD is conducted at Tõravere, Estonia. Then trajectory analyses, as well as MODIS Fire Mapper products are used to better understand the type and origin of the air masses. During the studied four-week period AOD values ranged from near zero up to 1.2 at 0.55 μm and the linear correlation between MODIS and AERONET was very high (~0.97. Temporal variability observed within this four-week period was also rather well explained by the trajectory analysis in conjunction with the fire detections produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System. In the second part of our study, the surface measurements of global and UV radiation at Jokioinen, Finland are used to study the effect of this haze episode on the levels of surface radiation. We found reductions up to 35% in noon-time surface UV irradiance (at 340 nm as compared to typical aerosol conditions. For global (total solar radiation, the reduction was always smaller, in line with the expected wavelength dependence of the aerosol effect.

  17. Two stage study of wound microorganisms affecting burns and plastic surgery inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Ali, Syed N; Jeffery, Steven L A; Thomas, Sunil S

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to identify wound microorganisms and the reasons for differing prevalence between the wards, burns unit and intensive care unit (ICU) in a regional centre for burns and plastic surgery. Antibiotic sensitivities of the 10 most prevalent microorganisms cultured from inpatient wound swabs were also investigated. Inpatient wound swab data were collected retrospectively using notes and departmental database information between January and June 2007. Data were analyzed using chi-squared tests and P-values. Eight hundred five positive wound swabs from 204 swab positive inpatients were analyzed. Stage 1 of this study demonstrated 917 positive swab episodes and 30 varieties of organism. The five most prevalent organisms cultured were Staphylococcus (23.9%), Acinetobacter (21.2%), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20.8%), Pseudomonas (9.7%) and Enterococcus (5.2%). Stage 2 revealed that Acinetobacter baumanni (ABAU) was significantly more prevalent in military over civilian inpatients (P PAER) was significantly more prevalent in military inpatients over civilian inpatients (P PAER were significantly more prevalent in the ICU setting. Furthermore, military inpatient wounds grew more ABAU, MRSA, and PAER than civilians, probably due to the longer inpatient stay, dirty nature of wounds, site and complex mechanism of injury. Finally, this study suggests that ABAU was brought into the unit by military patients.

  18. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  19. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  20. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  1. The contributions of biomass burning to primary and secondary organics: A case study in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, BaoLin; Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, SiHua; Wang, Ming; Yuan, Bin; Gong, ZhaoHeng; He, LingYan; Zeng, LiMin; Hu, Min; Zhang, YuanHang

    2016-11-01

    Synchronized online measurements of gas- and particle- phase organics including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) and submicron organic matters (OM) were conducted in November 2010 at Heshan, Guangdong provincial supersite, China. Several biomass burning events were identified by using acetonitrile as a tracer, and enhancement ratios (EnRs) of organics to carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from this work generally agree with those from rice straw burning in previous studies. The influences of biomass burning on NMHCs, OVOCs and OM were explored by comparing biomass burning impacted plumes (BB plumes) and non-biomass burning plumes (non-BB plumes). A photochemical age-based parameterization method was used to characterize primary emission and chemical behavior of those three organic groups. The emission ratios (EmRs) of NMHCs, OVOCs and OM to CO increased by 27-71%, 34-55% and 67% in BB plumes, respectively, in comparison with non-BB plumes. The estimated formation rate of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in BB plumes was found to be 24% faster than non-BB plumes. By applying the above emission ratios to the whole PRD, the annual emissions of VOCs and OM from open burning of crop residues would be 56.4 and 3.8Gg in 2010 in PRD, respectively.

  2. The contributions of biomass burning to primary and secondary organics: A case study in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, BaoLin; Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, SiHua; Wang, Ming; Yuan, Bin; Gong, ZhaoHeng; He, LingYan; Zeng, LiMin; Hu, Min; Zhang, YuanHang

    2016-11-01

    Synchronized online measurements of gas- and particle- phase organics including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) and submicron organic matters (OM) were conducted in November 2010 at Heshan, Guangdong provincial supersite, China. Several biomass burning events were identified by using acetonitrile as a tracer, and enhancement ratios (EnRs) of organics to carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from this work generally agree with those from rice straw burning in previous studies. The influences of biomass burning on NMHCs, OVOCs and OM were explored by comparing biomass burning impacted plumes (BB plumes) and non-biomass burning plumes (non-BB plumes). A photochemical age-based parameterization method was used to characterize primary emission and chemical behavior of those three organic groups. The emission ratios (EmRs) of NMHCs, OVOCs and OM to CO increased by 27-71%, 34-55% and 67% in BB plumes, respectively, in comparison with non-BB plumes. The estimated formation rate of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in BB plumes was found to be 24% faster than non-BB plumes. By applying the above emission ratios to the whole PRD, the annual emissions of VOCs and OM from open burning of crop residues would be 56.4 and 3.8Gg in 2010 in PRD, respectively. PMID:27371770

  3. Cadáveres quemados: Estudio antropológico-forense Burned corpses: Forensic anthropological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La acción del fuego sobre el cuerpo puede producir afectación de la piel determinando quemaduras de diversos grados o carbonización llegando a afectar al hueso, e incluso a calcinarlo. Cuando el grado de afectación es intenso deben aplicarse los protocolos de antropología forense, teniendo en cuenta las particularidades del caso. Presentamos cuatro casos estudiados en el Laboratorio de Antropología Forense de la Escuela de Medicina Legal de Madrid, en los que se han seguido técnicas diferentes a fin de poder establecer la identificación del cadáver y el diagnóstico de la muerte así como otras cuestiones de interés en la investigación antropológico forense.The action of fire on the body can affect the skin determining diverse degree of burns or may affect the bone, even cremate it. When the degree of burn is intense, protocols of forensic anthropology should be used, taking into account the details of each case. We present four cases studied in the Laboratory of Forensic Anthropology at the School of Legal Medicine in Madrid, in which different techniques have been used in order to establish the identification of the cadaver and the cause of death as well as other questions of interest in the forensic anthropological investigation.

  4. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2002-08-01

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Qy-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5.

  5. High voltage electrical burn injuries in teenage children: case studies with similarities (an indian perspective)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K.; Babu, M.; Mathivanan; Ramachandran, B.; Balasubramanian, S.; Raghuram, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary From 1992 to 2012, a total of 911 paediatric burns were admitted and treated at Kanchi Kamakoti Childs Trust Hospital Intensive Burn Care Unit, of these 28 children had suffered electrical injuries and burns. 7 teenagers suffered high voltage electrical burn injuries: 2 were involved in train accidents which caused fatal electrical injuries, and 5 had electrical burn injuries caused by similar types of accidents, requiring Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) care, repeated surgeries and extensive rehabilitation. A common factor among these latter 5 patients was that they were injured by overhead high electrical voltage cables. Their management was labour intensive and highly costly. In this report, the type of accident, the electrical voltage that produced burns and the treatment details are elaborated. Findings included similarities in age and type of accident, and failure to implement safety procedures and apply standard norms of high voltage transmission feeder lines. PMID:24563637

  6. A Case Study of Manjistadi Taila with Kadalipatra and Bactigauze for Local Application in the Management of Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantkumar V. Shekokar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines have been used for many countries around the world including South East Asian countries for health care by the people in recent years, there has been a significant global upsurge in the use of traditional medicine because of various reasons including the fact that in spite of advance made in the health sector equitable care coverage availability, accessibility & affordability to conventional health care & services are quiet often beyond the reach of large section of people. Ayurvedic medicines got much desired boost for current & emerging challenges, it is crucial that Ayurvedic medicines are beneficial, must play their respective roles in promoting health & preventing or treating diseases. A Burn is an accidental as well as suicidal injury encountered by surgeon in day to day practice. Sushruta is pioneer of Indian surgery. He explained Dagdha (burn and its management in 12th Adhyaya of Sutrasthan. As the patient of Dagdha (Burn are increasing in the society due to today’s stressful & busy life style. The present study entitled “A Case Study of Manjistadi Taila with Kadalipatra and Bactigauze for Local Application in the Management of Burn”. Treatments prescribed in modern medicine like chlorhexidine acetate as bactigauze had proved their definite efficacy in the Burn management but they have some limitations like it can’t avoid eschar, hypertrophic scar, post burn contracture which harms as a cosmetically. So to overcome these deficiencies we can apply Manjisthadi Taila with Kadalipatra as local application in the 1st & 2nd degree burn. The present case study was conducted on 2 patients as far considered one is control group and other is experimental group. The clinical assessment was done on the basis of grading criteria with specific symptomology of Burn like Vedana (pain, Strava (secretion, Vranavarna (colour, Gandha (smell, eschar, discoloration, hypertrophic scar, and contracture. According to observations

  7. Biomass burning related ozone damage on vegetation over the Amazon forest: a model sensitivity study

    OpenAIRE

    Pacifico, F.; Folberth, G. A.; Sitch, S.; Haywood, J. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; F. F. Malavelle; P. Artaxo

    2015-01-01

    The HadGEM2 earth system climate model was used to assess the impact of biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations over the Amazon forest and its impact on vegetation, under present-day climate conditions. Here we consider biomass burning emissions from wildfires, deforestation fires, agricultural forest burning, and residential and commercial combustion. Simulated surface ozone concentration is evaluated against observations taken at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon f...

  8. [Clinical and experimental study of burns treated locally with Chinese herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G D; Zhang, Y M; Xiong, X Y

    1991-12-01

    According to the multiple pharmacological functions of Chinese herbs for treating burns, the authors selected some traditional herbs to cure the burning wound, which had not only the function of improving the local microcirculation of the burned surface and their bactericidal action, but also the function of changing the bacterial growth milieu action. Coptis chinensis 40%, Herba Taraxaci 40%, Fructus Mume 10% and Salvia miltiorrhizae 10% were boiled, infiltrated and disinfected. The mixture thus made was called as Burn II, which were applied on the burned surface daily, 97.1% of 103 patients were cured. Through the experiment of 60 rabbits burned by irons, which were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 in each group) and each 2 groups infected respectively with Bacillus pyocyaneus, Bacillus Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus, took one of each infected group as control group. After 14 days, the infected burned surfaces which were applied with Burn II daily. The results showed that the effect of Burn II was not only significant, but also its usage was not highly restricted by the medical condition. PMID:1821339

  9. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and neuroticism in relation to depressive symptoms following burn injury: a longitudinal study with a 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loey, Nancy E; Oggel, Anne; Goemanne, Anne-Sofie; Braem, Leen; Vanbrabant, Leonard; Geenen, Rinie

    2014-10-01

    Sustaining burns is considered a stressful life event that has the power to elicit depressive symptoms. This study aimed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms by investigating the role of demographic variables, the number of operations (burn severity), neuroticism, and cognitive emotion regulation styles as possible influencing factors. Data from 242 patients with burns were analyzed employing latent growth modeling. The level of depressive symptoms across the 2-year interval was associated with burn severity, higher levels of neuroticism and rumination, and lower levels of positive refocusing. Notably, rumination partly mediated the effect of neuroticism on the course of depressive symptoms. Correlational analysis suggested a specific effect of burn severity on rumination. The results indicate that screening for symptoms of depression, rumination, and neuroticism in burn patients is useful. Early interventions focusing on cognitive restructuring could assist in improving the cognitive emotional adaptation process following a burn event.

  10. A Study of The Straw-burning problem And Reasonable Solutions to It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢维奕

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses possible solutions to the problem of straw burning(the invention of new reapers,the support of straw-utilizing business and the promotion of necessary knowledge)through examining the current condition of,reasons for and effects of the burning of straw.

  11. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2002-06-27

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Q{sub y}-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll{sub a} (BChl{sub a}) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5. A version of the hole spectrum simulation program written by the candidate for the FMO complex study (Chapter 3) is included as an appendix. The references for each chapter are given at the end of each chapter.

  12. Acute kidney injury is common, parallels organ dysfunction or failure, and carries appreciable mortality in patients with major burns: a prospective exploratory cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Steinvall, Ingrid; Bak, Zoltan; Sjöberg, Folke

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, time course, and outcome of acute kidney injury after major burns and to evaluate the impact of possible predisposing factors ( age, gender, and depth and extent of injury) and the relation to other dysfunctioning organs and sepsis. Method: We performed an explorative cohort study on patients with a TBSA% (percentage burned of total body surface area) of 20% or more who were admitted to a national burn centre. Acute kidne...

  13. Sleep studies (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a sleep study the sleep cycles and stages of sleep are monitored. Electrodes are placed to monitor continuous recordings of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory ...

  14. One year prevalence of critically ill burn wound bacterial infections in surgical ICU in Egypt: Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Results: The main finding of the current study described herein was the percent of isolates from burn wound (60%. The most common organism was pseudomonas (49%. Multidrug resistant gram negative organisms represent about 60% of the isolates. Pattern of antibiotic sensitivity was 84% for colistin, 39% for amikacin and 35% for imipenem. The mortalities in our study were 80%.

  15. Assessing land-use and carbon stock in slash-and-burn ecosystems in tropical mountain of Laos based on time-series satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshio; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Asai, Hidetoshi; Ochiai, Yukihito; Qi, Jiaguo; Olioso, Albert; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Horie, Takeshi; Saito, Kazuki; Dounagsavanh, Linkham

    2010-08-01

    In the tropical mountains of Southeast Asia, slash-and-burn (S/B) agriculture is a widely practiced and important food production system. The ecosystem carbon stock in this land-use is linked not only to the carbon exchange with the atmosphere but also with food and resource security. The objective of this study was to provide quantitative information on the land-use and ecosystem carbon stock in the region as well as to infer the impacts of alternative land-use and ecosystem management scenarios on the carbon sequestration potential at a regional scale. The study area was selected in a typical slash-and-burn region in the northern part of Laos. The chrono-sequential changes of land-use such as the relative areas of community age and cropping (C) + fallow (F) patterns were derived from the analysis of time-series satellite images. The chrono-sequential analysis showed that a consistent increase of S/B area during the past three decades and a rapid increase after 1990. Approximately 37% of the whole area was with the community age of 1-5 years, whereas 10% for 6-10 years in 2004. The ecosystem carbon stock at a regional scale was estimated by synthesizing the land-use patterns and semi-empirical carbon stock model derived from in situ measurements where the community age was used as a clue to the linkage. The ecosystem carbon stock in the region was strongly affected by the land-use patterns; the temporal average of carbon stock in 1C + 10F cycles, for example, was greater by 33 MgC ha -1 compared to that in 1C + 2F land-use pattern. The amount of carbon lost from the regional ecosystems during 1990-2004 periods was estimated to be 42 MgC ha -1. The study approach proved to be useful especially in such regions with low data-availability and accessibility. This study revealed the dynamic change of land-use and ecosystem carbon stock in the tropical mountain of Laos as affected by land-use. Results suggest the significant potential of carbon sequestration through

  16. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X H; Zhang, X Y [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Physics Department, and Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory) of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu, C L [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, R S [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ando, M [DDS center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamasaki 2541, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Sugiyama, H [Photon Factory, Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Chen, H S [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ding, G H, E-mail: xy-zhang@fudan.edu.c [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  17. Pain in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  19. Oral ketamine and dexmedetomidine in adults' burns wound dressing--A randomized double blind cross over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundra, Pankaj; Velayudhan, Savitri; Krishnamachari, Srinivasan; Gupta, Suman Lata

    2013-09-01

    Study was designed to compare analgesic efficacy and side effects of oral dexmedetomidine and ketamine in adults for burn wound dressing. Sixty healthy adults with thermal burns with burn area (20-50%) were randomly assigned into 2 groups. In Group K 5mg/kg ketamine and in Group D 4 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine was given orally. Patients crossed over to the other group the following day. Visual analogue score, sedation score, haemodynamic parameters were recorded from 30min after drug administration to 2h after procedure. Patients' preference was also recorded. Mean VAS score was significantly reduced from baseline in both the groups at all time points (Pdressing. Oral ketamine produced significantly better pain relief than dexmedetomidine but was associated with delirium and excessive salivation.

  20. Friction Burns: Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A; Raibagkar, S.C.; Vora, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This epidemiological study deals with 60 patients with friction burns between January 2004 and January 2006. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 years, with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (56 patients), and the lower limb was the most frequently affected part of the body. Patient management was performed according to the degree of the burn injury. It is suggested that most friction burn injuries are neglected on admissio...

  1. Health-related quality of life after burns : a prospective multicentre cohort study with 18 months follow-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loey, N.E.; Van Beeck, E.F.; Faber, A.W.; Van de Schoot, A.G.J.; Bremer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important parameter after medical treatments. Knowledge of (predictors of) diminished quality of life can help improve medical outcome. The aim of this study was to quantify health loss in patients with burns and to assess the contribution of

  2. A multi-refuge study to evaluate the effectiveness of growing-season and dormant-season burns to control cattail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Lor, Socheata

    2012-01-01

    Proliferation of invasive cattails (for example, Typha x glauca, T. angustifolia) is a concern of wetland managers across the country, and numerous methods have been used to control the spatial extent and density of the plant. To date, however, no single method has proven widely or consistently effective at reducing the long-term growth and spread of these species. We performed a multi-refuge study to evaluate the relative effects of growing-season and dormant-season prescribed burns on cattail production and to gain insight on variables such as soil moisture, groundwater, and biomass that affect the efficacy of burning as a control method. Results indicate total cattail cover recovers to pre-burn levels within 1 year regardless of whether the controlled burn was implemented during the growing season or dormant season. Growing-season burns, however, did result in lower aboveground and belowground cattail biomass 1-year post-burn, whereas no significant change in biomass was detected for dormant-season burns. Study results support the premise that burns implemented during the growing season should have a greater effect on nutrient reserves and cattail re-growth. Results from this and other studies suggest long-term research that incorporates multiple management strategies will be required to evaluate the potential of prescribed burning as a method to control cattail.

  3. PLD-IDMS studies towards direct measurement of burn-up of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method based on Pulsed laser deposition followed by Isotope dilution mass spectrometric method is evaluated towards the possibility of direct measurement of burn up of nuclear fuel and also to find out spatial distribution of burn-up along the pellet. The wave length dependent results show larger error with 1064 nm, compared to 532 nm laser beam. Much less error is expected with shorter wave length and shorter pulse width laser beam. Further work is being carried out in this direction

  4. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  5. Liposomes-in-Hydrogel Delivery System with Mupirocin: In Vitro Antibiofilm Studies and In Vivo Evaluation in Mice Burn Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hurler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have proposed mupirocin-in-liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system as advanced delivery system with the potential in treatment of burns. In the current studies, we evaluated the system for its cytotoxicity, ability to prevent biofilm formation, act on the mature biofilms, and finally determined its potential as wound treatment in in vivo mice burn model. The system was found to be nontoxic against HaCaT cells, that is, keratinocytes. It was safe for use and exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus biofilms, although the activity was more significant against planktonic bacteria and prior to biofilm formation than against mature biofilms as shown in the resazurin and the crystal violet assays. An in vivo mice burn model was used to evaluate the biological potential of the system and the healing of burns observed over 28 days. The in vivo data suggest that the delivery system enhances wound healing and is equally potent as the marketed product of mupirocin. Histological examination showed no difference in the quality of the healed scar tissue, whereas the healing time for the new delivery system was shorter as compared to the marketed product. Further animal studies and development of more sophisticated in vivo model are needed for complete evaluation.

  6. Liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system with mupirocin: in vitro antibiofilm studies and in vivo evaluation in mice burn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurler, Julia; Sørensen, Karen K; Fallarero, Adyary; Vuorela, Pia; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have proposed mupirocin-in-liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system as advanced delivery system with the potential in treatment of burns. In the current studies, we evaluated the system for its cytotoxicity, ability to prevent biofilm formation, act on the mature biofilms, and finally determined its potential as wound treatment in in vivo mice burn model. The system was found to be nontoxic against HaCaT cells, that is, keratinocytes. It was safe for use and exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus biofilms, although the activity was more significant against planktonic bacteria and prior to biofilm formation than against mature biofilms as shown in the resazurin and the crystal violet assays. An in vivo mice burn model was used to evaluate the biological potential of the system and the healing of burns observed over 28 days. The in vivo data suggest that the delivery system enhances wound healing and is equally potent as the marketed product of mupirocin. Histological examination showed no difference in the quality of the healed scar tissue, whereas the healing time for the new delivery system was shorter as compared to the marketed product. Further animal studies and development of more sophisticated in vivo model are needed for complete evaluation. PMID:24369533

  7. A feasibility study of reactor-based deep-burn concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.; Yang, W. S.

    2005-09-16

    A systematic assessment of the General Atomics (GA) proposed Deep-Burn concept based on the Modular Helium-Cooled Reactor design (DB-MHR) has been performed. Preliminary benchmarking of deterministic physics codes was done by comparing code results to those from MONTEBURNS (MCNP-ORIGEN) calculations. Detailed fuel cycle analyses were performed in order to provide an independent evaluation of the physics and transmutation performance of the one-pass and two-pass concepts. Key performance parameters such as transuranic consumption, reactor performance, and spent fuel characteristics were analyzed. This effort has been undertaken in close collaborations with the General Atomics design team and Brookhaven National Laboratory evaluation team. The study was performed primarily for a 600 MWt reference DB-MHR design having a power density of 4.7 MW/m{sup 3}. Based on parametric and sensitivity study, it was determined that the maximum burnup (TRU consumption) can be obtained using optimum values of 200 {micro}m and 20% for the fuel kernel diameter and fuel packing fraction, respectively. These values were retained for most of the one-pass and two-pass design calculations; variation to the packing fraction was necessary for the second stage of the two-pass concept. Using a four-batch fuel management scheme for the one-pass DB-MHR core, it was possible to obtain a TRU consumption of 58% and a cycle length of 286 EFPD. By increasing the core power to 800 MWt and the power density to 6.2 MW/m{sup 3}, it was possible to increase the TRU consumption to 60%, although the cycle length decreased by {approx}64 days. The higher TRU consumption (burnup) is due to the reduction of the in-core decay of fissile Pu-241 to Am-241 relative to fission, arising from the higher power density (specific power), which made the fuel more reactivity over time. It was also found that the TRU consumption can be improved by utilizing axial fuel shuffling or by operating with lower material

  8. Pegase: safety studies - experimental study of burn-out risks in transient operation; Pegase: etude de surete - etude experimentale des risques de burn out en regime transitoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    An experiment out-of-pile experimental set up is proposed simulating the breakage of a pipe supplying the core of the reactor Pegase. The two fast phenomena, depressurization of the vessel and flow reversal, are reproduced. The aluminium heating channel has the same shape as that of the reactor channel but has twice the heat capacity. The starting conditions are V= 4.50 and 6 m/sec., T{sub E} = 50 and 60 degrees C and P{sub E} = 4 bars. The results show that the critical flux PHI{sub C} varies with the flow-rate from 45 to 60 W/cm{sup 2} in the case where there is no power reduction. For fluxes of 90 W/cm{sup 2} the results lead to the conclusion that the hot channel attains a state of burn-out after 0.1 sec. and that its temperature reaches 500 C in 0.8 sec. The hydrodynamic conditions in the channels after the accident involve periodic expulsion (0.2 to 0.5 sec.), characteristic of boiling at low pressure. A study of the steady state flow redistribution through a by-pass has given flux redistribution PHI{sub R} of 190 W/cm{sup 2} for a flow rate of 4.5 m/sec. at 50 and of 175 W/cm{sup 2} at 60 C. These values increase which has to be made between the critical flux PHI{sub C} during the periodic expulsion conditions and the flux redistribution PHI{sub R} during the steady state, has been shown. (author) [French] On propose un schema experimental hors pile d'une rupture du tuyau alimentant le coeur du reacteur PEGASE. On reproduit les phenomenes rapides de depressurisation du caisson et d'inversion du debit dans le coeur. Le canal chauffant en aluminium a la meme geometrie que le canal du reacteur, mais une capacite calorifique double. Les conditions initiales sont V= 4.5 et 6 m/s, T{sub E} = 50 et 60 C et P{sub E} = 4 bars. Les resultats montrent que le flux critique PHI{sub C} evolue avec la vitesse de 45 a 60 60 W/cm{sup 2} dans le cas ou il n'y a pas reduction de puissance. Pour des flux de 90 W/cm{sup 2} l'interpretation des resultats

  9. Burn epidemiology and cost of medication in paediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Sağlam, Zeynep

    2012-09-01

    Burns are common injuries that cause problems to societies throughout the world. In order to reduce the cost of burn treatment in children, it is extremely important to determine the burn epidemiology and the cost of medicines used in burn treatment. The present study used a retrospective design, with data collected from medical records of 140 paediatric patients admitted to a burn centre between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Medical records were examined to determine burn epidemiology, medication administered, dosage, and duration of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was completed for all variables; chi-square was used to examine the relationship between certain variables. It was found that 62.7% of paediatric burns occur in the kitchen, with 70.7% involving boiling water; 55.7% of cases resulted in third-degree burns, 19.3% required grafting, and mean duration of hospital stay was 27.5 ± 1.2 days. Medication costs varied between $1.38 US dollars (USD) and $14,159.09, total drug cost was $46,148.03 and average cost per patient was $329.63. In this study, the medication cost for burn patients was found to be relatively high, with antibiotics comprising the vast majority of medication expenditure. Most paediatric burns are preventable, so it is vital to educate families about potential household hazards that can be addressed to reduce the risk of a burn. Programmes are also recommended to reduce costs and the inappropriate prescribing of medication.

  10. Epidemiology of severe burn injuries in a Tertiary Burn Centre in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Barzelighi, H.; Alaghehbandan, R.; Motevallian, A.; Alinejad, F.; Soleimanzadeh-Moghadam, S.; Sattari, M.; A R Lari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary burn centre in Tehran, Iran. A hospital-based cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with burn injuries was conducted in Motahari Burn and Reconstruction Center in Tehran from August to December 2010. Medical records of all hospitalized burn patients were reviewed and pertinent information was captured. A total of 135 patients with severe burns requiring hospitalizat...

  11. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expresion in Gastric Mucosa and Liver after Burns: Preliminary Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganka Bekyarova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Generation of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and oxidative stress are crucial in pathogenesis of thermal skin injury. Heat shock proteins such as HSP32 known as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilative properties and play an important role in the protecting of tissues from several stresses. In this immunohistochemical study, we have assessed the constitutive expression of HO-1 in normal gastric mucosa and liver and tested the hypothesis that its expression in these tissues is upregulated in thermal skin injury characterized by increased production of ROMs and other pro-inflammatory mediators. We used malondialdehyde (MDA as a marker of oxidative stress and tumor necrosis factor (TNF α as a marker of inflammatory response in burn rat model. Methods: HO-1 expression in formalin-fixed sections was assessed by peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal rabbit anti-HO-1 as primary antibody. TNF-α in plasma was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Spectrometric method was used for plasma and tissue MDA assay. Results:Immunohistochemical staining revealed HO-1 expression in all groups. Staining scores for HO-1 in endothelial cells in both gastric mucosa and liver were increased with 32% (p <0.001 and 51 % (p< 0.001, compared to that of controls. The levels of MDA in the gastric mucosa were increased by 43% (p<0.05 and in liver in 126% (p<0.001. Plasma concentration of TNF α was also elevated by 111 % (p<0.001 and MDA level in plasma was increased by 37% (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our data suggest that HO-1 induction following burn is an adaptive response which can protect gastric mucosal and liver against further oxidative damage. HO-1 system may represent a target and an effective and cooperative strategy to intervene in the protection against inflammatory processes and oxidative tissue injury. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 246-251

  12. Kinetic parameters study based on burn-up for improving the performance of research reactor equilibrium core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study kinetic parameters, effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron generation time have been investigated at different burn-up stages for research reactor's equilibrium core utilizing low enriched uranium high density fuel (U3Si2-Al fuel with 4.8 g/cm3 of uranium. Results have been compared with reference operating core of Pakistan research Reactor-1. It was observed that by increasing fuel burn-up, effective delayed neutron fraction is decreased while prompt neutron generation time is increased. However, over all ratio beff/L is decreased with increasing burn-up. Prompt neutron generation time L in the understudy core is lower than reference operating core of reactor at all burn-up steps due to hard spectrum. It is observed that beff is larger in the understudy core than reference operating core of due to smaller size. Calculations were performed with the help of computer codes WIMSD/4 and CITATION.

