Sample records for burning cold involvement

  1. Burning Cold: Involvement of TRPA1 in Noxious Cold Sensation


    Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.


    Soon after its discovery ten years ago, the ion channel TRPA1 was proposed as a sensor of noxious cold. Evidence for its activation by painfully cold temperatures (below ~15° C) has been mixed, however. Some groups found that cold elicits a nonselective conductance in cells expressing TRPA1; others found no activation, or argued that activation is an indirect effect of elevated \\(Ca^{ 2+}\\) . Sensory cells from the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia that are activated by cold were sometimes c...

  2. Deodorant spray: a newly identified cause of cold burn. (United States)

    May, Ulrich; Stirner, Karl-Heinz; Lauener, Roger; Ring, Johannes; Möhrenschlager, Matthias


    Two patients encountered a first-degree cold burn after use of a deodorant spray. The spray-nozzle to skin-surface distance was approximately 5 cm, and the spraying lasted approximately 15 seconds. Under laboratory conditions, the deodorant in use was able to induce a decline in temperature of >60 degrees C. These 2 cases highlight a little-known potential for skin damage by deodorant sprays if used improperly.

  3. Ciguatoxins activate specific cold pain pathways to elicit burning pain from cooling


    Vetter, Irina; Touska, Filip; Hess, Andreas; Hinsbey, Rachel; Sattler, Simon; Lampert, Angelika; Sergejeva, Marina; Sharov, Anastasia; Collins, Lindon S; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Engel, Matthias; Cabot, Peter J; Wood, John N; Vlachová, Viktorie; Reeh, Peter W


    Ciguatoxins derived from fish lead to cold allodynia in humans, the perception of intense burning pain in response to mild cooling. A novel mouse model of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia reveals that ciguatoxin activates the TRPA1 thermosensitive ion channel to mediate pain perception.

  4. Risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns during extreme cold weather. (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie


    Environmental factors are important predictors of fires, but no study has examined the association between outdoor temperature and fire-related burn injuries. We sought to investigate the relationship between extremely cold outdoor temperatures and the risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. We carried out a time-stratified case-crossover study of 2470 patients hospitalized for fire-related burn injuries during cold months between 1989 and 2014 in Quebec, Canada. The main exposure was the minimum outdoor temperature on the day of and the day before the burn. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the relationship between minimum temperature and fire-related burns, and assessed how associations varied across sex and age. Exposure to extreme cold temperature was associated with a significantly higher risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. Compared with 0°C, exposure to a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.22-1.87) for hospitalization for fire-related burns. The associations were somewhat stronger for women, youth, and the elderly. Compared with 0°C, a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR for fire-related burn hospitalization of 1.65 for women (95% CI 1.13-2.40), 1.60 for age fire-related burns. Measures to prevent fires should be implemented prior to the winter season, and enhanced during extreme cold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cold Shock as a Screen for Genes Involved in Cold Acclimatization in Neurospora crassa. (United States)

    Watters, Michael K; Manzanilla, Victor; Howell, Holly; Mehreteab, Alexander; Rose, Erik; Walters, Nicole; Seitz, Nicholas; Nava, Jacob; Kekelik, Sienna; Knuth, Laura; Scivinsky, Brianna


    When subjected to rapid drops of temperature (cold shock), Neurospora responds with a temporary shift in its morphology. This report is the first to examine this response genetically. We report here the results of a screen of selected mutants from the Neurospora knockout library for alterations in their morphological response to cold shock. Three groups of knockouts were selected to be subject to this screen: genes previously suspected to be involved in hyphal development as well as knockouts resulting in morphological changes; transcription factors; and genes homologous to E. coli genes known to alter their expression in response to cold shock. A total of 344 knockout strains were subjected to cold shock. Of those, 118 strains were identified with altered responses. We report here the cold shock morphologies and GO categorizations of strains subjected to this screen. Of strains with knockouts in genes associated with hyphal growth or morphology, 33 of 131 tested (25%) showed an altered response to cold shock. Of strains with knockouts in transcription factor genes, 30 of 145 (20%) showed an altered response to cold shock. Of strains with knockouts in genes homologous to E. coli genes which display altered levels of transcription in response to cold shock, a total of 55 of 68 tested (81%) showed an altered cold shock response. This suggests that the response to cold shock in these two organisms is largely shared in common. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  6. Ciguatoxins activate specific cold pain pathways to elicit burning pain from cooling. (United States)

    Vetter, Irina; Touska, Filip; Hess, Andreas; Hinsbey, Rachel; Sattler, Simon; Lampert, Angelika; Sergejeva, Marina; Sharov, Anastasia; Collins, Lindon S; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Engel, Matthias; Cabot, Peter J; Wood, John N; Vlachová, Viktorie; Reeh, Peter W; Lewis, Richard J; Zimmermann, Katharina


    Ciguatoxins are sodium channel activator toxins that cause ciguatera, the most common form of ichthyosarcotoxism, which presents with peripheral sensory disturbances, including the pathognomonic symptom of cold allodynia which is characterized by intense stabbing and burning pain in response to mild cooling. We show that intraplantar injection of P-CTX-1 elicits cold allodynia in mice by targeting specific unmyelinated and myelinated primary sensory neurons. These include both tetrodotoxin-resistant, TRPA1-expressing peptidergic C-fibres and tetrodotoxin-sensitive A-fibres. P-CTX-1 does not directly open heterologously expressed TRPA1, but when co-expressed with Na(v) channels, sodium channel activation by P-CTX-1 is sufficient to drive TRPA1-dependent calcium influx that is responsible for the development of cold allodynia, as evidenced by a large reduction of excitatory effect of P-CTX-1 on TRPA1-deficient nociceptive C-fibres and of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia in TRPA1-null mutant mice. Functional MRI studies revealed that ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia enhanced the BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal, an effect that was blunted in TRPA1-deficient mice, confirming an important role for TRPA1 in the pathogenesis of cold allodynia.

  7. Involving burn survivors in agenda setting on burn research: an added value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, J.E.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Van Rensen, A.J.M.L.; De Haan, M.J.M.


    Background and aim: The role of burn survivors in burn research is usually restricted to being objects of study and beneficiaries of research results, while decision-making on research is traditionally the domain of a small group of experts, mainly scientists. In this article we compare the research

  8. Burns (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  9. RESEARCH NOTE Identification of genes involved in cold-shock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Jan 4, 2017 ... A rapid decline in temperature poses a major challenge for poikilothermic fish, as their entire metabolism depends on ambient temperature. We compared the gene expression of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) having undergone such a cold shock (0 °C) to a control (5 °C) using microarrays and ...

  10. New Method for Double-Resonance Spectroscopy in a Cold Quadrupole Ion Trap and Its Application to UV-UV Hole-Burning Spectroscopy of Protonated Adenine Dimer. (United States)

    Kang, Hyuk; Féraud, Géraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe


    A novel method for double-resonance spectroscopy in a cold quadrupole ion trap is presented, which utilizes dipolar resonant excitation of fragment ions in the quadrupole ion trap. Photofragments by a burn laser are removed by applying an auxiliary RF to the trap, and a probe laser detects the depletion of photofragments by the burn laser. By scanning the wavelength of the burn laser, conformation-specific UV spectrum of a cold ion is obtained. This simple and powerful method is applicable to any type of double-resonance spectroscopy in a cold quadrupole ion trap and was applied to UV-UV hole-burning spectroscopy of protonated adenine dimer. It was found that protonated adenine dimer has multiple conformers/tautomers, each with multiple excited states with drastically different excited state dynamics.

  11. Zymomonas mobilis Levan is Involved in Metalloproteinases Activation in Healing of Wounded and Burned Tissues

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    Cristina Sturzoiu


    Full Text Available Healing of burn tissue is a complete process involving reepitelization, granulation tissue formation and extracellular matrix remodeling. Thermal injury produces profound systemic changes, such as oligemic shock, anemia, renal failure and metabolic disorders. This causes direct tissue damages: inflammation and infection reactions. The tissue lesion also leads to increased oxidative stress in cells, as it has been observed by the low activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems. In this context, tissue matrix metalloproteinases (MMP plays a key role in normal physiology of conjunctive tissue during its development, morphogenesis or wound healing, having an irregular activity and being involved in the patho-physiological processes. The analysis of biological samples, MMP profiles contribute to the characterization of some processes involving tissue remodeling, processes related to wound or burn healing, possibly to the development of new therapies. In this context we studied the proliferative effect of levan, a polysaccharide produced by Gram negative bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis, a microorganism that plays an important role in modern biotechnology to produce substances of great interest in biotechnology, food industry or in biomedicine. Our studies focused on analysis of tissue MMPs profiles from Wistar rats with lesions caused by mechanic processes on skin (wounds and thermal (burn, treated by hallotherapy inCacica and Dej salt mines, before and after the treatment with levan. The results indicate that levan, a natural polysaccharide produced by wild type Z. mobilis NCIB 11163, as well as other bacterial strains, seems to have real value in the management of wounds and burns, applied individually or in combination with natural or artificial haloteraphy. The way that levan participates in the healing process is unknown, probably by activating the tissue metalloproteinases.

  12. Evidence for ACD5 ceramide kinase activity involvement in Arabidopsis response to cold stress. (United States)

    Dutilleul, Christelle; Chavarria, Heidy; Rézé, Nathalie; Sotta, Bruno; Baudouin, Emmanuel; Guillas, Isabelle


    Although sphingolipids emerged as important signals for plant response to low temperature, investigations have been limited so far to the function of long-chain base intermediates. The formation and function of ceramide phosphates (Cer-Ps) in chilled Arabidopsis were explored. Cer-Ps were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) following in vivo metabolic radiolabelling. Ceramide kinase activity, gene expression and growth phenotype were determined in unstressed and cold-stressed wild type (WT) and Arabidopsis ceramide kinase mutant acd5. A rapid and transient formation of Cer-P occurs in cold-stressed WT Arabidopsis plantlets and cultured cells, which is strongly impaired in acd5 mutant. Although concomitant, Cer-P formation is independent of long-chain base phosphate (LCB-P) formation. No variation of ceramide kinase activity was measured in vitro in WT plantlets upon cold stress but the activity in acd5 mutant was further reduced by cold stress. At the seedling stage, acd5 response to cold was similar to that of WT. Nevertheless, acd5 seed germination was hypersensitive to cold and abscisic acid (ABA), and ABA-dependent gene expression was modified in acd5 seeds when germinated at low temperature. Our data involve for the first time Cer-P and ACD5 in low temperature response and further underline the complexity of sphingolipid signalling operating during cold stress. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Involvement of the Sieve Element Cytoskeleton in Electrical Responses to Cold Shocks1[W (United States)

    Hafke, Jens B.; Ehlers, Katrin; Föller, Jens; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Becker, Stefanie; van Bel, Aart J.E.


    This study dealt with the visualization of the sieve element (SE) cytoskeleton and its involvement in electrical responses to local cold shocks, exemplifying the role of the cytoskeleton in Ca2+-triggered signal cascades in SEs. High-affinity fluorescent phalloidin as well as immunocytochemistry using anti-actin antibodies demonstrated a fully developed parietal actin meshwork in SEs. The involvement of the cytoskeleton in electrical responses and forisome conformation changes as indicators of Ca2+ influx was investigated by the application of cold shocks in the presence of diverse actin disruptors (latrunculin A and cytochalasin D). Under control conditions, cold shocks elicited a graded initial voltage transient, ΔV1, reduced by external La3+ in keeping with the involvement of Ca2+ channels, and a second voltage transient, ΔV2. Cytochalasin D had no effect on ΔV1, while ΔV1 was significantly reduced with 500 nm latrunculin A. Forisome dispersion was triggered by cold shocks of 4°C or greater, which was indicative of an all-or-none behavior. Forisome dispersion was suppressed by incubation with latrunculin A. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton controls cold shock-induced Ca2+ influx into SEs, leading to forisome dispersion and sieve plate occlusion in fava bean (Vicia faba). PMID:23624858

  14. TRP channel blamed for burning cold after a tropical fish meal (United States)

    Voets, Thomas


    EMBO J (2012) 31 19, 3795–3808 doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.207; published online 07312012 Ciguatera is one of the most common forms of food poisoning, occurring after consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. New work by Vetter et al (2012) reveals the key molecular players that underlie the altered temperature sensation associated with ciguatera. In particular, they show that ciguatoxins act on sensory neurons that express TRPA1, an ion channel implicated in the detection of noxious cold. PMID:22960637

  15. Pathways Involving Beta-3 Adrenergic Receptors Modulate Cold Stress-Induced Detrusor Overactivity in Conscious Rats. (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Nishizawa, Osamu


    To investigate pathways involving beta-3 adrenergic receptors (ARs) in detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress, we determined if the beta-3 AR agonist CL316243 could modulate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in normal rats. Two days prior to cystometric investigations, the bladders of 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were cannulated. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were taken to estimate baseline values at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2 °C) for 20 min. They were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1, or 1.0 mg/kg CL316243 (n = 6 in each group). Five minutes after the treatments, they were gently and quickly transferred to the low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2 °C) room for 40 min where the cystometric measurements were again made. Afterward, the rats were returned to RT for final cystometric measurements. The cystometric effects of CL316243 were also measured at RT (n = 6 in each group). At RT, both low and high dose of CL316243 decreased basal and micturition pressure while the high dose (1.0 mg/kg) significantly increased voiding interval and bladder capacity. During LT exposure, the high dose of CL316243 partially reduced cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity characterized by increased basal pressure and urinary frequency. The high drug dose also significantly inhibited the decreases of both voiding interval and bladder capacity compared to the vehicle- and low dose (0.1 mg/kg)-treated rats. A high dose of the beta-3 agonist CL316243 could modulate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. Therefore, one of the mechanisms in cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity includes a pathway involving beta-3 ARs. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Paediatric burns in LMICs: An evaluation of the barriers and facilitators faced by staff involved in burns education training programmes in Blantyre, Malawi. (United States)

    Harris, Lyndsey; Fioratou, Evridiki; Broadis, Emily


    A burn prevention and education programme - the Reduction of Burn and Scald Mortality and Morbidity in Children in Malawi project - was implemented from January 2010-2013 in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi. This study aimed to investigate the barriers and facilitators of implementing education-training programmes. Semi-structured interviews with 14 Scottish and Malawian staff delivering and receiving teaching at training education programmes were conducted. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Overarching barriers and facilitators were similar for both sets of staff. Scottish participants recognised that limited experience working in LMICs narrowed the challenges they anticipated. Time was a significant barrier to implementation of training courses for both sets of participants. Lack of hands on practical experience was the greatest barrier to implementing the skills learnt for Malawian staff. Sustainability was a significant facilitator to successful implementation of training programmes. Encouraging involvement of Malawian staff in the co-ordination and delivery of teaching enabled those who attend courses to teach others. A recognition of and response to the barriers and facilitators associated with introducing paediatric burn education training programmes can contribute to the development of sustainable programme implementation in Malawi and other LMICs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Cold Sore (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  18. ABA Is Involved in Regulation of Cold Stress Response in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Huang


    Full Text Available As a representative warm-season grass, Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] is widely used in turf systems. However, low temperature remarkably limits its growth and distribution. ABA is a crucial phytohormone that has been reported to regulate much important physiological and biochemical processes in plants under abiotic stress. Therefore, the objective of this study was to figure out the effects of ABA on the cold-sensitive (S and cold-resistant (R Bermudagrass genotypes response to cold stress. In this study, the plants were treated with 100 μM ABA solution and exposed to 4°C temperature. After 7 days of cold treatment, the electrolyte leakage (EL, malonaldehyde (MDA and H2O2 content were significantly increased in both genotypes compared with control condition, and these values were higher in R genotype than those of S genotype, respectively. By contrast, exogenous ABA application decreased the electrolyte leakage (EL, MDA and H2O2 content in both genotypes compared with those plants without ABA treatment under cold treatment condition. In addition, exogenous ABA application increased the levels of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve for both genotypes, and it was higher in R genotype than that of S genotype. Analysis of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters revealed that ABA treatment improved the performance of photosystem II under cold condition, particularly for the R genotype. Moreover, cold stress significantly increased δ13C values for both genotypes, while it was alleviated by exogenous ABA. Additionally, exogenous ABA application altered the expression of ABA- or cold related genes, including ABF1, CBF1, and LEA. In summary, exogenous ABA application enhanced cold resistance of both genotypes by maintaining cell membrane stability, improving the process of photosystem II, increasing carbon isotopic fractionation under cold stress, and more prominently in R genotype compared with S genotype.