  13. The role of xerostomia in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alvarenga da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To assess the efficacy of anti-xerostomic topical medication (urea 10% in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS. Method : Thirty-eight subjects diagnosed with BMS according to the International Association for the Study of Pain guidelines were randomized to either placebo (5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 0.15% methyl paraben, and 10% glycerol in distilled water qsp 100 g or treatment (urea 10% to be applied to the oral cavity 3-4 times per day for 3 months. The patients were evaluated before and after treatment with the following instruments: the EDOF-HC protocol (Orofacial Pain Clinic – Hospital das Clínicas, a xerostomia questionnaire, and quantitative sensory testing. Results : There were no differences in salivary flow or gustative, olfactory, or sensory thresholds (P>0.05. Fifteen (60% patients reported improvement with the treatments (P=0.336. Conclusion : In conclusion, there were no differences between groups, and both exhibited an association between reported improvement and salivation.

  14. Stellar Helium Burning Studied with an Optical Readout TPC (O-TPC) at HIγS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Optical Readout Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) operating with the gas mixture of CO2(80%) + N2(20%) at 100 torr with gamma beams from the HIγS facility of TUNL at Duke University were used to study the formation of carbon and oxygen during helium burning. Measurements were carried out with circularly polarized gamma-ray beams at energies: Eγ = 9.08, 9.38, 9.58, 9.78, 10.08, 10.38 and 10.68 MeV. We have begun the process of extracting complete angular distributions for the 16O(γ,α)12C reaction and the 12C(γ,3α) reaction (eventually with energy bins of approximately 100 keV) in order to determine the values of SE1, SE2 and the mixing phase φ12 of the 16O(γ, α)12C reaction. The rate of carbon formation at high temperatures (T > 3 GK) was suggested to increase due to contributions from a higher lying 2+ state. We have measured an angular distribution of (essentially) pure E2 transition at Eγ = 9.78 MeV of the 12C(γ, 3α) reaction, providing conclusive evidence for the elusive 2+2 state in 12C.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia for Pediatric Burn Reconstructive Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Erik S; Martyn, Jeevendra A; Donelan, Mathias B; Perrone, Anthony; Firth, Paul G; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients face multiple reconstructive surgeries to reestablish function and aesthetics postburn injury. Often, the site of the harvested graft for these reconstructions is reported to be the most painful part of the procedure and a common reason for deferring these reconstructive procedures. This study in pediatric burn patients undergoing reconstructive procedures examined the analgesia response to local anesthetic infiltration versus either a single ultrasound-guided regional nerve block of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) or a fascia iliaca compartment block with catheter placement and continuous infusion. Nineteen patients were randomized to one of three groups (infiltration, single-shot nerve block, or compartment block with catheter) and received intraoperative analgesia intervention. Postoperatively, visual analog scale pain scores were recorded-for pain at the donor site-every 4 hours while awake-for 48 hours. This nonparametric data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA, Friedman's test, and Kruskal-Wallis test, with significance determined at P ultrasound-guided block with continuous catheter may be beneficial. PMID:25412051

  16. Experimental study on flowing burning behaviors of a pool fire with dripping of melted thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiyuan; Tu, Ran; Wang, Nan; Ma, Xin; Jiang, Xi

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this work is to quantitatively investigate the dripping-burning and flowing fire of thermoplastics. A new experimental setup is developed with a heating vessel and a T-trough. Hot thermoplastic liquids are generated in the vessel by electric heating. N2 gas is continuously injected into the vessel to avoid a sudden ignition of fuel in it. The detailed flowing burning behaviors of pool fire in the T-trough are analyzed through the measurements of the mass, heat flux and temperatures etc. The experimental results suggest that a continuous dripping of melted thermoplastic liquids in a nearly constant mass rate can be successfully made in the new setup. It also shows that the mass dripping rate of melted PS liquid is smaller than PP and PE since its large viscosity. In addition, the flame spread velocities of hot liquids of PS in the T-trough are also smaller than that of PP and PE because of its large viscosity. The mass burning rate of the PP and PE pool fire in T-trough are smaller than PS. Finally, considering the heating, melting, dripping and flowing burning behaviors of these polymers, it is suggested that the fire hazard of PE and PP are obviously higher than PS for their faster flowing burning.

  17. Calcium and ER stress mediate hepatic apoptosis after burn injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N.; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction after burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis after burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacrificed at various time‐points. Liver was either perfused to isolate primary rat hepatocytes, which were used for in vitro calcium imaging, or liver was harvested and processed for immunohistology, transmission electron microscopy, mitochondrial isolation, mass spectroscopy or Western blotting to determine the hepatic response to burn injury in vivo. We found that thermal injury leads to severely depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and consequent elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Burn‐induced ER calcium depletion caused depressed hepatocyte responsiveness to signalling molecules that regulate hepatic homeostasis, such as vasopressin and the purinergic agonist ATP. In vivo, thermal injury resulted in activation of the ER stress response and major alterations in mitochondrial structure and function – effects which may be mediated by increased calcium release by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors. Our results reveal that thermal injury leads to dramatic hepatic disturbances in calcium homeostasis and resultant ER stress leading to mitochondrial abnormalities contributing to hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis after burn injury. PMID:20141609

  18. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and neuroticism in relation to depressive symptoms following burn injury: a longitudinal study with a 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loey, N.E.E.; Oggel, A.; Goemanne, A.S.; Braem, L.; Vanbrabant, L.; Geenen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining burns is considered a stressful life event that has the power to elicit depressive symptoms. This study aimed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms by investigating the role of demographic variables, the number of operations (burn severity), neuroticism, and cognitive emotion regu

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  20. The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

    The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 μg m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 μg m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/haze episode on 29 September 1991 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Abas and Simoneit, 1996).

  1. Experimental Study on the Influence of Thermal Feedback on the Burning Behavior of Flexible Polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie; Bwalya, Alex; Jomaas, Grunde

    2013-01-01

    facility with a compartment measuring 2400 mm wide x 2800 mm deep x 2400 mm high. The room had a rectangular vent (opening under a calorimeter hood) measuring 740 mm wide x 1500 mm high that was located in one of the 2400 mm walls. In each of the two experiments, the room was lined with a material that had...... a different thermal inertia. The third experiment was performed as a free burn under a hood. The experiments showed that the flame spread rate increased in the room experiments as compared with the free burn experiments. Also, the experiments showed that the thermal feedback may increase the heat release rate...

  2. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mros@lle.rochester.edu; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Atzeni, S. [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others

    2015-06-15

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  3. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D3He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects

  4. Impact of crop field burning and mountains on heavy haze in the North China Plain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Feng, Tian; Li, Nan; Zhao, Suyu; Tian, Jie; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    With the provincial statistical data and crop field burning (CFB) activities captured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), we extracted a detailed CFB emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP). The WRF-CHEM model was applied to investigate the impact of CFB on air pollution during the period from 6 to 12 October 2014, corresponding to a heavy haze incident with high concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm). The WRF-CHEM model generally performed well in simulating the surface species concentrations of PM2.5, O3 and NO2 compared to the observations; in addition, it reasonably reproduced the observed temporal variations of wind speed, wind direction and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH). It was found that the CFB that occurred in southern NCP (SNCP) had a significant effect on PM2.5 concentrations locally, causing a maximum of 34 % PM2.5 increase. Under continuous southerly wind conditions, the CFB pollution plume went through a long-range transport to northern NCP (NNCP; with several mega cities, including Beijing, the capital city of China), where few CFBs occurred, resulting in a maximum of 32 % PM2.5 increase. As a result, the heavy haze in Beijing was enhanced by the CFB, which occurred in SNCP. Mountains also play significant roles in enhancing the PM2.5 pollution in NNCP through the blocking effect. The mountains blocked and redirected the airflows, causing the pollutant accumulations along the foothills of mountains. This study suggests that the prohibition of CFB should be strict not only in or around Beijing, but also on the ulterior crop growth areas of SNCP. PM2.5 emissions in SNCP should be significantly limited in order to reduce the occurrences of heavy haze events in the NNCP region.

  5. In-vivo cutaneous burn characterization and scar assay with multi-functional optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Yeorum; Le, Viet-Hoan; Yoon, Calvin J.; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-03-01

    Research about the cutaneous burn was separated by assessment of burn depth and development of wound healing therapy. Various in vivo optical techniques were used to determined burn depth and observe the wound healing process. In this paper, we report the usage of multimodal optical coherence tomography system, which containing angiographic and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) with conventional OCT system, at burn studies. Burn was induced at 4 different degrees by control the attachment time of 75 Celsius degree heated brass rod at dorsal skin of the rat. For the burn depth assessment, we imaged the different burn degrees area. Changes of polarization sensitive signal were providing burn depth information. To see the wound healing process, each wound area imaged at long period. Conventional OCT shows the structural information about the tissue, like layer and hair follicle. Angiographic OCT provides vascular distribution and diameter of blood vessel information and PS-OCT shows birefringence tissue information. Based on the multimodal OCT data, burn depth assessment were well matched with burn induced time and wound healing process was consistent with previous wound healing report. Therefore, the multimodal OCT holds potential for burn study.

  6. Recommendations on the use of prescribed burning practices in grassland conservation - An evidence-based study from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthmérész, Béla; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Péter; Végvári, Zsolt; Deák, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Fire as a natural disturbance has been present in most European grasslands. In parallel controlled use of burning was an important part of the traditional landscape management for millennia. It was used to reduce litter and suppress woody vegetation as well as to maintain open landscapes suitable for farming. Recently, human activities have a considerable impact on natural fire regimes through habitat fragmentation, cessation of traditional grassland management and climate change. Nowadays the majority of human-ignited fires are uncontrolled burnings and arson, which have serious negative impacts on human life, property and can be detrimental also from the nature conservation point of view. Despite fire was widely applied in the past and the considerable extension and frequency of current grassland fires, the impact of fire on the grassland biodiversity is still scarcely documented in Europe. The aim of our study was to gather practical knowledge and experiences from Hungary concerning the effects of fire on grasslands. To fulfil this aim we sent questionnaires to experts from Hungarian national park directorates to gather unpublished data and field observations concerning the effects of burning on grasslands. Based on the answers for the questionnaires fire regularly occur in almost every grassland types in Hungary. We found that effects of fire are habitat-specific. One hand uncontrolled burning and arson have serious detrimental impacts on many endangered species (ground-dwelling birds, such as Asio flammeus, Tringa totanus and Vanellus vanellus; or lizards, such as Ablepharus kitaibelii). On the other hand in several cases fire has a positive effect on the habitat structure and favours species of high nature conservation interest (plant species, such as Adonis volgensis, Chamaecytisus supinus and Pulsatilla grandis; butterflies, such as Euphydryas aurinia; bird species such as Circus aeruginosus and Larus cachinnans). Our results suggest that even uncontrolled

  7. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegah Adeladza K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11 and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65 reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23 and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92 increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599 reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59 excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results

  8. Water uptake by biomass burning aerosol at sub- and supersaturated conditions: closure studies and implications for the role of organics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dusek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the CCN activity of freshly emitted biomass burning particles and their hygroscopic growth at a relative humidity (RH of 85%. The particles were produced in the Mainz combustion laboratory by controlled burning of various wood types. The water uptake at sub- and supersaturations is parameterized by the hygroscopicity parameter, κ (c.f. Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007. For the wood burns, κ is low, generally around 0.06. The main emphasis of this study is a comparison of κ derived from measurements at sub- and supersaturated conditions (κG and κCCN, in order to see whether the water uptake at 85% RH can predict the CCN properties of the biomass burning particles. Differences in κGand κCCN can arise through solution non-idealities, the presence of slightly soluble or surface active compounds, or non-spherical particle shape. We find that κG and κCCN agree within experimental uncertainties (of around 30% for particle sizes of 100 and 150 nm; only for 50 nm particles is κCCN larger than κG by a factor of 2. The magnitude of this difference and its dependence on particle size is consistent with the presence of surface active organic compounds. These compounds mainly facilitate the CCN activation of small particles, which form the most concentrated solution droplets at the point of activation. The 50 nm particles, however, are only activated at supersaturations higher than 1% and are therefore of minor importance as CCN in ambient clouds. By comparison with the actual chemical composition of the biomass burning particles, we estimate that the hygroscopicity of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC fraction can be represented by a κWSOC value of approximately 0.2. The effective hygroscopicity of a typical wood burning particle can therefore be represented by a linear mixture of an inorganic component with κ ≅ 0.6, a WSOC

  9. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and lab studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Cubison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA. This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ±0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass =−0.01 to ~0.07, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~25%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~9 Tg OA yr−1 is estimated, of the order of 5% of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a

  10. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Cubison

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA. This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ± 0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA and a surrogate of organic O:C, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass = −0.01 to ~0.05, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~19%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~8 ± 7 Tg OA yr−1 is estimated, of the order of 5 % of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data

  11. PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF DIFFICULT INTUBATION IN POST BURN NECK CONTRACTURE – A STUDY OF 30 CONSECUTIVE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The peri - operative management of post - burn contractures of the neck is a challenge not only to the surgeon but also the anaesthesiologist. A proper co - ordination between them is needed for providing a hassle - free patient care. This is a prospective study done on 30 consecutive patients of post burn contractures of the neck to compare the surgeon’s assessment of the type and pattern of post - burn contracture of the neck and the anaesthesiologist’s assessment of the airway. T he association of this with the peri - operative management of patients was also studied. The data analysed was type of contracture , mento - sternal distance , and preoperative grading of the airway. The method of securing intra - operative airway was documented . A direct co - relation was noted between the type of contracture with the Mallampatti grading of the airway and the sterno - mental distance. All type III contractures required release before intubation. In conclusion , it is advisable for the surgeon to be w ell - versed with the anaesthesiologist’s assessment of the airway and the anaesthesiologist to aware of the types of neck contracture in order to properly plan and execute the peri - operative management of these patients.

  12. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Matin, B.; Karami Matin, R.; Ahmadi Joybari, T.; Ghahvehei, N.; M Haghi; M. Ahmadi; S. Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned bod...

  13. 双黄烧伤膏对大鼠烧伤、烫伤的治疗作用研究%Experimental studies of shuanghuang burn ointment treatment for scald and burn wound of rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓红; 凌磊; 王杨; 王强

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究双黄烧伤膏对大鼠实验性烫伤、烧伤感染的治疗作用.方法 将大鼠随机分为实验组(双黄烧伤膏组)、阳性对照组(京万红软膏组)、空白对照组.建立大鼠Ⅱ度烫伤模型、Ⅲ度烧伤感染模型,分别涂布给药,单笼饲养,观察并记录创面变化.结果 在大鼠烫伤实验中,给药15 d后,各组创面结痂面积明显变小,实验组结痂愈合时间短,与阳性对照组、空白对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05),与空白对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P0.05),与阴性对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 双黄烧伤膏对大鼠实验性烫伤、烧伤感染具有较好的治疗作用.%Objective To study the effects of shuanghuang burn ointment on scald and burned infectious rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into test group( shuanghuang burn ointment ), positive control group( jingwan-hong cream )and no treatment group respectively. The drugs were administered topically on the surface of scalded and burned infection places respectively after partical-thickness scald and burn in rats. The change of the scalded and burned areas and the decrustation time were recorded. Results In the partical-thickness scalding test,the scalded areas of 15 d were smaller, there was significant difference between test group and positive control group( P < 0. 05 ), there was significant difference between test group and no treatment group( P < 0. 01 ); the scalded areas of 20 d: there was significant difference between test group and no treatment group( P <0. 01 ),but there was no significant difference compared with the positive control group. In the partical-thickness burnning infection test,the scalded areas of 9 d,there was significant difference between the test group and the no treatment group( P <0. 01 ) ,but there was no significant difference compared with the positive control group. Conclusion Burn ointment has a good anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and

  14. In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryosuke; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Sasaki, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Optical assessment of skin burns is possible with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy due to its high sensitivity to thermal denaturation of collagen molecules. In contrast to previous studies that were performed using excised tissue specimens ex vivo, in vivo observation of dermal collagen fibers in living rat burn models with SHG microscopy is demonstrated. Changes in signal vanishing patterns in the SHG images are confirmed to be dependent on the burn degree. Comparison of the SHG images with Masson's trichrome-stained images indicated that the observed patterns were caused by the coexistence of molten and fibrous structures of dermal collagen fibers. Furthermore, a quantitative parameter for burn assessment based on the depth profile of the mean SHG intensity across the entire SHG image is proposed. These results and discussions imply a potential of SHG microscopy as a minimally invasive, highly quantitative tool for skin burn assessment.

  15. Estimate of preliminary experiments to study the burn-up of gadolinium as a poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Proposed preliminary experiments to determine the burn-up of Gd2O3 as a poison in different reactors are discussed. Estimates are given of parameters such as the weight of the sample to be irradiated, irradiation and decay times, expected activity and photon spectrum. 1 g samples of natural UO2 with 8 % of Gd2O3, 3 days irradiation time and 30 days decay time are recommended

  16. Emissions generated by sugarcane burning promote genotoxicity in rural workers: a case study in Barretos, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Carrijo, Marina Schmidt; Seidel, Ervald Henrique; Neto, Cristovam Scapulatempo; LONGATTO FILHO, ADHEMAR; CARVALHO, André Lopes; Reis, R M; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Background: To determine the possible genotoxic effect of exposure to the smoke generated by biomass burning on workers involved in manual sugar cane harvesting. Methods: The frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined in sugarcane workers in the Barretos region of Brazil, during the harvest season and compared to a control population, comprised of administrative employees of Barretos Cancer Hospital. Results: The frequency of ...

  17. DIRECT IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF A CANDIDATE COMPANION BELOW/NEAR THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING LIMIT IN THE YOUNG BINARY STAR SYSTEM, ROXs 42B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, Thayne; Daemgen, Sebastian; Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON (Canada); Debes, John [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lafreniere, David [Dèpartment de Physique, Université de Montreal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Observatory, University of Hyogo, Kobe (Japan); Ratzka, Thorsten [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München (Germany); Correia, Serge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We present near-infrared high-contrast imaging photometry and integral field spectroscopy of ROXs 42B, a binary M0 member of the 1-3 Myr old ρ Ophiuchus star-forming region, from data collected over 7 years. Each data set reveals a faint companion—ROXs 42Bb—located ∼1.''16 (r {sub proj} ≈ 150 AU) from the primaries at a position angle consistent with a point source identified earlier by Ratzka et al.. ROXs 42Bb's astrometry is inconsistent with a background star but consistent with a bound companion, possibly one with detected orbital motion. The most recent data set reveals a second candidate companion at ∼0.''5 of roughly equal brightness, though preliminary analysis indicates it is a background object. ROXs 42Bb's H and K{sub s} band photometry is similar to dusty/cloudy young, low-mass late M/early L dwarfs. K band VLT/SINFONI spectroscopy shows ROXs 42Bb to be a cool substellar object (M8-L0; T {sub eff} ≈ 1800-2600 K), not a background dwarf star, with a spectral shape indicative of young, low surface gravity planet-mass companions. We estimate ROXs 42Bb's mass to be 6-15 M{sub J} , either below the deuterium-burning limit and thus planet mass or straddling the deuterium-burning limit nominally separating planet-mass companions from other substellar objects. Given ROXs 42b's projected separation and mass with respect to the primaries, it may represent the lowest mass objects formed like binary stars or a class of planet-mass objects formed by protostellar disk fragmentation/disk instability, the latter slightly blurring the distinction between non-deuterium-burning planets like HR 8799 bcde and low-mass, deuterium-burning brown dwarfs.

  18. Accuracy of real time radiography burning rate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Bisola

    The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's burning-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the burning-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired burning rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port area to length ratio. The pre-fired port-areas and base burning rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different burning rates. X-ray images were captured and the burning-rate was then determined. The measured burning rate was within 1.65% of the known values.

  19. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of honey dressing and silver sulfadiazene dressing on wound healing in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghel P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of honey dressing and silver-sulfadiazene (SSD dressing on wound healing in burn patients. Patients (n=78 of both sexes, with age group between 10 and 50 years and with first and second degree of burn of less than 50% of TBSA (Total body surface area were included in the study, over a period of 2 years (2006-08. After stabilization, patients were randomly attributed into two groups: ′honey group′ and ′SSD group′. Time elapsed since burn was recorded. After washing with normal saline, undiluted pure honey was applied over the wounds of patients in the honey group (n=37 and SSD cream over the wounds of patients in SSD group (n=41, everyday. Wound was dressed with sterile gauze, cotton pads and bandaged. Status of the wound was assessed every third and seventh day and on the day of completion of study. Patients were followed up every fortnight till epithelialization. The bacteriological examination of the wound was done every seventh day. The mean age for case (honey group and control (SSD group was 34.5 years and 28.5 years, respectively. Wound swab culture was positive in 29 out of 36 patients who came within 8 hours of burn and in all patients who came after 24 hours. The average duration of healing in patients treated with honey and SSD dressing at any time of admission was 18.16 and 32.68 days, respectively. Wound of all those patients (100% who reported within 1 hour became sterile with honey dressing in less than 7 days while none with SSD. All of the wounds became sterile in less than 21 days with honey, while tthis was so in only 36.5% with SSD treated wounds. The honey group included 33 patients reported within 24 hour of injury, and 26 out of them had complete outcome at 2 months of follow-up, while numbers for the SSD group were 32 and 12. Complete outcome for any admission point of time after 2 months was noted in 81% and 37% of patients in the honey group and the SSD group. Honey dressing improves wound

  20. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  1. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  2. Study on Image Steganography Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Gayathri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a secret Communication to hide the secret Data. It is an invisible communication that hides data like text, image, and audio, video etc .The secret message is inserted into the image files. The image files can use stego-key to hide the data and the resultant image is called as stego-image. This is most important for the internet users to share their secret data in an efficient manner. Steganography plays an important role in defence. Various steganographic techniques areanalyzed and its pros and cons are highlighted in this paper.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Wound Healing Properties of Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO) and Silver Sulphadiazine

    OpenAIRE

    Jewo, P.I.; Fadeyibi, I.O.; Babalola, O.S.; L C Saalu; Benebo, A.S.; Izegbu, M.C.; Ashiru, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    Burns expose the deeper tissues of the skin or body to invasive microbes. Topical preparations for treating burn wounds, to be useful, should ideally have antibiotic power and promote healing. Silver compounds have been the mainstay of topical burn treatment for decades. However, most chemical substances retard wound healing. Several natural agents such as honey and moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) are believed to protect wounds from infection and promote healing without causing any of the ...

  4. Separability Analysis of Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI Data for Burned Area Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a global phenomenon and systematic burned area mapping is of increasing importance for science and applications. With high spatial resolution and novelty in band design, the recently launched Sentinel-2A satellite provides a new opportunity for moderate spatial resolution burned area mapping. This study examines the performance of the Sentinel-2A Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI bands and derived spectral indices to differentiate between unburned and burned areas. For this purpose, five pairs of pre-fire and post-fire top of atmosphere (TOA reflectance and atmospherically corrected (surface reflectance images were studied. The pixel values of locations that were unburned in the first image and burned in the second image, as well as the values of locations that were unburned in both images which served as a control, were compared and the discrimination of individual bands and spectral indices were evaluated using parametric (transformed divergence and non-parametric (decision tree approaches. Based on the results, the most suitable MSI bands to detect burned areas are the 20 m near-infrared, short wave infrared and red-edge bands, while the performance of the spectral indices varied with location. The atmospheric correction only significantly influenced the separability of the visible wavelength bands. The results provide insights that are useful for developing Sentinel-2 burned area mapping algorithms.

  5. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols from a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Hi-RES-TOF-AMS was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While extensive BB is not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS. The average EBRI for a mixed population of aerosols dominated by open fires was m=1.53(±0.03+0.07i(±0.03, during the smoldering phase of the fires we found the EBRI to be m=1.54(±0.01+0.04i(±0.01 compared to m=1.49(±0.01+0.02i(±0.01 of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  6. Design of a cross-sectional study on physical fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents after burn injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Takken, Tim; Van Brussel, Marco; Beerthuizen, Gerard I. J. M.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Burn injuries have a major impact on the patient's physical and psychological functioning. The consequences can, especially in pediatric burns, persist long after the injury. A decrease in physical fitness seems logical as people survive burn injuries after an often extensive period of d

  7. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, Yara; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Tuip de Boer, Anita M; Hofstra, Jorrit Jan; Vlaar, Alexander PJ; Determann, Rogier M; Knape, Paul; David P Mackie; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been proposed as a biologic marker of fibrinolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and pulmonary levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma who need mechanical ventilation. Methods suPAR was measured in plasma and nondirected lung-lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. The samples were obta...

  8. Clinical application of radioaerosol studies - pulmonary embolism, inhalation burns and glue-sniffers and COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium together form the alveolar capillary membrane. Fluid exchange occurs across this membrane, and is dependent on intravascular and interstitial hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, and on permeability of this membrane. Damage to either the alveolar or capillary component can result in a high permeability pulmonary oedema, even though the alveolar epithelium forms an extremely tight membrane which is ten times less permeable than the capillary endothelium. Nuclear medicine methods can be used to observe changes in integrity of pulmonary capillary endothelium (with first pass dual-indicator dilution technique using successive injections of radiotracer), and of alveolar epithelium, and it is important that the damage should be detected before patients develop clinical pulmonary oedema so that intensive therapy can be instituted early. We have used 99mTc DTPA radioaerosol to measure alteration in pulmonary epithelial permeability and to image the distribution of ventilation in normal and some pathological states. In some clinical studies Tc-99m (tin) colloid radioaerosol has been used to obtain the ventilation images

  9. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  10. A neutronic feasibility study on the deep-burning of TRU in a commercial LWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the neutronic feasibility of deep burning of transuranics (TRU) nuclides in a commercial LWR reactor is investigated. New fuel assemblies having both TRU FCM (Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated) fuel pins and conventional UO2 pins are designed for 'deep burning' of the Transuranics without violating the safety-related parameters. In the FCM fuel pins, TRU TRISO particles and burnable poison BISO particle are distributed through a dense SiC matrix and formed into pellets and fuel pins. The combination of TRU FCM fuel pins and regular UO2 fuel pins are made into new fuel assemblies and loaded into the reload cores of the YongGwang unit 3 cycle 6 and its following cycles. The neutronic physics performance of the new fuel assemblies and the reload cores are analyzed in detail. The results show that the reload cores can be designed without significant changes in the safety-related parameters, and the equilibrium cycle core has self recycling capability for Transuranics and a high TRU destruction rate of ∼60%. (author)

  11. Assessing land-use and carbon stock in slash-and-burn ecosystems in tropical mountain of Laos based on time-series satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Yoshio; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Asai, Hidetoshi; Ochiai, Yukihito; Qi, Jiaguo; Olioso, Albert; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; HORIE,TAKESHI; Saito, Kazuki; Dounagsavanh, Linkham

    2010-01-01

    In the tropical mountains of Southeast Asia, slash-and-burn (S/B) agriculture is a widely practiced and important food production system. The ecosystem carbon stock in this land-use is linked not only to the carbon exchange with the atmosphere but also with food and resource security. The objective of this study was to provide quantitative information on the land-use and ecosystem carbon stock in the region as well as to infer the impacts of alternative land-use and ecosystem management scen...

  12. Tokamak burn cycle study: a data base for comparing long pulse and steady-state power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several distinct operating modes (conventional ohmic, noninductive steady state, internal transformer, etc.) have been proposed for tokamaks. Our study focuses on capital costs and lifetime limitations of reactor subsystems in an attempt to quantify sensitivity to pulsed operation. Major problem areas considered include: thermal fatigue on first wall, limiter/divertor; thermal energy storage; fatigue and eddy current heating in toroidal field coils; electric power supply costs; and noninductive driver costs. We assume a high availability and low cost of energy will be mandatory for a commercial fusion reactor, and we characterize improvements in physics (current drive efficiency) and engineering (superior materials) which will help achieve these goals for different burn cycles

  13. Optical Readout Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) for a Study of Oxygen Formation In Stellar Helium Burning

    OpenAIRE

    Gai, Moshe; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, Rachel; Dangendorf, Volker; Weller, Henry R.

    2005-01-01

    We are developing an Optical Readout Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) detector for the study of the 12C(a,g)16O reaction that determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen in helium burning. This ratio is crucial for understanding the final fate of a progenitor star and the nucleosynthesis of elements prior to a Type II supernova; an oxygen rich star is predicted to collapse to a black hole, and a carbon rich star to a neutron star. Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) are used as standard candles for measur...

  14. To Burn or not to Burn: Making the Burning of Chocolate Hills of Bohol, Philippines Carbon Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel T. Bantayan; Margaret M Calderon; Flocencia B. Pulhin; Canesio D. Predo; Rose Ann C. Baruga

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current management regime of burning vis-à-vis burning with carbon offsets for the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (CHNM) in Bohol, Philippines. The current scheme of burning to maintain the grass-covered (tree-less) and brown hills to sustain tourist arrivals is seen as environmentally unsound and inconsistent with existing environmental laws. The study estimated the carbon loss from burning and compared the carbon loss value with the tourism income ...

  15. Study on Digital Image Scrambling Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Encryption algorithm of traditional cryptology has strong safety, but the effect of encrypting images is not good. Digital image scrambling means that a digital image is transformed into a chaotic image which has no evident significance, but the operator can reconstruct the chaotic image into the original image by using the specific algorithm. Image scrambling encryption technology based on chaos theory makes use of chaotic signal to encrypt image data flow, which has the advantages of high safety, rapid encryption speed, large key space and good scrambling effect. The paper studies invalid-key and quasi invalid-key existed in chaotic sequence which is generated by Logistic map, and proposes image scrambling encryption algorithm based on mixed and chaotic sequence. The algorithm has a good robustness for the JPEG compression with the fixed coefficient, and a good fragileness for the illegal manipulation.

  16. Optical Readout Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) for a Study of Oxygen Formation In Stellar Helium Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Gai, M; Chechik, R; Dangendorf, V; Weller, H R; Gai, Moshe; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, Rachel; Dangendorf, Volker; Weller, Henry R.

    2005-01-01

    We are developing an Optical Readout Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) detector for the study of the 12C(a,g)16O reaction that determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen in helium burning. This ratio is crucial for understanding the final fate of a progenitor star and the nucleosynthesis of elements prior to a Type II supernova; an oxygen rich star is predicted to collapse to a black hole, and a carbon rich star to a neutron star. Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) are used as standard candles for measuring cosmological distances with the use of an empirical light curve-luminosity stretching factor. It is essential to understand helium burning that yields the carbon/oxygen white dwarf and thus the initial stage of SNeIa. The O-TPC is intended for use with high intensity photon beams extracted from the HIgS/TUNL facility at Duke University to study the 16O(g,a)12C reaction, and thus the direct reaction at energies as low as 0.7 MeV. We are conducting a systematical study of the best oxygen containing gas with light emitti...

  17. Excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthetic complexes and chlorophyll trefoils: hole-burning and single complex/trefoil spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryszard Jankowiak, Kansas State University, Department of Chemistry, CBC Bldg., Manhattan KS, 66505; Phone: (785) 532-6785

    2012-09-12

    In this project we studied both natural photosynthetic antenna complexes and various artificial systems (e.g. chlorophyll (Chl) trefoils) using high resolution hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy and excitonic calculations. Results obtained provided more insight into the electronic (excitonic) structure, inhomogeneity, electron-phonon coupling strength, vibrational frequencies, and excitation energy (or electron) transfer (EET) processes in several antennas and reaction centers. For example, our recent work provided important constraints and parameters for more advanced excitonic calculations of CP43, CP47, and PSII core complexes. Improved theoretical description of HB spectra for various model systems offers new insight into the excitonic structure and composition of low-energy absorption traps in very several antenna protein complexes and reaction centers. We anticipate that better understanding of HB spectra obtained for various photosynthetic complexes and their simultaneous fits with other optical spectra (i.e. absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra) provides more insight into the underlying electronic structures of these important biological systems. Our recent progress provides a necessary framework for probing the electronic structure of these systems via Hole Burning Spectroscopy. For example, we have shown that the theoretical description of non-resonant holes is more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra. We have demonstrated that simultaneous description of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provides more realistic site energies. We have also developed new algorithms to describe both nonresonant and resonant hole-burn spectra using more advanced Redfield theory. Simultaneous description of various optical spectra for complex biological system, e.g. artificial antenna systems, FMO protein complexes, water soluble protein complexes, and various mutants of reaction centers

  18. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  19. Development of Animal Model for Studying Deep Second-Degree Thermal Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle dos Santos Tavares Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal lesions were produced in 12 male Wistar rats, positioning a massive aluminum bar 10 mm in diameter (51 g, preheated to 99°C ± 2°C/10 min. on the back of each animal for 15 sec. After 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, animals were euthanized. The edema intensity was mild, with no bubble and formation of a thick and dry crust from the 3rd day. The percentage of tissue shrinkage at 28 days was 66.67 ± 1.66%. There was no sign of infection, bleeding, or secretion. Within 28 days reepithelialization was incomplete, with fibroblastic proliferation and moderate fibrosis and presence of modeled dense collagen fibers. It is concluded that the model established is applicable in obtaining deep second-degree thermal burns in order to evaluate the healing action of therapeutic agents of topical use.

  20. Image registration in gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuter, B.; Cooper, R.G. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: We have previously shown that image registration, based upon a two-dimensional cross-correlation (CC) of logarithmic Laplacian images (LLI), corrected motion in biliary studies in up to 90% of cases with minimal artifact. We have now applied the same technique to gastric emptying studies (GES). GES were acquired on an LFOV gamma camera over a two-hour period as 20-26 pairs of anterior-posterior frames (30 second duration and 64 x 64 matrix) for both solid and liquid components. All images were manually registered so that the solid contents of the stomach lay within an operator-drawn ROI. The anterior images of the solid component for 30 randomly selected patients were subjected to further image registration using CC of LLI, CC of raw images (Rl) (a common approach to image registration) and CC of Laplacian images (Ll). All images were aligned to the third image of the study, on which an ROI was drawn to outline the stomach. The number of images in which stomach counts appeared outside this ROI were tallied, in the original and all re-registered studies. Maximum displacements in X/Y position between images of studies registered by the LLI and Rl methods were also computed to directly compare positional accuracy. Stomachs partially exceeded the limits of the ROI in 27, 9, 53 and 54 frames (total of 710) in the original, LLI, Rl and Ll studies respectively. There were 4, 1, 6 and 7 studies with misregistered stomachs on more than 2 frames. Frames in seven Rl studies differed from the LLI studies in X/Y position by 3 pixels or more. Cross-correlation using LLI was the only method which improved upon the original manual registration. The Rl and Ll methods increased the number of misregistered frames. We conclude that in gastric emptying studies, as in biliary studies, object tracking by CC of LLI is the method of choice for image registration.

  1. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  2. Prevention and control of coalfield fire technology: A case study in the Antaibao Open Pit Mine goaf burning area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Kai; Zhong Xiaoxing; Wang Deming; Shi Guoqing; Wang Yanming; Shao Zhenlu

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to clearly detect the location of a burning area in a coal mine since it is hidden underground.So we conducted research on the distribution of the burning area before controlling it.Firstly,the original drilling technique was used to analyze and determine the loose and scope of caving of burning area through field test,and then obtained the gases and the temperature data in this area were according to the borehole data.By analyzing these data,we found out that the location of burning area concentrated in the loose and caving area; and finally,the location and development of the burning area within the tested area were accurately determined.Based on this theory,we used the ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out the loose and caving scale in the burning area during the control process of the burning area,and then located the fire-extinguishing boreholes within target which we used to control burning fire in the section.A mobile comprehensive fire prevention and extinguishing system based on the three-phase foam fire prevention and control technique was then adopted and conducted in the burning area which took only 9 months to extinguish the 227,000 m2 of burning area of 9# coal.This control technology and experience will provide a very important reference to the control of other coalfield fire and hillock fire in the future.

  3. Validation of the Two Standard MODIS Satellite Burned-Area Products and an Empirically-Derived Merged Product in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Philemon Tsela; Konrad Wessels; Joel Botai; Sally Archibald; Derick Swanepoel; Karen Steenkamp; Philip Frost

    2014-01-01

    The 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area products, MCD45A1, MCD64A1, and a merged product were validated across six study sites in South Africa using independently-derived Landsat burned-area reference data during the fire season of 2007. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the likelihood of the improved detection of small burns through an empirically-derived merged product; (ii) quantify the probability of detection by each product using ...

  4. Microwave Imaging of Human Forearms: Pilot Study and Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Gilmore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pilot study using a microwave tomography system in which we image the forearms of 5 adult male and female volunteers between the ages of 30 and 48. Microwave scattering data were collected at 0.8 to 1.2 GHz with 24 transmitting and receiving antennas located in a matching fluid of deionized water and table salt. Inversion of the microwave data was performed with a balanced version of the multiplicative-regularized contrast source inversion algorithm formulated using the finite-element method (FEM-CSI. T1-weighted MRI images of each volunteer’s forearm were also collected in the same plane as the microwave scattering experiment. Initial “blind” imaging results from the utilized inversion algorithm show that the image quality is dependent on the thickness of the arm’s peripheral adipose tissue layer; thicker layers of adipose tissue lead to poorer overall image quality. Due to the exible nature of the FEM-CSI algorithm used, prior information can be readily incorporated into the microwave imaging inversion process. We show that by introducing prior information into the FEM-CSI algorithm the internal anatomical features of all the arms are resolved, significantly improving the images. The prior information was estimated manually from the blind inversions using an ad hoc procedure.

  5. Calcium and ER Stress Mediate Hepatic Apoptosis after Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction post-burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis post-burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacri...

  6. Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Burn Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jawad, F.H.; Sahib, A.S.; Al-Kaisy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Burns are a major health problem worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity in addition to causing changes in the quality of life of burn patients. Utilizing antioxidant therapeutic strategies depending on new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of burns-related "oxidative stress" may be considered a promising step in burns management. This study involved 180 burn patients of varying age and either sex and with varying burns percentages. The patients were subdivided into six groups (A, ...

  7. Total level and release of silver from a nanoparticles containing dressing used in burns care – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigo C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For centuries silver and its compounds have been in use to control infection and avoid septicaemia in the care of burns and chronic wounds. Renewed interest has resulted in a number of silver-based dressings exploiting nanotechnology that are now widely employed in burns centers. Despite extensive use, a systematic study of the chemical composition, release kinetics and biochemical action of these products has yet to be published. In this work we have characterized the morphology and elemental composition of a commercial dressings containing Ag by SEM-EDS. The silver content was determined by ICP-MS to be about 1.4 mg cm-2. Release kinetics in ultra pure water, physiological saline solution and human serum substitute were then deeply investigated. The highest release rates were found in serum substitute, with a maximum of 2.6 μg hr-1 cm-2. Our results show that the mean inhibitory concentrations are exceeded for most common pathogens in serum substitute and sterile water, while the presence of high Cllevels inactivates the dressings.

  8. Reduction of burn scar formation by halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets: a controlled study on nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeplin, Philip H

    2012-03-01

    Burn scar formations can cause disfiguration and loss of dermal function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of modified silicone gel sheets with an antifibrotic drug halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface produce an effect on scar development. There were a total of 2 animal groups. The athymic nude mice (nu/nu) of both groups underwent transplantation of full-thickness human skin grafts onto their backs and setting of partial thickness burn injury. The status of local scar development was observed over a period of 3 months after the application of silicone gel sheets and also after application of surface-modified halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets. Subsequently, via real-time polymerase chain reaction, the cDNA levels from key mediators of scar formation (transforming growth factor beta, COL1A1, connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9) were established and statistically evaluated. In comparison with uncoated silicone gel sheets, the application of halofuginone-eluting silicone gel sheets lead to a significant difference in gene expression activity in scar tissue. Halofuginone-eluting hybrid surface silicone gel sheets significantly increase the antiscarring effect of adhesive silicone gel sheets by deceleration and downregulation of scar development by normalization of the expression activity.

  9. Study on Burn-In and Screening Method for 1 310 nm InGaAsP Laser Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Mei-kai; GAO Zhi-yun; LIU Bing-qi; ZUO Fang

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating burn-in and screening method of processing 1 310 nm InGaAsP of laser diodes (LDs)is introduced. It is confirmed that the theory of burn-in and screening is based on the second derivative minimum of burn-in curve, and the new testing method has been given, that is automatic current control (ACC) burn-in and automatic power control (APC) testing. This avoidably bring the errors of testing in only ACC or APC method, which need to monitor and control or test LDs power change by photo-detector (PD) at high temperature, and LDs or PDs must be into the same environment (PD will be burn-in at the same time). Through the experiment, the accelerating burn-in and screening condition of the devices has been confirmed: ACC, 200 mA,100 ℃, 8 h. This raise work efficiency 12 times than Bellcore standard and save testing fee.

  10. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation and severity of hydrofluoric acid burns vary considerably, making management particularly challenging. Given that current knowledge of HF burns is derived from small case series, case reports, animal studies and anecdotal evidence, this narrative review discusses the current understanding of the effects associated with severe hydrofluoric acid burns, describing the mechanism of injury, systemic toxicity and treatment options.

  11. Charge coupled device image sensor study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of a charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors for use in spacecraft-borne imaging systems was conducted. The study resulted in design recommendations for two sensors, an approximately 500 times 500 element imaging device and a 1 times 190 element linear imaging device with a 190 times 121 buffer store. Emphasis was placed on the higher resolution, area-imaging sensor. The objectives of the proposed sensors are listed, results of the experiments are analyzed, and estimates of the device performance are presented. A summary of the major technical recommendations is included.

  12. Effects of past burning frequency on plant species structure and composition in dry dipterocarp forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanthongchai, Dr.; Bauhus, Prof.; Goldammer, Prof.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic burning in dry dipterocarp forests (DDF) has become a common phenomenon throughout Thailand. It is feared that too frequent fires may affect vegetation structure and composition and thus impact on ecosystem productivity. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of prescribed fires on sites with different past burning regimes on vegetation structure and composition in the Huay Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (HKK), Thailand. Fire frequency was determined from satellite images and ranged from frequent, infrequent, rare and unburned with fire occurrences of 7, 2, 1 and 0 out of the past 10 years, respectively. The pre-burn fuel loads, the overstorey and understorey vegetation structure and composition were determined to investigate the effects of the contrasting past burning regimes. The burning experiment was carried out, applying a three-strip head-fire burning technique. The vegetation structure and composition were sampled again one year after the fire to assess the fire impacts. Aboveground fine fuel loads increased with the length of fire-free interval. The woody plant structures of the frequently burned stand differed from those of the other less frequently burned stands. The species composition of the overstorey on the frequently burned site, in particular that of small sized trees (4.5-10 cm dbh), also differed significantly from that of the other sites. Whilst the ground vegetation including shrubs and herbs did not differ between the past burning regimes, frequent burning obviously promoted the proliferation of graminoid vegetation. There was no clear evidence showing that the prescribed fires affected the mortality of trees (dbh> 4.5 cm) on the sites of the different past burning regimes. The effects of prescribed burning on the understorey vegetation structures varied between the past burning regimes and the understorey vegetation type. Therefore, it is recommended that the DDF at HKK should be subjected to a prescribed fire frequency

  13. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns.

  14. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  16. Domination and Composition Structure Change at Hemic Peat Natural Regeneration Following Burning; A Case Study in Pelalawan, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is the burning of the world’s living and dead vegetation, including grasslands, forests and agricultural lands following the harvest for land clearing and land-use change. One of the important information needed following this biomass burning is how long the burnt forest or land can be recovered, and how worst the changing occurred. Repeated burning occurred at the same place trend to clean the vegetation which leads to have the land with lower number and quality of species left. The research objective is to understand the vegetation changing following peat fires in the sapric peat type at the land preparation using belong to the local community located in the Pelalawan district, Riau province, Indonesia during the dry season in the year 2001. Before burning, logging, slashing, drying and burning the site was dominated by Uncaria glabrata at seedling stage, Ficus sundaica at sapling stage, Ficus sundaica at pole stage and Stenochlaena palustris at understorey. After logging, slashing and followed by 4 weeks drying then continued by burning with high flame temperature range from 900-1100oC, it had been found that 3-months following burning the site was dominated by Uncaria glabrata at seedling stage and Nephrolepis flaccigera at understorey while 6-months following burning the site was dominated by Parastemon uruphyllus at seedling stage and Erechites valeriantifolia at understorey stage.

  17. Experimental Study of Fractal Image Compression Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan R. Dudhagara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Image compression applications have been increasing in recent years. Fractal compression is a lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals. The method is best suited for textures and natural images, relying on the fact that parts of an image often resemble other parts of the same image. In this paper, a study on fractal-based image compression and fixed-size partitioning will be made, analyzed for performance and compared with a standard frequency domain based image compression standard, JPEG. Sample images will be used to perform compression and decompression. Performance metrics such as compression ratio, compression time and decompression time will be measured in JPEG cases. Also the phenomenon of resolution/scale independence will be studied and described with examples. Fractal algorithms convert these parts into mathematical data called "fractal codes" which are used to recreate the encoded image. Fractal encoding is a mathematical process used to encode bitmaps containing a real-world image as a set of mathematical data that describes the fractal properties of the image. Fractal encoding relies on the fact that all natural, and most artificial, objects contain redundant information in the form of similar, repeating patterns called fractals.

  18. Effect of a combined continuous and intermittent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception of burn patients evaluated by visual analog scale: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Ruvalcaba I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irma Pérez-Ruvalcaba,1 Viridiana Sánchez-Hernández,1 Arieh R Mercado-Sesma2,3 1Burn Unit, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, Mexican Institute of Social Security, 2Health Sciences Department, Centro Universitario de Tonalá, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico; 3Diabetes sin Complicaciones, Zapopan, Mexico Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the perception of pain in patients with burns of different types. Materials and methods: A pilot study was conducted in 14 patients (age 30.9±7.5 years with second- and third-degree burns of different types. The burn types included electrical, fire/flame, and chemical. All patients received continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation sessions three times per week for 4 weeks. Each session had a duration of 30 minutes. A pair of electrodes were placed around the burn. The primary efficacy endpoint was the perception of pain assessed by a visual analog scale at baseline and at the 30th day. Results: A significant reduction of pain perception was reported (8.0±1.7 vs 1.0±0.5; P=0.027 by all patients after electrical stimulation therapy. There were no reports of adverse events during the intervention period. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation could be a potential nonpharmacological therapeutic option for pain management in burn patients. Keywords: TENS, burn pain, pain management, electrotherapy

  19. The biomass burning aerosol influence on precipitation over the Central Amazon: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Gonçalves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the aerosol influence on clouds and precipitation is an important key to reduce uncertainties in simulations of climate change scenarios with regards to deforestation fires. Here, we associate rainfall characteristics obtained by an S-Band radar in the Amazon with in situ measurements of biomass burning aerosols for the entire year of 2009. The most important results were obtained during the dry semester (July–December. The results indicate that the aerosol influence on precipitating systems is modulated by the atmospheric instability degree. For stable atmospheres, the higher the aerosol concentration, the lower the precipitation over the region. On the other hand, for unstable cases, higher concentrations of particulate material are associated with more precipitation, elevated presence of ice and larger rain cells, which suggests an association with long lived systems. The results presented were statistically significant. However, due to the limitation imposed by the dataset used, some important features such as wet scavenging and droplet size distribution need further clarification. Regional climate model simulations in addition with new field campaigns could aggregate information to the aerosol/precipitation relationship.

  20. Experimental and numerical studies of a lean-burn internally-staged combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhenbo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A lean-burn internally-staged combustor for low emissions that can be used in civil aviation gas turbines is introduced in this paper. The main stage is designed and optimized in terms of fuel evaporation ratio, fuel/air pre-mixture uniformity, and particle residence time using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD software. A single-module rectangular combustor is adopted in performance tests including lean ignition, lean blowout, combustion efficiency, emissions, and combustion oscillation using aviation kerosene. Furthermore, nitrogen oxides (NOx emission is also predicted using CFD simulation to compare with test results. Under normal inlet temperature, this combustor can be ignited easily with normal and negative inlet pressures. The lean blowout fuel/air ratio (LBO FAR at the idle condition is 0.0049. The fuel split proportions between the pilot and main stages are determined through balancing emissions, combustion efficiency, and combustion oscillation. Within the landing and take-off (LTO cycle, this combustor enables 42% NOx reduction of the standard set by the 6th Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/6 with high combustion efficiency. The maximum board-band pressure oscillations of inlet air and fuel are below 1% of total pressure during steady-state operations at the LTO cycle specific conditions.

  1. Experimental and numerical studies of a lean-burn internally-staged combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Zhenbo; Lin Yuzhen; Li Lin; Zhang Chi

    2014-01-01

    A lean-burn internally-staged combustor for low emissions that can be used in civil avi-ation gas turbines is introduced in this paper. The main stage is designed and optimized in terms of fuel evaporation ratio, fuel/air pre-mixture uniformity, and particle residence time using commer-cial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. A single-module rectangular combustor is adopted in performance tests including lean ignition, lean blowout, combustion efficiency, emis-sions, and combustion oscillation using aviation kerosene. Furthermore, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission is also predicted using CFD simulation to compare with test results. Under normal inlet temperature, this combustor can be ignited easily with normal and negative inlet pressures. The lean blowout fuel/air ratio (LBO FAR) at the idle condition is 0.0049. The fuel split proportions between the pilot and main stages are determined through balancing emissions, combustion efficiency, and combustion oscillation. Within the landing and take-off (LTO) cycle, this combustor enables 42%NOx reduction of the standard set by the 6th Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/6) with high combustion efficiency. The maximum board-band pressure oscillations of inlet air and fuel are below 1%of total pressure during steady-state operations at the LTO cycle specific conditions.

  2. Comparative study of Low-level laser therapy and microcurrent on the healing of skin burns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu Freitas

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated and compared the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT and microcurrent in the burn healing process in Wistar rats. We conducted a randomized controlled study with 30 rats divided into 3 groups (n = 10; control group (CG, laser group (LG and microcurrent group (MG. After thermal damage, 10 applications of 660 nm diode laser were performed in GL and 10 applications of 60 Hz microcurrent (160 μA in MG. The semi-quantitative histological analysis was done using scores (0–3, in sections stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome. The results indicated a significant improvement in the fibroblasts proliferation, collagen fibers deposition, neoangiogenesis, and cutaneous appendages regeneration in MG and LG. When microcurrent and LLLT were compared, no difference was detected, except the regeneration and formation of new cutaneous appendages, observed in MG. Despite the similar effects, GM showed faster tissue repair with the formation of skin appendages.

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1 in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2 in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  4. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  5. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  6. Green and ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Characterization, biocompatibility studies and gel formulation for treatment of infections in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Kiran; Dhamecha, Dinesh; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Patil, Mrityunjaya

    2016-02-01

    The current study summarizes a unique green process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by simple treatment of silver nitrate with aqueous extract of Ammania baccifera. Phytosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by various advanced analytical methods and studied for its use against infections associated with burns. Formation of AgNPs was observed by visual color change from colorless to dark brown and confirmed by UV-visible characteristic peak at 436 nm. Zeta potential, particle size and polydispersity index of nano-silver were found to be -33.1 ± 1.12, 112.6 ± 6.8 nm and 0.3 ± 0.06 respectively. XRD spectra revealed crystalline nature of AgNPs whereas TEM confirmed the presence of mixed morphology of AgNPs. The overall approach designated in the present research investigation for the synthesis of AgNPs is based on all 12 principles of green chemistry, in which no man-made chemical other than the silver nitrate was used. Synthesized nano-silver colloidal dispersion was initially tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against a panel of organisms involved in infections associated with burns (Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA)). MIC and MBC were found to be in range of 0.992 to 7.93 and 7.93 to 31.75 μg/mL respectively. MBC was used for formulation of AgNP gel and tested for its efficacy using agar well diffusion method against PA, SA and MRSA. Comparative bactericidal efficacy of formulated gel (0.03% w/w) and marked formulation Silverex™ ionic (silver nitrate gel 0.2% w/w) showed equal zone of inhibition against all pathogenic bacteria. Formulated AgNP gel consisting of 95% lesser concentration of silver compared to marketed formulation was found to be equally effective against all organisms. Hence, the formulated AgNP gel could serve as a better alternative with least toxicity towards the treatment presently available for

  7. Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Candidate Companion Below/Near the Deuterium-Burning Limit In The Young Binary Star System, ROXs 42B

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Debes, John; Lafreniere, David; Itoh, Yoichi; Jayawardhana, Ray; Ratzka, Thorsten; Correia, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared high-contrast imaging photometry and integral field spectroscopy of ROXs 42B, a binary M0 star member of the 1--3 Myr-old $\\rho$ Ophiuchus star-forming region from data collected over a 7 year span. Each data set reveals a faint companion (hereafter ROXs 42Bb) located $\\sim$ 1.16" ($r_{proj}$ $\\approx$ 150 $AU$) from the primaries. ROXs 42Bb's astrometry is inconsistent with a background star but consistent with a bound companion, possibly one with detected orbital motion. The most recent data set reveals a second candidate companion at $\\sim$ 0.5" of roughly equal brightness. ROXs 42Bb's $H$ and $K_{s}$ band photometry is similar to dusty/cloudy young late M/early L dwarfs with masses at or below the deuterium-burning limit. $K$-band VLT/SINFONI spectroscopy shows ROXs 42Bb to be a cool substellar object (M8--L0; $T_{eff}$ $\\approx$ 1800--2600 $K$), not a background dwarf star, with a spectral shape indicative of young, low surface gravity companions with masses at/below the deuteriu...