  19. Deep sequencing of Brachypodium small RNAs at the global genome level identifies microRNAs involved in cold stress response

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    Chong Kang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species.

  20. Adaptation of grapevine flowers to cold involves different mechanisms depending on stress intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélodie Sawicki

    Full Text Available Grapevine flower development and fruit set are influenced by cold nights in the vineyard. To investigate the impact of cold stress on carbon metabolism in the inflorescence, we exposed the inflorescences of fruiting cuttings to chilling and freezing temperatures overnight and measured fluctuations in photosynthesis and sugar content. Whatever the temperature, after the stress treatment photosynthesis was modified in the inflorescence, but the nature of the alteration depended on the intensity of the cold stress. At 4°C, photosynthesis in the inflorescence was impaired through non-stomatal limitations, whereas at 0°C it was affected through stomatal limitations. A freezing night (-3°C severely deregulated photosynthesis in the inflorescence, acting primarily on photosystem II. Cold nights also induced accumulation of sugars. Soluble carbohydrates increased in inflorescences exposed to -3°C, 0°C and 4°C, but starch accumulated only in inflorescences of plants treated at 0 and -3°C. These results suggest that inflorescences are able to cope with cold temperatures by adapting their carbohydrate metabolism using mechanisms that are differentially induced according to stress intensity.

  1. DEG/ENaC ion channels involved in sensory transduction are modulated by cold temperature (United States)

    Askwith, Candice C.; Benson, Christopher J.; Welsh, Michael J.; Snyder, Peter M.


    Several DEG/ENaC cation channel subunits are expressed in the tongue and in cutaneous sensory neurons, where they are postulated to function as receptors for salt and sour taste and for touch. Because these tissues are exposed to large temperature variations, we examined how temperature affects DEG/ENaC channel function. We found that cold temperature markedly increased the constitutively active Na+ currents generated by epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC). Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 25°C. Cold temperature did not induce current from other DEG/ENaC family members (BNC1, ASIC, and DRASIC). However, when these channels were activated by acid, cold temperature potentiated the currents by slowing the rate of desensitization. Potentiation was abolished by a “Deg” mutation that alters channel gating. Temperature changes in the physiologic range had prominent effects on current in cells heterologously expressing acid-gated DEG/ENaC channels, as well as in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. The finding that cold temperature modulates DEG/ENaC channel function may provide a molecular explanation for the widely recognized ability of temperature to modify taste sensation and mechanosensation. PMID:11353858

  2. Evidence of programmed cell death induced by reconditioning after cold stress in cucumber fruit and possible involvement of ethylene. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Nie, Peng; Deng, Hongjun; Mi, Hongbo; Hou, Xiaorong; Li, Ping; Mao, Linchun


    Cucumber fruit is susceptible to chilling injury (CI), which could be accelerated significantly with subsequent shelf-life. This type of CI culminates in deterioration of organs and eventually leads to cell death. In this study, evidence of programmed cell death (PCD), involving cell death induced by cold stress, was investigated in cucumber. Harvested cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Zhexiu-1) fruits were stored at 2 °C for 3, 6 or 9 days and subsequently transferred to 20 °C for 2 days. Significant cell death acceleration was observed upon reconditioning after 9 days' cold stress when the hallmark of PCD - DNA laddering - was clearly observed. Further evidence of nuclear DNA cleavage was confirmed by the in situ TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Chromatin condensation and nucleus distortion were observed by nuclear staining of DPI. Ethylene burst was observed upon reconditioning after 9 days of consecutive cold stress. The features of PCD process induced by reconditioning after cold stress in cucumber fruit may be mainly attributed to ethylene burst. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.


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    Sofronova V.E.


    Full Text Available Effect of short-time (15 sec, 5, 15, 30 min cold stress (0,1-0,2oC at 0,1 μmol photons м-2 s-1 over the Spirodela polyrhiza (L. Schleid carotenoid composition cultivated under the laboratory conditions has been studied. It is found that the sum of carotenoid pigments of Spirodela polyrhiza (L. does not change and averages 206,9 ± 11,5 mkg/g in fresh weight. Pool increase of lutein+zeaxanthin (by 5-8% has been observed in response to a short-time Spirodela polyrhiza cooling with simultaneous decrease of violaxanthin content (by 16%. Violaxanthin de-epoxidation occurs in the minute time spans and the depth of conversion does not depend on the cold shock duration. The data obtained indicate that pigments of the violaxanthin cyclemay participate in realization of transitory emergency protection systems of photosynthetic apparatus by increasing the share of thermal energy dissipation of the absorbed light and preventing singlet oxygenformation.

  4. Search for evidence of nuclear involvement in the fatal explosion of a 'cold fusion' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.; Russo, R.E.; Bazan, F.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, K.M.


    Forensic analyses of debris from the fatal explosion of an electrochemical 'cold fusion' cell at SRI International were conducted at LLNL at the request of Cal-OSHA. One investigation focused on the possibility of conventional nuclear reaction mechanisms contributing to the total energy inventory of the incident. Selected metal components of the electrolysis apparatus were subjected to nondestructive γ-ray spectrometry with high-sensitivity, low-background Ge detector systems. The anticipated analytes in these studies were radioactivation products potentially induced in the explosion residue by either fast or thermal neutrons. The results of this investigation were negative within the temporal constraints of the incident and the analytical sensitivities of the instrumentation. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  5. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients (United States)


    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  6. Cold Shock Proteins of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 Are Involved in Cryoprotection and in the Production of Cold-Induced Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Jeroen A.; Frenkiel, Hélène; Vos, Willem M. de; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Abee, Tjakko


    Members of the group of 7-kDa cold-shock proteins (CSPs) are the proteins with the highest level of induction upon cold shock in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis MG1363. By using double-crossover recombination, two L. lactis strains were generated in which genes encoding CSPs are

  7. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchabke-Coussa, O.; Quashie, M.L.; Seoane, Jose Miguel


    as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results: All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant......Background: Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying......'s improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE), which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis...

  8. Physiologic cold shock of Moraxella catarrhalis affects the expression of genes involved in the iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion

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    Schaller André


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moraxella catarrhalis, a major nasopharyngeal pathogen of the human respiratory tract, is exposed to rapid downshifts of environmental temperature when humans breathe cold air. It was previously shown that the prevalence of pharyngeal colonization and respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis are greatest in winter. The aim of this study was to investigate how M. catarrhalis uses the physiologic exposure to cold air to upregulate pivotal survival systems in the pharynx that may contribute to M. catarrhalis virulence. Results A 26°C cold shock induces the expression of genes involved in transferrin and lactoferrin acquisition, and enhances binding of these proteins on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Exposure of M. catarrhalis to 26°C upregulates the expression of UspA2, a major outer membrane protein involved in serum resistance, leading to improved binding of vitronectin which neutralizes the lethal effect of human complement. In contrast, cold shock decreases the expression of Hemagglutinin, a major adhesin, which mediates B cell response, and reduces immunoglobulin D-binding on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Conclusion Cold shock of M. catarrhalis induces the expression of genes involved in iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion. Thus, cold shock at a physiologically relevant temperature of 26°C induces in M. catarrhalis a complex of adaptive mechanisms that enables the bacterium to target their host cellular receptors or soluble effectors and may contribute to enhanced growth, colonization and virulence.

  9. Putrescine Is Involved in Arabidopsis Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation by Regulating Abscisic Acid Levels in Response to Low Temperature1 (United States)

    Cuevas, Juan C.; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Alcázar, Rubén; Zarza, Xavier; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F.; Ferrando, Alejandro


    The levels of endogenous polyamines have been shown to increase in plant cells challenged with low temperature; however, the functions of polyamines in the regulation of cold stress responses are unknown. Here, we show that the accumulation of putrescine under cold stress is essential for proper cold acclimation and survival at freezing temperatures because Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in putrescine biosynthesis (adc1, adc2) display reduced freezing tolerance compared to wild-type plants. Genes ADC1 and ADC2 show different transcriptional profiles upon cold treatment; however, they show similar and redundant contributions to cold responses in terms of putrescine accumulation kinetics and freezing sensitivity. Our data also demonstrate that detrimental consequences of putrescine depletion during cold stress are due, at least in part, to alterations in the levels of abscisic acid (ABA). Reduced expression of NCED3, a key gene involved in ABA biosynthesis, and down-regulation of ABA-regulated genes are detected in both adc1 and adc2 mutant plants under cold stress. Complementation analysis of adc mutants with ABA and reciprocal complementation tests of the aba2-3 mutant with putrescine support the conclusion that putrescine controls the levels of ABA in response to low temperature by modulating ABA biosynthesis and gene expression. PMID:18701673

  10. Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Luxor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Hynek


    Full Text Available Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.

  11. PpCBF3 from Cold-Tolerant Kentucky Bluegrass Involved in Freezing Tolerance Associated with Up-Regulation of Cold-Related Genes in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhuang

    Full Text Available Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding proteins (DREB/C-repeat (CRT Binding Factors (CBF have been identified as transcriptional activators during plant responses to cold stress. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological roles of a CBF gene isolated from a cold-tolerant perennial grass species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., which designated as PpCBF3, in regulating plant tolerance to freezing stress. Transient transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplast with PpCBF3-eGFP fused protein showed that PpCBF3 was localized to the nucleus. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpCBF3 was specifically induced by cold stress (4°C but not by drought stress [induced by 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (PEG-6000] or salt stress (150 mM NaCl. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing PpCBF3 showed significant improvement in freezing (-20°C tolerance demonstrated by a lower percentage of chlorotic leaves, lower cellular electrolyte leakage (EL and H2O2 and O2.- content, and higher chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency compared to the wild type. Relative mRNA expression level analysis by qRT-PCR indicated that the improved freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PpCBF3 was conferred by sustained activation of downstream cold responsive (COR genes. Other interesting phenotypic changes in the PpCBF3-transgenic Arabidopsis plants included late flowering and slow growth or 'dwarfism', both of which are desirable phenotypic traits for perennial turfgrasses. Therefore, PpCBF3 has potential to be used in genetic engineering for improvement of turfgrass freezing tolerance and other desirable traits.

  12. Epidemiology of burns in pediatric patients of Beijing City. (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Li, Dawei; Shen, Chuanan; Chai, Jiake; Zhu, Hongjuan; Lin, Yanlu; Liu, Congying


    This study aimed to assess the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric burns in Beijing City. This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients (n = 400) admitted to four burn centers in Beijing City between June 2010 and May 2011. Burn severity was determined according to total body surface area (TBSA) percentage and degree. Patients were followed up for one year. Multivariate analyses were carried out to determine the factors (burn etiology, time and place of injury, living conditions, hospital type, first-aid treatment methods, and parent/guardian knowledge of burns, educational level, occupation) affecting burn properties (severity and pigmentation/scar). 191/400 (47.8 %) patients were aged 2-3 years, and scalding was the leading etiology (355/400, 88.8 %). Burn incidence peaked in May (14.8 %), at 10:00-12:00 and 17:00-20:00. Most burn events occurred indoors (272/400, 68.0 %), especially in the kitchen (180/400, 45.0 %). Roughly half of them involved head and neck; 188 (47.0 %) patients had mild burns, 140 (35.0 %) moderate, 44 (11.0 %) extensive, and 28 (7.0 %) critical burns; 184 (46.0 %) patients were treated only with cold-water rinsing or compress; 120 (30.0 %) received no first aid. Only 32 (8.0 %) patients visited a specialized institution. 164 patients underwent surgery. Hospitalization lasted for 14.8 ± 8.1 days. Independent risk factors for burn severity were occurrence month, living conditions, occupation of the mother, and first aid. 288 (72.0 %) patients developed pigmentation and scar within a year while no independent risk factors was observed. Pediatric burns often occurred indoors, especially in the kitchen, and a substantial proportion receives no first aid.

  13. The Banana Fruit SINA Ubiquitin Ligase MaSINA1 Regulates the Stability of MaICE1 to be Negatively Involved in Cold Stress Response


    Zhong-Qi Fan; Jian-Ye Chen; Jian-Fei Kuang; Wang-Jin Lu; Wei Shan


    The regulation of ICE1 protein stability is important to ensure effective cold stress response, and is extensively studied in Arabidopsis. Currently, how ICE1 stability in fruits under cold stress is controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we reported the possible involvement of a SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) ubiquitin ligase MaSINA1 from banana fruit in affecting MaICE1 stability. MaSINA1 was identified based on a yeast two-hybrid screening using MaICE1 as bait. Further yeast two-hybrid, pull-...

  14. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. (United States)

    Bouchabke-Coussa, Oumaya; Quashie, Marie-Luce; Seoane-Redondo, Jose; Fortabat, Marie-Noelle; Gery, Carine; Yu, Agnes; Linderme, Daphné; Trouverie, Jacques; Granier, Fabienne; Téoulé, Evelyne; Durand-Tardif, Mylène


    Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying potential targets for plant breeding. Drought tolerance in the field was successfully conferred to crops by transferring genes from this model species. While involved in a plant genomics programme, which aims to identify new genes responsible for plant response to abiotic stress, we identified ESKIMO1 as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant's improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE), which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis of one mutant line and its wild-type background was carried out. Under control watering conditions a number of genes were differentially expressed between the mutant and the wild type whereas under mild drought stress this list of genes was reduced. Among the genes that were differentially expressed between the wild type and mutant, two functional categories related to the response to stress or biotic and abiotic stimulus were over-represented. Under salt stress conditions, all gene functional categories were represented equally in both the mutant and wild type. Based on this transcriptome analysis we hypothesise that in control conditions the esk1 mutant behaves as if it was exposed to drought stress. Overall our findings suggest that the ESKIMO1 gene plays a major role in plant response to water

  15. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Agnes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying potential targets for plant breeding. Drought tolerance in the field was successfully conferred to crops by transferring genes from this model species. While involved in a plant genomics programme, which aims to identify new genes responsible for plant response to abiotic stress, we identified ESKIMO1 as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant's improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE, which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis of one mutant line and its wild-type background was carried out. Under control watering conditions a number of genes were differentially expressed between the mutant and the wild type whereas under mild drought stress this list of genes was reduced. Among the genes that were differentially expressed between the wild type and mutant, two functional categories related to the response to stress or biotic and abiotic stimulus were over-represented. Under salt stress conditions, all gene functional categories were represented equally in both the mutant and wild type. Based on this transcriptome analysis we hypothesise that in control conditions the esk1 mutant behaves as if it was exposed to drought stress. Conclusion Overall our findings suggest that the

  16. The preventive effect of resiniferatoxin on the development of cold hypersensitivity induced by spinal nerve ligation: involvement of TRPM8. (United States)

    Koh, Won Uk; Choi, Seong-Soo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Hye Joo; Ahn, Ho-Soo; Lee, Sun Kyung; Leem, Jeong Gil; Song, Jun Gol; Shin, Jin Woo


    Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a potent analog of capsaicin and activates transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type (TRPV) 1. In the current study, we investigated the preventive effect of perineural RTX on the development of cold hypersensitivity induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Furthermore, we examined the association between the expression level of TRPV1, TRP ankyrin type (TRPA) 1 and TRP melastatin type (TRPM) 8 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cold hypersensitivity after SNL. RTX pretreatment prevented the development of SNL-induced hypersensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and cold stimuli. Western blot analysis 4 weeks after RTX pretreatment showed that RTX pretreatment decreased the protein expression level of SNL-induced TRPM8, but not TRPV1 or TRPA1, in the DRG of SNL rats. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed that up-regulated TRPM8-stained neurons after SNL co-localized with neurofilament 200-positive neurons located in the DRG. Pretreatment with perineural RTX significantly inhibits SNL-induced mechanical, thermal, and cold hypersensitivity. The antinociceptive effect of perineural RTX, especially on cold hypersensitivity, may be related to the suppression of TRPM8 expression in DRG.

  17. Management of pediatric hand burns. (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Kisch, Tobias; Mauss, Karl L; Senyaman, Oezge; Kraemer, Robert; Mailänder, Peter; Wünsch, Lutz; Stang, Felix


    Hand burns are common in the pediatric population. Optimal hand function is a crucial component of a high-quality survival after burn injury. This can only be achieved with a coordinated approach to the injuries. The aim of this study was to review the management algorithm and outcomes of pediatric hand burns at our institution. In total, 70 children fulfilling our study criteria were treated for a burn hand injury in our Burn Care Center between January 2008 and May 2013. 14 of the 70 pediatric patients underwent surgery because of the depth of the hand burns. The management algorithm depending on the depth of the burn is described. Two patients underwent correction surgery due to burn contractures later. For a successful outcome of the burned hand, the interdisciplinary involvement and cooperation of the plastic and pediatric surgeon, hand therapist, burn team, patient and their parents are crucial.

  18. Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Hypothalamus Is Involved in the Central Regulation of Thermogenesis and the Response to Cold Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Laperrousaz


    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is expressed in different areas of the brain, including the hypothalamus and plays an important role in neural control of the energy balance, including feeding behavior and metabolic fluxes. This study tested the hypothesis that hypothalamic LPL participates in the control of body temperature. We first showed that cold exposure induces decreased activity and expression of LPL in the mouse hypothalamus. We then selectively deleted LPL in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH through an adeno-associated virus approach in LPL-floxed mice and generated MBHΔLpl mice with 30–35% decrease in hypothalamic LPL activity. Results showed a decrease in body temperature in MBHΔLpl mice when compared with controls at 22°C. Exposure to cold (4°C for 4 h decreased the body temperature of the control mice while that of the MBHΔLpl mice remained similar to that observed at 22°C. MBHΔLpl mice also showed increased energy expenditure during cold exposure, when compared to controls. Finally, the selective MBH deletion of LPL also increased the expression of the thermogenic PRMD16 and Dio2 in subcutaneous and perigonadal adipose tissues. Thus, the MBH LPL deletion seems to favor thermogenesis. These data demonstrate that for the first time hypothalamic LPL appears to function as a regulator of body temperature and cold-induced thermogenesis.

  19. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert


    Full Text Available Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  20. Cold Urticaria (United States)

    Cold urticaria Overview Cold urticaria (ur-tih-KAR-e-uh) is a skin reaction to cold that appears within minutes after cold exposure. Affected skin develops reddish, itchy welts (hives). People with cold urticaria experience widely different symptoms. ...

  1. Pediatric facial burns. (United States)

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K


    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes.

  2. The Sequence Characteristics and Expression Models Reveal Superoxide Dismutase Involved in Cold Response and Fruiting Body Development in Volvariella volvacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Yan


    Full Text Available As the first defence for cells to counteract the toxicity of active oxygen, superoxide dismutase (SOD plays an important role in the response of living organisms to stress and cell differentiation. One extracellular Cu-ZnSOD (ecCu-ZnSOD, and two MnSODs, were identified based on the Volvariella volvacea genome sequence. All three genes have complicated alternative splicing modes during transcription; only when the fourth intron is retained can the Vv_Cu-Znsod1 gene be translated into a protein sequence with SOD functional domains. The expression levels of the three sod genes in the pilei are higher than in the stipe. The Vv_Cu-Znsod1 and the Vv_Mnsod2 are co-expressed in different developmental stages of the fruiting body, with the highest level of expression in the pilei of the egg stage, and they show a significant, positive correlation with the efficiency of karyogamy, indicating the potential role of these two genes during karyogamy. The expression of the ecCu-Znsod and two Vv_Mnsod genes showed a significant up-regulated when treated by cold stress for one hour; however, the lack of the intracellular Cu-ZnSOD encoding gene (icCu-Znsod and the special locus of the ecCu-Znsod gene initiation codon suggested a possible reason for the autolysis phenomenon of V. volvacea in cold conditions.

  3. Molecular characterization of cotton C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor genes that are involved in response to cold stress. (United States)

    Ma, Liu-Feng; Zhang, Jian-Min; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Yang; Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yong


    Low temperature, drought and salinity are major abiotic stresses that influence survival, productivity and geographical distribution of many important crops across the globe. The C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB) are important proteins involved in response to abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, twenty-one CBF genes were identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by bioinformatic approach. The twenty-one CBF genes (named as GhCBF1--GhCBF21) were characterized to encode proteins that share high similarity with those plant cold stress-related CBF proteins, which contain the classic AP2 domain of 58 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated cotton CBF genes can be classified into 4 groups: GhCBF I, GhCBF II, GhCBF III and GhCBF IV. RT-PCR analysis indicated that GhCBF genes were up-regulated in cotton plants under cold stress. Furthermore, four GhCBF genes were up-regulated in cotton under salinity and drought treatments. Our data provided valuable information for further exploring the roles of the CBF genes in cotton development and in response to cold stress.

  4. Burn Wise (United States)

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  5. Involvement of TRPV3 and TRPM8 ion channel proteins in induction of mammalian cold-inducible proteins. (United States)

    Fujita, Takanori; Liu, Yu; Higashitsuji, Hiroaki; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Shibasaki, Koji; Fujita, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki


    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) and serine and arginine rich splicing factor 5 (SRSF5) are RNA-binding proteins that are transcriptionally upregulated in response to moderately low temperatures and a variety of cellular stresses in mammalian cells. Induction of these cold-inducible proteins (CIPs) is dependent on transient receptor potential (TRP) V4 channel protein, but seems independent of its ion channel activity. We herein report that in addition to TRPV4, TRPV3 and TRPM8 are necessary for the induction of CIPs. We established cell lines from the lung of TRPV4-knockout (KO) mouse, and observed induction of CIPs in them by western blot analysis. A TRPV4 antagonist RN1734 suppressed the induction in wild-type mouse cells, but not in TRPV4-KO cells. A TRPV3 channel blocker S408271 and a TRPM8 channel blocker AMTB as well as siRNAs against TRPV3 and TRPM8 suppressed the CIP induction in mouse TRPV4-KO cells and human U-2 OS cells. A TRPV3 channel agonist 2-APB induced CIP expression, but camphor did not. Neither did a TRPM8 channel agonist WS-12. These results suggest that TRPV4, TRPV3 and TRPM8 proteins, but not their ion channel activities are necessary for the induction of CIPs at 32 °C. Identification of proteins that differentially interact with these TRP channels at 37 °C and 32 °C would help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of CIP induction by hypothermia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using focus groups to involve citizens in resource management--investigating perceptions of smoke as a barrier to prescribed forest burning (United States)

    Brad R. Weisshaupt; Matthew S. Carroll; Keith A. Blatner; Pamela J. Jakes


    Participants in a series of focus groups discussed how their tolerance for smoke varied by the source of the smoke and found their opinions changing as they talked with other participants. Even those opposed to smoke from agricultural burning eventually found smoke from prescribed forest burning would be acceptable under appropriate circumstances. Observations of the...

  7. Cold Stress (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  8. Backyard burning. (United States)

    Murphy, S M; Davidson, C; Kennedy, A M; Eadie, P A; Lawlor, C


    This study was undertaken to determine whether changes had occurred in the numbers of burns that could be related to backyard burning subsequent to the introduction of the council tax throughout Eire for the collection of household refuse. Numbers of patients admitted to our unit who had sustained burns by burning rubbish were recorded prospectively over a period of 12 months. A random control group was taken as three years prior to this and results found by retrospective chart review. Between January and November 2005, 168 patients were admitted to the National Burns Unit, St James's Hospital Dublin, Ireland. Nineteen of these patients sustained flame burns from backyard burning. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted in the comparative period of 2002; Seven of these from backyard burning. The total number of inpatient days for these patients in 2005 (255) was significantly more than in 2002 (68) (p=0.024). The numbers in our study show a marked increase in the number of patients sustaining burns in this manner, and appear to correlate with the introduction of bin charges by a number of county councils around the country last year. This study demonstrates that the introduction of legislation can have an unforeseen adverse affect on the population if not introduced in correlation with appropriate public education. While the introduction of waste charges represents a very necessary move forward in waste disposal in Ireland, public awareness campaigns should be implemented to prevent further such injuries from occurring.

  9. High-Throughput MicroRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals That MicroRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus lanatus L. (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Yuchuan; Chang, Jingjing; He, Jie; Chen, Hejie; Liu, Qiyan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian


    Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB) and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR) under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs. PMID:27574526

  10. High-Throughput microRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals that microRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus Lanatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li


    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs. We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs.

  11. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  12. Involvement of energy metabolism to chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen sulfide in cold-stored banana fruit. (United States)

    Li, Dong; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Li, Li; Du, Ruixue; Luo, Zisheng


    In this study, the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on energy metabolism in postharvest banana fruit under chilling stress was investigated. Banana fruit, fumigated with optimal concentration (0.5mM) of aqueous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) solution for 24h, were initially stored at 7°C for 14d and 20°C for another 6d. H2S treated banana fruit showed both higher value of firmness and Hue angle, as well as lower value of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ethylene production. These indicated slower development of chilling injury compared with the control. Decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and energy charge was not noticeable in H2S treated banana fruit. Moreover, the activity of H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), associated with energy metabolism, were significantly enhanced by H2S treatment. Therefore, it can be deduced that H2S can potentially alleviate chilling development in banana fruit by increasing enzymes activities, involved in energy metabolism, to maintain energy charge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adult burn patients with more than 60% TBSA involved-Meek and other techniques to overcome restricted skin harvest availability--the Viennese Concept. (United States)

    Lumenta, David B; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Frey, Manfred


    Despite the fact that early excision and grafting has significantly improved outcome over the last decades, the management of severely burned adult patients with >/=60% total body surface area (% TBSA) burned still represents a challenging task for burn care specialists all over the world. In this article, we present our current treatment concept for this entity of severely burned patients and analyze its effect in a comparative cohort study. Surgical strategy comprised the use of split-thickness skin grafts (Meek, mesh) for permanent coverage, fluidized microsphere bead-beds for wound conditioning, temporary coverage (polyurethane sheets, Epigard; nanocrystalline silver dressings, Acticoat; synthetic copolymer sheets based on lactic acid, Suprathel; acellular bovine derived collagen matrices, Matriderm; allogeneic cultured keratinocyte sheets; and allogeneic split-thickness skin grafts), and negative-pressure wound therapy (vacuum-assisted closure). The autologous split-thickness skin graft expansion using the Meek technique for full-thickness burns and the delayed approach for treating dorsal burn wounds is discussed in detail. To demonstrate differences before and after the introduction of the Meek technique, we have compared patients of 2007 with >/=60% TBSA (n = 10) to those in a matched observation period (n = 7). In the first part of the comparative analysis, all patients of the two samples were analyzed with regard to age, abbreviated burn severity index, Baux, different entities of % TBSA, and survival. In the second step, only the survivors of both years were separated in two groups as follows: patients receiving skin grafts, using the Meek technique (n = 6), were compared with those without Meek grafting (n = 4). When comparing the severely burned patients of 2007 with a cohort of 2006, there were no differences for age (2007: 46.4 +/- 13.4 vs. 2006: 39.1 +/- 14.8 years), abbreviated burn severity index score (2007: 12.2 +/- 1.0 vs. 2006: 12.1 +/- 1

  14. Burning Feet (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. Accessed Sept. 20, ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  15. [Facial burns]. (United States)

    Müller, F E


    Deep partial and full thickness facial burns require early skin grafting. Pressure face masks and local steroids reduce hypertrophic scarring. Split skin and Z-plasties are used for early reconstructive surgery. Only after softening of the scar tissue definite reconstructive work should be undertaken. For this period full thickness skin grafts and local flaps are preferred. Special regional problems require skilled plastic surgery. Reconstructive surgery is the most essential part of the rehabilitation of severe facial burns.

  16. Burn management. (United States)

    Endorf, Frederick W; Ahrenholz, David


    To update critical care practitioners on the recent advancements in burn care. Particular topics discussed include airway management, acute resuscitation, issues within the intensive care unit, nutrition, and wound management. This is a concise review of the recent burn literature tailored to the critical care practitioner. Criteria for extubation of burn patients are examined, as is the need for cuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric burn patients. Strategies to avoid over-resuscitation are discussed, including use of colloid, as well as nurse-driven and computer-guided resuscitation protocols. New data regarding common ICU issues such as insulin therapy, delirium, and preferred intravenous access are reviewed. The importance of nutrition in the burn patient is emphasized, particularly early initiation of enteral nutrition, continuation of nutrition during surgical procedures, and use of adjuncts such as immunonutrition and beta blockade. Finally, both short-term and long-term wound issues are addressed via sections on laser Doppler assessment of burns and pressure garment therapy to prevent long-term scarring.

  17. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J


    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  18. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns (United States)

    ... to injury. , as your immune system shifts into gear. “The immune system response is intended to limit ... maintain blood pressure. Grafting—placing healthy skin on top of the burn wound—might help promote new ...