  8. A Study of Algorithm of Forest Fire Burn Scar Detection Based on HJ Satellite Data%基于环境减灾小卫星数据的森林火灾迹地检测算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏然; 刘良明; 曹庭进; 周正

    2012-01-01

    森林火灾迹地是森林火灾的基本描述因子之一,是评估森林火灾严重程度的重要资料.本文基于环境减灾小卫星数据的特性,提出将GEMI指数作为火灾迹地检测指数;为了降低利用单幅影像进行火灾迹地检测时云污染现象对检测精度造成的影响,构建时序GEMI指数合成方法;并进一步提出适用于坏境减灾小卫星数据的基于时序合成GEMI影像的火灾迹地检测算法;最后,将算法应用于2009年4月发生在中国黑龙江的森林火灾,检测结果表明该算法能准确地反映出森林火灾过火区域.%Forest fire burn scar is one of the basic description factors of forest fire and important information to assess the intensity of forest fire. Based on the features of HJ satellite data,this paper proposed GEMI as the burn scar detection index. In order to reduce impact on detection accuracy which is caused by cloud contamination when using single image,a time series GEMI images synthesis method is constructed (applying to HJ satellite data, a burn scar detection algorithm based on the composed GEMI image has also been developed. Finally, a case study is carried out for the forest fire occurred in April 2003 in Hei-longjiang, China. The detection results shown that this algorithm can reflect the fire area accurately.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.

    2014-11-01

    Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Time-series regression was applied to MODIS fire products at variable spatial scales in GIS. Significance of change in fire frequency at each grid level was tested using t statistic. Spatial clustering of higher or lower fire incidences across study area was determined using Getis-OrdGi statistic. Maximum fire incidences were encountered in moist mixed deciduous forests (46%) followed by secondary moist bamboo brakes (30%). In most parts of the study area fire incidences peaked during March while in warmer parts (e.g. Mon district dominated by indigenous people) fire activity starts as early as during November and peaks in January. Regression trend analysis captured noticeable areas with statistically significant positive (e.g. Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon, Tuensang and Kiphire districts) and negative (e.g. Kohima and north-western part of Mokokchung district) inter-annual fire frequency trends based on area-based aggregation of fire occurrences at different grid sizes. Localization of spatial clusters of high fire incidences was observed in Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon,Tuensang and Kiphire districts.

  10. [Simulation Study of the Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Sugar Alcohols from Biomass Burning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Huang, Xin-yi; Wu, Shui-ping; Hu, Qing-hua; Chen, Xiao-qiu

    2015-10-01

    To measure the emission factors of PM2.5 and its associated PAHs and sugar alcohols, Chinese red pine stick and four crop straw including rice, wheat, corn and cotton were burned in a chamber. In addition, the kinetics of certain compounds were obtained through the irradiation of the glass filters with PM2.5 loading by 500 W mercury lamp. The emission factors of PM2.5 were ranged from (2.26 ± 0.60) g x kg(-1) (Chinese red pine stick) to (14.33 ± 5.26) g x kg(-1) (corn straw). Although the emission factors of the total 19 PAHs differed from (0.82 ± 0.21) mg x kg(-1) (Chinese red pine stick) to (11.14 ± 5.69) mg x kg(-1) (cotton straw), 4 ring PAHs showed predominance over other PAHs accounting for 51% - 71% except Chinese red pine in which retene was the predominant compound. The emission factors of 9 sugar alcohols were ranged from (52.34 ± 50.16) mg x kg(-1) (rice straw) to (238.81 ± 33.62) mg x kg(-1) (wheat straw) with levoglucosan accounting for 72% - 96% of the total sugar alcohols. Both the selected PAHs and levoglucosan associated with PM2.5 followed the first order kinetics. The photolysis kinetic coefficient of PAHs (ring number ≥ 4) was decreased with the increase of PAHs loading in filters. Two PAHs source characteristic ratios such as Flua/( Flua + Py) and IP/(IP + BgP) were relative stable during the irradiation. The photolysis kinetic coefficient of levoglucosan (0.004 5 min(-1)) was comparable to benzo[a]anthracene (0.004 1 - 0.005 0 min(-1)). PMID:26841587

  11. The clinical efficacy of Diphoterine® in the management of cutaneous chemical burns: a 2-year evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack-Williams, S D L; Ahmad, Z; Moiemen, N S

    2015-03-31

    Diphoterine(®) is an amphoteric irrigating agent for the treatment of chemical burns and rapidly neutralises both acids and alkalis faster than water alone. Diphoterine(®) is widely used as a first aid agent in a wide range of industries globally. This is a retrospective review of the clinical use of Diphoterine(®) on chemical burns in an adult tertiary referral burn centre, often with a delay of several hours after the injury. patients admitted with chemical burns within 24 hours of the incident with an abnormal wound pH or in pain, were treated with Diphoterine(®) spray. Over a 32-month period, 1,875 burn referrals were admitted of which 131 (7%) were chemical burns. Diphoterine(®) was used in 47 patients (36%). The male to female ratio for the 131 patients was 4:1. Alkaline burns were the commonest (55%). patients who received Diphoterine(®) were significantly younger (38 vs 43 years; p=0.05) and presented earlier (0.5 vs 2.55 days; p=0.004). There was a significant change in the wound pH pre- and post-application of Diphoterine(®), compared to patients who were treated with water irrigation only, with a pH change of 1.076 vs 0.4 (p burns.

  12. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-01-01

    A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. ...

  13. Microparticles of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan: microscopic, a nuclear imaging and an in vivo test analysis for burn treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Albernaz, Martha S; Canema, Daniel; Weismüller, Gilberto; Barros, Eduardo Bede; Magalhães, Luciana; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-02-01

    The use of drug-loaded nanoparticles and microparticles has been increasing, especially for cosmetic and drug delivery purposes. In this work, a new microparticle formulation was developed for use in the healing process of skin burns in a composition of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan. In order to observe the morphological properties, Raman and atomic force microscopy evaluation were performed. The biodistribution studies were analyzed by using a nuclear methodology, labeling the microparticles with Technetium-99m and in vivo test was procedure to analyzed the cicatrization process. The results of AFM analysis show the formation and the adherence property of the microparticles. Raman analyses show the distribution of each component in the microparticle. The nuclear method used shows that the biodistribution of the microparticles remained in the skin. The in vivo cicatrization test showed that the poloxamer gel containing the microparticles make a better cicatrization in relation to the other formulations tested. PMID:24211657

  14. Automated image registration for FDOPA PET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Yu, Dan-Chu; Melega, William; Barrio, Jorge R.; Phelps, Michael E.

    1996-12-01

    In this study, various image registration methods are investigated for their suitability for registration of L-6-[18F]-fluoro-DOPA (FDOPA) PET images. Five different optimization criteria including sum of absolute difference (SAD), mean square difference (MSD), cross-correlation coefficient (CC), standard deviation of pixel ratio (SDPR), and stochastic sign change (SSC) were implemented and Powell's algorithm was used to optimize the criteria. The optimization criteria were calculated either unidirectionally (i.e. only evaluating the criteria for comparing the resliced image 1 with the original image 2) or bidirectionally (i.e. averaging the criteria for comparing the resliced image 1 with the original image 2 and those for the sliced image 2 with the original image 1). Monkey FDOPA images taken at various known orientations were used to evaluate the accuracy of different methods. A set of human FDOPA dynamic images was used to investigate the ability of the methods for correcting subject movement. It was found that a large improvement in performance resulted when bidirectional rather than unidirectional criteria were used. Overall, the SAD, MSD and SDPR methods were found to be comparable in performance and were suitable for registering FDOPA images. The MSD method gave more adequate results for frame-to-frame image registration for correcting subject movement during a dynamic FDOPA study. The utility of the registration method is further demonstrated by registering FDOPA images in monkeys before and after amphetamine injection to reveal more clearly the changes in spatial distribution of FDOPA due to the drug intervention.

  15. Advances in the research of laser Doppler perfusion imaging in burn wounds%激光多普勒血流灌注成像在烧伤创面中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 许龙顺; 胡大海; 屈怡; 王国栋; 王洪涛

    2014-01-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI)works through the Doppler effect of light wave,and it could depict the blood flow value of the entire wound in two-dimensional image without contacting the detection site directly.In resent years,LDPI has been proved to be effective to evaluate healing potential of a wound,and to predict burn depth and scar formation.The accuracy of LDPI is higher than other traditional methods and technique.However,there are still many influencing factors for the clinical application of LDPI scanning.This paper presents a comprehensive overview of advances in the research of LDPI for clinical application in the care of burn wounds and influencing factors for accurate scanning.

  16. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  17. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  18. Optical characteristics of biomass burning and desert dust over the Western Mediterranean during summer: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, Sara; Sicart, Michaël; María Baldasano, José; Lane, Diego; Comerón, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    The present contribution reports on the aerosol vertical distributions in Barcelona (Spain) which were obtained when very high aerosol concentrations were observed on summer 2012. An EARLINET lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer located in Barcelona performed intensive measurements in the framework of the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) project. The data that were collected allow the characterization of the optical properties of the aerosols in this region, benefiting from the synergy of various remote sensing instruments. Due to its location in the Mediterranean basin, Barcelona metropolitan area is influenced by two major aerosol source regions: Europe and the Western Mediterranean Basin, as a major source of anthropogenic pollutants, and North Africa, as a principal source of natural dust. As a result, the composition of atmospheric aerosols in Barcelona station is a mixing of aerosols. During the period between 1 - 2 July, AOD reached high values (~ 0.5). In addition to anthropogenic local contributions, other aerosols long-range transported were also detected. Between 1 - 3 July, strong forest fires occurred in Alicante where advected to Barcelona area. On the other hand, between 28th June and 1st July, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula was affected by the intrusion of Saharan dust. The presence of Saharan dust was successfully forecasted by the BSC-DREAM8b dust regional model. MODIS and AERONET data, as well as air-mass backward trajectories confirmed the existence of biomass burning and desert dust in the case examined. Desert dust was detected between 2 and 4 km (above sea level, a.s.l) with maximum dust concentrations at ~ 4 km a.s.l on 1st June. On the other hand, favourable meteorological conditions made possible that biomass burning from Alicante was southern advected to Barcelona during the study period.

  19. The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-lin

    2009-01-01

    Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.

  20. Study of ignition, combustion, and production of harmful substances upon burning solid organic fuel at a test bench with a vortex chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Greben'kov, P. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Results of investigation of furnace processes upon burning of pulverized fuel at a test bench with a power of 5 MW are presented. The test bench consists of two stages with tangential air and pulverized coal feed, and it is equipped by a vibrocentrifugal mill and a disintegrator. Such milling devices have an intensive mechanical impact on solid organic fuel, which, in a number of cases, increases the reactivity of ground material. The processes of ignition and stable combustion of a mixture of gas coal and sludge (wastes of concentration plant), as well as Ekibastus coal, ground in the disintegrator, were studied at the test bench. The results of experimental burning demonstrated that preliminary fuel grinding in the disintegrator provides autothermal combustion mode even for hardly inflammable organic fuels. Experimental combustion of biomass, wheat straw with different lignin content (18, 30, 60%) after grinding in the disintegrator, was performed at the test bench in order to determine the possibility of supporting stable autothermal burning. Stable biofuel combustion mode without lighting by highly reactive fuel was achieved in the experiments. The influence of the additive GTS-Powder (L.O.M. Leaders Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea) in the solid and liquid state on reducing sulfur oxide production upon burning Mugun coal was studied. The results of experimental combustion testify that, for an additive concentration from 1 to 15% of the total mass of the burned mixture, the maximum SO2 concentration reduction in ejected gases was not more than 18% with respect to the amount for the case of burning pure coal.

  1. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  2. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual....... Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context of the...... Greek fire-walking rituals. As a cognitive ethnography, the book aims to identify the social, psychological and neurobiological factors which may be involved and to explore the role of emotional and physiological arousal in the performance of such ritual. A study of participation, experience and meaning...

  3. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  4. Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Kumari; Gaurav Pushkarna

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse) noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurredness are th...

  5. Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti; Gaurav Pushkarna

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse) noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurrednes...

  6. A STUDY ON ROLE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF TOPICAL OINTMENT AND ITS OUTCOME AMONG BURN PATIENTS : AN INTERESTING FOLLOW UP STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita; Kamlesh; Avinash; Singh,; Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    Burn injury causes major bulk of the surgical emergencies. Burn infection makes the burn wound complicated causes considerable mortality and morbidity. Timely and effective use of antimicrobial and topical dressings revolutionizes burn care by decreasing invasive wound infection. The administration of broad - spectrum antibiotics on routine basis is likely to en courage. The emergence of resistant organism therefore, timely and judicial use of antibiotics is essenti...

  7. One-year study of nitro-organic compounds and their relation to wood burning in PM10 aerosol from a rural site in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnt, Ariane; Behrouzi, Shabnam; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Safi Shalamzari, Mohammad; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward; Claeys, Magda; Maenhaut, Willy

    2013-12-01

    Nitro-organic compounds were determined in a one-year set of atmospheric PM10 filter samples that were collected at a rural background site in Hamme, Belgium. In an earlier study, it was found that the site was substantially impacted by wood burning, making the filter samples appropriate for further investigations on wood burning indicators. In total, four groups of nitro-aromatic compounds (with molecular weights (MWs) of 139, 155, 169, and 183), α-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295), and the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DHAA, MW 300) were quantified using liquid chromatography combined with negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The annual mean concentrations were 0.94, 6.0, 7.7, 4.8, 7.8, and 1.76 ng m-3 for the sum of the nitrophenols (MW 139), 4-nitrocatechol (MW 155), the sums of the methyl-nitrocatechols (MW 169), of the dimethyl-nitrocatechols (MW 183), and of the α-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295), and DHAA (MW 300), respectively. 4-nitrocatechol, the sum of the methyl-nitrocatechols, and the sum of the dimethyl-nitrocatechols were substantially correlated with levoglucosan (r-values of 0.71, 0.66, and 0.65, respectively), consistent with their proposed origin from biomass burning. The nitro-aromatic compounds were also observed during the summer months, indicating a non-negligible usage of wood burning for domestic purposes at the site. The α-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295) were detected in high concentrations during the winter period, but they were poorly correlated with the biomass burning tracers. All of the targeted species showed a clear seasonal variation with highest concentrations in winter, followed by autumn, spring, and summer. Based on the DHAA measurements, it is suggested that burning of softwood is likely an important source for the formation of all the nitro-organic compounds measured.

  8. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  9. Comparative Study of Image Denoising Algorithms in Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Kumari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a basic scheme for understanding the fundamentals of digital image processing and the image denising algorithm. There are three basic operation categorized on during image processing i.e. image rectification and restoration, enhancement and information extraction. Image denoising is the basic problem in digital image processing. The main task is to make the image free from Noise. Salt & pepper (Impulse noise and the additive white Gaussian noise and blurredness are the types of noise that occur during transmission and capturing. For denoising the image there are some algorithms which denoise the image.

  10. Study on Image Quality Improvement Methods for Underwater Imaging Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Underwater survey systems have numerous scientific or industrial applications in the fields of geology, biology, mining, and archeology. These application fields involve various tasks such as ecological studies, environmental damage assessment, and ancient prospection. During two decades, underwater imaging systems are mainly equipped by Underwater Vehicles (UV) for surveying in water or ocean. Challenges associated with obtaining visibility of objects have been difficult to overcome due to t...

  11. Robust diffusion imaging framework for clinical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Maximov, Ivan I; Neuner, Irene; Shah, N Jon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diffusion imaging requires short acquisition times and good image quality to permit its use in various medical applications. In turn, these demands require the development of a robust and efficient post-processing framework in order to guarantee useful and reliable results. However, multiple artefacts abound in in vivo measurements; from either subject such as cardiac pulsation, bulk head motion, respiratory motion and involuntary tics and tremor, or imaging hardware related problems, such as table vibrations, etc. These artefacts can severely degrade the resulting images and render diffusion analysis difficult or impossible. In order to overcome these problems, we developed a robust and efficient framework enabling the use of initially corrupted images from a clinical study. At the heart of this framework is an improved least trimmed squares diffusion tensor estimation algorithm that works well with severely degraded datasets with low signal-to-noise ratio. This approach has been compared with other...

  12. Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Iran: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; M. Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury remains a serious and devastating issue faced by developing countries. It is also true, however, that the developed world still tackles many of the challenges caused by burns. In order to reduce this problem through preventive programs, the characteristics of this type of injury must be studied and well documented in each setting. Our study aims to show the epidemiology, demographic distribution and clinical outcomes of burns patients referred to Motahari Burn Hospital, the burn c...

  13. Aetiology and Outcome of Elderly Burn Patients in Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H. Maghsoudi; Ghaffari, A

    2009-01-01

    Background. Geriatric patients, usually defined as being 65 years of age or over, now make up about 10% of the major burn population. Main aim. To conduct a prospective study of elderly burn patients, analysing the predictive value of age, gender, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation trauma, pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. Methods. A 10-year prospective study of burn victims hospitalized in a major burn centre in Iran was conducted to analyse the association between age, pe...

  14. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    2003-01-01

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2 grou

  15. Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somboonwong Juraiporn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1 untreated; (2 NSS-; (3 Tween 20®- (vehicle control; (4 hexane extract-; (5 ethyl acetate extract-; (6 methanol extract-; and (7 aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation. Results On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®, but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents β-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to

  16. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  17. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: A study using satellite data and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.

  18. Mortality and Morbidity of Fireworks-Related Burns on the Annual Last Wednesday of the Year Festival (Charshanbeh Soori in Iran: An 11-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mobayen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of firework-related injuries is costly for the patient, society, and government.Objectives: Evaluating effective factors yielding to such injuries may lead to better management of patients and decreased costs and morbidities.Patients and Materials: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on burn patients referred to Shahid Motahari Burns Hospital on Charshanbeh Soori day festival during the period extending from March 2000 to March 2011 (11 days in an 11-year period. Demographic data, causes of burn injury, severity, and affected body parts were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.Results: There were164 patients in the study with a mean age of 18.34 ± 9.31 years; 87% (145/164 were male. Homemade grenades were the most frequent cause of injury. Hand injury was reported in 56% (92/164 of the cases. Amputation was executed in 7 (4.3% cases, and 6 (3.7% patients died due to severe burn injuries and facial damage.Conclusions: Fireworks- related injuries during Charshanbeh Soori ceremony causes significant morbidities and damage to different body parts (especially upper limbs and face, and some of these injuries will lead to life time disabilities, amputations, and even death. As most of the injured patients are young teenagers and children, special consideration must be taken into account to prevent long term morbidities.

  19. 烧伤患者真菌感染分析%A clinical study of fungal infection in burn patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗高兴; 吴军; 张家平; 罗奇志; 黄跃生; 彭毅志; 聂志宏; 张晓兵; 庄颖; 袁志强; 张立辉; 周秘; 程文广

    2009-01-01

    Objective To address the features of the fungal infection after burn injury in clinic.Methods Three thousand nine hundred and nine bum patients admitted to our institute from Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2006 were involved in this study. Two thousand two hundred and seventy-one samples were harvested for fungal detection by culture from 467 patients suspected to be infected by fungi based on their clinic mani-festations. The collected samples included wound tissue, blood, urine, stool, sputum, catheters and others.The antibiotic sensitivity of the identified fungi were determined by routine method. When same kind of fun-gus was found from different samples taken from one patient, it was recorded as one positive sample. The samples were ranked in an ascending order as wound secretion, stool, urine, sputum and bronchia alveolar lavage fluid, arteriovenous catheter or urinary catheter, blood. Only the positive sample of the highest rank source was recorded as the positive strain of fungus from this particular patient. Results It was found 61 fungal positive samples from the 2271 samples collected. Out of 467 patients, 38 strains of fungi were detec-ted from 36 bum patients during the investigated period, the incidence was O. 92% (36/3909). The most three commonest types among the identified 38 strains of fungi were Candida tropicalis (42.1%), Candida albicans (31.6%) and Candida famata (T. Famata, 10.5% ). The drug sensitivity tests demonstrated that most of the strains detected in this investigation, with the exception of candida galbrata, were sensitive to most of the routine antimyeotics agents such as Amphotericin B, Fluconazol, and ltraconazole etc. Among the 36 fungus positive patients, in 18 patients the burn area exceeded 80% TBSA, 12 patients with 50%-79% TBSA, 4 patients with 30% -49% TBSA, and in 2 patients the burn area was smaller than 30% TBSA. It was found most of the fungal infections(77.78% ) occurred 2 weeks after burn injury, and 8 of the 36 fun

  20. Characterization of third-degree burned skin by nonlinear microscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Moisés O.; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Correa, Paulo R.; Zorn, Telma Maria T.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear microscopy imaging technique enable take both images of collagen fibers in dermis through second harmonic generation (SHG) signal and elastic fibers by two-photon emission fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM). These techniques are the most commonly used technique for turbid and thick tissue imaging and also to image biological samples which presents highly ordered structural proteins without any exogenous label. The objective of this study is characterizing dermis of third-degree burned skin by TPEFM and SHG technique. The modelocked laser (Spectra Physics) source used in this study with pulse width of approximately 100 fs at 80 MHz was directed into a multiphoton microscope using a laser scanning unit (Olympus Fluoview 300), mounted on an inverted confocal system microscope (Olympus IX81), with focusing objective (40x, NA = 1.30). The samples were obtained from Wistar rats, male, adult. One dorsum area was submitted to burn caused by vapour exposure. The biopsies obtained were cryosectioned in slices of 20 μm width. Selected area of interface between the injured and healthy subdermal burned skin were imaged by TPEFM and SHG technique. Two different autofluorescence signals are observed as a function of excitation wavelength. The autofluorescence observed at 760 nm and 690 nm suggest components of extracellular matrix at differents depths. In SHG images, collagen fibers are visible. According to the images obtained, these methodologies can be used to characterize dermis of burned tissue as its healing process with reduced out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity.

  1. Protocol of study and pursuit of the radioinduced burns; Protocolo de estudio y seguimiento de las quemaduras radioinducidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portas, Mercedes; Glustein, Daniel; Pomerane, Armando; Peragallo, Mabel; Guzman, Alejandra; Ciordia, Irma [Hospital de Quemados de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Comite de Radiopatologia; Genovese, Jorge [Laboratorio Craveri, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Ingenieria de Tejidos; Cymberknoh, Manuel [Centro de Investigaciones Mamarias, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Teletermografia; Dubner, Diana; Michelin, Severino; Perez, Maria del Rosario; Trano, Jose Luis Di; Gisone, Pablo [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Radiopatologia

    2001-07-01

    A study of localized overexposures based on local experience and international criteria is being carried out within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burned Hospital and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This protocol was designed considering separately acute and chronic reactions, including the following aspects: patient reception: clinical findings, laboratory tests, photographic recording, and multidisciplinary evaluation; dose reconstruction: evaluation of the dose distribution by biophysical and biological procedures; extension and depth estimation: telethermography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, radioisotopic procedures, capillaroscopy and percutaneous oxymetry; therapeutic strategies: pain treatment, prevention of infections, systemic administration of pentoxiphyllin and alpha-tocopherol, local application of trolamine and antioxidants, prevention and treatment of radioinduced fibrosis. When it is indicated, surgical treatment includes partial or total excision followed by covering by graft or flap. The application of tissue-engineering techniques will be considered. Study of individual radiosensitivity: evaluation of apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes and clonogenic assays in dermal fibroblasts 'in vitro' irradiated. (author)

  2. A case study on biomass burning aerosols: effects on solar UV irradiance, retrieval of aerosol single scattering albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bagheri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol optical depth (AOD from biomass burning aerosols from eastern Europe was measured in Trondheim, Norway (63.43° N , 10.43° E in May 2006. The event was observed as far as the Arctic. In the first part of this paper, the surface measurements of direct and global UV radiation (and retrieved AOD are used to simulate the data using a radiative transfer model. Measured and simulated data were used to study the effect of biomass aerosol on the levels of surface UV radiation. We found reductions of up to 31%, 15% and 2% in direct, global and diffuse surface UV irradiance (at 350 nm, SZA=50°±0.5° as compared to typical aerosol conditions. In the second part of our study, surface measurements of global and direct irradiance at five wavelength in UVB and UVA (305, 313, 320, 340 and 380 nm were coupled with a radiative transfer model to produce values of aerosol single scattering albedo, ω. The aerosol single scattering albedo for biomass aerosols is compared to ω for background aerosols. The values of ω for biomass aerosols were 0.76 at 305 nm, 0.75 at 313 nm, 0.79 at 320 nm, 0.72 at 340 nm and 0.80 at 380 nm.

  3. Burn treatment in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, M; Lumenta, D B; Andel, H; Kamolz, L P; Frey, M

    2009-12-01

    The population of elderly patients is expected to rise continuously over the next decades due to global demographic changes. The elderly seem to be most vulnerable to burns and their management remains undoubtedly a challenge. A clear age margin for elderly patients is not yet defined, but most studies adhere to the inclusion of patients 65 years and above, but the general condition and social situation must be taken into account. The understanding of the physiological basis of aging and its related pathophysiological changes has only marginally influenced treatment and decision making in elderly burn patients. When looking at treatment regimens currently applied in elderly burn patients, the discussion of standards in intensive care as well as surgical strategies is ongoing. However, trends towards a moderate, non-aggressive resuscitation approach and careful inclusion of key parameters like physiological age, pre-burn functional status and premorbid conditions, seem to be useful guidelines for interdisciplinary treatment decisions. Once ordered for surgical treatment, the amount of body surface area operated in one session should be adapted to the general status of the patient. Even if older burn victims have a reported higher mortality rate than younger patients, improved therapeutic options have contributed to a reduced mortality rate even in the elderly over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will give an overview of the current literature and will draw attention to specific topics related to this important subpopulation of burn patients.

  4. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Norbury, William B.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn ...

  5. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dzepina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m−3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%, followed by sulfate (21% and nitrate (17%. Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80 with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25 collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100–1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers

  6. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns ... home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your ...

  7. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and tend to be more severe and cover a larger portion of the body than other scald burns. 9 10 11 A survey found that only 8 percent of adults felt ...