  19. Comparative study of microvascular density in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with topical preparations containing herbal extracts. (United States)

    Mogoşanu, G D; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Lascăr, I; Mogoantă, L


    During the healing process of third-degree skin burns, a very complex response involves different cells and tissues linked together by intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms. For the restoration of damaged tissues, angiogenesis is the key point in the formation of new blood vessels. By their emollient, astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, active principles from natural products contribute to the acceleration of the wound-healing process. In our study, we investigated the angiogenesis process in experimental model of third-degree skin burns treated with three topical preparations (cold-creams) containing 10% herbal extracts, comparing with 1% sulfadiazine cream and cold-cream base respectively. By their biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, cold-creams with herbal extracts are locally modulators of the cellular response and support the wound healing. The phytocomplex stimulates the favorable evolution of the burnt skin wounds and the development of neoangiogenesis capillaries.

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: etiology. (United States)

    Cerchiari, Dafne Patrícia; de Moricz, Renata Dutra; Sanjar, Fernanda Alves; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Moretti, Giovana; Guerra, Marja Michelin


    The Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosa pain--with or without inflammatory signs--without any specific lesion. It is mostly observed in women aged 40-60 years. This pain feels like a moderate/severe burning, and it occurs more frequently on the tongue, but it may also be felt at the gingiva, lips and jugal mucosa. It may worsen during the day, during stress and fatigue, when the patient speaks too much, or through eating of spicy/hot foods. The burning can be diminished with cold food, work and leisure. The goal of this review article is to consider possible BMS etiologies and join them in 4 groups to be better studied: local, systemic, emotional and idiopathic causes of pain. Knowing the different diagnoses of this syndrome, we can establish a protocol to manage these patients. Within the local pain group, we must investigate dental, allergic and infectious causes. Concerning systemic causes we need to look for connective tissue diseases, endocrine disorders, neurological diseases, nutritional deficits and salivary glands alterations that result in xerostomia. BMS etiology may be of difficult diagnosis, many times showing more than one cause for oral pain. A detailed interview, general physical examination, oral cavity and oropharynx inspection, and lab exams are essential to avoid a try and error treatment for these patients.

  1. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna


    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  2. The changing pattern of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Abeyasundara, Sandun L; Rajan, Vasant; Lam, Lawrence; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    After scalds, flame burns have been considered the next most common mode of burn injury in childhood. Recent experience in the authors' unit suggested that contact burns were becoming more frequent. The authors sought to determine the contemporary frequency of different burn modalities in children presenting to a burns unit. A retrospective review of 3621 children treated in the burns unit, both ambulatory and inpatient, at the authors' institution between January 2003 and December 2007 was performed. Patients were identified using the Burns Unit database. Data collected included age, gender, burn etiology and site, TBSA, and whether operative surgery was required. Of the 3515 patients eligible for inclusion, scalds accounted for 55.9%, contact 30.5%, and flame 7.9% of all burns. Contact burns were shown to be consistently more frequent than flame burns for every year of the study (z = 17.30, P burns, reflecting the variety of mechanisms involved. The data suggest a change in the historical pattern of pediatric burns previously reported in the literature. These findings have implications for public health awareness and burns prevention campaigns.

  3. IKZF1, a new susceptibility gene for cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe mucosal involvement. (United States)

    Ueta, Mayumi; Sawai, Hiromi; Sotozono, Chie; Hitomi, Yuki; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Kim, Mee Kum; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Yoon, Kyung-Chul; Joo, Choun-Ki; Kannabiran, Chitra; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Sangwan, Virender; Rathi, Varsha; Basu, Sayan; Ozeki, Takeshi; Mushiroda, Taisei; Sugiyama, Emiko; Maekawa, Keiko; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Aihara, Michiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Sekine, Akihiro; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira; Hamuro, Junji; Saito, Yoshiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tokunaga, Katsushi


    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe form, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes, including the ocular surface, oral cavity, and genitals. These reactions are very rare but are often associated with inciting drugs, infectious agents, or both. We sought to identify susceptibility loci for cold medicine-related SJS/TEN (CM-SJS/TEN) with severe mucosal involvement (SMI). A genome-wide association study was performed in 808 Japanese subjects (117 patients with CM-SJS/TEN with SMI and 691 healthy control subjects), and subsequent replication studies were performed in 204 other Japanese subjects (16 cases and 188 control subjects), 117 Korean subjects (27 cases and 90 control subjects), 76 Indian subjects (20 cases and 56 control subjects), and 174 Brazilian subjects (39 cases and 135 control subjects). In addition to the most significant susceptibility region, HLA-A, we identified IKZF1, which encodes Ikaros, as a novel susceptibility gene (meta-analysis, rs4917014 [G vs. T]; odds ratio, 0.5; P = 8.5 × 10(-11)). Furthermore, quantitative ratios of the IKZF1 alternative splicing isoforms Ik1 and Ik2 were significantly associated with rs4917014 genotypes. We identified IKZF1 as a susceptibility gene for CM-SJS/TEN with SMI not only in Japanese subjects but also in Korean and Indian subjects and showed that the Ik2/Ik1 ratio might be influenced by IKZF1 single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were significantly associated with susceptibility to CM-SJS/TEN with SMI. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Computer Program to Evaluate Experimental Therapies for Treating Burned Patients


    Flora, Jairus D.; Flora, Sharyl Ann


    Determining the worth of new therapies for burn patients has been difficult because of the rarity of the burn injury and the disparate survival chances associated with different sizes of burns. Recently a burn survival model has been developed that estimates the risk of death from a burn as a function of the patient's age, sex, area of full thickness (third degree) burn, area of partial thickness burn, involvement of the perineum, and time from burn to admission. An alternative risk model use...

  5. Educational Materials - Burn Wise (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  6. Minor burns - aftercare (United States)

    ... aid. There are different levels of burns . First-degree burns are only on the top layer of the ... skin can: Turn red Swell Be painful Second-degree burns go one layer deeper than first-degree burns. ...

  7. Cold intolerance (United States)

    ... Causes Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon ... of being cold? Medical history: What is your diet like? How is your general health? What are ...

  8. Refueling and control of RFP burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, R.; Miley, G.H.


    An earlier study of the stability of a fusion burn in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) has been extended to include cold particle refueling. This refueling, coupled with anomalous transport, makes possible quasi-steady state operation which both flattens the wall-loading temporal dependence and significantly increases energy gain factors. This paper discusses results of these burn simulations along with parametric studies aimed at determining associated reactor scaling problems

  9. Burn surgeons in South Africa: A rare species | Allorto | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The high burden of burn injuries in South Africa (SA) requires surgeons skilled in burn care. However, there are few dedicated burn surgeons and properly equipped units or centres. Objectives. To quantify the involvement of surgeons in burn care in SA hospitals, identify factors that attract surgeons to pursue ...

  10. Detection of cold pain, cold allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Clifford J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is elicited by cold, and a major feature of many neuropathic pain states is that normally innocuous cool stimuli begin to produce pain (cold allodynia. To expand our understanding of cold induced pain states we have studied cold pain behaviors over a range of temperatures in several animal models of chronic pain. Results We demonstrate that a Peltier-cooled cold plate with ± 1°C sensitivity enables quantitative measurement of a detection withdrawal response to cold stimuli in unrestrained rats. In naïve rats the threshold for eliciting cold pain behavior is 5°C. The withdrawal threshold for cold allodynia is 15°C in both the spared nerve injury and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain. Cold hyperalgesia is present in the spared nerve injury model animals, manifesting as a reduced latency of withdrawal response threshold at temperatures that elicit cold pain in naïve rats. We also show that following the peripheral inflammation produced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, a hypersensitivity to cold occurs. Conclusion The peltier-cooled provides an effective means of assaying cold sensitivity in unrestrained rats. Behavioral testing of cold allodynia, hyperalgesia and pain will greatly facilitate the study of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in cold/cool sensations and enable measurement of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments to reduce these symptoms.

  11. Outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Kassira, Wrood; Namias, Nicholas


    The leading etiologies of pediatric burns are scald, thermal, and electrical injuries. The initial management of burns involves assessment of burn depth and total body surface area (TBSA) affected, a history, and physical examination. Calculation of percent of TBSA affected is an important determinant of the necessity for hospitalization versus outpatient management. Only second- and third-degree burns are included in the calculation. The criteria for outpatient management vary based on the center experience and resources. One such set of criteria in an experienced burn center includes burn affecting less than 15% TBSA, therefore not requiring fluid resuscitation; the ability to take in oral fluids, excluding serious perioral burns; no airway involvement or aspiration of hot liquid; no abuse; and dependable family able to transport the patient for clinic appointments. Once the child is ready to reenter school, the physician must discuss with the family and school staff any needs and expectations for the child, including wound care. Social reintegration can be difficult. Educating the teachers and staff of the child's appearance may help prepare the students.

  12. Fungal Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  13. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong


    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  14. The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod


    A study funded through National Fire Plan evaluates the relation between pre-wildfire forest structure and post-wildfire soil burn severity across three forest types: dry, moist, and cold forests. Over 73 wildfires were sampled in Idaho, Oregon, Montana, Colorado, and Utah, which burned between 2000 and 2003. Because of the study’s breadth, the results are applicable...

  15. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.


    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  16. Burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))


    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  17. The effect of seasonality on burn incidence, severity and outcome in Central Malawi. (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F; Gallaher, Jared; Mjuweni, Stephen; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G


    In much of the world, burns are more common in cold months. However, few studies have described the seasonality of burns in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the effect of seasonality on the incidence and outcome of burns in central Malawi. A retrospective analysis was performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital and included all patients admitted from May 2011 to August 2014. Demographic data, burn mechanism, total body surface area (%TBSA), and mortality were analyzed. Seasons were categorized as Rainy (December-February), Lush (March-May), Cold (June-August) and Hot (September-November). A negative binomial regression was used to assess the effect of seasonality on burn incidence. This was performed using both the raw and deseasonalized data in order to evaluate for trends not attributable to random fluctuation. A total of 905 patients were included. Flame (38%) and Scald (59%) burns were the most common mechanism. More burns occurred during the cold season (41% vs 19-20% in the other seasons). Overall mortality was 19%. Only the cold season had a statistically significant increase in burn . The incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the hot, lush, and cold seasons were 0.94 (CI 0.6-1.32), 1.02 (CI 0.72-1.45) and 1.6 (CI 1.17-2.19), respectively, when compared to the rainy season. Burn severity and mortality did not differ between seasons. The results of this study demonstrate the year-round phenomenon of burns treated at our institution, and highlights the slight predominance of burns during the cold season. These data can be used to guide prevention strategies, with special attention to the implications of the increased burn incidence during the cold season. Though burn severity and mortality remain relatively unchanged between seasons, recognizing the seasonal variability in incidence of burns is critical for resource allocation in this low-income setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel


    Arnon D. Cohen; R. Gurfinkel; R. Glezinger; Y. Kriger; N. Yancolevich; L. Rosenberg


    Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0%) had burns involving less than 20% of the body surfac...

  19. Transcript and hormone analyses reveal the involvement of ABA-signalling, hormone crosstalk and genotype-specific biological processes in cold-shock response in wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalapos, S.; Dobrev, Petre; Nagy, T.; Vítámvás, P.; Gyorgyey, J.; Kocsy, G.; Marincs, F.; Galiba, G.


    Roč. 253, DEC (2016), s. 86-97 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : complex phytohormone responses * abscisic-acid biosynthesis * frost-resistance * stress responses * gene-expression * chromosome 5a * triticum-monococcum * regulatory network * basal resistance * abiotic stresses * ABA-Signalling * Carbon metabolism * Freezing-tolerance * Gene ontology * Plant hormones * Short-term cold-shock * Triticum aestivum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  20. Sll0528, a Site-2-Protease, Is Critically Involved in Cold, Salt and Hyperosmotic Stress Acclimation of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijin Lei


    Full Text Available Site-2-proteases (S2Ps mediated proteolysis of transmembrane transcriptional regulators is a conserved mechanism to regulate transmembrane signaling. The universal presence of S2P homologs in different cyanobacterial genomes suggest conserved and fundamental functions, though limited data has been available. Here we provide the first evidence that Sll0528, a site-2-protease in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is crucial for salt, cold and hyperosmotic stress acclimation. Remarkable induction of sll0528 gene expression was observed under salt, cold and hyperosmotic stress, much higher than induction of the other three S2Ps. Knock-out of sll0528 gene in wild type Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 increased their sensitivity to salt, cold and hyperosmotic stress, as revealed by retarded growth, reduced pigments and disrupted photosystems. The sll0528 gene was induced to a much smaller extent by high light and mixotrophic growth with glucose. Similar growth responses of the sll0528 knockout mutant and wild type under high light and mixotrophic growth indicated that sll0528 was dispensable for these conditions. Recombinant Sll0528 protein could cleave beta-casein into smaller fragments. These results together suggest that the Sll0528 metalloprotease plays a role in the stress response and lays the foundation for further investigation of its mechanism, as well as providing hints for the functional analysis of other S2Ps in cyanobacteria.

  1. Cold injuries. (United States)

    Kruse, R J


    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  2. The Hand Burn Severity (HABS) score: A simple tool for stratifying severity of hand burns. (United States)

    Bache, Sarah E; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Frew, Quentin; Philp, Bruce; Dziewulski, Peter


    Hand burns represent a unique challenge to the burns team due to the intricate structure and unrivalled functional importance of the hand. The initial assessment and prognosis relies on consideration of the specific site involved as well as depth of the burn. We created a simple severity score that could be used by referring non-specialists and researchers alike. The Hand Burn Severity (HABS) score stratifies hand burns according to severity with a numerical value of between 0 (no burn) and 18 (most severe) per hand. Three independent assessors scored the photographs of 121 burned hands of 106 adult and paediatric patients, demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability (r=0.91, pburn depth alone. The HABS score is a simple to use tool to stratify severity at initial presentation of hand burns which will be useful when referring, and when reporting outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol


    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute surgical management of hand burns. (United States)

    Richards, Winston T; Vergara, Edward; Dalaly, Dawood G; Coady-Fariborzian, Loretta; Mozingo, David W


    A hand represents 3% of the total body surface area. The hands are involved in close to 80% of all burns. The potential morbidity associated with hand burns can be substantial. Imagine a patient carrying a pan of flaming cooking oil to the doorway or someone lighting a room-sized pile of leaves and branches doused with gasoline. It is clear how the hands are at risk in these common scenarios. Not all burn injuries will require surgical intervention. Recognizing the need for surgery is paramount to achieving good functional outcomes for the burned hand. The gray area between second- and third-degree burns tests the skill and experience of every burn/hand surgeon. Skin anatomy and the size of injury dictate the surgical technique used to close the burn wound. In addition to meticulous surgical technique, preoperative and postoperative hand therapy for the burned hand is essential for a good functional outcome. Recognizing the burn depth is paramount to developing the appropriate treatment plan for any burn injury. This skill requires experience and practice. In this article, we present an approach to second- and third-degree hand burns. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How to Help a Person with a Serious Burn Injury (United States)

    ... quarterly publication that contains articles on the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of burn recovery. All Rights ... Society, Inc. Menu Find Resources Our Programs Phoenix World Burn Congress Advocacy Get Involved Ways to Give ...

  6. Nuclear reactions in stellar helium burning and later hydrostatic burning stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, L.R.; Barnes, C.A.


    We review in some detail, the so-called triple-α process and the reaction 12 C(α,γ) 16 O that follow core hydrogen burning and produce most of the universal abundances of 12 C and 16 O, including considerable new and previously unpublished work. We also review briefly, for reasons of length, some of the principal nuclear reactions involved in carbon burning, neon burning, oxygen burning, the reactions generally grouped under the title silicon burning, and the helium-induced reactions that produce neutrons to build the s-process nuclei

  7. Creating a social work link to the burn community: a research team goes to burn camp. (United States)

    Williams, Nancy R; Reeves, Patricia M; Cox, Ellen R; Call, Serena B


    Social work faculty and graduate students conducted focus groups with 52 burn-injured adolescents from three burn camps to explore perceptions of their camp experience. Three themes emerged from data analysis that suggest burn camps play an important role in participants' lives. Camp is a place where burn-injured adolescents: (1) feel "normal" and accepted; (2) acquire insight in regard to self and meaning in life; and (3) gain confidence, increase self-esteem, and develop empathy. This project highlights how the use of qualitative research methods with grassroots organizations such as burn camps can serve as a link to greater social work involvement with this community.

  8. Cold Sore (United States)

    ... pain Headache Cold sore Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. Transgenic Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack.) Overexpressing S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase (SAMDC) Gene for Improved Cold Tolerance Through Involvement of H2O2 and NO Signaling. (United States)

    Luo, Jianhao; Liu, Mingxi; Zhang, Chendong; Zhang, Peipei; Chen, Jingjing; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun


    Centipedegrass ( Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack.) is an important warm-season turfgrass species. Transgenic centipedgrass plants overexpressing S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from bermudagrass ( CdSAMDC1 ) that was induced in response to cold were generated in this study. Higher levels of CdSAMDC1 transcript and sperimidine (Spd) and spermin (Spm) concentrations and enhanced freezing and chilling tolerance were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type (WT). Transgenic plants had higher levels of polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity and H 2 O 2 than WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone) or MGBG, inhibitor of SAMDC, indicating that the increased PAO and H 2 O 2 were a result of expression of CdSAMDC1 . In addition, transgenic plants had higher levels of nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. The increased NR activity were blocked by pretreatment with MGBG and ascorbic acid (AsA), scavenger of H 2 O 2 , while the increased NO level was blocked by MGBG, AsA, and inhibitors of NR, indicating that the enhanced NR-derived NO was dependent upon H 2 O 2 , as a result of expression CdSAMDC1 . Elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were observed in transgenic plants than in WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with MGBG, AsA, inhibitors of NR and scavenger of NO, indicating that the increased activities of SOD and CAT depends on expression of CdSAMDC1 , H 2 O 2 , and NR-derived NO. Our results suggest that the elevated cold tolerance was associated with PAO catalyzed production of H 2 O 2 , which in turn led to NR-derived NO production and induced antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic plants.

  10. Transgenic Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack. Overexpressing S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase (SAMDC Gene for Improved Cold Tolerance Through Involvement of H2O2 and NO Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhao Luo


    Full Text Available Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack. is an important warm-season turfgrass species. Transgenic centipedgrass plants overexpressing S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from bermudagrass (CdSAMDC1 that was induced in response to cold were generated in this study. Higher levels of CdSAMDC1 transcript and sperimidine (Spd and spermin (Spm concentrations and enhanced freezing and chilling tolerance were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type (WT. Transgenic plants had higher levels of polyamine oxidase (PAO activity and H2O2 than WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone or MGBG, inhibitor of SAMDC, indicating that the increased PAO and H2O2 were a result of expression of CdSAMDC1. In addition, transgenic plants had higher levels of nitrate reductase (NR activity and nitric oxide (NO concentration. The increased NR activity were blocked by pretreatment with MGBG and ascorbic acid (AsA, scavenger of H2O2, while the increased NO level was blocked by MGBG, AsA, and inhibitors of NR, indicating that the enhanced NR-derived NO was dependent upon H2O2, as a result of expression CdSAMDC1. Elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities were observed in transgenic plants than in WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with MGBG, AsA, inhibitors of NR and scavenger of NO, indicating that the increased activities of SOD and CAT depends on expression of CdSAMDC1, H2O2, and NR-derived NO. Our results suggest that the elevated cold tolerance was associated with PAO catalyzed production of H2O2, which in turn led to NR-derived NO production and induced antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic plants.

  11. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions. (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung


    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  12. Harborview burns--1974 to 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H Engrav

    Full Text Available Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1 identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2 make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3 determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4 model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974-2009 at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA.14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1 the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2 the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3 that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4 that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5 that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved.1 The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2 Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3 Unadjusted case fatality declined to ∼6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate.

  13. Project COLD. (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.


    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  14. Pediatric genital burns: a 15-year retrospective analysis of outcomes at a level 1 burn center. (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Go, Pauline H; Mansour, E Hani; Marano, Michael A; Petrone, Sylvia J; Houng, Abraham P; Chamberlain, Ronald S


    Burns involving the genitalia and perineum are commonly seen in the context of extensive total body surface area (TBSA) burns and rarely as isolated injuries because of protection provided by the thighs and the abdomen. Genital burns usually result in extended hospital stays and are accompanied by severe morbidity and increased mortality. A retrospective analysis of consecutive pediatric (burns involving the genitalia admitted to the Saint Barnabas Medical Center Level 1 Burn Unit from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2009, was performed. One hundred sixty pediatric patients (8.3%) had a genital burn, including 105 patients younger than 5 years (65.6%) and 55 patients between 5 and 18 years (34.4%). Overall mean TBSA was 13.8% ± 16.8%, mean TBSA (genitalia) was 0.84% ± 0.25%, mean length of stay (LOS) was 11.9 ± 11.9 days, and mean burn intensive care unit LOS was 4.9 ± 9.7 days. In patients younger than 5 years, a TBSA burn more than 10% with extensive genitalia involvement is almost always the result of a scald injury. Younger patients (2 weeks). Patients 5 years or older are more often male and usually have a TBSA burn more than 15%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Burns (For Parents) (United States)

    ... with flames or hot objects (from the stove, fireplace, curling iron, etc.) chemical burns (from swallowing things, ... formula that can scald a baby's mouth. Screen fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. Radiators and electric baseboard ...

  16. Burns - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Expand Section Burn Care - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Burn ...

  17. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  18. Burning Mouth Syndrome (United States)

    ... prescribe medications to help you manage the pain, dry mouth, or other symptoms. More Burning Mouth Health Info Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF ( Number of ...

  19. Burn Wise - Partners (United States)

    Within this site you will find information for consumers to make informed decisions about what it means to burn wise. And partners will learn about how they can work with EPA to bring cleaner-burning appliances to market.

  20. A review of burn care at an emerging centralised burns unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lightning. Burn size and anatomical areas involved. The distribution of injuries according to anatomical area is summarised in Table II. Fig. 3 shows the relationship between percentage TBSA burnt and mortality rate. .... keeping home and public water heater temperatures to 55oC may go a long way in reducing burn ...

  1. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  2. Workplace-related burns. (United States)

    Mian, M A H; Mullins, R F; Alam, B; Brandigi, C; Friedman, B C; Shaver, J R; Hassan, Z


    Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years' retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre's admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals.

  3. Chemical burn or reaction (United States)

    Burn from chemicals ... in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness or other states of ... Make sure the cause of the burn has been removed. Try not to come ... yourself. If the chemical is dry, brush off any excess. Avoid ...

  4. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....

  5. Economics of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G


    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  6. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik


    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  7. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  8. Public health risks associated with oil and chemical spills in cold freshwater environments: a simulation exercise involving a phenol and diesel spill in the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaivre, D.; Jarry, V.; Guerrier, P.; Paul, M.; Colliou, M.


    The St. Lawrence River is the source of drinking water for some 45 per cent of the population in the Province of Quebec, hence contamination of the river by oil or chemical spills is a matter of great public health importance. Project SHORES was developed by the Quebec Environmental Health Committee through the St. Lawrence 'Vision 2000' Action Plan. As part of this project, a simulation exercise involving phenol and diesel fuel was carried out. The exercise included development of a computerized dispersion model which was then used to evaluate the migration of phenol in critical areas of the St. Lawrence River. Main public health risks to nearby populations, with emphasis on drinking water contamination, were assessed based on the simulation results. 18 refs., 2 tabs. 1 fig

  9. Biomass burning in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.


    This chapter summarizes the direct biomass burning practices in India. The review pertains to fire practices in forest, agricultural fields, grasslands, households, and industry. In forest land, extent of controlled burning for regeneration and fire prevention is estimated based on the forest statistics. The biomass burned annually due to accidental fires and for shifting cultivation is quantified based on a few earlier studies. In the case of household and small-scale industries, the biomass burned is quantified by extrapolating past data on energy consumption. In addition to wood and crop residues, the use of dungcakes and charcoal is also accounted for in calculating the total amount of biofuels burned annually. Wherever possible, regional and seasonal variations in the biomass burning practices are highlighted. This exercise has led to improve the current estimates of biomass burned annually in India. The factors influencing the impact of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions are discussed

  10. COLD TRAPS (United States)

    Thompson, W.I.


    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  11. Cold injury. (United States)

    Mohr, Wm J; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Ahrenholz, David H


    The pathophysiology of true frostbite reveals that the direct injury produced during the initial freeze process has a minor contribution to the global tissue damage. However, rapid rewarming to reverse the tissue crystallization has essentially been the lone frostbite intervention for almost half a century. The major pathologic process is the progressive microvascular thrombosis following reperfusion of the ischemic limb, with the cold-damaged endothelial cells playing a central role in the outcome of these frozen tissues. Newer interventions offer the opportunity to combat this process, and this article offers a scientific approach to frostbite injuries of the upper extremities.

  12. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya


    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  13. Burns and epilepsy. (United States)

    Berrocal, M


    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  14. Burns of the feet. (United States)

    Zachary, L S; Heggers, J P; Robson, M C; Smith, D J; Maniker, A A; Sachs, R J


    Although they are formally categorized by the ABA as major burns, isolated burns of the feet are often managed on an outpatient basis. This retrospective review evaluates the success of such outpatient management, including the complications encountered. The outcome of the review emphasizes that although isolated burns encompass only a small body surface area, they require careful in-hospital treatment to avoid the complications of cellulitis, subsequent prolonged hospitalization, increased need for skin grafting, and increased incidence of hypertrophic scarring.

  15. Burns and wound management. (United States)

    Ahrenholz, D H; Clayton, M C; Solem, L D


    The evaluation and treatment of head and neck burns remains a challenge to the burn surgeon, because of the long-term emotional and psychologic effects of even the most minor change in facial appearance. Fortunately, the results currently achieved are orders of magnitude better than previously available, but they still remain far below the perfect outcome desired by both the physician and the burn victim.

  16. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  17. Special considerations in the management of pediatric upper extremity and hand burns. (United States)

    Birchenough, Shawn A; Gampper, Thomas J; Morgan, Raymond F


    Pediatric patients account for approximately one third of all burn patients in the United States, with upper extremity or hand involvement in most admitted burn patients. Specialized management and care of pediatric burn patients optimizes functional outcomes. Common mechanisms of injury are discussed. Acute and long-term care aspects of pediatric upper extremity and hand burns require unique considerations. Diagnosis, treatment, and management of upper extremity and hand burns are discussed in detail with respect to the pediatric population.

  18. Burns and military clothing. (United States)

    McLean, A D


    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  19. Burning mouth syndrome: an update. (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pia; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Andujar-Mateos, Paz; Sánchez-Siles, Mariano; Gómez-Garcia, Francisco


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) refers to chronic orofacial pain, unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by other sensory disorders such as dry mouth or taste alterations. Probably of multifactorial origin, and often idiopathic, with a still unknown etiopathogenesis in which local, systemic and psychological factors are implicated. Currently there is no consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. This study reviews the literature on this syndrome, with special reference to the etiological factors that may be involved and the clinical aspects they present. The diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management are discussed with reference to the most recent studies.

  20. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  1. Cold medicines and children (United States)

    ... page: // Cold medicines and children To use the sharing features on ... children younger than age 4. About OTC Cold Medicines Cold medicines do not cure or shorten a ...

  2. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang


    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  3. Predominance of CD14+ Cells in Burn Blister Fluids. (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Han; Wong, Tak-Wah; Lee, Chou-Hwei; Chen, Chung-Lin; Wu, Li-Wha; Pan, Shin-Chen


    Burn blister fluid contains several angiogenic factors to promote wound neovascularization. In our previous study, we found that deep partial-thickness burn (DPTB) wounds showed higher expression levels of angiogenin to enhance vascularization compared with superficial partial-thickness burn wounds. Neovascularization is a complex process that involves an interaction between circulating angiogenic cells and mediators. We hypothesized that in addition to angiogenic factors burn blisters may contain specific cell types. The aim of the present study was to characterize the specific cells present in burn blisters. Twenty-four burn blister fluid samples were obtained with informed consent from patients with superficial partial-thickness burn (n = 16) or DPTB (n = 8) wounds. Blister cells were isolated from individual intact blisters and characterized with flow cytometry analysis using CD14, CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and CD133 markers. CD14 and CD34 blister cells were also isolated using a magnetic-activated cell sorting system to examine their potential for endothelial differentiation. Angiogenin levels in the burn blister fluids were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CD14 cells were the most highly represented cell type in the burn fluids of both groups, although a significantly greater percentage of CD14 cells were observed in DPTB fluids. CD14 blister cells had a higher potency to differentiate into functional endothelial cells as compared with CD34 cells. The proportion of CD14 cells gradually increased after burn injury. In contrast to CD14 cells, angiogenin showed the highest expression levels at day 1 postburn. With regard to burn wound neovascularization, angiogenin expression was partially correlated with CD14 blister cells in the burn fluids. We provide the first report on the characterization of blister cells in burn fluids. Our data suggest that CD14 blister cells may play a role in burn wound neovascularization

  4. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts]. (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L


    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  5. Epidemiology of burns caused by moxibustion in Korea. (United States)

    Yoon, Cheonjae; Cho, Young Soon; Park, Seungchoon; Chung, Sung Phil; Choi, Young Hwan


    Moxibustion, a traditional Chinese treatment that uses dried Artemisia argyi, is a common cause of burns treated in Korean hospitals. We aimed to examine the characteristics of moxibustion-induced burns. This retrospective study examined the records of 59 patients who were treated for moxibustion-induced burns (April 2014-October 2015). All patients completed a questionnaire regarding their general characteristics and moxibustion use. The patients included 16 men and 43 women (average age: 49.1 years, 68 burn sites). Superficial second-degree burns were present at 21 sites, deep second- or third-degree burns at 44 sites, and unknown burns at 3 sites. The most common sites were the lower extremities, abdomen, and upper extremities. The most common practitioners were the patients (27/59, 45.7%) and Oriental medicine practitioners (23/59, 38.9%). The most common locations were the patient's home, Oriental medicine clinic, and moxibustion clinic. The most common reason for moxibustion was pain. Only the burn site was significantly associated with burn depth, and non-abdominal sites were 9.37-fold more likely to involve deep burns (vs. abdominal sites). Korean patients routinely undergo moxibustion, and care must be taken when using moxibustion at non-abdominal sites, due to the risk of deep burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammatory Cytokines, Proteins, and White Blood Cells in Burned Patients Affected with Second and Third Degree of Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakhel Ghani Omran AL-Watify


    Full Text Available Burns are associated with increasing metabolic activities of the body organs. High metabolism rates are initiated by activation of different inflammatory reactions and cellular mediators( cytokines. The present research was conducted to evaluate the inflammatory markers , proteins , and white blood cells in thermal burned patients . A total number of burned patients was 60 from both sexes ( 30 males and 30 females, then , the patients were classified according to severity of burn into four subgroups , the first burned male group involved 15 burned males affected with second degree of burn, and the second burned male group( 15 was affected with third degree of burn . Similarly, the same classification was applied on burned females in this study . Thirty healthy subjects (15 males, 15 females were selected as control groups. All ages of patients and controls were ranged between 2 5-35years old.   It was well found that the levels of C- reactive protein ( CRP were markedly increased ( p 0.0 5 . Concentrations of total serum protein , albumin , and globulin were tend to decrease significantly ( p 0.05 in most burned groups except burned male group affected with third degree of burn which showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in comparison with healthy groups. Statistical analysis of t-test indicated that granulocytes pointed out a significant elevation (p<0.05   neutrophils level in all studied groups. Inversely, values of eosinophils were signifi- cantly reduced (p<0.05 in most burned groups compared to healthy control groups. Sig- nificant and insignificant decreases were found in the levels of basophils of all burned groups when compared to those of control group. 