  8. Efficacy of a children’s procedural preparation and distraction device on healing in acute burn wound care procedures: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Nadia J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intense pain and anxiety triggered by burns and their associated wound care procedures are well established in the literature. Non-pharmacological intervention is a critical component of total pain management protocols and is used as an adjunct to pharmacological analgesia. An example is virtual reality, which has been used effectively to dampen pain intensity and unpleasantness. Possible links or causal relationships between pain/anxiety/stress and burn wound healing have previously not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate these relationships, specifically by determining if a newly developed multi-modal procedural preparation and distraction device (Ditto™ used during acute burn wound care procedures will reduce the pain and anxiety of a child and increase the rate of re-epithelialization. Methods/design Children (4 to 12 years with acute burn injuries presenting for their first dressing change will be randomly assigned to either the (1 Control group (standard distraction or (2 Ditto™ intervention group (receiving Ditto™, procedural preparation and Ditto™ distraction. It is intended that a minimum of 29 participants will be recruited for each treatment group. Repeated measures of pain intensity, anxiety, stress and healing will be taken at every dressing change until complete wound re-epithelialization. Further data collection will aid in determining patient satisfaction and cost effectiveness of the Ditto™ intervention, as well as its effect on speed of wound re-epithelialization. Discussion Results of this study will provide data on whether the disease process can be altered by reducing stress, pain and anxiety in the context of acute burn wounds. Trial registration ACTRN12611000913976

  9. Pediatric Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Children have unique physiologic, physical, psychological, and social needs compared with adults. Although adhering to the basic tenets of burn resuscitation, resuscitation of the burned child should be modified based on the child's age, physiology, and response to injury. This article outlines the unique characteristics of burned children and describes the fundamental principles of pediatric burn resuscitation in terms of airway, circulatory, neurologic, and cutaneous injury management. PMID:27600126

  10. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  11. Regenerative Medicine: Novel Approach in Burn Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Context Burn wounds of the skin require a long period to healing, which very often is incomplete, with functional and esthetic consequences for the patients. Stem cells in the traumatized tissue represent the promoters of the healing process and are a primary focus for regenerative medicine, which aims to find and use the triggers for the activation of stem cells of sin tissue. Evidence Acquisition At present, tissue engineering, composite epithelial autografts, multipotent stem cells and combined gene delivery with stem cell therapy are the approaches used in regenerative medicine. Alongside, the development of 3D scaffolds or matrices is a promising adjunct, as studies investigate the multiple uses of these supports for wound repair. Results Application of cells to the burn wound could be performed, either by the bedside, as a non-invasive procedure, or in the operating room, with the use of a matrix, scaffold or dermal substitute. Cell spraying, although under use in clinical setting, is not yet supported by conclusive data. Magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging and positron emission tomography are currently used to assess the viability and location of stem cells, after transplantation. Conclusions Stem cell therapies in wound care may lessen the morbidities associated with wound healing. An ideal method for the effective administration of stem cells for burn patients has not yet been elucidated. Further comparison of the local and systemic effects in burn patients, associated with each route of stem cell delivery, needs to be performed.

  12. Biometric study using hyperspectral imaging during stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Sheela; Quoraishee, Shafik; Chan, Gabriel; Short, Kenneth R.

    2010-04-01

    To the casual observer, transient stress results in a variety of physiological changes that can be seen in the face. Although the conditions can be seen visibly, the conditions affect the emissivity and absorption properties of the skin, which imaging spectrometers, commonly referred to as Hyperspectral (HS) cameras, can quantify at every image pixel. The study reported on in this paper, using Hyperspectral cameras, provides a basis for continued study of HS imaging to eventually quantify biometric stress. This study was limited to the visible to near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Signal processing tools and algorithms have been developed and are described for using HS face data from human subjects. The subjects were placed in psychologically stressful situations and the camera data were analyzed to detect stress through changes in dermal reflectance and emissivity. Results indicate that hyperspectral imaging may potentially serve as a non-invasive tool to measure changes in skin emissivity indicative of a stressful incident. Particular narrow spectral bands in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum seem especially important. Further studies need to be performed to determine the optimal spectral bands and to generalize the conclusions. The enormous information available in hyperspectral imaging needs further analysis and more spectral regions need to be exploited. Non-invasive stress detection is a prominent area of research with countless applications for both military and commercial use including border patrol, stand-off interrogation, access control, surveillance, and non-invasive and un-attended patient monitoring.

  13. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...... management addresses and alleviates these complications. The aim of our study was to compare clinical guidelines for pain management in burn patients in selected European and non-European countries. We included pediatric guidelines due to the high rate of children in burn units. METHOD: The study had...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn...

  14. Analysis of factorial time-course microarrays with application to a clinical study of burn injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Baiyu; Xu, Weihong; Herndon, David; Tompkins, Ronald; Davis, Ronald; Xiao, Wenzhong; Wong, Wing Hung; Toner, Mehmet; Warren, H. Shaw; Schoenfeld, David A.; Rahme, Laurence; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Hayden, Douglas; Mason, Philip; Fagan, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Time-course microarray experiments are capable of capturing dynamic gene expression profiles. It is important to study how these dynamic profiles depend on the multiple factors that characterize the experimental condition under which the time course is observed. Analytic methods are needed to simultaneously handle the time course and factorial structure in the data. We developed a method to evaluate factor effects by pooling information across the time course while accounting for multiple tes...

  15. Burning tongue in patients with geographic and grooved tongue: a study on secondary school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shamsedini

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on the secondary school students by actively patient selection method; it means that patients did not go to see the doctor themselves. The studies were randomly selected among the schools located in areas of average socioeconomic status. Although geographic and fissured tongue disorders with no discomfort and with clinical sign are common phenomena, they are detected and diagnosed in clinical and collective examinations. people recognition and awareness about them and what they should do when they occur with Syndromal signs are important. Patients usually complain of pain and irritation of the tongue specially during eating spicy and sour food, because the bare part of tongue cannot tolerate the direct contact with such foods. This chronic irritation may cause the fear of cancer (Cancerophobia in patients. It should be pointed out that geographic tongue can be caused by known skin diseases like psoriasis or might be manifested as an allergic reaction to medicines like lithium. In this study we evaluated the relationship between grooved and geographic tongue and age, race, skin color, frequency of brushing, gum status, discomfort of tongue irritation and mouth breathing habit.

  16. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their emissions. The study revealed that the ratio of 80:20 of coal (lignite-cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 as compared to 100% coal. Maximum amount of CO emissions were 1510.5 ppm for banana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30 of 684.667 ppm. Maximum percentage of SO2 (345.33 ppm was released from blend of lakhra coal and tree leaves (90:10 and minimum amount of SO2 present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20. The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas maximum amount of NOx was liberated from lakhra coal-tree leaves (60:40 and minimum amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm. The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution.

  17. Functional MR imaging study of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a functional MR study of the shoulder performed with the positioning in which patients were about to complain of shoulder pain. A 0.064-T permanent MR system was used. The effectiveness of this study was evaluated in the diagnosis of rotator cuff impingement syndrome. Thirteen patients (11 males and two female) were examined prospectively. Three-dimensional Fourier transformation coronal images were obtained with patients' arms at the maximal abduction. They were compared with images obtained while patients' arms were at their sides, chiefly from the viewpoint of severity of impingement and intensity change of the supraspinatus muscle

  18. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Siddique; Suhail Ahmed Soomro; Aziza Aftab; Zahid Naeem Qaisrani; Abdul Sattar Jatoi; Asadullah; Ghulamullah Khan; Ehsanullah Kakar

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their ...

  19. A Study of Steganographic Image Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this dissertation, sereral key problems in the field of steganographic image security are mainly studied and discussed: (1) A novel kind of image cryptosystem is studied. The encrypted information of secret image is embedded into an ordinary image, which can be transmitted publicly, and it will not cause attention of illegal eavesdropper. The following results are achieved: (a) The image hiding algorithm and its improved algorithm based on wavelet transform and vector quantization are proposed, and both algorithms embed the secret image after taking full advantage of wavelet transform(WT) to compress it. (b) Introducing the CDMA concept in communication theory, a novel kind of image cryptosystem—image hiding cryptosystem of image division multiple access is proposed. We encrypt key information of several secret images and then hide them into an image, which is an ordinary image. After receivers get the image, each receiver can restore corresponding secret image independently. Compared with other image encryption algorithms, our new image hiding cryptosystem can compress secret image data efficiently. Moreover, the security and practicability of our system is better. (2) Digital watermarking is the most important branch of information hiding, which has been the hotspot of international academia. Digital watermarking has been proposed as a solution to the problem of copyright protection of multimedia documents in networked environments. In this field, the following results are achieved: (a) A new frequency information hiding and watermarking algorithm based on WT and Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT) is presented. After compressed by WT, the information of secret image is embedded into DCT domain. The algorithm has good imperceptibility and security and is robust against JPEG compressing and cropping. The algorithm can be used to embed watermark into images, and the watermark may be one 256-color picture or more and more than one secret image can be hidden into a

  20. Epidemiology and Statistical Modeling in Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun

    2010-01-01

    An important issue in assessing the epidemiology of injuries, including burns, is the investigation of appropriate methodologies and statistical modeling techniques to study injuries in an efficient and trustworthy manner. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze epidemiological patterns and assess the appropriateness of supervised statistical models to investigate burn risks and patterns. This thesis contains four papers: the first two concern descriptive epidemiology of burns in Arda...

  1. A study of the application of residue from burned biomass in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enori Gemelli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study the viability of burnt biomass residue from a pulp and paper plant applied as a raw material for mortar used in the construction industry. The waste - bottom ash - was incorporated into the mortar as a mineral addition to the Portland cement. The effect of the waste's grain size on the properties of mortars containing 10% in volume of waste was investigated, as well as the effect of the concentration of waste with grain size under 0.15 mm. The samples were evaluated after 28 days of aging by uniaxial compression, leaching test and scanning electron microscopy. These characterization techniques indicated that the properties of the mortars depend on the concentration, granulation and size distribution of the waste in the mortar's structure. Furthermore, some chemical elements may be present in stabilized and/or encapsulated form in the cement matrix.

  2. The impact of burn-up credit in criticality studies; Prise en compte du Credit Burn Up dans les calculs de criticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverdy, L

    1999-07-01

    Nowadays optimization goes with everything. So French engineering firms try to demonstrate that fuel transport casks and storage pools are able to receive assemblies with higher {sup 235}U initial enrichments. Fuel Burnup distribution contributes to demonstrate it. This instruction has to elaborate a way to take credit of burnup effects on criticality safety designs. The calculation codes used are CESAR 4.21-APOLLO 1-MORET III. The assembly studied (UO{sub 2}) is irradiated in a French Pressurized Water Reactor like EDF nuclear power reactor: PWR 1300 MWe, 17 x 17 array. Its initial enrichment in {sup 235}U equals 4.5%. The studies exposed in this report have evaluated the effects of: (i) the 15 fission products considered in Burnup Credit ({sup 95}Mo, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 145}Nd, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 155}Gd), (ii) the calculated abundances corrected or not by fixed factors, (iii) the choice of one cross sections library used by CESAR 4.21, (iv) the zone number elected in the axial burnup distribution zoning, (v) the kind of cut applied on (regular/optimized). Two axial distribution profiles are studied: one with 44 GWd/t average burnup, the other with 20 GWd/t average burnup. The second one considers a shallow control rods insertion in the upper limit of the assembly. The results show a margin in reactivity about 0.045 with consideration of the 6 most absorbent fission products ({sup 103}Rh, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 155}Gd), and about 0.06 for all Burnup Credit fission products whole. Those results have been calculated with an average burnup of 44 GWj/t. In a conservative approach, corrective factors must be apply on the abundance of some fission products. The cross sections library used by CESAR 4.21 (BBL 4) is sufficient and gives satisfactory results. The zoning of the assembly axial distribution burnup in 9

  3. Experimental study of the burned of nuclear fuel by the gamma spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate information on nuclear fuel burnup is of vital importance in reactor operation, fuel management and fuel-characteristics studies. Conventionally fuel management of the TRIGA III Reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is done through the thermal balance method (management) of the power generated during reactor operation, since it is known that with 1.24 grams of 235U is possible to generate a power or 1 MW per day during the reactor operation. On the other hand, it is possible to calculate the operation time in days during a power of 1 MW with the help of the data registered in logs. With the information just mentioned one can calculate the quantity of 235U consumed in the fuel during a complete period of irradiation. In order to compare and prove that the burnup values, calculated through the thermal balance method, are correct, the ININ implemented, for the first time, the gamma-ray spectroscopy method as an experimental technique to calculate the burnup of several fuel elements. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a nondestructive method, so that the integrity of the fuel element is not affected which is of great importance. Since there is a direct relation between the activity of 137Cs contained in the fuel elements and a series of constants which are unique for the radioisotope and for the high resolution system, the problem just simplifies in measuring the 137Cs activities. Furthermore the 137Cs concentration equation was developed theoretically and I wrote a computer program (AMAVAL) in Fortran. The task of this program is to calculate the concentrations and the activity through the use of the equation just mentioned and the history of each fuel element. The purpose of this is to compare and validate the experimental activities with the theoretical ones for each fuel element. (Author)

  4. Clustering Approach Towards Image Segmentation: An Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Dibya Jyoti; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Image processing is an important research area in computer vision. Image segmentation plays the vital rule in image processing research. There exist so many methods for image segmentation. Clustering is an unsupervised study. Clustering can also be used for image segmentation. In this paper, an in-depth study is done on different clustering techniques that can be used for image segmentation with their pros and cons. An experiment for color image segmentation based on clustering with K-Means a...

  5. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment...

  6. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  7. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  8. Coping with severe burns in the early stage after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Zoran; Brajković, Lovorka; Gregurek, Rudolf; Micković, Vlatko

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury characteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were interviewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no statistically significant gender differences in various coping strategies. Avoidance was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression and hopelessness. The percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) and localization of burns were not associated with coping patterns. Implications for the assessment and management of burn injured patients were discussed.

  9. Bibliography of geologic studies using imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Articles concerning imaging studies on the geomorphology, mineralogy, and topology of various landforms are reported. One hundred and ninety citations are listed and an index by National Technical Information service citation number is included. Several illustrations of L-band radar imagery are presented.

  10. An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies Um modelo animal aperfeiçoado para estudo de queimaduras superficiais e profundas da pele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bomfim Soares Campelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Development of an improved animal model for studying skin burns in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n=6: G1-Control, G2- T100°C, G3-T150°C and G4-T200°C. Two 10 x 10 mm squares were outlined with a sterile surgical marker on each side and along the vertebral column using a prepared template positioned between the anterior and posterior limbs. G2-G4 rats were subjected to 100°C, 150°C and 200ºC thermal burns, respectively. G1 rats served as controls. Burns were inflicted by applying a copper plate connected to an electronic temperature controlling device to the dorsal skin of anesthetized rats. Four burns were produced on each animal (total area: 4 cm²/animal leaving about 1 cm of undamaged skin between burn areas. Analgesia was administered during 24 h after burn injury by adding 30 mg codeine phosphate hemihydrate to 500 ml tap water. RESULTS: The application of 100°C and 150ºC resulted in partial thickness skin burns with central reepithelialization of the burned area only at 100°C. In G4 group the whole thickness of the skin was injured without central reepithelialization. However, there was marginal reepithelialization in all groups. CONCLUSION: The model studied is inexpensive and easily reproducible, enabling the achievement of controlled burns with partial or total impairment of the skin in experimental animals.OBJETIVO: Desenvolvimento de um modelo animal aperfeiçoado para estudo de queimaduras cutâneas em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar, machos, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=6: G1-Controle, G2-T100°C, G3-T150°C e G4-T200°C. Dois quadrados medindo 10x10 mm foram delineados com um marcador cirúrgico estéril em cada lado e ao longo da coluna vertebral e posicionados entre os membros anteriores e posteriores, utilizando um molde previamente preparado. Os ratos dos grupos G2-G4 foram submetidos a queimaduras térmicas de 100

  11. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  12. Brain imaging studies of sleep disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain imaging studies of narcolepsy (NA)/cataplexy (CA), a typical sleep disorder, are summarized together with techniques of functional and structural imaging means. single photon emission CT (SPECT) is based on the distribution of tracers labeled by single photon emitters like 99mTc and 123I for seeing the blood flow and receptors. PET using positron emitters like 15O and 18F for blood flow and for glucose metabolism, respectively, is of higher resolution and more quantitative than SPECT. Functional MRI (fMRI) depicts the cerebral activity through signal difference by blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) effect, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) depicts and quantifies biomaterials through the difference of their nuclear chemical shifts in the magnetic field. Morphologic imaging studies involve the measurement of the volume of the region of interest by comparison with the reference region such as the whole brain volume. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has changed to its more advanced surface-based analysis (SBA) of T1-enhanced image. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is based on the tissue water diffusion. Functional SPECT/PET studies have suggested the decrease of blood flow and metabolic activity in the hypothalamus (HT) and other related regions at the conscious resting state, and locally increased blood flow in cingulate gyrus (CG) and amygdaloid complex (AC) at affective CA/PA seizure. fMRI has suggested the hypoactivity of HT and hyperactivity of AC at the seizure. VBM-based studies have not given the consistent results, but DTI studies have suggested an important participation of AC at the seizure. (T.T.)

  13. A STUDY OF MECHANISM OF GLAZE FORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF BURNING GLAZED BRICK ON THE BASIS OF BEIDELLITE CLAY AND MINERAL COTTON WASTE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. V. Vdovina; V. Z. Abdrakhimov

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement. It is essential to establish the values of temperature coefficient of linear expansionof glaze and ceramic material containing beidellite clay and waste products of mineral cotton,and to examine the mechanism of glaze formation in the course of burning by means of infraredspectroscopy and electronic microscopy.Results. The formation of glaze of type ЩЛСО involves glass phase separation which precedescrystallization process.Conclusions. The study of thermoprocessed monoliths...

  14. Sensitivity studies on the photolysis rates calculation in Amazonian atmospheric chemistry ? Part I: The impact of the direct radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol particles

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, L. M. M.; Longo, K. M.; S. R. Freitas; Tarasova, T.; Plana Fattori, A.; Nobre, C.; Gatti, L. V.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The impact of the direct radiative effect of the aerosol particles on the calculation of the photolysis rates and consequently on the atmospheric chemistry in regional smoke clouds due to biomass burning over the Amazon basin is addressed in this work. It explores a case study for 19 September 2002 at LBA-RACCI-SMOCC (The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia ? Radiation, Cloud, and Climate Interactions ? Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climat...

  15. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  16. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (<16 years) and adults (16–65 years). Five-hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  17. Study on Digital Image Scrambling Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Xue

    2013-01-01

    Encryption algorithm of traditional cryptology has strong safety, but the effect of encrypting images is not good. Digital image scrambling means that a digital image is transformed into a chaotic image which has no evident significance, but the operator can reconstruct the chaotic image into the original image by using the specific algorithm. Image scrambling encryption technology based on chaos theory makes use of chaotic signal to encrypt image data flow, which has the advantages of high s...

  18. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  19. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care.

  20. Epoetin Alpha and Epoetin Zeta: A Comparative Study on Stimulation of Angiogenesis and Wound Repair in an Experimental Model of Burn Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Irrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep second-degree burns are characterized by delayed formation of granulation tissue and impaired angiogenesis. Erythropoietin (EPO is able to stimulate angiogenesis and mitosis, activating vascularization and cell cycle. The aim of our study was to investigate whether two biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietins, EPO-α and EPO-Z, may promote these processes in an experimental model of burn injury. A total of 84 mice were used and a scald burn was produced on the back after shaving, in 80°C water for 10 seconds. Mice were then randomized to receive EPO-α (400 units/kg/day/sc or EPO-Z (400 units/kg/day/sc or their vehicle (100 μL/day/sc 0.9% NaCl solution. After 12 days, both EPO-α and EPO-Z increased VEGF protein expression. EPO-α caused an increased cyclin D1/CDK6 and cyclin E/CDK2 expression compared with vehicle and EPO-Z (p<0.001. Our study showed that EPO-α and EPO-Z accelerated wound closure and angiogenesis; however EPO-α resulted more effectively in achieving complete skin regeneration. Our data suggest that EPO-α and EPO-Z are not biosimilars for the wound healing effects. The higher efficacy of EPO-α might be likely due to its different conformational structure leading to a more efficient cell proliferation and skin remodelling.

  1. Perineal Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh AEmmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Perineal burns are not common in childhood but when they occur, they can produce severe complications. Conservative management by open wound care and topical agents is effective in most cases. However, in deep burns and when control of infection proves problematic, diverting colostomy may be necessary to control infection and achieve wound healing and graft take. Burns wound excision and skin grafting may be required in such cases. Contractures of various forms may develop and require plastic...

  2. BURN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF Euphorbia hirta

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan,; Reddy, D. Narishma

    2006-01-01

    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  3. Analysis and Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Burned Areas in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle da Silva Cardozo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of burned areas in Rondônia State, Brazil during the years 2000 to 2011 and evaluate the burned area maps. A Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM was applied to MODIS surface reflectance images to originate the burned areas maps, which were validated with TM/Landsat 5 and ETM+/Landsat 7 images and field data acquired in August 2013. The validation presented a correlation ranging from 67% to 96% with an average value of 86%. The lower correlation values are related to the distinct spatial resolutions of the MODIS and TM/ETM+ sensors because small burn scars are not detected in MODIS images and higher spatial correlations are related to the presence of large fires, which are better identified in MODIS, increasing the accuracy of the mapping methodology. In addition, the 12-year burned area maps of Rondônia indicate that fires, as a general pattern, occur in areas that have already been converted to some land use, such as vegetal extraction, large animal livestock areas or diversified permanent crops. Furthermore, during the analyzed period, land use conversion associated with climatic events significantly influenced the occurrence of fire in Rondônia and amplified its impacts.

  4. Imaging Studies of photodamage and self-healing in disperse orange 11 dye-doped PMMA

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report on optical imaging studies of self-healing after laser-induced photodamage in disperse orange 11 dye doped into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. In particular, the high spatial-contrast image of the damage track made by a line focus pump laser allows the recovery rates to be measured as a function of burn dose using the relationship between transverse distance and pump intensity profile. The time evolution of the damaged population results in an intensity-independent time constant of {\\tau} = 490\\pm23 min, in agreement with independent measurements of the time evolution of amplified spontaneous emission. Also observed is a damage threshold above which the material does not fully recover.

  5. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, J.E.; J. R. Drummond; D. Griffin; J. R. Pierce; D. L. Waugh; P. I. Palmer; Parrington, M; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A R; Taylor, J. W.; J. D. Allan; H. Coe; Walker, K A; L. Chisholm

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20–21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume wi...

  6. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, J.E.; J. R. Drummond; D. Griffin; J. R. Pierce; D. L. Waugh; P. I. Palmer; Parrington, M; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A R; Taylor, J. W.; J. D. Allan; H. Coe; Walker, K A; L. Chisholm

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wild-land fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario.We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but...

  7. A case study of aerosol depletion in a biomass burning plume over Eastern Canada during the BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jonathan E.; Griffin, Debora; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Drummond, James R.; Waugh, David; Palmer, Paul; Chisholm, Lucy; Duck, Thomas J.; Lesins, Glen; Walker, Kaley A.; Hopper, Jason T.; Curry, Kevin R.; Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Dan, Lin; Kliever, Jenny; O'Neill, Norm

    2013-04-01

    Wild fires started by lightning are a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols and trace gases to the atmosphere. Careful observations of biomass burning plumes are required to quantify the long range transport and chemical evolution of the outflow from these fires. During the summer of 2011 an international effort - the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) project - led by the University of Edinburgh, evaluated the chemistry and dynamics of Boreal biomass burning plumes through aircraft, satellite, and ground-based measurements. The Dalhousie Ground Station (DGS), located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, provided ground support to the BORTAS campaign. Two Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs) provided solar absorption measurements of trace gases while two photometers provided aerosol optical depths. On 20 July 2011 a plume of elevated carbon monoxide and other trace gases was detected by the FTS instruments at the DGS; however, particulate data gathered from the co-located sun photometer and the Dalhousie Raman Lidar system showed no enhancement of fine-mode aerosol for the initial 7 hours of the event. After that time, particulates increased in abundance and a peak aerosol optical depth of 2.3 was measured on 21 July. FLEXPART trajectory analyses suggest that this plume originated in fires that were burning in Northwestern Ontario and Eastern Manitoba from 17 to 19 July. Despite the sparse observing network in the region, there is ample evidence of a significant lofting event via the same meso-scale convective system that tempered the burning on the 19th. We will provide an overview of this event and present evidence that precipitation scavenging was the most likely mechanism for the observed aerosol/trace gas anomaly. Support for this this research was provided by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  8. A STUDY OF IGNITION, PROPAGATION OF BURN AND ACHIEVEMENT OF HIGH-GAIN IN INERTIAL FUSION TARGETS

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, N.; Long, K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses different ignition models including the volume ignition and a central ignition model. A comparison is made between these two models which shows that the central ignition model is superior to the volume ignition model. It is also demonstrated with the help of computer simulations how one may achieve a central ignition configuration in a reactor-size inertial confinement fusion target. The problem of propagation of burn from the central hot zone into the surrounding cold fu...

  9. Toddlers at High Risk of Chemical Eye Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160258.html Toddlers at High Risk of Chemical Eye Burns: Study Access to household cleaning products to blame, ... and 2 years have relatively high rates of chemical eye burns, with everyday cleaners a common cause, researchers say. ...

  10. The protective effects of sildenafil in acute lung injury in a rat model of severe scald burn: A biochemical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokakin, Ali Kagan; Deveci, Koksal; Kurt, Atilla; Karakus, Boran Cihat; Duger, Cevdet; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Topcu, Omer

    2013-09-01

    Severe burn induces biochemical mediators such as reactive oxygen species that leads to lipid peroxidation which may have a key role in formation of acute lung injury (ALI). Sildenafil is a selective and potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate specific phosphodiesterase-5. Sildenafil preserves alveolar growth, angiogenesis, reduces inflammation and airway reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different dosages of sildenafil in ALI due to severe scald burn in rats. Twenty-four rats were subjected to 30% total body surface area severe scald injury and were randomly divided into three equal groups as follow: control, 10 and 20mg/kg sildenafil groups. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), catalase (Cat), total oxidative stress (TOS), and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) were measured in both tissues and serums. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. A semi-quantitative scoring system was used for the evaluation of histopatological findings. Sildenafil increased Gpx, Cat, TAC and decreased MDA, TOS and OSI. Sildenafil decreased inflammation scores in lungs. Our results reveal that sildenafil is protective against scald burn related ALI by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation and the dosage of 10mg/kg could be apparently better than 20mg/kg. PMID:23313241

  11. Trace gas constraints on vertical transport in models: a case study of Indonesian biomass burning emissions in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Luo, M.; Worden, J.; Kim, D.; Del Genio, A. D.; Voulgarakis, A.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of joint Aura TES and MLS CO retrievals in constraining vertical transport in the NASA GISS ModelE2 composition-climate model. We examine September to November 2006 over the tropics. El Nino-induced dry conditions over western Indonesia led to extensive biomass burning and persistent CO greater than 200 ppb in the upper troposphere. This was one of the highest CO episodes over the MLS period since 2004. We show how improvements in the vertical resolution of trace gas retrievals can help to distinguish between errors in parameterized vertical transport and biases in bottom-up emissions estimates. We simulate the episode using the NASA GISS ModelE2 coupled composition-climate model with different subgrid physics for small ensembles of experiments with perturbed initial conditions. The starting point is the CMIP5 version of the model, in which there was a pronounced vertical CO dipole over the Maritime Continent, but with a CO peak 100 ppb higher than Aura CO in the upper troposphere. With modified cumulus and boundary layer parameterizations, but the same prescribed biomass burning emissions estimates, the upper tropospheric CO bias is significantly reduced. Concurrently, precipitation over the emissions source region is reduced relative to observational estimates, leading to better consistency with the dry conditions under which the burning occurred. We discuss the effects of the physics changes on the roles of convective frequency and depth in reducing the bias.

  12. Validation of the Two Standard MODIS Satellite Burned-Area Products and an Empirically-Derived Merged Product in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon Tsela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS burned area products, MCD45A1, MCD64A1, and a merged product were validated across six study sites in South Africa using independently-derived Landsat burned-area reference data during the fire season of 2007. The objectives of this study were to: (i investigate the likelihood of the improved detection of small burns through an empirically-derived merged product; (ii quantify the probability of detection by each product using sub-pixel burned area measures; and, (iii compare the mean percent concurrence of burned pixels between the standard products over a ten-year time series in each site. Results show that MCD45A1 presented higher detection probabilities (i.e., 3.0%–37.9% for small fractions ≤50%, whereas MCD64A1 appeared more reliable (i.e., 12.0%–89.2% in detecting large fractions >50% of a burned MODIS pixel, respectively. Overall, the merged product demonstrated improved detection of the burned area in all fractions. This paper also demonstrates that, on average, >50% of MODIS burned pixels temporally concur between the MCD45A1 and MCD64A1 products in each site. These findings have significant implications for fire monitoring in southern Africa and contribute toward the understanding of the range and of the sources of errors present in the MODIS burned area products.