  7. Enhancing the clinical utility of the burn specific health scale-brief: not just for major burns. (United States)

    Finlay, V; Phillips, M; Wood, F; Hendrie, D; Allison, G T; Edgar, D


    Like many other Western burn services, the proportion of major to minor burns managed at Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) is in the order of 1:10. The Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) is an established measure of recovery after major burn, however its performance and validity in a population with a high volume of minor burns is uncertain. Utilizing the tool across burns of all sizes would be useful in service wide clinical practice. This study was designed to examine the reliability and validity of the BSHS-B across a sample of mostly minor burn patients. BSHS-B scores of patients, obtained between January 2006 and February 2013 and stored on a secure hospital database were collated and analyzed Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis, logistic regression and longitudinal regression were used to examine reliability and validity of the BSHS-B. Data from 927 burn patients (2031 surveys) with a mean % total burn surface area (TBSA) of 6.7 (SD 10.0) were available for analysis. The BSHS-B demonstrated excellent reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.95. First and second order factor analyses reduced the 40 item scale to four domains: Work; Affect and Relations; Physical Function; Skin Involvement, as per the established construct. TBSA, length of stay and burn surgery all predicted burn specific health in the first three months of injury (pburn (pburn population consisting of 90% minor burns is consistent with that demonstrated in major burns. The BSHS-B can be employed to track and predict recovery after burns of all sizes to assist the provision of targeted burn care. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan


    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  9. Cold energy (United States)

    Wallace, John P.


    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  10. Care for the Critically Injured Burn Patient Modulation of Burn Scars Through Laser Assisted Delivery of Stem Cells (United States)


    hypertrophic third degree burn scars in Red Duroc pigs using ablative fractional CO2 or Erbium:YAG lasers. Epidermal and superficial dermal...Waibel J, Davis S, Badiavas E: Stem Cells to Prevent Contraction and Enhance Healing In A Third Degree Burn Model. Military Health System Research...approach is directed at evaluating the above treatment groups in a third degree burn wound model developed by our laboratory and collaborators involved

  11. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine. (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N


    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah. (United States)

    Karami Matin, B; Karami Matin, R; Ahmadi Joybari, T; Ghahvehei, N; Haghi, M; Ahmadi, M; Rezaei, S


    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned body surface (BBS), length of stay (LOS), and cost of hospitalization were collected by reviewing medical records and analysed by SPSS 16. The patients' mean age was 27 years. The male/female ratio in burn patients was 1.14/1. The mean BBS was 36.06%. The mean LOS was 9.04 days. Flame (67.0%) and hot liquids (21.9%) were the major causes of burn. Burn injuries were more common in the upper limbs (81.4%), lower limbs (70.9%), and head and neck (65.2%). 11.6% of patients had all the regions involved. The fatality rate was 18.8%. The mean cost per patient was 20,463,227 Iran Rials (IRR). The cost per one percentage of burn and one day of hospitalization was 562,632 IRR and 2,263,631 IRR, respectively. The main factors relevant to death were identified including the extent of burn, gender, age, causes, and degree of burn. In addition, LOS proved to have a higher impact on costs than burn percentage.

  13. Pediatric Treadmill Burns: Assessing the effectiveness of prevention strategies. (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Connolly, Siobhan; Meyerowitz-Katz, Daniel; Allan, James; Maitz, Peter K M


    Legislative changes in 2008 in Australia mandated that all new treadmills display a warning sticker about the risk of friction burns in children. This was accompanied by a health promotion campaign advising of the risks of treadmills to children. Analyses of pediatric burns data identified all cases of treadmill burns occurring between 2005 and 2014. The incidence of treadmill burns, associations with age and gender, characteristics of the burns and the adequacy of first aid provided immediately after the burn was examined. There were 298 cases of treadmill burns over the 10-year period (3.5% of all pediatric burns). The incidence rose until the introduction of legislation and health promotion in 2008, and then declined over the remaining study period. The majority of treadmill burns in children were inflicted on the upper limbs (91%), and 93% involved the hands. Most burns were full thickness (62%, n=182) and 49% (n=148) required skin grafts. Approximately one-third of treadmill burns (35%, n=105) occurred while someone else was using the treadmill. In the vast majority of treadmill burn injuries (74%, n=223), there was either no first aid or inadequate first aid provided immediately after the injury. A significant number of treadmill burns occur in children, and these often result in serious injuries that are not treated with appropriate first aid. A reduction in the incidence of these burns was associated with the introduction of legislation and health promotion targeted at child safety around treadmills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning


    conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  15. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash


    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  16. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  17. Burns and Fire Safety (United States)

    ... Control Website. Unintentional fire/burn fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. ... Prevention and Control. Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  18. Electrical Burns: First Aid (United States)

    ... using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood. Begin CPR if the person shows ... org/first-aid/first-aid-electrical-burns/basics/ART-20056687 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  19. American Burn Association (United States)

    ... burn-related care, prevention, education, and research. Our multidisciplinary membership enhances our ability to work toward common goals with other organizations and educational programs. Membership Being a member of ...

  20. New Fashioned Book Burning. (United States)

    Gardner, Robert


    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  1. Smartphone applications in burns. (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P


    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds (United States)


    first task was to select and purchase a Visible/Near- infrared spectrophotometer suitable for non-contacting spectroscopy of biological tissues...FiLE COPY AD 0 NContract No: DAMD17-88-C-8125 N Title: Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds I Principal Investigator: Martin A. Afromowitz, Ph.D. PI Address...Include Security Classification) SPECTROSCOPY OF BURN WOUNDS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martin A. Afromowitz, Ph.D., and James B. Callis, Ph.D. 13a. TYPE OF

  3. Coverage of extensive tibial bone exposure in burn patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Covering tibial bone exposure from third degree burns to the lower limbs is a challenging task for the plastic surgeon. We present our experience of covering tibial exposure from burns in three different patients, where four limbs were involved and three muscular flaps were used in conjunction with one another; i.e. the ...

  4. Ball lightning burn. (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip


    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications.

  5. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon D. Cohen


    Full Text Available Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0% had burns involving less than 20% of the body surface area. Cause of the burns was scald in 190 patients (67.4%, fire in 80 patients (28.4%, chemical in 8 patients (2.8%, and explosion in 2 patients (0.7%. Two female patients (0.7% aged 11 and 17 years died of their burns that were caused by fire. The mean length of hospitalization was 9.8 days. Pediatric burn injury has become a significant public health problem in the Bedouin population of the Negev. To reduce the burden of burn injury, it is necessary to increase current efforts in prevention of burns.

  6. Alternative animal model for studies of total skin thickness burns. (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Laura Martins de; Parisi, Julia Risso; Brassolatti, Patrícia; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio


    To present an alternative experimental model of third degree burn of easy reproducibility. Eighteen male Wister rats were randomly divided into three groups, 6 of which were allocated to each group. A soldering iron coupled to an aluminum plate was used to produce burn, at a temperature of 150ºC, with different exposure times per group. Group 5 (G5) animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 5 seconds; Group 10 (G10) the animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 10 seconds and group 15 (G15) the animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 15 seconds. Histopathological analyzes showed that all three groups had similar morphological characteristics, with total thickness involvement. The technique is effective to reproduce a third degree burn and suggests the temperature of 150ºC with 5 seconds of exposure in order to minimize the risks to the animals.

  7. Outpatient presentations to burn centers: data from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand outpatient pilot project. (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Watterson, Dina M; Singer, Yvonne; Darton, Anne


    Most studies about burn injury focus on admitted cases. To compare outpatient and inpatient presentations at burn centers in Australia to inform the establishment of a repository for outpatient burn injury. Data for sequential outpatient presentations were collected at seven burn centers in Australia between December 2010 and May 2011 and compared with inpatient admissions from these centers recorded by the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand for the corresponding period. There were 788 outpatient and 360 inpatient presentations. Pediatric outpatients included more children burns (39% vs 24%). Adult outpatients included fewer males (58% vs 73%) and intentional injuries (3.3% vs 10%), and more scald (46% vs 30%) and contact burns (24% vs 13%). All pediatric, and 98% of adult, outpatient presentations involved a %TBSAburns presenting to burn centers differed to inpatient admission data, particularly with respect to etiology and burn severity, highlighting the importance of the need for outpatient data to enhance burn injury surveillance and inform prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and belief regarding burn first aid among caregivers attending pediatric emergency medicine departments. (United States)

    Alomar, Mohammed; Rouqi, Faisal Al; Eldali, Abdelmoneim


    Emergency departments witness many cases of burns that can be prevented with various first-aid measures. Immediate and effective burn first aid reduces morbidity and determines the outcome. Thus, it is imperative that measures of primary burn prevention and first-aid knowledge be improved. This descriptive study determines the current level of knowledge, attitude, and belief regarding burn first aid among caregivers. Caregivers attending four pediatric emergency departments answered a structured questionnaire for demographic information, knowledge, and the burn first aid they provide including two case scenarios. Applying cold water for 15-20min, smothering burning clothes, and covering the pot of oil on fire with a wet cloth were considered appropriate responses. The main outcome measure was the proportion of caregivers who were aware of burn first aid and did not use inappropriate remedies. Additional questions regarding the best means of educating the public on burn first aid were included. Individual chi-squared tests and univariate logistic regressions were performed to correlate knowledge with demographic features, history of burns, and first-aid training. The 408 interviewed caregivers (55% women) reflected a wide range of age, occupation, and educational level. Sixty percent (60%) of respondents had a large family, with 52% reporting a history of burns. Overall, 41% treated burns with cool or cold water, although 97% had inappropriate or no knowledge of the duration. Further, 32% treated burns with nonscientific remedies alone or in combination, including honey, egg white, toothpaste, white flour, tomato paste, yogurt, tea, sliced potato, butter, or ice. Only 15% had first-aid training. While 65% of caregivers covered a pot of oil on fire with a wet cloth, only 24% reported smothering burning clothes. Participants preferred learning more of first aid for burns via social media (41%), hospital visits (30%), and television (TV) (16%). No significant

  9. Effect of repeated burning on plant and soil carbon and nitrogen in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated ecosystems (United States)

    Rachel Jones; Jeanne C. Chambers; Dale W. Johnson; Robert R. Blank; David I. Board


    Fire has profound effects on ecosystem properties, but few studies have addressed the effect of repeated burns on soil nutrients, and none have been conducted in cold desert ecosystems where invasion by exotic annual grasses is resulting in greater fire frequency. In a 5 year study, we examined effects of repeated burning, litter removal, and post-fire seeding on...

  10. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel


    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  11. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P


    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  12. Cold and Cough Medicines (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  13. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Safety Tips Age Group Special Needs Space and Place Home Risks Burns ... Policy Research Safe Kids Near You Join Our Team Staying Safe Safety by Age Safety by Risk ...

  14. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention ... coins and 19 percent involved candy or gum. Learn More » About Us Mission Programs Public Policy Research ...

  15. Cold stress alters transcription in meiotic anthers of cold tolerant chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). (United States)

    Sharma, Kamal Dev; Nayyar, Harsh


    Cold stress at reproductive phase in susceptible chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) leads to pollen sterility induced flower abortion. The tolerant genotypes, on the other hand, produce viable pollen and set seed under cold stress. Genomic information on pollen development in cold-tolerant chickpea under cold stress is currently unavailable. DDRT-PCR analysis was carried out to identify anther genes involved in cold tolerance in chickpea genotype ICC16349 (cold-tolerant). A total of 9205 EST bands were analyzed. Cold stress altered expression of 127 ESTs (90 up-regulated, 37 down-regulated) in anthers, more than two third (92) of which were novel with unknown protein identity and function. Remaining about one third (35) belonged to several functional categories such as pollen development, signal transduction, ion transport, transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, translation, energy and cell division. The categories with more number of transcripts were carbohydrate/triacylglycerol metabolism, signal transduction, pollen development and transport. All but two transcripts in these categories were up-regulated under cold stress. To identify time of regulation after stress and organ specificity, expression levels of 25 differentially regulated transcripts were also studied in anthers at six time points and in four organs (anthers, gynoecium, leaves and roots) at four time points. Limited number of genes were involved in regulating cold tolerance in chickpea anthers. Moreover, the cold tolerance was manifested by up-regulation of majority of the differentially expressed transcripts. The anthers appeared to employ dual cold tolerance mechanism based on their protection from cold by enhancing triacylglycerol and carbohydrate metabolism; and maintenance of normal pollen development by regulating pollen development genes. Functional characterization of about two third of the novel genes is needed to have precise understanding of the cold tolerance mechanisms in chickpea anthers.

  16. Staphylococcal septicaemia in burns. (United States)

    Gang, R K; Sanyal, S C; Bang, R L; Mokaddas, E; Lari, A R


    This study analyses staphylococcal septicaemia in a series of 1516 burn patients who were admitted to the burn unit of the Al-Babtain Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, Ibn Sina Hospital, Kuwait over a period of 6.5 years (1 June 1992-31 December 1998). One hundred and nine patients (7.2%) developed clinically and microbiologically proven septicaemia, of which 80 (73.4%) showed one or the other type of Staphylococcus in their blood. Fifty (62.5%) of them were males and 30 (37.5%) females, with a mean age of 26 years and the mean total body surface area of burns (TBSA) of 45% (range 1-93%). Preschool age children comprised 27.5% of the patients. Flame was the dominant (80%) cause of burn. Of the 80 patients who had 91 episodes of septicaemia, 52 (65%) had MRSA, 8 (10%) MSSA, 11 (13.8%) MRSE and 5 (6.2%) MSSE and 4 (5%) others had mixed organisms. Only the patients with MRSA had multiple episodes. Eight patients (10%) showed septicaemic episodes within only 48 h of admission; however, the majority of the patients (77.5%) had a septicaemic attack within 2 weeks postburn. Of the 52 MRSA septicaemic cases, 39 (75%) survived and 13 (25%) died. Four patients with septicaemia due to mixed infections died. A total of 19 patients were intubated, 14 due to inhalation injury and 5 because of septicaemia; all in the former group died. Glycopeptide therapy (vancomycin/teicoplanin) was instituted immediately following the detection of staphylococci in the blood. No significant difference was noted in relation to mortality amongst the septicaemic patients, whether or not on prophylactic antibiotic. Fifty-six (70%) of the 80 patients had 139 sessions of skin grafting and survived. Of the 52 MRSA patients, 40 had 101 sessions of skin grafting and 33 of them survived. The apparent low mortality was probably due to early detection of the organism, appropriate antibiotic therapy, care for nutrition and early wound cover. This study indicates a high incidence of staphylococcal

  17. Burns first aid treatment in remote Northern Australia. (United States)

    Read, David J; Tan, Swee Chin; Ward, Linda; McDermott, Kathleen


    It is well demonstrated that adequate burns first aid treatment (BFAT) improves clinical outcomes for the injured but adequacy remains low in many studies. This study presents a twelve month assessment of the adequacy of burns first aid treatment for patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). Prospective study design of all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital. Data were collated from two sources; RDH Burns Registry, and the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). Inclusion criterion was all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital for the period 1 January 2014-31 December 2014. Variables collected and analysed include: demographics, burn mechanism, burn wound depth and adequacy of and circumstances around first aid. Overall 310 cases were analysed. Most injuries involved adults (68%), 19% Indigenous persons and 70% of all patients had their burn injury occur in the urban region. Adequate BFAT occurred in 41% of cases. Adults, contact burns and those where the burn injury occurred in the remote regions were less likely to receive adequate BFAT. Indigenous persons were less likely to attempt any BFAT at all and when they did receive BFAT it was more likely applied by an emergency responder or health professional. Overall adequacy of BFAT is low in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Remote dwellers and Indigenous persons are at increased risk of not applying or receiving adequate BFAT. The poor level of adequate BFAT demonstrated in this study suggests that the Top End community particularly remote and Indigenous persons would benefit from targeted BFAT education programs that are delivered in a culturally and linguistically appropriate fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.


    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  19. Paediatric Burns: Mortality in a Burns Unit | Olatain | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn injury, especially from flames, is associated with a high mortality rate in children. Safe practices with flammable liquids (petrol in particular) should be emphasized in paediatric burn prevention programmes. Keywords: Paediatric, burn,mortality, prevention. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery Vol. 4 (2) 2007: pp. 82-85 ...

  20. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D


    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  1. Burn-related factors affecting anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients: an exploratory study (United States)

    Jain, M.; Khadilkar, N.; De Sousa, A.


    Summary Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient’s psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients. PMID:28592931

  2. Bacillus cereus infection in burns. (United States)

    Attwood, A I; Evans, D M


    Two patients are reported in whom severe toxicity developed about 4 days after relatively minor burn injuries and in whom the burn areas then appeared to enlarge. In both patients, B. cereus and Staph. aureus were isolated and the affected burn areas had subcutaneous thrombosis and necrosis. The management is outlined and the dramatic rapidity of onset of toxicity emphasized, with special reference to increasing pain, lividity and extension of the burns.

  3. Nonfreezing Cold-Induced Injuries (United States)


    bacterial infections , 89,90 as well as infections of the upper respiratory tract , teeth, and urogenital tract . It has been reported to involve the release...may sweat excessively, even when cold. Hyperhidro- sis predisposes to chronic paronychial infections . Sweating may be more pronounced at the margins...foot. In the diabetic foot, infections tend to be polymicrobial with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus and

  4. Burn Wise Educational Materials for Businesses (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  5. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?


    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.


    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms re...

  6. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (United States)


    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  7. How cold is cold dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T.


    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed

  8. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T


    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  9. Air-freshener burns: a new paradigm in burns etiology? (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M; Khan, M S; Tiernan, E


    We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  10. Skin bioengineering and stem cells for severe burn treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, J.J.; Trouillas, M.; Alexaline, M.; Brachet, M.; Bey, E.; Duhamel, P.; Leclerc, T.; Bargues, L.


    Severely burned patients need definitive and efficient wound coverage. The outcome of massive burns has improved with cultured epithelial auto-grafts (CEA). In spite of its fragility, percentage of success, cost of treatment and long-term tendency to contracture, this surgical technique has been developed in some burn centres. The first improvements involved combining CEA and dermis-like substitutes. Cultured skin substitutes provide faster skin closure and satisfying functional results. These methods have been used successfully in massive burns. A second improvement was to enable skin regeneration by using epidermal stem cells. Stem cells can differentiate into keratinocytes, to promote wound repair and to regenerate skin appendages. Human mesenchymal stem cells foster wound healing and were used in cutaneous radiation syndrome. Skin regeneration and tissue engineering methods remain a complex challenge and offer the possibility of new treatment for injured and burned patients. (authors)

  11. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani


    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  12. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.


    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  13. The Newfoundland in-situ Oil Burn Experiment - NOBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Li, K.; Ackerman, F.; Bissonnette, M.C.; Lambert, P.; Halley, G.; Nelson, R.; Belanger, J.; Pare, J.R.P.; Campagna, P.R.


    A group of over 25 Canadian and US agencies conducted a major offshore oil spill burn near Newfoundland. Over 20 vesels, 7 aircraft, and 230 people were involved in this test, the largest of its kind ever conducted. The burn involved release of two oil spills of ca 50 tons each into a towed fireproof boom. Each burn lasted over an hour. The burn plume was sampled using remote-controlled helicopters and a blimp, and air emissions were monitored downwind from remote controlled boats which also took water samples and temperatures. Over 200 sensors or samplers were used; these will yield data on over 2,000 parameters or substances. Preliminary results are reported. Burning occurred outside the boom due to some initial oil splashover, but this did not result in sheening or significant oil loss. The scaling of burns from test tanks to on-sea burns did not always hold true. Quantitative analytical data showed that emissions from this in-situ fire were less than expected; all measured compounds and parameters were below health concern levels beyond ca 150 m from the fire and very little was detected beyond 500 m. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were found to be lower in the soot than in the starting oil and were consumed by the fire to a large degree. Particulates were found to be of concern only up to 150 m downwind at sea level. Combustion gases did not reach levels of concern and volatile organics were in high concentrations but less than those emitted from a non-burning spill. No compounds of concern could be detected in the water samples. Burn residue samples had lower PAH levels than the starting oil. Generally, burning oil spills at sea was found to be feasible and practical. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Prescribed burning symposium (United States)

    USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station


    The custom of annual burning of the woods from Colonial times onward is a subject of more interest, perhaps, to ecologists and social scientists than it is to foresters. The important point to us is that it had become a well-settled folkway by the time large-scale lumbering began in the southern pineries about 1890. Before this lumbering began, the light annual fires...

  15. Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  16. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging (United States)

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M


    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  17. Engine Cold Start (United States)



  18. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.


    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  19. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E.D.


    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  20. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  1. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera. (United States)

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H


    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of

  2. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin


    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  3. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.


    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  4. Cold wave lotion poisoning (United States)

    ... look for burns (endoscopy) Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps every few hours for several days Outlook ( ... some hair salons may use stronger forms that need to be diluted before use. Exposure to this ...

  5. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak


    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  7. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  8. Skin Burn Associated With Photochemotherapy. (United States)

    Gazyakan, Emre; Hirche, Christoph; Engel, Holger; Kneser, Ulrich; Bigdeli, Amir K


    psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) phototherapy (PT) has become a standard treatment for several severe skin diseases. Photosensitization is done by oral psoralen intake. In minor cases, PUVA can lead to skin changes like erythema and hyperpigmentation. However, it can also lead to severe burn injuries when exposed to extensive UV light. This makes the treatment in a burn center inevitable. We report the clinical observation of a 38-year-old man presenting with an extensive burn injury caused by sun tanning after PUVA PT. There are just few cases of extensive burns induced by PUVA PT. Prevention becomes manifest in patient information, correct calculation of dosage, evaluation of photosensitivity, and close observation. In cases of severe burn injuries, patients should be referred to a burn center for optimal conservative treatment. Surgical intervention is usually not necessary.

  9. Emergency Care of Pediatric Burns. (United States)

    Strobel, Ashley M; Fey, Ryan


    Although the overall incidence of and mortality rate associated with burn injury have decreased in recent decades, burns remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality in children. Children with major burns require emergent resuscitation. Resuscitation is similar to that for adults, including pain control, airway management, and administration of intravenous fluid. However, in pediatrics, fluid resuscitation is needed for burns greater than or equal to 15% of total body surface area (TBSA) compared with burns greater than or equal to 20% TBSA for adults. Unique to pediatrics is the additional assessment for non-accidental injury and accurate calculation of the percentage of total burned surface area (TBSA) in children with changing body proportions are crucial to determine resuscitation parameters, prognosis, and disposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cold water recovery reduces anaerobic performance. (United States)

    Crowe, M J; O'Connor, D; Rudd, D


    This study investigated the effects of cold water immersion on recovery from anaerobic cycling. Seventeen (13 male, 4 female) active subjects underwent a crossover, randomised design involving two testing sessions 2 - 6 d apart. Testing involved two 30-s maximal cycling efforts separated by a one-hour recovery period of 10-min cycling warm-down followed by either passive rest or 15-min cold water immersion (13 - 14 degrees C) with passive rest. Peak power, total work and postexercise blood lactate were significantly reduced following cold water immersion compared to the first exercise test and the control condition. These variables did not differ significantly between the control tests. Peak exercise heart rate was significantly lower after cold water immersion compared to the control. Time to peak power, rating of perceived exertion, and blood pH were not affected by cold water immersion compared to the control. Core temperature rose significantly (0.3 degrees C) during ice bath immersion but a similar increase also occurred in the control condition. Therefore, cold water immersion caused a significant decrease in sprint cycling performance with one-hour recovery between tests.

  11. Antiseptics for burns. (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C


    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non

  12. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.


    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  13. Tokamak burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, G.T.


    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns. (United States)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Disseldorp, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K


    Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Perceived fatigue was assessed in 23 children and adolescents (15 boys and 8 girls, aged 6-18 years, with burns covering 10-46% of the total body surface area, 1-5 years post burn) using both child self- and parent proxy reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Outcomes were compared with reference values of non-burned peers. At group level, pediatric burn survivors did not report significantly more symptoms of fatigue than their non-burned peers. Individual assessments showed, however, that four children experienced substantial symptoms of fatigue according to the child self-reports, compared to ten children according to the parent proxy reports. Furthermore, parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue than the children themselves. Age, gender, extent of burn, length of hospital stay, and number of surgeries could not predict the level of perceived fatigue post-burn. Our results suggest that fatigue is prevalent in at least part of the pediatric burn population after 1-5 years. However, the fact that parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue then the children themselves, hampers evident conclusions. It is essential for clinicians and therapists to consider both perspectives when evaluating pediatric fatigue after burn and to determine who needs special attention, the pediatric burn patient or its parent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang


    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  16. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde


    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  17. Future Area Burned in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannigan, M.D.; Logan, K.A.; Stocks, B.J.; Amiro, B.D.; Skinner, W.R.


    Historical relationships between weather, the Canadian fire weather index (FWI) system components and area burned in Canadian ecozones were analysed on a monthly basis in tandem with output from the Canadian and the Hadley Centre GCMs to project future area burned. Temperature and fuel moisture were the variables best related to historical monthly area burned with 36-64% of the variance explained depending on ecozone. Our results suggest significant increases in future area burned although there are large regional variations in fire activity. This was especially true for the Canadian GCM where some ecozones show little change in area burned, however area burned was not projected to decrease in any of the ecozones modelled. On average, area burned in Canada is projected to increase by 74-118% by the end of this century in a 3 x CO2 scenario. These estimates do not explicitly take into account any changes in vegetation, ignitions, fire season length, and human activity (fire management and land use activities) that may influence area burned. However, the estimated increases in area burned would have significant ecological, economic and social impacts for Canada

  18. Current knowledge of burn injury first aid practices and applied traditional remedies: a nationwide survey. (United States)

    Kattan, Abdullah E; AlShomer, Feras; Alhujayri, Abdulaziz K; Addar, Abdullah; Aljerian, Albaraa


    Burn first aid awareness has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a report on the knowledge and practices of the Saudi population with regard to burn first aid and the application of traditional remedies. An internet-based survey was conducted to assess the public's knowledge on first aid practices and home remedies applied for burn injuries among Saudi adults. A total of 2758 individuals responded to the survey. There were 1178 (42.7 %) respondents who had previously received burn first aid information. One thousand five hundred fifty respondents had a history of burn exposure in which burn injury first aid was applied as follows: 1118 (72.1 %) removed clothing and accessories from the injured area; water was applied by 990 (63.9 %); among those who applied water, 877 (88.6 %) applied cold water; and only 57 (5.8 %) did so for more than 15 min. Wrapping the burn area was performed by 526 (33.9 %), and 985 (63.5 %) sought medical assistance. When it comes to traditional remedies, 2134 (77.4 %) knew of and/or implemented these remedies as first aid or to treat burns. Honey and toothpaste were the commonest among these remedies with 1491 (69.9 %) and 1147 (53.7 %), respectively. This was associated with female gender ( r  = 0.87, P  first aid. Proper burn first aid is a simple, cheap, and accessible means of managing burns initially. Although the majority of the respondents were university graduates (51.1 %), knowledge and implementation of burn first aid was very poor. Major healthcare agencies should review and promote a consistent guideline for burn first aid in an effort to tackle and minimize the effect of this grave injury.

  19. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.


    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  20. Prevention and management of outpatient pediatric burns. (United States)

    O'Brien, Shannon P; Billmire, David A


    Burns are common injuries in the pediatric population, with an estimated 250,000 pediatric burn patients seeking medical care annually. A relative few require inpatient management. This article discusses suggestions for burn prevention, as well as acute burn care and long-term management of small burns.

  1. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Burn is one of the most common devastating and a very painful form of trauma. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immune-suppression that predisposes burn patients to infection complications. Materials and methods: A prospective hospital based study was carried out from December 2010 to ...

  2. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  3. Cold weather oil spill response training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; Owens, E.H.


    In April 2000, a three-day oil spill response training program was conducted on Alaska's North Slope. The unique hands-on program was specifically developed for Chevron Corporation's world-wide response team. It featured a combination of classroom and outdoor sessions that helped participants to learn and apply emergency measures in a series of field exercises performed in very cold weather conditions. Temperatures remained below minus 20 degrees C and sometimes reached minus 40 degrees C throughout the training. The classroom instructions introduced participants to the Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Working Group's Field Guide for Spill Response in Arctic Waters. This guide provides response strategies specific to the Arctic, including open water, ice and snow conditions. The sessions also reviewed the Alaska Clean Seas Tactics Manual which addresses spill containment and recovery, storage, tracking, burning and disposal. The issues that were emphasized throughout the training program were cold weather safety and survival. During the training sessions, participants were required to set up weather ports and drive snowmobiles and all terrain vehicles. Their mission was to detect oil with infra-red and hand-held devices. They were required to contain the oil by piling snow into snow banks, and by augering, trenching and slotting ice. Oil was removed by trimming operations on solid ice, snow melting, snow blowing, skimming and pumping. In-situ burning was also performed. Other sessions were also conducted develop skills in site characterization and treating oiled shorelines. The successfully conducted field sessions spanned all phases of a cleanup operation in cold weather. 5 refs., 7 figs

  4. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed


    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  5. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.