  13. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ~ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3. On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51%), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28%), nitrate (13 ± 10%), chloride (2 ± 3%), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2%). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O/C ratio of ~ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O/C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests

  14. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Occupational Burns in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Jalil Mirmohammadi; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Kazem Kazemeini; Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Occupational burns are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational burns in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective study on work-related burns in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the burn injury. Results: Th...

  15. Bacteremia in burned patients admitted to Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Saleh; Hamid Noshad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in burn wards is infection, and it is the major reason of death in burn injuries. There are several reasons that make burn victims predisposed to infection. The current study aimed to investigate the role of different factors that have an effect on bacteremia occurrence in burn patients and factors which are relevant to mortality in these patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study conducted in a 1...

  16. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment...

  17. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Cooper, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  18. A study of the effects of changing burn-up and gap gaseous compound on the gap convection coefficient (in a hot fuel pin) in VVER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we worked on the result and process of calculation of the gap heat transfer coefficient for a hot fuel pin in accordance with burn-up changes in the VVER-1000 reactor at the Bushehr nuclear power plant (Iran). With regard to the fact that in calculating the fuel gap heat transfer coefficient, various parameters are effective and the need for designing a model is being felt, therefore, in this article we used Ross and Stoute gap model to study impacts of different effective parameters such as thermal expansion and gaseous fission products on the hgap change rate. Over time and with changes in fuel burn-up some gaseous fission products such as xenon, argon and krypton gases are released to the gas mixture in the gap, which originally contained helium. In this study, the composition of gaseous elements in the gap volume during different times of reactor operation was found using ORIGEN code. Considering that the thermal conduction of these gases is lower than that of helium, and by using the Ross and Stoute gap model, we find first that the changes in gaseous compounds in the gap reduce the values of gap thermal conductivity coefficient, but considering thermal expansion (due to burn-up alterations) of fuel and clad resulting in the reduction of gap thickness we find that the gap heat transfer coefficient will augment in a broad range of burn-up changes. These changes result in a higher rate of gap thickness reduction than the low rate of decrease of heat conduction coefficient of the gas in the gap during burn-up. Once these changes have been defined, we can proceed with the analysis of the results of calculations based on the Ross and Stoute model and compare the results obtained with the experimental results for a hot fuel pin as presented in the final safety analysis report of the VVER-1000 reactor at Bushehr. It is noteworthy that the results of accomplished calculations based on the Ross and Stoute model correspond well with the existing

  19. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. Jeschke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p  0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  20. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Evolution of Laser Doppler Techniques in Burn Depth Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaf Khatib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The introduction of laser Doppler (LD techniques to assess burn depth has revolutionized the treatment of burns of indeterminate depth. This paper will systematically review studies related to these two techniques and trace their evolution. At the same time we hope to highlight current controversies and areas where further research is necessary with regard to LD imaging (LDI techniques. Methods. A systematic search for relevant literature was carried out on PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Key search terms included the following: “Laser Doppler imaging,” “laser Doppler flow,” and “burn depth.” Results. A total of 53 studies were identified. Twenty-six studies which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the review. Conclusions. The numerous advantages of LDI over those of LD flowmetry have resulted in the former technique superseding the latter one. Despite the presence of alternative burn depth assessment techniques, LDI remains the most favoured. Various newer LDI machines with increasingly sophisticated methods of assessing burn depth have been introduced throughout the years. However, factors such as cost effectiveness, scanning of topographically inconsistent areas of the body, and skewing of results due to tattoos, peripheral vascular disease, and anaemia continue to be sighted as obstacles to LDI which require further research.

  2. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

    2007-01-01

    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be

  3. Critical issues in burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  4. Automatic Web Image Categorization by Image Content:A case study with Web Document Images

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Murugappan S; Abirami S; Mizpha Poorana Selvi S

    2010-01-01

    Crawling in Web images has become a challenging problem today due to its rising popularity. Among the most valuable Web assets, Categorizing images on the Web is quite difficult. This paper proposes a simple and effective method to separate the Document Images from the available web image sources. This system concentrates on Automatic Image categorization process over web images by employing a filtering technique to discriminate the document images, available in WWW. The strength of this tech...

  5. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  6. "Burn catatonia": a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Davin Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Thermal injuries have been recognized to cause significant neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability in their sufferers since the middle of the 20th century, when Drs. Stanley Cobb and Erich Lindemann of the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA) studied survivors of the Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire in Boston. Although "burn encephalopathy" or burn-induced delirium is a common occurrence in the acute phase, catatonia in burn patients is not often reported. This report describes a case of malignant catatonia occurring in a 51-year-old male patient acutely suffering from burns acquired in a chemical explosion, effectively treated with reinstitution of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The literature on burn encephalopathy and catatonia in burns is reviewed. Few examples of burn catatonia exist. Burn encephalopathy is common, and may occur in patients with low TBSA burns such as described in the case above. Descriptions of burn encephalopathy are numerous, but have not included catatonia as a possible etiology. Catatonia in burn patients as an etiology of burn encephalopathy is likely underrecognized. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of catatonia when a patient's confusional state after a burn does not respond to usual care.

  7. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  8. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries.

  9. Burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers weight loss in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Su Grace; Lehnhardt Marcus; Jacobsen Frank; Fan Ming H; Burkhard Olaf; Steinstraesser Lars; Daigeler Adrien; Steinau Hans U; Remick Daniel; Wang Stewart C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite dramatic improvements in the management of burns, infection still remains a serious risk for the burn patient. The aim of this study was to shed light on the impact of acute burn injury with or without infection on cytokine profiles. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 21) were randomized into three groups: 1) burn only 2) burn and infection or 3) sham burn. Weight was monitored and blood was collected for cytokine ELISA, LPS quantification, and peripheral blood analy...

  10. Burn injuries in eastern Zambia: impact of multidisciplinary teaching teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dianna; Heard, Jason; Latenser, Barbara A; Quinn, Keely Y; van Bruggen, Jaap; Jovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Children's Burn Foundation (ABA/CBF) sponsors teams who offer burn education to healthcare providers in Zambia, a sub-Saharan country. The goals of this study are 1) to acquire burn-patient demographics for the Eastern Province, Zambia and 2) to assess the early impact of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. This is a retrospective chart review of burn patients admitted in one mission hospital in Katete, Zambia, July 2002 to June 2009. July 2002 to December 2006 = data before ABA/CBF burn teams and January 2007 to June 2009 = burn care data during/after burn outreach. There were 510 burn patients hospitalized, male:female ratio 1.2:1. Average age = 15.6 years, with 44% younger than 5 years. Average TBSA burned = 11% and mean fatal TBSA = 25%. Average hospital length of stay = 16.9 days survivors and 11.6 days nonsurvivors. Most common mechanisms of burn injuries: flame (52%) and scald (41%). Ninety-two patients (18%) died and 23 (4.5%) left against medical advice. There were 191 (37.4%) patients who underwent 410 surgical procedures (range 1-13/patient). There were 138 (33.7%) sloughectomies, 118 (28.7%) skin grafts, 39 (9.5%) amputations, and 115 (28.1%) other procedures. Changes noted in the 2007 to 2009 time period: more patients had burn diagrams (48.6 vs 27.6%, P set for a sub-Saharan region in Africa. There has been a statistically significant improvement in documentation of burn size as well as administration of analgesics, validating the efficacy of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. Continued contact with burn teams may lead to increased use of resuscitation fluids, topical antimicrobials, and more patients undergoing operative intervention, translating into improved burn patient outcomes. PMID:21131848

  11. CASE REPORT Playing Football Burns More Than Just Calories

    OpenAIRE

    Wain, Richard A. J.; Shah, Syed H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the case of a sports-related alkali burn due to a common household chemical and emphasize the importance of a detailed medical history in chemical burns patients. Methods: A single-patient case study is presented along with references from existing literature. Results: Alkaline burn injuries associated with sports have previously been described in the literature; however, this case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a chemical burn with a readily available househo...

  12. Automatic Web Image Categorization by Image Content:A case study with Web Document Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Murugappan. S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Crawling in Web images has become a challenging problem today due to its rising popularity. Among the most valuable Web assets, Categorizing images on the Web is quite difficult. This paper proposes a simple and effective method to separate the Document Images from the available web image sources. This system concentrates on Automatic Image categorization process over web images by employing a filtering technique to discriminate the document images, available in WWW. The strength of this technique lies in capturing the Image information by intensity and frequency histograms for discrimination of web document images.

  13. Antimicrobial blue light therapy for Candida albicans burn infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunsong; Wang, Yucheng; Murray, Clinton K.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Gu, Ying; Dai, Tianhong

    2015-05-01

    In this preclinical study, we investigated the utility of antimicrobial blue light therapy for Candida albicans infection in acutely burned mice. A bioluminescent strain of C. albicans was used. The susceptibilities to blue light inactivation were compared between C. albicans and human keratinocyte. In vitro serial passaging of C. albicans on blue light exposure was performed to evaluate the potential development of resistance to blue light inactivation. A mouse model of acute thermal burn injury infected with the bioluminescent strain of C. albicans was developed. Blue light (415 nm) was delivered to mouse burns for decolonization of C. albicans. Bioluminescence imaging was used to monitor in real time the extent of fungal infection in mouse burns. Experimental results showed that C. albicans was approximately 42-fold more susceptible to blue light inactivation in vitro than human keratinocyte (P=0.0022). Serial passaging of C. albicans on blue light exposure implied a tendency for the fungal susceptibility to blue light inactivation to decrease with the numbers of passages. Blue light reduced fungal burden by over 4-log10 (99.99%) in acute mouse burns infected with C. albicans in comparison to infected mouse burns without blue light therapy (P=0.015).

  14. Recent shift from forest to savanna burning in the Amazon Basin observed by satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numbers of fires detected on forest, savanna and transition lands during the 2002–10 biomass burning seasons in Amazonia are shown using fire count data and co-located land cover classifications from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The ratio of forest fires to savanna fires has varied substantially over the study period, with a maximum ratio of 0.65:1 in 2005 and a minimum ratio of 0.27:1 in 2009, with the four lowest years occurring in 2007–10. The burning during the droughts of 2007 and 2010 is attributed to a higher number of savanna fires relative to the drought of 2005. A decrease in the regional mean single scattering albedo of biomass burning aerosols, consistent with the shift from forest to savanna burning, is also shown. During the severe drought of 2010, forest fire detections were lower in many areas compared with 2005, even though the drought was more severe in 2010. This result suggests that improved fire management practices, including stricter burning regulations as well as lower deforestation burning, may have reduced forest fires in 2010 relative to 2005 in some areas of the Amazon Basin. (letter)

  15. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  16. Phenomenological study of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients%严重烧伤患者创伤后成长的现象学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚贵芹; 张爱华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨严重烧伤患者创伤后成长的维度和促进因素。方法采用现象学研究方法,对本院接受治疗的严重烧伤康复期的患者,进行目的性抽样,抽取20例患者进行半结构式深度访谈。结果创伤后成长的促进因素包括:感情宣泄,社会比较,意义应对,自我效能;分析出PTG的3个结构维度:精神寄托,欣赏生活,苦难衍生。结论此次访谈收获的烧伤患者的创伤后成长维度和促进因素与其他研究具有共同点和不同之处。%Objective To explore the dimensions and positive influences of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients.Methods Phenomenological method was used in the study. A depth interview was conducted on 20 severe burn patients who were treated in our hospital and recruited by purposive sampling method.Results The positive influences of posttraumatic growth included emotional catharsis, social comparison, meaning response and self-efficacy. The factors which contributed to posttraumatic growth were spiritual sustenance, enjoying life and derivative sufferings.Conclusion There are common points and differences between our study and other studies on the positive influences and dimensions of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients.

  17. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  18. [Burn injuries during MR scanning: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vister, J.; Erning, L. van; Steens, S.C.A.; Meijer, F.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report one case of skin burns in MRI caused by induced electrical currents. Two second degree skin burns occurred during imaging, while operating within all current safety guidelines. The currents are induced by the magnetic-gradient field, as well as the radiofrequency pulses. A cl

  19. Internet-based information and self-help program for parents of children with burns: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Josefin Sveen; Gerhard Andersson; Lisa Ekselius; Folke Sjöberg; Bo Buhrman; Mimmie Willebrand

    2015-01-01

    Background: A burn is one of the most traumatic and painful injuries a child can experience and it is also a very stressful experience for the parents. Given the great psychological distress and perceived lack of multi-professional support experienced by the parents, there is a need for support during in-hospital treatment as well as during recovery. The aim of the study is to develop and evaluate an internet-based information and self-help program for parents of children who have been hospit...

  20. Predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months post-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Meyer, Walter J.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Ojeda, Sylvia; Huddleston, Joanna; Stevens, Pamela; Børsheim, Elisabet; Suman, Oscar E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injury is a dramatic event with acute and chronic consequences including insulin resistance. However, factors associated with insulin resistance have not been previously investigated. Purpose To identify factors associated with long-term insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Methods The study sample consisted of 61 pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months after the burn injury, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. To assess insulin resistance, we calculated the area under the curve for glucose and insulin. The diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were used to define individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Additional data collected include body composition, anthropometric measurements, burn characteristics and demographic information. The data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Approximately 12% of the patients met the criteria for impaired glucose metabolism. After adjusting for possible confounders, burn size, age and percent body fat were associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for all). Time post-burn and lean mass were inversely associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, older age predicted higher insulin area under the curve. Conclusion A significant proportion of pediatric injury survivors suffer from glucose abnormalities 24–36 months post-burn. Burn size, time post-burn, age, lean mass and adiposity are significant predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Clinical evaluation and screening for abnormal glucose metabolism should be emphasized in patients with large burns, older age and survivors with high body fat. PMID:24918945

  1. Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

    To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

  2. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia. PMID:26503008

  3. Characteristics of atmospheric ice nucleating particles associated with biomass burning in the US: Prescribed burns and wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Christina S.

    addition to LRT of mineral dust. The chemical compositions of INP were probed directly via TEM imaging. Single particle analyses of residual INP showed that they comprised various C-containing particle types, but with a higher abundance of mineral and metal oxide containing INP in emissions from flaming phase combustion. Fractal soot was found as an INP type comprising up to 60% of collected INP in young smoke emissions from the Georgia prescribed burns. In a series of laboratory combustion experiments, the use of a new instrumental set up, pairing the CFDC with a single particle soot photometer, revealed up to a 60% decrease in active INP after the removal of refractory black carbon from smoke aerosol emitted from a highly flaming burn of wiregrass, supporting that soot particles serve as INP in fire emissions. The presence of soil minerals was clearly evident in TEM images of samples taken during the wildfires in addition to tarballs, carbon balls most commonly associated with aged smoke plumes. These results demonstrate that the ice nucleating particles observed in the wildfires were influenced by other factors not represented in the smoke emitted from the laboratory or prescribed burns. Finally, an INP parameterization was developed based on the temperature dependent relationship between nINP and n500nm, following methods used by previous studies. This parameterization is likely only representative of the Hewlett and High Park wildfires due to the apparent impact of non-biomass-burning aerosol. However, all wildfires are typically associated with vigorous localized convection and arid soils, required for the lofting of the soils and dusts similar to these wildfires. It will be useful to compare future wildfires in various regions to the proposed parameterization. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Comparative Study of Image Enhancement Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Rajput; PROF. S.R.SURALKAR

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprints are the oldest and most widely used form of biometric identification. The performance of any fingerprint recognizer highly depends on the fingerprint image quality. Different types of noises in the fingerprint images pose greater difficulty for recognizers. However, fingerprint images are rarely of perfect quality. They may be degraded and corrupted due to variations in skin and impressionconditions. Thus, image enhancement techniques are employed prior to minutiae extraction to ...

  5. Cubital tunnel syndrome caused by hypertrophic burn scarring: Sonographic envisage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Bayram Carli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In nerve entrapment syndromes, an electrodiagnostic study during physical examination would usually suffice to assess localization of injury. However, in daily clinical practice, sometimes it may be necessary to depict the insight; in other words to use an imaging tool. From this point of view, with its manifold advantages, ultrasound (US is superior to other imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. According to a study, US increased the sensitivity of electrodiagnostic studies from 78% to 98%. By presenting a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by hypertrophic scarring, we wanted to highlight the complementary role of US in nerve entrapment syndromes in confirming the entrapment, as well as the usefulness of it in the follow-up period of burn patients. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(2.000: 44-46

  6. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  7. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  8. Biomass burning influences on atmospheric composition: A case study to assess the impact of aerosol data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keslake, Tim; Chipperfield, Martyn; Mann, Graham; Flemming, Johannes; Remy, Sam; Dhomse, Sandip; Morgan, Will

    2016-04-01

    The C-IFS (Composition Integrated Forecast System) developed under the MACC series of projects and to be continued under the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring System, provides global operational forecasts and re-analyses of atmospheric composition at high spatial resolution (T255, ~80km). Currently there are 2 aerosol schemes implemented within C-IFS, a mass-based scheme with externally mixed particle types and an aerosol microphysics scheme (GLOMAP-mode). The simpler mass-based scheme is the current operational system, also used in the existing system to assimilate satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for improved forecast capability. The microphysical GLOMAP scheme has now been implemented and evaluated in the latest C-IFS cycle alongside the mass-based scheme. The upgrade to the microphysical scheme provides for higher fidelity aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, accounting for global variations in size distribution and mixing state, and additional aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. The new scheme will also provide increased aerosol information when used as lateral boundary conditions for regional air quality models. Here we present a series of experiments highlighting the influence and accuracy of the two different aerosol schemes and the impact of MODIS AOD assimilation. In particular, we focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on aerosol properties in the Amazon, comparing to ground-based and aircraft observations from the 2012 SAMBBA campaign. Biomass burning can affect regional air quality, human health, regional weather and the local energy budget. Tropical biomass burning generates particles primarily composed of particulate organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC), the local ratio of these two different constituents often determining the properties and subsequent impacts of the aerosol particles. Therefore, the model's ability to capture the concentrations of these two

  9. A case study on long-range transported aerosols of biomass burning: effects on aerosol optical properties and surface radiation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arola

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, biomass burning aerosols from eastern Europe were transported extensively to Finland, and to other parts of northern Europe. They were observed as far as in the European Arctic. In the first part of this paper, temporal and spatial evolution and transport of these biomass burning aerosols are monitored with MODIS retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD imagery at visible wavelengths (0.55 μm. Comparison of MODIS and AERONET AOD is conducted at Tõravere, Estonia. Then trajectory analyses, as well as MODIS Fire Mapper products are used to better understand the type and origin of the air masses. During the studied four-week period AOD values ranged from near zero up to 1.2 at 0.55 μm and the linear correlation between MODIS and AERONET was very high (~0.97. Temporal variability observed within this four-week period was also rather well explained by the trajectory analysis in conjunction with the fire detections produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System. In the second part of our study, the surface measurements of global and UV radiation at Jokioinen, Finland are used to study the effect of this haze episode on the levels of surface radiation. We found reductions up to 35% in surface UV irradiance (at 340 nm as compared to typical aerosol conditions. For global (total solar radiation, the reduction was always smaller, in line with the expected wavelength dependence of the aerosol effect.

  10. Effects of red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green LED on the healing process of third-degree burns: clinical and histological study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos Catão, Maria Helena Chaves; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; de Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Bento, Patrícia Meira; de Oliveira Costa, Roniery

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green light-emitting diode (LED) on the healing process of skin burns through clinical and histopathologic analysis in rats. For this, 100 animals were randomly divided into five groups: G1-untreated control (CTR), G2-red laser (LVER), G3-infrared (LINF), G4-photodynamic therapy (PDT), and G5-green LED. Burn was induced on the dorsum of the rat and the treatment of the experimental groups was red light (10 J/cm(2), 10 s, 40 mW, and λ660 nm), infrared (10 J/cm(2), 10 s, 40 mW, and λ780 nm), green LED irradiation (60 J/cm(2), 10 s, λ520, and 550 nm), and photodynamic therapy (10 J/cm(2), 40 mW, and λ660 nm), the latter combined with methylene blue photosensitizer at concentration 0.5 μg/mL. Applications were performed daily until day prior to sacrifice of the animal at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days with intraperitoneal anesthetic overdose. The specimens collected were clinically examined and soon after processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Picrosirius for analysis under light and polarized light microscopy, respectively. Animals treated with LVER, LINF, PDT (p Laser λ660 nm and λ780 nm showed the largest wound reductions in all groups (p = 0.001). In conclusion, red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green LED favored the healing process of third-degree burns in rats.

  11. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  12. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    . This will be followed by highlights of PET studies of the acute effects of the psychostimulant drugs cocaine and methylphenidate (ritalin) and studies of the chronic effects of cocaine and of tobacco smoke on the human brain. This chapter concludes with the description of a study which uses brain imaging coupled with a specific pharmacological challenge to address the age-old question of why some people who experiment with drugs become addicted while others do not.

  13. Study of slagging in and blowout of P-59 boiler furnace screens during the burning of Moscow-area coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzenko, S.I.; Vasil' ev, V.V.; Serebryanikov, N.I.; Panchenko, V.F.; Meelak, Kh.O.; Khaikin, I.B.; Perevezentsev, V.P.

    1978-03-01

    The operation of the burners of the P-59 boilers at the Ryazan GRES, burning Moscow area brown coal, is characterized by intense slagging of the LRP screens, especially in the zone of maximum heat formation, causing a particularly severe screen cleaning problem. The thermal efficiency of screen cleaning by steam blowout using OM-0.35 devices is low even with intense use (every 2 hours), which is accompanied by dangerous steam-ash erosion of the tubes. Water blowout of the LRP (lower radiative part) of the P-59 boiler with four long-range M-3A devices is rather effective. Under conditions of intense formation of deposits on the screens of the lower radiative part of P-59 boilers they cannot be brought up to an operationally clean state using known cleaning methods.

  14. Fusion in the Era of Burning Plasma Studies: Workforce Planning for 2004 to 2014. Final report to FESA C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    This report has been prepared in response to Dr. R. Orbach’s request of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) to “address the issue of workforce development in the U.S. fusion program.” The report addresses three key questions: what is the current status of the fusion science, technology, and engineering workforce; what is the workforce that will be needed and when it will be needed to ensure that the U.S. is an effective partner in ITER and to enable the U.S. to successfully carry out the fusion program; and, what can be done to ensure a qualified, diversified, and sufficiently large workforce and a pipeline to maintain that workforce? In addressing the charge, the Panel considers a workforce that allows for a vigorous national program of fusion energy research that includes participation in magnetic fusion (ITER) and inertial fusion (NIF) burning plasma experiments.

  15. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  16. A Burning Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ As heaping piles of garbage grow in cities and communities across China,a divide has formed over two possible solutions to this smelly problem: Should excessive mounds of trash be burned,or should it be buried?

  17. Management of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  18. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations. PMID:9559811

  19. Study of Image Processing, Enhancement and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhausaheb Shivajirao Shinde

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing is a means by which the valuable information in observed raw image data can be revealed. A web-based image processing pipeline was created under the ambitious educational program Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004. The active participants in the VT-2004 can apply the basic processing methods to the images obtained by their amateur telescopes and/or they can process an image observed at any observatory involved in the project. The processed result image is displayed immediately on the display. Above that all participants can follow the distance Sun-Venus centers computation performed at the professional observatory in the real time. There is a possibility to submit an image from their own observation into the database. It will be used for the distance Earth-Sun computation.

  20. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event, but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long-range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~ 24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  1. A case study of aerosol depletion in a biomass burning plume over Eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-02-01

    We present measurements of a long range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  2. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Jimson; Rajesh, E.; R Jayasri Krupaa; M. Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  3. Advances in burn treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoda, LU; Vogt, PM

    2006-01-01

    The German-speaking burn specialist, organized in the DAV (Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsmedizin) held their yearly meeting in 2004 in Rottach-Egern, Bavaria. Participants from Switzerland, Germany and Austria found a high standing, very well organized and thorough program summoned by the host, Dr. Guido Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck, Munich. The topics consisted of reconstructive surgery, skin substitutes and replacement, advances in burn medicine over the last 10 years and bu...

  4. Chemical composition and sources of ambient aerosol in an urban environment over Athens, Greece: Case study on the role of wintertime biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosi, Christina

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the chemical composition of aerosols over the Greater Athens Area (GAA). To achieve this, particulate matter sampling has been conducted on a 6h-24h basis and more than 700 aerosol samples were collected at downtown Athens, in Thissio from January 2013 to December 2015. All samples, after mass quantification, were analyzed for major anions (Cl^-, Br^-, NO{_3^-}, SO{_4-2}, PO{_4-3}, C_2O{_4-2}), cations (NH{_4^+}, K^+, Na^+, Mg+2, Ca+2), trace elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, V, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, P, S, Sb), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Aerosol chemical mass closure calculations indicated that carbonaceous aerosol constitutes a major component, along with nitrate and sulfate anions, dust, cations and EC. Moreover, during the winter periods of December 2012-January 2013 and December 2013-January 2014, air pollution due to excessive use of biomass for domestic heating has been reported as a major environmental problem in the area. To assess the importance of biomass burning as a source of air pollution over the GAA three main sugars specific biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also analyzed during the winter period. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the State Scholarship Foundation ("IKY Fellowships of Excellence for Postgraduate Studies in Greece - Siemens Programme") in the framework of the Hellenic Republic-Siemens Settlement Agreement.

  5. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  6. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection in Thigh Abscess Can Migrate to Distant Burn Depending on Burn Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Hamrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains the major cause of death in patients with major burn injuries. In the present investigation we evaluated the interaction between burn injuries of varying severity and preexisting distant infection. We used Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis that were genetically engineered to be bioluminescent, which allowed for noninvasive, sequential optical imaging of the extent and severity of the infection. The bioluminescent bacteria migrated from subcutaneous abscesses in the leg to distant burn wounds on the back depending on the severity of the burn injury, and this migration led to increased mortality of the mice. Treatment with ciprofloxacin, injected either in the leg with the bacterial infection or into the burn eschar, prevented this colonization of the wound and decreased mortality. The present data suggest that burn wounds can readily become colonized by infections distant from the wound itself.

  7. Characterization of residual coke during burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, C.L.; Jablonski, E.L.; Parera, J.M. (Inst. de Investigaciones in Catalisis y Petroquimica, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)); Frety, R. (Conventionne a l' Univ. Claude Bernard, Lyon I (France))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper coke remaining from the partial burning of coke deposited during the commercial re-forming of naphtha on a Pt-Re/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst is studied. Burning temperatures are 623-923 K, and the remaining coke is characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, IR, [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and chemical analysis. After coke is burned at 673 K, the residual coke shows the minimum value in the H/C ratio and the maximum in the thickness of the aromatic layers, degree of organization, C==O concentration, binding energy of C 1s, peak width, and g value. This agrees with the model of coke burning: at low temperatures, the burning is selective; the more hydrogenated and amorphous carbonaceous species are burnt first. At high temperatures, the burning is nonselective and all species are simultaneously burnt. Coke is partially oxidized during burning, and intermediate species with C==O and C--OH groups are formed.

  8. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-tao YANG; Yu-xiang LI; San-jiu YING

    2014-01-01

    Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  9. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  10. New treatment strategies to reduce burn wound progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmauss, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: After a burn injury certain superficial partial-thickness burn wounds spontaneously progress into deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. This poorly understood phenomenon is called burn wound progression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment strategies using warm water (preservation of microcirculation on the one side and erythropoietin (EPO (molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, vasodilatory and neoangiogenic properties can prevent, delay and/or reduce secondary burn wound progression in a rat model.Methods: We used a burn comb model in 63 rats, creating eight rectangular contact burns (2x1 cm each intercalated by unburned zones (2x0.5 cm prone to burn wound progression. In a first experimental set we treated burn wounds with locally applied warm (37°C or cold (17°C water for 20 minutes.In a second experimental set, animals were treated systemically with EPO at two different dosages of 500 and 2,500 IU/kg bodyweight (bw and initiated at 2 different time-points (45 minutes vs. 6 hours after burn injury. Evaluation of microcirculatory perfusion, interspace necrosis and burn depth was performed using respectively laser Doppler flowmetry, planimetry and histology. For statistical analysis the two-way ANOVA-test followed by an adequate post-hoc test (Bonferroni were used. Results: In untreated control animals a conversion from superficial to full-thickness burns was observed within 24 hours. Warm and cold water treatment significantly delayed burn depth progression, nevertheless after 4 days, burn depth was similar in all three groups. Warm water significantly reduced interspace necrosis compared to untreated controls and cold water with a significantly improved perfusion in the warm water group. Surface extension and particularly burn depth progression were significantly decreased by EPO only if administered at a dosage of bw and initiated 45 minutes after burn injury. EPO

  11. Image Retrieval: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical User Studies on Accessing Information in Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Reports on an empirical study about criteria for analysis and indexing digitized images, and the different types of user queries done in newspaper image archives in Denmark. Concludes that it is necessary that the indexing represent both a factual and an expressional…

  12. Early diagnostics and treatment with acute burn sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmedov A.A.; Shakirov B.M.; Karabaev H.K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of the procalcitonin test used for early diagnosis of sepsis and to study the course and treatment of burn sepsis in patients with severe burns. Methods: Eighty patients in the Burn Department of Republican Scientific Centre of Emergency Medical Care, aged 17-75 years with burn injuries covering 30%-85% of the body surface, were enrolled in the study. Procalcitonin is marker of sepsis, procalcitonin > 2 ng/mL, sensitivity -89%, specific feature -94%. Results: The result showed that among septic patients with severe burns, rational use of intensive therapy for burn sepsis and septic shock in combination with parentrial ozonotherapy resulted in decreases of syndrome of poly organ insufficiency and lethal outcomes from 70%accordingly. The result allows the conclusion that the treatment examined leads to a significant increase in survival coefficient. Conclusions: This in turn confirms the efficacy of early necrectomy and auto dermoplasty of deep burn wounds in victims with sepsis.

  13. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  14. Estudio de una muestra de pacientes con síndrome de boca ardiente Study of a sample of patients with burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo

    2007-06-01

    . It presents mainly in postmenopausal women, showing their discomfort during long periods. Burning mouth sensation can be accompanied by other sensitive alterations, like dryness or gustative changes. Objetives: To study a sample of BMS patients, describing the epidemiological factors, their diseases and drug consumption. Patients and methods: The sample was represented by 83 patients, consulting because their burning mouth sensation. All of them were accurately interrogated and examined and the data were registered in a protocol sheet. Results: 90.4% of patients were women and 9.6% were men. The mean of age was 64.9%. All the patients presented burning sensation on the tongue and 64% on the lips. The majority of the studied patients (76% presented an evolution of the symptoms during more than 12 months; only 6% presented this evolution during less than 6 months. 52 (63% of the 83 patients had psychological manifestations and more than the half of them consumed some psychoactive drug. Conclusions: Our sample of patients is comparable to those of other studies. BMS is more prevalent in postmenopausal women, presenting frequently anxiety and/or depression.

  15. Profile of self-inflicted burn patients treated at a tertiary burn center in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Fatih; Sever, Celalettin; Oksüz, Sinan; Duman, Haluk

    2009-01-01

    The factors and demographic features of self-inflicted burns in Eastern and Western cultures differ from each other. In this retrospective study, the authors' aim is to identify the epidemiologic features of self-inflicted burn patients treated at their Tertiary Burn Centre. The Burn Centre provides health care to a large population from Istanbul, which is located at the crossroads between Asia and Europe. The demographic data and information of 32 patients who were admitted to the GATA HEH Burn Center in Istanbul for attempted suicide were retrospectively reviewed over a 7-year period (2001-2008). Twenty-eight of the 32 patients were men, whereas the remaining four patients were women. The average age was 25.9 years. Seventeen patients had a previous history of self-harming and 22 patients were unemployed. History of a psychiatric illness was found in 20 patients. Mean total body burn surface area was 70%. The mortality rate was 43.4%. This study demonstrates that suicide attempts by burning differ from Eastern and Western cultures by factors and demographic features. It has been concluded that the solution to preventing self-inflicted burns calls for the joint efforts of physicians, psychologists, and sociologists. Furthermore, it is necessary to reinstate prevention programs and revise strategies for prevention based on the country and its culture.

  16. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    addition, subtracting a post-fire from a pre-fire image derived index produces a measure of absolute change of the vegetation condition, like the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index (dNBR). The aim of this study was the assessment of fire severity across diverse ecological and environmental conditions in the Mediterranean region. The specific objectives were: • The analysis of the correlation between the fire severity and local site conditions, including topography, fuel type, land use, land cover. • The analysis of the correlation between fire severity and fire danger conditions during the fire, as estimated by the European Forest Fire Information System. • Assessing the performance of several vegetation indices derived from MODIS imagery in estimating fire severity. • Assessing the permanence of the burnt signal for large fires as an estimate of fire severity.

  17. Radioactivity released from burning gas lantern mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzelschwab, J W; Googins, S W

    1984-04-01

    Gas lantern mantles contain thorium to produce incandescence when lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. Although only thorium is initially present on the mantle, the thorium daughters build up, some over a period of weeks and some over a period of years, and significant quantities of these daughters are present when the mantle is used. Some of these daughters are released when the lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. The amounts of radioactivity released during burning is studied by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by the daughters. Results of this study show that some of the radium (224Ra and 228Ra) and more than half the 212Pb and 212Bi is released during the first hour of a burn. The actual amounts release depend on the age of the mantle.

  18. Optical coherence tomography angiography for longitudinal monitoring of vascular changes in human cutaneous burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Wood, Fiona M; Sampson, David D; McLaughlin, Robert A

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of vasculature is an important aspect of monitoring healing of cutaneous burn injuries. Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have enabled it to be used to perform high-resolution imaging of the cutaneous vasculature in vivo, with the potential to provide a superior alternative to the conventional assessment of scoring skin color. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of OCT angiography for longitudinal monitoring of vasculature and identification of vascular features in human cutaneous burns. We integrate several OCT imaging protocols and image-processing techniques into a systematic method for longitudinal monitoring and automatic quantification. The demonstration of this method on a partial-thickness burn shows the accurate co-location of longitudinal scans; characteristic vascular features in different healing phases; and eventual decrease of the elevated vasculature area density and vessel diameter to normal levels. Such a method holds promise for longitudinal monitoring of vasculature in burn injures as well as in other cutaneous vascular pathologies and responses to treatment. PMID:27116945

  19. Imaging studies in chronic low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging brings to difficult problems in chronic low back pain incomplete data showing that it will need a lot of time to find therapeutic solutions. Some comparisons are made between tomodensitometry, nuclear magnetic imaging, the disco-scanner, these technologies allow to find small lesions but the problem is complete when it is not possible to find anything with persistent pains. 125 refs

  20. D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D) Corrective Measures Study/Focused Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine alternatives which may be used to remediate the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP). An objective of this process is to provide decision makers adequate information to compare alternatives, select an appropriate remediation for the DBRP, and demonstrate the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements in the Record of Decision.

  1. Importance of proper initial treatment of moderate and major burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Burns are common injuries with frequency depending on human factors, development of protection, industry and traffic, eventual wars. Organized treatment of major burn injuries has tremendous medical, social and economic importance. The aim of this study was to analyze initial treatment of major and moderate burns, to compare it with the current recommendations and to signify the importance of organized management of burns. Methods. In a prospective study 547 adult patients with major burns were analyzed, covering a period of eight years, with the emphasis on the initial hospital admission and emergency care for burns greater than 10% of total body surface area (TBSA. Results. In the different groups of major burns, the percentage of hospital admission was: 81.5 in burns greater than 10% TBSA, 37.7 in burns of the functional areas, 54.5 in the III degree burns, 81.6 in electrical burns, 55.9 in chemical burns, 61.9 in inhalation injury, 41.0 in burns in patients with the greater risk and 100 in burns with a concomitant trauma. In the group of 145 patients with burns greater than 10% TBSA, intravenous fluids were given in 87 patients, analgesics in 45, corticosteroids in 29, antibiotics in 23 and oxygen administration in 14. In the same group, wound irrigation was done in 14.4%, removing of the clothing and shoes in 29.6%, elevation of the legs in 8.9% and prevention of hypothermia in 7.6% of the victims. There were no initial estimations of burn extent (percentage of a burn, notes about the patient and injury and tetanus immunizations. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is concluded that there should be much more initial hospital admissions of major burns, and also, necessary steps in the emergency care of burns greater than 10% TBSA should be taken more frequently. On the other side, unnecessary or wrong steps should be avoided in the initial burn treatment.

  2. [Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit.

  3. Study on simulation of low light level images and photon images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Xin; Chen, Yi-nan

    2008-03-01

    This paper concentrates on images formation simulation under low light level condition (10 -6system entire noise and simulate a deblurred image intensified by photon imaging system recently constructed under low light level condition. The influence of scene luminance and photon imaging system optical errors on the simulation is introduced. Then the system entire noise is appended to low light level images by a novel noise analysis and generation method based on experimental study method. The second part of this paper deals with simulation of photon images. Because of randomicity of photon images, roulette wheel selection is utilized to confirm the grey level of stochastic signal photon image and noise photon image is generated by poissson stochastic process pixel by pixel. The final photon image is acquired by synthesizing the two images. The simulation presented in this paper provides an economical and convenient method to investigate the detection ability of photon imaging system and image reconstruction algorithm under low light level condition and photon limited condition.

  4. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter; Stollwerck, Peter. L.; Stang, Felix H.; Siemers, Frank; Namdar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the in...

  5. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namdar, T; Siemers, F; Stollwerck, PL; Stang, FH; Mailänder, P; de Lange, T

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia.Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality?Method: Retrospective study for the i...

  6. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation as strategies for the bioremediation of a burned woodland soil contaminated by toxic hydrocarbons: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    In this work, the natural attenuation strategy (no soil amendments done) was compared with two different bioremediation approaches, namely bioaugmentation through soil inoculation with a suspension of Trichoderma sp. mycelium and biostimulation by soil addition with a microbial growth promoting formulation, in order to verify the effectiveness of these methods in terms of degradation efficiency towards toxic hydrocarbons, with particular attention to the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction, in a forest area impacted by recent wildfire in Northern Italy. The area under investigation, divided into three parcels, was monitored to figure out the dynamics of decay in soil concentration of C₁₂₋₄₀ hydrocarbons (including isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, alkyl-benzenes and alkyl-naphthalenes besides PAHs) and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, following the adoption of the foregoing different remediation strategies. Soil hydrocarbonoclastic potential was even checked by characterizing the autochthonous microbial cenoses. Field experiments proved that the best performance in the abatement of HMW hydrocarbons was reached 60 days after soil treatment through the biostimulation protocol, when about 70% of the initial concentration of HMW hydrocarbons was depleted. Within the same time, about 55% degradation was obtained with the bioaugmentation protocol, whilst natural attenuation allowed only a 45% removal of the starting C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction. Therefore, biostimulation seems to significantly reduce the time required for the remediation, most likely because of the enhancement of microbial degradation through the improvement of nutrient balance in the burned soil.

  7. The Influence of the 2006 Indonesian Biomass Burning Aerosols on Tropical Dynamics Studied with the GEOS-5 AGCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Lesley; Duncan, Bryan; Pawson, Steven; Colarco, Peter; Chin, Mian; Randles, Cynthia; Diehl, Thomas; Nielsen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols produced by Indonesian biomass burning (BB) during August November 2006 on tropical dynamics have been examined using NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). The AGCM includes CO, which is transported by resolved and sub-grid processes and subject to a linearized chemical loss rate. Simulations were driven by two sets of aerosol forcing fields calculated offline, one that included Indonesian BB aerosol emissions and one that did not. In order to separate the influence of the aerosols from internal model variability, the means of two ten-member ensembles were compared. Diabatic heating from BB aerosols increased temperatures over Indonesia between 150 and 400 hPa. The higher temperatures resulted in strong increases in upward grid-scale vertical motion, which increased water vapor and CO over Indonesia. In October, the largest increases in water vapor were found in the mid-troposphere (25%) while the largest increases in CO occurred just below the tropopause (80 ppbv or 50%). Diabatic heating from the Indonesian BB aerosols caused CO to increase by 9% throughout the tropical tropopause layer in November and 5% in the lower stratosphere in December. The results demonstrate that aerosol heating plays an important role in the transport of BB pollution and troposphere-to-stratosphere transport. Changes in vertical motion and cloudiness induced by aerosol heating can also alter the transport and phase of water vapor in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere.

  8. A study of correlation technique on pyramid processed images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sankar Kishore; K Veerabhadra Rao

    2000-02-01

    The pyramid algorithm is potentially a powerful tool for advanced television image processing and for pattern recognition. An attempt is made to design and develop both hardware and software for a system which performs decomposition and reconstruction of digitized images by implementing the Burt pyramid algorithm. In this work, an attempt is also made to study correlation performance on reconstructed images. That is, the reference image is taken from the original image and correlation is performed on expanded images of the same size. Similarly, correlation performance study is carried out on different pyramid- processed levels. In this paper results are presented in terms of RMS error between original and expanded images. Only still images are considered, and the hardware is designed around an i486 processor and software is developed in PL/M 86.

  9. Soil moisture variation and dynamics across a wildfire burn boundary in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani; Kanarek, Michael R.

    2014-11-01

    A year after the most destructive wildfire in Texas (USA) history which occurred in and around Bastrop State Park, we established a 165 m-long study transect, bridging burned and unburned areas, to study post-wildfire soil moisture dynamics. Soil moisture content (θ) was monitored indirectly approximately monthly for half a year using a variety of methods with different measurement scales including: 2D electrical resistivity (ER) imaging and surface and vertical profiles using probes which measure soil dielectric properties. The burned section, where the majority of loblolly pine trees were killed, had higher θ and lower ER whereas the unburned end which is still populated by live pine trees had lower θ and higher ER. This pattern persisted from the ground surface and down to ∼2 m and through the study period even after a rainfall event which made the whole transect generally wetter but with the burned end showing a much stronger wetting response to the storm. The differences in θ cannot be explained by differences in soil texture with the burned end with sand soil and the unburned end with less permeable loamy sand. The differing results may be explained by loss of canopy cover and by reduced transpiration at the burned end where the dead roots may also potentially serve as macropores. Thus, after fires and until new vegetation cover has grown, the burned areas will store and transmit more water which could lead to increased groundwater recharge and promote the recovery or invasion of certain types of vegetation.

  10. An Epidemiologic Survey on Burns in Yazd from 2008 till 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Negar Delbari; Kazem Kazemeini; Mohammad Jalilmanesh; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Seyed Jalil Mirmohammadi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2012-01-01

    Burns are injuries which may require long hospitalization and may result in important impairment and disability. Burn injuries are still common especially in developing countries. Assessment of the epidemiology of burns is very important for introduction of preventive methods. This study was conducted in Yazd to assess and describe the epidemiology of burns including its main causes, and its demographics. In a prospective study during a 1 year period, we assessed the epidemiology of burns in ...

  11. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model...... is induced immediately by the burns and lasts about 24 h dependent on the intensity of the heat stimulus. The burns heal without sequela. A study of the reproducibility of pain assessments in the burn model has shown that measures based on repeated measurements were significantly more reproducible than......Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects...

  12. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Norbury, William B; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn size groups: 80% TBSA burn. Demographic and clinical data, hypermetabolism, the inflammatory response, body composition, the muscle protein net balance, serum and urine hormones and proteins, and cardiac function and changes in liver size were determined. Results One hundred and eighty-nine pediatric patients of similar age and gender distribution were included in the study (80% TBSA burn, n = 21). Patients with larger burns had more operations, a greater incidence of infections and sepsis, and higher mortality rates compared with the other groups (P 80% TBSA group, followed by the 60–79% TBSA burn group (P 80% burns lost the most body weight, lean body mass, muscle protein and bone mineral content (P < 0.05). The urine cortisol concentration was highest in the 80–99% and 60–79% TBSA burn groups, associated with significant myocardial depression and increased change in liver size (P < 0.05). The cytokine profile showed distinct differences in expression of IL-8, TNF, IL-6, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P < 0.05). Conclusion Morbidity and mortality in burned patients is burn size dependent, starts at a 60% TBSA burn and is due to an increased hypermetabolic and inflammatory reaction, along with impaired cardiac function. PMID:17716366

  13. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  14. Hybrid wound dressings with controlled release of antibiotics: Structure-release profile effects and in vivo study in a guinea pig burn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Meital; Egozi, Dana; Shemesh, Maoz; Keren, Aviad; Mazor, Eytan; Baranes-Zeevi, Maya; Goldstein, Nyra; Berdicevsky, Israela; Gilhar, Amos; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decades, wound dressings have evolved from a crude traditional gauze dressing to tissue-engineered scaffolds. Many types of wound dressing formats are commercially available or have been investigated. We developed and studied hybrid bilayer wound dressings which combine a drug-loaded porous poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) top layer with a spongy collagen sublayer. Such a structure is very promising because it combines the advantageous properties of both layers. The antibiotic drug gentamicin was incorporated into the top layer for preventing and/or defeating infections. In this study, we examined the effect of the top layer's structure on the gentamicin release profile and on the resulting in vivo wound healing. The latter was tested on a guinea pig burn model, compared to the neutral non-adherent dressing material Melolin® (Smith & Nephew) and Aquacel® Ag (ConvaTec). The release kinetics of gentamicin from the various studied formulations exhibited burst release values between 8% and 38%, followed by a drug elution rate that decreased with time and lasted for at least 7 weeks. The hybrid dressing, with relatively slow gentamicin release, enabled the highest degree of wound healing (28%), which is at least double that obtained by the other dressing formats (8-12%). It resulted in the lowest degree of wound contraction and a relatively low amount of inflammatory cells compared to the controls. This dressing was found to be superior to hybrid wound dressings with fast gentamicin release and to the neat hybrid dressing without drug release. Since this dressing exhibited promising results and does not require frequent bandage changes, it offers a potentially valuable concept for treating large infected burns.

  15. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning: 2. Three-dimensional Eulerian studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Matthew James; Wang, Chien; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2009-05-01

    Global-scale models of atmospheric chemistry (GACMs) "mix" biomass burning emissions into grid boxes with horizontal scales of 10-200 km. This ignores the complex nonlinear transformations that take place in the young smoke plumes. Here we use a new gas- and aerosol-phase chemistry model called Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP) and a 3-D Eulerian smoke plume model to simulate the fluid dynamics, radiative transfer, gas-phase chemistry, and aerosol-phase chemistry of the Timbavati smoke plume observed during SAFARI 2000. We then compare the results of the 3-D plume model with those of an Eulerian box model, which is used as an analog for the large grid boxes of GACMs. The 3-D plume model matched the observed plume injection height but required a large minimum horizontal diffusion coefficient to match the observed horizontal dispersion of the plume. Absorption and scattering by smoke aerosols reduced the modeled photolysis rates in the plume by 10-20%. Increasing the heterogeneous production of HONO and H2SO4 in the model and including uncharacterized organic species using monoterpenes as a proxy compound improves the model-observation match. Direct measurements of OH in the smoke plumes would be an excellent way to determine if heterogeneous production of HONO is taking place. The automatic dilution of smoke plume emissions into the large grid boxes of global models can result in large errors in predicted concentrations of O3, NOx and aerosol species downwind. We discuss several potential approaches that could reduce these errors.

  16. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning: 1. Lagrangian parcel studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Matthew James; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new model of the gas- and aerosol-phase chemistry of biomass burning smoke plumes called Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). Here we use ASP combined with a Lagrangian parcel model to simulate the chemistry in smoke plumes from three fires: the Otavi savannah fire in Namibia, an Alaska boreal forest fire, and the Timbavati savannah fire. Our model explained the observations of ozone in the Otavi and Alaska plumes fairly well, but our initial model simulation of the Timbavati plume underestimated the concentrations of ozone, OH, and secondary aerosol matter. The Timbavati simulation agrees with observations if we increase OH to equal its observed levels. Heterogeneous reactions of NO2 and SO2 could explain the needed higher concentrations of OH and the rapid formation of ozone, nitrate, and sulfate in the smoke plume if the uptake coefficients on smoke aerosols are large (O(10-3) and O(10-4), respectively). Uncharacterized organic species in the smoke plume were likely responsible for the rapid formation of aerosol organic carbon. The changes in the aerosol size distribution were dominated by plume dilution and condensational growth. The single scattering albedo of the modeled smoke increases from 0.866 to 0.902 over 1 h of aging. The change in aerosol scattering with relative humidity for the modeled fresh smoke matches observations up to 66% RH, but the model greatly overestimates the humidification factor at 80% RH (2.88 versus an observed value of 1.70-1.79). For the aged smoke, the modeled humidification factor is 1.22, slightly below the observed value of 1.40.

  17. Current concepts on burn wound conversion-A review of recent advances in understanding the secondary progressions of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salibian, Ara A; Rosario, Angelica Tan Del; Severo, Lucio De Almeida Moura; Nguyen, Long; Banyard, Derek A; Toranto, Jason D; Evans, Gregory R D; Widgerow, Alan D

    2016-08-01

    Burn wound conversion describes the process by which superficial partial thickness burns convert into deeper burns necessitating surgical intervention. Fully understanding and thus controlling this phenomenon continues to defy burn surgeons. However, potentially guiding burn wound progression so as to obviate the need for surgery while still bringing about healing with limited scarring is the major unmet challenge. Comprehending the pathophysiologic background contributing to deeper progression of these burns is an essential prerequisite to planning any intervention. In this study, a review of articles examining burn wound progression over the last five years was conducted to analyze trends in recent burn progression research, determine changes in understanding of the pathogenesis of burn conversion, and subsequently examine the direction for future research in developing therapies. The majority of recent research focuses on applying therapies from other disease processes to common underlying pathogenic mechanisms in burn conversion. While ischemia, inflammation, and free oxygen radicals continue to demonstrate a critical role in secondary necrosis, novel mechanisms such as autophagy have also been shown to contribute affect significantly burn progression significantly. Further research will have to determine whether multiple mechanisms should be targeted when developing clinical therapies.

  18. Internet-based information and self-help program for parents of children with burns: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefin Sveen

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: We believe that this program will offer parents of children with burns information and support, decrease symptoms of stress, and that parents will perceive the program as useful. If the program is found to be beneficial, it could be implemented in burn care as it is accessible and cost-effective.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  20. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Çil; Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7)

  1. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  2. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...

  3. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  4. Tree STEM Reconstruction Using Vertical Fisheye Images: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berveglieri, A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  5. TREE STEM RECONSTRUCTION USING VERTICAL FISHEYE IMAGES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berveglieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  6. Studying Satellite Image Quality Based on the Fusion Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Al-Zaky, Ali A

    2011-01-01

    Various and different methods can be used to produce high-resolution multispectral images from high-resolution panchromatic image (PAN) and low-resolution multispectral images (MS), mostly on the pixel level. However, the jury is still out on the benefits of a fused image compared to its original images. There is also a lack of measures for assessing the objective quality of the spatial resolution for the fusion methods. Therefore, an objective quality of the spatial resolution assessment for fusion images is required. So, this study attempts to develop a new qualitative assessment to evaluate the spatial quality of the pan sharpened images by many spatial quality metrics. Also, this paper deals with a comparison of various image fusion techniques based on pixel and feature fusion techniques.

  7. The role of resilience in the recovery of the burn-injured patient: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornhaber R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available R Kornhaber,1 H Bridgman,2 L McLean,3–6 J Vandervord7 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 2Centre for Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 3Brain and Mind Centre, 4Westmead Psychotherapy Program, Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 5Sydney West and Greater Southern Psychiatry Training Network, Cumberland Hospital, Western Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW, 6Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, 7Severe Burns Injury Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, Australia Abstract: Severe burn injuries are catastrophic life events resulting in significant physical and psychological effects. With long periods of hospitalization and rehabilitation, burn survivors encounter many issues, including an altered body image and loss of function and independence that subsequently influence quality of life and the family unit. Consequently, resilience has been identified as a fundamental concept that facilitates the adaptability required to navigate the lengthy and complex recovery process. However, over time, the notion of resilience has shifted from a static, innate trait to a fluid and multidimensional concept. Here, we review the evidence surrounding the role of resilience in the recovery of burn injury. This integrative review was based on a systematic search of five electronic databases. Of the 89 articles identified, ten primary research papers met the inclusion criteria. Three key themes were identified encompassing relational strengths, positive coping, and the resistance to trauma symptoms that are fundamental constructs associated with developing and sustaining resilience that resonate with the broader literature on burn recovery. However, limited evidence is currently available within the burns context. While resilience appears to be a vital

  8. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  9. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  10. The efficacy of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) vs antithrombin III (at III) vs heparin, in the healing process of partial-thickness burns: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikos, O.; Tsagarakis, M.; Tsoutsos, D.; Kittas, C.; Gorgoulis, V.; Papalois, A.; Giannopoulos, A.; Kakiopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This is an experimental study regarding the positive effect of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in the healing process of partial-thickness burns, in comparison to antithrombin III and heparin. On a porcine model we induced superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burns and performed intravenous administration of the elements of study during the first 48 h. The progress of the condition of the injured tissues was evaluated by histopathological examination at specific time intervals. The results showed an improved healing response of the specimens treated with rhAPC compared to those treated with antithrombin III, heparin, and placebo. PMID:23233823

  11. A simulation study on image reconstruction in magnetic particle imaging with field-free-line encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present image reconstruction methods for magnetic particle imaging (MPI) with a field-free-line (FFL) encoding scheme and to propose the use of the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm for improving the image quality of MPI. The feasibility of these methods was investigated by computer simulations, in which the projection data were generated by summing up the Fourier harmonics obtained from the MPI signals based on the Langevin function. Images were reconstructed from the generated projection data using the filtered backprojection (FBP) method and the ML-EM algorithm. The effects of the gradient of selection magnetic field (SMF), the strength of drive magnetic field (DMF), the diameter of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and the number of projection data on the image quality of the reconstructed images were investigated. The spatial resolution of the reconstructed images became better with increasing gradient of SMF and with increasing diameter of MNPs u...

  12. Novel curcumin-loaded gel-core hyaluosomes with promising burn-wound healing potential: Development, in-vitro appraisal and in-vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Wessam M; Elnaggar, Yosra S R; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-01-01

    Despite its effectiveness, curcumin (Curc) dermal delivery is handicapped by hydrophobicity, high metabolism and poor skin permeation. In this work, the potential of novel self-assembled nanogels, namely gel-core hyaluosome (GC-HS) to enhance Curc delivery to wound sites, enhance healing rate and decrease scar formation was evaluated. Curc-GC-HS were prepared using film hydration technique and evaluated regarding size, zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (% EE), and in vitro release. Structure elucidation was performed using light, polarizing and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-vivo burn-wound healing potential, skin deposition ability and histological study were evaluated using female Sprague Dawley rats. Curc-GC-HS were compared to conventional transfersomal gel (Curc-T-Pl gel), and other conventional gels. Curc-GC-HS showed nanosize (202.7 ± 0.66 nm), negative ZP (-33 ± 2.6 mV) and % EE (96.44 ± 1.29%). TEM revealed discrete vesicles with characteristic bilayer structure. Polarizing microscopy proposed liquid crystalline consistency. Burn-wound healing study showed that Curc-GC-HS was the only system exhibiting marked improvement at day 7 of treatment. At 11th day, Curc-GC-HS treated wounds showed almost normal skin with no scar confirmed by histological analysis. Curc-GC-HS showed five folds higher skin deposition compared to conventional Curc-T-Pl gel. To conclude, novel gel-core hyaluosomes elaborated are promising nanogels able to increase Curc skin penetration and dermal localization while protecting it against degradation. Future perspective encompasses assessing potential of novel nanocarrier for skin cancer therapy.

  13. BURN SIZE AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient survival following severe burn injury is largely determined by burn size. Modern developments in burn care have tremendously improved survival and outcomes. However, no large analysis on outcomes in pediatric burn patients with current treatment regimen exists. This study was designed to identify the burn size presently associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality in pediatric burn patients. Methods Single center prospective observational cohort study utilizing the clinical data of severely burned pediatric patients admitted between 1998 and 2009. This study included 952 severely burned pediatric patients with burns over at least 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA). Patients were stratified by burn size in 10% increments, ranging from 30 to 100%, with a secondary assignment made according to the outcome of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, χ2 test, logistic regression and ROC analysis, as appropriate, with significance set at p<0.05. Findings All groups were comparable in age (age in years: 30–39: 6.1±5.1, 40–49: 7.1±5.2, 50–59: 7.6±5.1, 60–69: 7.2±5.1, 70–79: 8.3±5.9, 80–89: 8.4±5.6, 90–100: 9.6±5.4), and gender distribution (male: 30–39: 68%, 40–49: 64%, 50–59: 65%, 60–69: 59%, 70–79: 71%, 80–89: 62%, 90–100: 82%). Mortality (30–39: 3%, 40–49: 3%, 50–59: 7%, 60–69: 16%, 70–79: 22%, 80–89: 35%, 90–100: 55%), multi-organ failure (30–39: 6%, 40–49: 6%, 50–59: 12%, 60–69: 27%, 70–79: 29%, 80–89: 44%, 90–100: 45%), and sepsis (30–39: 2%, 40–49: 5%, 50–59: 6%, 60–69: 15%, 70–79: 13%, 80–89: 22%, 90–100: 26%), increased significantly (p<0.001) among the groups and at a threshold of 62% TBSA. Comparison of patients with burns larger than 62% with those smaller showed significant differences in inflammatory (Cytokines), acute phase (CRP) and hypermetabolic responses (REE

  14. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  15. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  16. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively. PMID:26813059

  17. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. PMID:27395025

  18. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  19. BURN TRAUMA PATTERN IN HAMIDIA HOSPITAL IN 4 YEARS 2009 TO 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : A high Incidence of burn death is estimated to o ccur in developing countries like India. This study investigated the incidence as wel l as pattern characteristic associated with hospitalized burn patient in Bhopal and surrounding area through 2009 -12. It was found that 1593 burn patients were hospitalized. Most burn occ urred at home. 480 were suicidal 1072 accidental and 41 homicidal. Burn was higher in fem ales in all groups. Young age was more affected.

  20. The Effect of Shiatsu Massage on Pain Reduction in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ardabili, Fatemeh Mohaddes; Purhajari, Soybeh; Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is a tragedy that follows multiple problems in a patient including pain, anxiety and lack of confidence into medical team. This study evaluated the effect of shiatsu massage on pain intensity of burn patients. METHODS A total of 120 burn patients from Motahhari Burn Hospital and of both genders were randomly divided into 4 groups of undergoing hand massage, leg massage, both hand and leg massages, and the control group. The effect of shiatsu massage in pain relief of burned pa...

  1. Simulation study on radiative imaging of combustion flame in furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiative imaging of combustion flame in furnace of power plant plays an increasingly important role in combustion diagnosis. This paper presents a new method for calculating the radiative imaging of three-dimensional (3D) combustion flame based on Monte Carlo method and optical lens imaging. Numerical simulation case was used in this study. Radiative images were calculated and images obtained can not only present the energy distribution on the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera target plane but also reflect the energy distribution condition in the simulation furnace. Finally the relationships between volume elements and energy shares were also discussed.

  2. 1984–2010 trends in fire burn severity and area for the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Meier, Gretchen; Howard, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Burn severity products created by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project were used to analyse historical trends in burn severity. Using a severity metric calculated by modelling the cumulative distribution of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and Relativized dNBR (RdNBR) data, we examined burn area and burn severity of 4893 historical fires (1984–2010) distributed across the conterminous US (CONUS) and mapped by MTBS. Yearly mean burn severity values (weighted by area), maximum burn severity metric values, mean area of burn, maximum burn area and total burn area were evaluated within 27 US National Vegetation Classification macrogroups. Time series assessments of burned area and severity were performed using Mann–Kendall tests. Burned area and severity varied by vegetation classification, but most vegetation groups showed no detectable change during the 1984–2010 period. Of the 27 analysed vegetation groups, trend analysis revealed burned area increased in eight, and burn severity has increased in seven. This study suggests that burned area and severity, as measured by the severity metric based on dNBR or RdNBR, have not changed substantially for most vegetation groups evaluated within CONUS.

  3. PLASTIC SURGERY AND BURNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Objective Endotoxin as the inciting agentof cytokines and other mediators, whose highlevel expression correlates with the septicshock and MOF, has been the one of leadingcauses of death in ICU. Methods For treatingsepsis and MOF caused by endotoxin, the anti-lipid A of LPS antibody was used. 19 burned

  4. Imaging intracranial haemangiopericytomas: study of seven cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, M.; Sakai, H.; Onoue, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Abe, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, 105-8461, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-03-01

    Imaging features of intracranial haemangiopericytomas are similar to those of meningiomas. Preoperative identification of these tumours is important because of their aggressive nature, high rate of local recurrence and propensity for late metastasis. We reviewed the CT, MRI and angiographic findings in seven pathologically proved haemangiopericytomas, to determine if imaging characteristics might distinguish them from meningiomas. None showed hyperostosis or tumour calcification. All showed marked enhancement. Five had prominent internal signal voids, suggesting feeding arteries. On angiography, one had only pial-cortical supply but six also had meningeal supply; all showed a persistent stain. Only one had multiple ''corkscrew'' feeding vessels. (orig.)

  5. Early Detection of Heterotopic Ossification Using Near-Infrared Optical Imaging Reveals Dynamic Turnover and Progression of Mineralization Following Achilles Tenotomy and Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Perosky, Joseph E.; Peterson, Jonathan R.; Eboda, Owulatobi N.; Morris, Michael D.; Stewart C. Wang; Levi, Benjamin; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue. Current diagnostics have low sensitivity or specificity to incremental progression of mineralization, especially at early time points. Without accurate and reliable early diagnosis and intervention, HO progression often results in incapacitating conditions of limited range of motion, nerve entrapment, and pain. We hypothesized that non-invasive near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging can detect HO at early time points...

  6. Impact of prescribed burning on blanket peat hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, J; Palmer, SM; Johnston, K; Wearing, C.; Irvine, B; Brown, LE

    2015-01-01

    Fire is known to impact soil properties and hydrological flowpaths. However, the impact of prescribed vegetation burning on blanket peatland hydrology is poorly understood. We studied ten blanket peat headwater catchments. Five were subject to prescribed burning, while five were unburnt controls. Within the burnt catchments we studied plots where the last burn occurred ∼2 (B2), 4 (B4), 7 (B7) or greater than 10 years (B10+) prior to the start of measurements. These were compared with plots at...

  7. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  8. Estudio clínico-epidemiológico sobre el síndrome de ardor bucal Clinical epidemiology study about the burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C López Carriches

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available En el síndrome de ardor bucal el paciente refiere un dolor crónico que no suele acompañarse de lesiones mucosas u otros signos clínicos. Aunque la lengua es la localización más importante, también afecta a los labios, el paladar y la mucosa yugal e incluso a la garganta y el suelo de la boca. Con el propósito de analizar los factores epidemiológicos y determinar si este síndrome se asocia con alguna alteración oral o sistémica se realizó un estudio sobre 25 pacientes con síndrome de ardor bucal que acudieron al servicio de Cirugía de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Se observó que tiene un componente psicógeno importantísimo presentando la mayoría de los pacientes unas características comunes y se puede afirmar que ciertos medicamentos como los antidepresivos influyen en este cuadro.In burning mouth syndrome, patient refers a chronic pain that is not usually accompanied by mucosal lesions or another clinic signs. Although tongue is the most important location, lips, palate, yugal mucosa even throat and mouth floor can be affected, too. On the purpose of analysing the epidemiological aspects and to decide if this syndrome is associated with oral or systemic alterations a study was carried out with 25 burning mouth syndrome patients that came to the Surgery Unit of School of Dentistry of University Complutense of Madrid. A very important psychological component has been observed and most of the patients presented quite common characteristic and it can be affirmed that certain medicines like antidepressive take influence in this syndrome.

  9. The application of FORMOSAT-2 high-temporal- and high-spatial resolution imagery for monitoring open straw burning and carbon emission detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is produced in more than 95 countries worldwide and is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Rice is also a major food crop of Taiwan. There are numerous rice crops planted on the western plains of Taiwan, and, after the harvest season, the left-over straw is often burned on-site. The air pollutants from the burning emissions include CO2, CO, CH4 and other suspended particles, most of these being the greenhouse gases which cause global climate change. In this study FORMOSAT-2 satellite images and ground-truth data from 2008 and 2009 are used to conduct supervised classification and calculate the extent of the straw burning areas. It was found that 10% of the paddies in the study area were burned after harvest during this 2-yr period. On this pro rata basis, we calculated the overall carbon emissions from the burning of the straw. The findings showed that these few farmers produced up to 34 000 tons of carbon emissions in 2008, and 40 000 tons in 2009. The study results indicate that remotely sensed images can be used to efficiently evaluate the important characteristics for carbon emission detection. It also provides quantitative results that are relevant to tracking sources of transport pollution, postharvest burning, and Asian dust in Taiwan.

  10. Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering: Studies on image contrast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Divakar Rao; H S Patel; B Jain; P K Gupta

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we report the development of experimental set-up for timegated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering. Our studies on the contrast of time-gated images show that for a given optical thickness, the image contrast is better for sample with lower scattering coefficient and higher physical thickness, and that the contrast improves with decreasing value of anisotropy parameters of the scatterers. These results are consistent with time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Brain Imaging Studies of Developmental Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J.

    2001-01-01

    A review of research on brain imaging of developmental stuttering concludes that findings increasingly point to a failure of normal temporal lobe activation during speech that may either contribute to (or is the result of) a breakdown in the sequencing of processing among premotor regions implicated in phonologic planning. (Contains references.)…

  12. Olympus Imaging Fraud Scandal: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Dennis; Madrigal, Marion; Jackson, Maura

    2014-01-01

    This case examines the two decade long tobashi scheme by Olympus Imaging Executives to hide $1.7 billion in losses. In the 1980s, a soaring yen and falling dollar caused bottom line income problems for many Japanese companies. Some companies sought to offset the declining revenue with zaiteku, a form of speculative investment. While early…

  13. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  14. Epidemiologic Study of Consciousness Disorder in Burn Sepsis Patients%烧伤脓毒症患者意识障碍的流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙羽飞; 徐文举

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the causes,clinical features,related risk factors and outcome of sepsis patients after burns with consciousness disorder. Methods A retrospective study including 157 burn sepsis patients from 2011 to 2012 was conducted in our department of burn and plastic surgery. The baseline data of patients the causes for consciousness disorder,vital signs,biochemical indicators,related risk factors and outcome were analyzed in the study. Results The incidence of consciousness disorder in burn sepsis patients was 39.5%. The causes and the percentages were septic associated encephalopathy (46.8%)、 hypoxemia (25.8%)、 hypernatremia (11.3%)、hyponatremia(4.8%)、metabolic acidosis(4.8%)、Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning(3.2%)、hypoglycemia(1.6%) and intracranial infection (1.6%). Conclusion The main causes for consciousness disorder in burn sepsis patients are septic associated encephalopathy and hypoxemia. Disorder of consciousness increases the mortality rate of burn sepsis patients,in addition , The mortality rate of septic associated encephalopathy was obviously higher than that of other causes.%目的探讨烧伤脓毒症患者合并意识障碍的原因、临床表现、相关危险因素及预后。方法回顾性分析我院烧伤整形科2011年01月~2012年12月收治的157例脓毒症患者的临床资料,分析其合并意识障碍的原因、临床表现、生化指标、相关危险因素及预后。结果烧伤脓毒症患者出现意识障碍的发生率为39.5%,原因和百分率分别为:SAE 29例(46.8%)、低氧血症16例(25.8%)、高钠血症7例(11.3%)、低钠血症3例(4.8%)、代谢性酸中毒3例(4.8%)、急性 CO中毒后迟发性脑病2例(3.2%)、低血糖1例(1.6%)、颅内感染1例(1.6%)。脓毒症合并意识障碍组与非意识障碍组在年龄、致伤原因、烧伤面积和深度上比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),意识障碍

  15. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon D. Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0% had burns involving less than 20% of the body surface area. Cause of the burns was scald in 190 patients (67.4%, fire in 80 patients (28.4%, chemical in 8 patients (2.8%, and explosion in 2 patients (0.7%. Two female patients (0.7% aged 11 and 17 years died of their burns that were caused by fire. The mean length of hospitalization was 9.8 days. Pediatric burn injury has become a significant public health problem in the Bedouin population of the Negev. To reduce the burden of burn injury, it is necessary to increase current efforts in prevention of burns.

  16. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  17. Effect of Topical Platelet-Rich Plasma on Burn Healing After Partial-Thickness Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Umit; Ekici, Yahya; Bircan, Huseyin Yuce; Aydogan, Cem; Turkoglu, Suna; Ozen, Ozlem; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-06-05

    BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on tissue maturation and burn healing in an experimental partial-thickness burn injury model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 (platelet-rich plasma group) was exposed to burn injury and topical platelet-rich plasma was applied. Group 2 (control group) was exposed to burn injury only. Group 3 (blood donor group) was used as blood donors for platelet-rich plasma. The rats were killed on the seventh day after burn injury. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured and histopathologic changes were examined. RESULTS Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group (P=.03). Histopathologically, there was significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration (P=.005) and there were no statistically significant differences between groups in fibroblast development, collagen production, vessel proliferations, or epithelization. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma seems to partially improve burn healing in this experimental burn injury model. As an initial conclusion, it appears that platelet-rich plasma can be used in humans, although further studies should be performed with this type of treatment.

  18. To make Oxygen Burn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The French philosopher Gilles Deleuze notes in his books on cinema that it was the advent of the Nazi state that generated the collapse of classical cinema, because it was the very substance of this kinematics that were “Horrible realised” by the spiritual automat incorporated in the image...... earnest an attempt to describe, in scientific terms how you construct an Intensive Memory. This work is an interdisciplinary study of cinema, music, sounddesign, architecture(s), philosophy and artistic development work....

  19. Image Processing Algorithms – A Comprehensive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Prasanna K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing is an ever expanding and dynamic area with applications reaching out into our everyday life such as medicine, space exploration, surveillance, authentication, automated industry inspection and many more areas. These applications involve different processes like image enhancement and object detection [1]. Implementing such applications on a general purpose computer can be easier, but not very time efficient due to additional constraints on memory and other peripheral devices. Application specific hardware implementation offers much greater speed than a software implementation. With advances in the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated technology hardware implementation has become an attractive alternative. Implementing complex computation tasks on hardware and by exploiting parallelism and pipelining in algorithms yield significant reduction in execution times [2].

  20. Nuclear Image Analysis Study of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Meeja; Baek, Taehwa; Baek, Jongho; Son, Hyunjin; Kang, Dongwook; Kim, Jooheon; Lee, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a subjective disagreement about nuclear chromatin in the field of pathology. Objective values of red, green, and blue (RGB) light intensities for nuclear chromatin can be obtained through a quantitative analysis using digital images. Methods We examined 10 cases of well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum, small cell lung carcinomas, and moderately differentiated squamous cell lung carcinomas respectively. For each case, we selected 30 representative cells a...

  1. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N

    2009-01-01

    Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently...

  2. Visualization of microcalcifications using photoacoustic imaging: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tsai-Chu; Wang, Po-Hsun; Fan, Chih-Tai; Cheng, Yao-You; Li, Meng-Lin

    2011-03-01

    Recently, photoacoustic imaging has been intensively studied for blood vessel imaging, and shown its capability of revealing vascular features suggestive of malignancy of breast cancer. In this study, we explore the feasibility of visualization of micro-calcifications using photoacoustic imaging. Breast micro-calcification is also known as one of the most important indicators for early breast cancer detection. The non-ionizing radiation and speckle free nature of photoacoustic imaging overcomes the drawbacks of current diagnostic tools - X-ray mammography and ultrasound imaging, respectively. We employed a 10-MHz photoacoustic imaging system to verify our idea. A sliced chicken breast phantom with granulated calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) - major chemical composition of the breast calcification associated with malignant breast cancers - embedded was imaged. With the near infared (NIR) laser excitation, it is shown that the distribution of ~500 μm HAs can be clearly imaged. In addition, photoacoustic signals from HAs rivals those of blood given an optimal NIR wavelength. In summary, photoacoustic imaging shows its promise for breast micro-calcification detection. Moreover, fusion of the photoacoustic and ultrasound images can reveal the location and distribution of micro-calcifications within anatomical landmarks of the breast tissue, which is clinically useful for biopsy and diagnosis of breast cancer staging.

  3. Gold standards for primary care of burn management

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Zor; Nail Ersöz; Yalçın Külahçı; Emin Kapı; Mehmet Bozkurt

    2009-01-01

    Every year, about 2.5 million people are affected from burns in the world. In our country there is no reliable database related to this subject. There are ongoing studies about the epidemiology of burns in Turkey. After burn injury had represent many various complications, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac deficiency, acute hypertension, endocarditis, thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, respiratuar failure, renal failure, gastric ulcus, ileus, sepsis, coagulopathy and anemia. Su...

  4. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria From Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beige, Fahimeh; Baseri Salehi, Majid; Bahador, Nima; Mobasherzadeh, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the treatment of burned patients is difficult because of the high frequency of infection with antibiotic resistance bacteria. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and its relation with the existence of plasmid. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from two hundred twenty hospitalized burned patients in Isfahan burn hospital during a three-month period (March 2012 to June 2012). The samp...

  5. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended. PMID:20644489

  6. On the Burning of Plutonium Originating from Light Water Reactor Use in a Fast Molten Salt Reactor—A Neutron Physical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient burning of the plutonium produced during light water reactor (LWR operation has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability indices of LWR operations. The work offers a comparison of the efficiency of Pu burning in different reactor configurations—a molten salt fast reactor, a LWR with mixed oxide (MOX fuel, and a sodium cooled fast reactor. The calculations are performed using the HELIOS 2 code. All results are evaluated against the plutonium burning efficiency determined in the Consommation Accrue de Plutonium dans les Réacteurs à Neutrons RApides (CAPRA project. The results are discussed with special view on the increased sustainability of LWR use in the case of successful avoidance of an accumulation of Pu which otherwise would have to be forwarded to a final disposal. A strategic discussion is given about the unavoidable plutonium production, the possibility to burn the plutonium to avoid a burden for the future generations which would have to be controlled.

  7. A Study of Factors involved in possible regeneration of Atlantic White Cedar in a recently burned area in the Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historically white cedar has managed to regenerate without benefit of controlled burns and it seems that .most wild fires occur during the dry season. It was...

  8. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  9. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns.

  10. In situ oil burning in the marshland environment : soil temperatures resulting from crude oil and diesel fuel burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique challenge associated with oil spill cleanups in sensitive marsh environments was discussed. Mechanical recovery of crude or refined hydrocarbons in wetlands may cause more damage to the marsh than the oil itself. This study evaluated whether in situ burning of oiled marshlands would provide a less damaging alternative than mechanical recovery. This was done through a series of 6 crude oil and 5 diesel fuel burns conducted in a test tank to examine the impact of intentional burning of oil spilled in a wetlands environment. There are several factors which may influence how well such an environment would recover from an in situ oil burn, such as plant species, fuel type and load, water level, soil type, and burn duration. This paper focused on soil, air and water temperatures, as well as total heat fluxes that resulted when 3 plant species were exposed to full-scale in situ burns that were created by burning diesel fuel and crude oil. The soil temperatures were monitored during the test burn at three different soil/water elevations for 700 second burn exposures. A total of 184 plant sods were harvested from marshlands in southern Louisiana and were subjected to the burning fuel. They were instrumental in characterizing the thermal and chemical stress that occur during an in-situ burn. The plants were inserted into the test tanks at various water and soil depths. The results indicated that diesel fuel and crude oil burns produced similar soil temperature profiles at each of three plant sod elevations. Although in-situ burning did not appear to remediate oil that had penetrated into the soil, it did effectively remove floating oil from the water surface, thereby preventing it from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the soil when the water recedes. The regrowth and recovery of the plants will be described in a separate report. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs

  11. The use of ATSR active fire counts for estimating relative patterns of biomass burning- a study from the boreal forest region

    OpenAIRE

    Kasischke, Eric S; Hewson, J. H; B. J. Stocks; G. R. van der Werf; J. T. Randerson

    2003-01-01

    Satellite fire products have the potential to construct inter-annual time series of fire activity, but estimating area burned requires considering biases introduced by orbiting geometry, fire behavior, and the presence of clouds and smoke. Here we evaluated the performance of fire counts from the Advanced Thermal Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) for the boreal forest region using area burned information from other sources. We found ATSR detection rate varied between regions and different years, bei...

  12. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  13. Burns and beauty nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  14. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  15. Image enhancement based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaozhou; Han, Zhimin; Yao, Liqing; Zhong, Yunshi; Shi, Qiang; Fu, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Xiguang; Xie, Tianyu

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been recognized as a powerful tool for noninvasive disease detection in the gastrointestinal field. However, most of the studies on HSI in this field have involved ex vivo biopsies or resected tissues. We proposed an image enhancement method based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images. First, we developed a flexible gastroscopy system capable of obtaining in vivo hyperspectral images of different types of stomach disease mucosa. Then, depending on a specific object, an appropriate band selection algorithm based on dependence of information was employed to determine a subset of spectral bands that would yield useful spatial information. Finally, these bands were assigned to be the color components of an enhanced image of the object. A gastric ulcer case study demonstrated that our method yields higher color tone contrast, which enhanced the displays of the gastric ulcer regions, and that it will be valuable in clinical applications. PMID:27206742

  16. [Inherit enterprising spirit of burn discipline and meet the new challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y H

    2016-01-01

    Burn is a common trauma in peace time and war. Burn care was not designated as a specific discipline but a subspecialty of general surgery in China until the 1950s. In 1958, along with the development of metallurgical industry in China, the number of burn patients was increased remarkably, followed by establishment of modern burn departments. A steel worker sustaining a burn injury with size of 89% total burn surface area (TBSA) and full-thickness wound size of 23% TBSA was successfully cured by burn experts of Shanghai Guangci Hospital (renamed Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiao Tong University). This was considered as a miracle in the history of burn treatment in the world. Thenceforth a number of burn patients with size over 80% TBSA were saved in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Xi'an, and other cities. However, with rapid advances in burn treatment, it was soon recognized that one should fully grasp the science of the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. To fulfill these demands, specialists devoted themselves to the study of basic problems, and they made significant and valuable contributions to the knowledge concerning basic problems in burn injury, followed by significant improvements in burn care. In the meantime, Chinese Burn Association and Chinese Journal of Burns were inaugurated. An overall strategy for treatment of severe burn patients with Chinese characteristics was established. However, it is also important to inherit traditional ideologies, namely"morality, diligence, excellence, and creativity". PMID:27426063

  17. Prognostic indicators in acute burned patients-a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif Emara

    2015-01-01

    Burn trauma is in need for prognostic indicators or admission scores. This aims for realistic documentation of the burn injury, expectation of the prognosis, and to facilitate a patient stratification to evaluate therapeutic strategies. A computer search through different medical websites was performed looking for articles correlating prognosis with different burn indices. These were carefully summarized and analyzed for this review. Variable studies were found related to that issue; the reliable indicators found had been classified as general or specific. All of them had certain clinical importance, but limitations are a common feature. All the listed indices are useful to serve in the only special clinical situations. We couldn't claim that they are actual prognostic indicator in burn victims. We believe that we still lack the proper prognostic indicator in burn patients. Researchers are invited for more effort to organize a more reliable prognostic indicator and scoring system for burn patients.

  18. Prognostic indicators in acute burned patients–a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Emara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Burn trauma is in need for prognostic indicators or admission scores. This aims for realistic documentation of the burn injury, expectation of the prognosis, and to facilitate a patient stratification to evaluate therapeutic strategies. A computer search through different medical websites was performed looking for articles correlating prognosis with different burn indices. These were carefully summarized and analyzed for this review. Variable studies were found related to that issue; the reliable indicators found had been classified as general or specific. All of them had certain clinical importance, but limitations are a common feature. All the listed indices are useful to serve in the only special clinical situations. We couldn't claim that they are actual prognostic indicator in burn victims. We believe that we still lack the proper prognostic indicator in burn patients. Researchers are invited for more effort to organize a more reliable prognostic indicator and scoring system for burn patients.

  19. Burns and beauty nails

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Bélanger; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. T...

  20. Experimental study on burning rates of square/rectangular gasoline and methanol pool fires under longitudinal air flow in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L H; Liu, S; Peng, W; Huo, R

    2009-09-30

    Square pool fires with length of 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm and rectangular pool fires with dimensions of 10 cm x 20 cm and 10 cm x 40 cm were burned in a wind tunnel, under a longitudinal air flow ranged from 0 to 3m/s with incremental change of about 0.5m/s. Methanol and gasoline were burned and compared, with results indicated that their burning rates showed different response to the longitudinal air flow. With the increase of the longitudinal air flow speed, the burning rates of methanol pool fires, except the 5 cm square one, first decreased and then increased, but those of the 5 cm methanol square one and the gasoline pool fires increased monotonously. The burning rate of smaller square pool fires increased more significantly than that of the larger ones, as well as the enlargement of their flame attachment length along the ground. The burning rate of a rectangular pool fire with longer rim parallel to the longitudinal flow increased faster, but the flame attachment length seemed to increase more gradually, with the increase of the longitudinal air flow speed than that perpendicular to.