    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  6. The molecular and cellular basis of cold sensation. (United States)

    McKemy, David D


    Of somatosensory modalities, cold is one of the more ambiguous percepts, evoking the pleasant sensation of cooling, the stinging bite of cold pain, and welcome relief from chronic pain. Moreover, unlike the precipitous thermal thresholds for heat activation of thermosensitive afferent neurons, thresholds for cold fibers are across a range of cool to cold temperatures that spans over 30 °C. Until recently, how cold produces this myriad of biological effects has been poorly studied, yet new advances in our understanding of cold mechanisms may portend a better understanding of sensory perception as well as provide novel therapeutic approaches. Chief among these was the identification of a number of ion channels that either serve as the initial detectors of cold as a stimulus in the peripheral nervous system, or are part of rather sophisticated differential expression patterns of channels that conduct electrical signals, thereby endowing select neurons with properties that are amenable to electrical signaling in the cold. This review highlights the current understanding of the channels involved in cold transduction as well as presents a hypothetical model to account for the broad range of cold thermal thresholds and distinct functions of cold fibers in perception, pain, and analgesia.

  7. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.


    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  8. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Purpose: Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods: Perceived fatigue was

  9. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Purpose Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods Perceived fatigue was

  10. Prosthodontist contribution in treating post-burn hypertrophic facial scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan T


    Full Text Available The formation of hypertrophic scars is common following healing of the burn wound, particularly in children. The face is one of the areas of the body most frequently affected by burns. Scar formation as a result of burn wounds leads to contraction of the formed granulation tissue, which causes both aesthetic and functional impairment for the patient. Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions. Scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient. Prevention of scars involves early and continuous use of a compressive orthesis. However, their efficacy is often limited to the facial region because of the contours of this area of body. This paper describes a clinical case of post-burn hypertrophic scars treated with silicone gel sheeting applied with pressure under custom made auto-polymerizing resin stent.

  11. Comparison of topical sucralfate and silver sulfadiazine cream in second degree burns in rats. (United States)

    Beheshti, Akram; Shafigh, Younes; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah; Samiee-Rad, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Shafigh, Navid


    The most prevalent topical treatment for partial thickness burns is silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD). Recent studies have shown that the healing of partial thickness burns is delayed with the use of SSD. One of the potential burn dressings is sucralfate. With this study the authors have aimed to analyze comparatively the effects of sucralfate and SSD on second degree burn wounds in rats. Forty-eight male rats were divided into three equal groups. A burn model was constituted on the back of all rats. The burned areas in the first, second and third groups were covered daily with sucralfate, SSD and cold cream (control), respectively. At the end of the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day, the rats were anesthetized and the burned skin tissue samples were collected for histopathological examination. At the end of the study, the epidermis and horny layer was completely formed in the SSD and sucralfate group; however the appendix of skin was just formed in the sucralfate group. Also the percentage of wound healing was calculated at 76%, 91% and 100% respectively in the control, silver sulfadiazine and sucralfate groups. Sucralfate is known to have multiple beneficial effects on wound healing. Using topical sucralfate accelerates the burn wound healing process in comparison with both the control and SSD groups and can be used as an adjunctive or alternative agent in the future.

  12. Cold injury and hardiness


    Dixon, Geoffrey Richard


    An examination of the relationship between cold tolerance, dormancy and hardiness in woody shrubs and trees of garden origin. The physiological, biochemical and genetic backgrounds to these characteristics are discussed using appropriate examples.

  13. Febrile/cold agglutinins (United States)

    ... diagnose certain infections and find the cause of hemolytic anemia (a type of anemia that occurs when red ... or cold agglutinins can help explain why the hemolytic anemia is occurring and direct treatment. Normal Results Normal ...

  14. Chilling Out With Colds (United States)

    ... a little earlier for a few nights. De-stress. Kids who are stressed out feel worse when they have colds. Relax and use the time to read, listen to music, or watch a movie. In other words, chill ...

  15. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.


    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  17. Determination of the Pre-Hospital Practices Performed for Children with Burn Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Kavurmaci


    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the first aid practices performed and, effecting factors in burn injuries in before hospital admission. Material and Method: The study was conducted in burn centers of two hospitals in the Erzurum, between December 2013 and August 2014. The population was consisted of inpatient children aged 0-12 years who were treated in burn centers of related hospitals and their mothers at the date of the study. The study was carried out with a total of 121 children and their mothers who met the research inclusion criteria. Questionnaire data was used to collect data. In data analysis, percentage distributions, means and chi-square test were used. Results: It was found that, children%u2019 mothers applicate the cold water first when the burns ocur (57.9%, secondly only applying cold water (27.3%, then the mothers took off their children to hospital not to any application (75.2%, burn wound on the olive oil riding (10.7%, burn wound yogurt riding (8.3%. Discussion: As a result, it was determined that children%u2019 mothers don%u2019t have an adequate level of first-aid knowledge, and younger mothers with low levels of education living in rural areas perform incorrect first aid practices.

  18. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey


    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  19. Smartphones and burn size estimation: "Rapid Burn Assessor". (United States)

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Höller, J; Giretzlehner, M


    Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study.

  20. Differences between intentional and non-intentional burns in India: implications for prevention. (United States)

    Natarajan, Mangai


    Non-intentional and deliberate burns in India and other developing countries present particular challenges of prevention and treatment. This exploratory study sought improved understanding of burns in order to inform treatment and prevention. It gathered data in 2011/2012 on burns from the hospital registry (N=768) of a government hospital in India and from interviews with women patients (N=60) admitted to the burns ward. Analysis indicated that: (1) the conditions that facilitate intentional and non-intentional burns are similar, but intentional burns involve additional contributory factors; (2) a high proportion of patients subjected to burns are young women in domestic situations; and (3) a higher proportion of their TBSA was burned, with consequent higher mortality than for men. It was concluded that: (1) Haddon's matrix and the situational crime prevention framework of criminology assist in understanding the etiology of intentional burns and in identifying preventive measures; (2) social service and criminal justice agencies have important roles in dealing with victims of intentional burns during and after treatment; (3) full account should be taken of gender-related physical, psychological and family factors in planning treatment; and (4) maintaining careful records of burns cases is vital for estimating the prevalence and incidence of intentional injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms. (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu


    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona


    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  3. The true cost of burn. (United States)

    Ahn, Chris S; Maitz, Peter K M


    It is difficult to define the true cost of a burns injury, however there has always been a consensus that the costs associated with burns care are high. This study aims to achieve an accurate calculation of the cost of acute burns care in an Australian context. A retrospective review of 20 adult burn patients treated at our Centre was performed. An itemized price list was prepared based on items, services and equipment actually utilized in the care of burns patients. Case records were reviewed for a count of quantities to calculate costs for each item. Regression analysis was performed to produce a cost vs %TBSA curve for cost prediction. A cost breakdown was also performed for analysis of the most significant areas of expenditure and their trends with %TBSA. The cost calculated for an average adult burns patient was AU$71,056 (US$73,532). The total cost of all 20 patients was AU$2,449,112 (US$2,534,464). %TBSA injured was confirmed as the primary determinant of cost. Hospital length of stay, operative costs, dressings and staffing were found to be the most significant components of cost and increased most prominently with %TBSA. Compared to our findings, expenditure for prevention and education programs is minimal. There is limited conclusive evidence that changes in management protocols have had successful impact on the cost of burns treatment. Future progress in burns management may effect factors such as hospital length of stay, however until such changes, resource allocation should recognize the importance of prevention and its success at reduction of injury severity for real reductions in cost of burns care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound on wound healing in rats subjected to third-degree burns. (United States)

    Mesquita, Rayanne Lisboa; Silva, Pedro Iuri Castro da; Melo e Silva, Simone Haru Sawaki de; Oliveira, Kathlen Oliveira De; Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Freitas, Jofre Jacob da Silva; Pereira, Wagner Coelho De Albuquerque; Kietzer, Katia Simone


    To determine the effectiveness of low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (LITUS) on wound healing in rats with third-degree burns. Twenty rats were divided into the Control Group that comprised four rats without third-degree burns that did not undergo LITUS, the Burned Group (BG), comprising eight rats with third-degree burns that did not undergo LITUS, and the Burned with Treatment Group (BTG), comprising eight rats with third-degree burns that were administered LITUS. LITUS began 24 h after injury and involved daily applications for 8 min at 0.1 W/cm2 for 14 days. The BTG lost less weight than the BG (Q=2.75; pburn wound healing scoring system. The LITUS protocol applied to the animals with third-degree burns accelerated the formation of fibrin-leukocyte crusts and significantly reduced weight loss. However, burn wound healing was not accelerated.

  5. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (United States)


    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  6. Prescribed burning weather in Minnesota. (United States)

    Rodney W. Sando


    Describes the weather patterns in northern Minnesota as related to prescribed burning. The prevailing wind direction, average wind speed, most persistent wind direction, and average Buildup Index are considered in making recommendations.

  7. Honey dressing in pediatric burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangroo A


    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of honey have been recognized since antiquity. Although used as an adjuvant method of accelerating wound healing from ancient times, honey has been sporadically used in the treatment of burns. Honey acts mainly as a hyperosmolar medium and prevents bacterial growth. Because of its high viscosity, it forms a physical barrier, and the presence of enzyme catalase gives honey an antioxidant property. Its high-nutrient content improves substrate supply in local environment promoting epithelialization and angiogenesis. In pediatric burn patients no exclusive study has been conducted using honey as a burn dressing. An attempt is being made to evaluate the effect of honey in the management of burns in pediatric patients.

  8. Cold Atom Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Mingsheng; Li Ke; Wang Ping; Kong Lingbo; Wang Xiaorui; Li Runbing; Tu Xianhua; He Lingxiang; Wang Jin; Lu Baolong


    In this article the recent experimental works on cold atoms carried out at Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics (WIPM) are reported. These include the experimental realization of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), different type of cold atom interferometers, and bichromatic electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). We have realized Bose-Einstein condensates of 87 Rb dilute atomic gases. The apparatus consists of two horizontally mounted magneto-optic-traps (MOTs) and a QUIC magnetic trap. Nearly 3x10 8 atoms were trapped in the second MOT, and up to 1.2x10 8 atoms were adiabatically transferred to the QUIC trap. A pure condensate with about 1.1x10 5 atoms at about 30 nK was achieved. We also demonstrated two type of cold atom interferometers, the Sagnac and Ramsey interference fringes were recorded with contrast of up to 37%

  9. Burn Treatment for the Unburned (United States)


    the illness, xerostomia or keratoconjunctivitis sicca or both de- time of cleansing and only readily removable epidermis veloped in seven, two months...Improved burn center survival of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis managed without cortico- burn patients, pneumonia is the most frequent life... Management of toxic epidermal necrolysis, editorial. Lancet 1984;2:1250- apy.7 Scheduled monitoring of the pulmonary system, ie, daily 1252.chest

  10. Candidiasis in the Burned Patient (United States)


    Candidemia was present in 52 patients and 76.9% of these died. Candida infection was seen as a preterminal phenomenon, coincident with a generalized...8217andid, burn wound infection 75; may be required (16l. Bacterial sepsis, topical antimicro- also had candidemia . Considering all sources, a total of...manifested candidemia and burn wound inva- (-8) sion bv other noncandidal fungal organisms. Candidemia Colonization always preceded invasive sepsis, but 80’r

  11. Neutrino-Induced Hydrogen Burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Chad T.; Fuller, George M.


    The principal hydrogen burning mechanisms that take place in stars have been elucidated and explored for many decades. However, the introduction of a prodigious flux of electron anti-neutrinos would significantly accelerate these mechanisms and change the path toward the production of an α particle. We discuss the nature of such changes in the hydrogen burning mechanisms, and the side effects spawned from such alterations

  12. American Burn Association Consensus Statements (United States)


    renal replacement therapy in the patient with acute kidney injury. 3. Effect of inhalation injury, intubation and mechanical ventilation, opioids...benefits of other nutrients is lacking. Glutamine has several valuable functions that may be beneficial to burn patients . Evidence among adult burn...on clinical out- come in ICU patients . Clin Nutr 2005;24:502–9. 16. Moran L, Custer P, Murphy G. Nutritional assessment of lean body mass. J Parenter

  13. Prescribed burning in the North Central States. (United States)

    Linda R. Donoghue; Von J. Johnson


    Describes 5 years of prescribed burning in the North Central States from 1968 through 1972. Provides information concerning participating agencies, burned-acreage, purpose-of-burn, fuels, and weather. Also examines other aspects such as ignition and burning techniques, hours-to-complete, time of fire start, and cost-per-acre.

  14. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  15. Unusual Burn as a Complication of Paraplegia Treatment Caused by an Electrotherapy Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Sever


    have not been reported earlier. We report the case of a 21-yearold man who suffered full thickness burns by electrical stimulation with electrode implanted on the anterior side of his left thigh. The burn area was treated consevatively within five weeks without any surgery. The burn injuries due to electrotherapy device are preventable and therefore, some basic measures may reduce the incidence of accidental burn injury. We hope that this case report will raise awareness about the dangers involved in the ever-increasing use of electrotherapy devices.

  16. Cold regions isotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master


    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  18. Chemical and Common Burns in Children. (United States)

    Yin, Shan


    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  19. Cold Intolerance of the hand measured by the CISS questionnaire in a normative study population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J; Jaquet, J-B.; Daanen, H. A M; Hovius, S.E.R.


    Cold intolerance has been recognized as one of the most disabling sequelae of upper extremity trauma, especially when neurovascular structures are involved. In this study, we aimed to describe cold intolerance in a normative study population, validate the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS)

  20. [Burning sensation in oral cavity--burning mouth syndrome in everyday medical practice]. (United States)

    Gerlinger, Imre


    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) refers to chronic orofacial pain, unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, typically on the tongue or in other areas of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by other sensory disorders such as dry mouth or taste alterations. Probably of multifactorial origin, and often idiopathic, with a still unknown etiopathogenesis in which local, systemic and psychological factors are implicated. Currently there is no consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. This study reviews the literature on this syndrome, with special reference to the etiological factors that may be involved and the clinical aspects they present. The diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management are discussed with reference to the most recent studies.

  1. Teaching "In Cold Blood." (United States)

    Berbrich, Joan D.


    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one…

  2. ``Cold'' Leidenfrost effect (United States)

    Bourrianne, Philippe; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David


    An evaporating Leidenfrost drop placed on a hot substrate can levitate on its own vapor if the temperature of the substrate is high enough. We discuss the possibility to decrease this critical Leidenfrost temperature using a super-hydrophobic coating. Measuring adhesion and observing the liquid-solid interface, we suggest a possible explanation for this ``cold'' regime of levitation.

  3. Cold spray nozzle design (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL


    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  4. Expert Cold Structure Development (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.


    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  5. Recent Cold War Studies (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn


    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  6. Prestudy of burn control in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.


    The present report describes our ongoing work on a number of selected topics, and the plans for the nearest future. In chapter 2 we have specialized the system of the previous report to form an easily tractable, second-order system. In this case one can give an explicit, analytical condition for stability. A code providing quick answers regarding stability, time scales and eigenvectors has been written and tested. The zerodimensional modelling of a burning plasma described by space dependent equations is often done in a heuristic way, with no clear relation between the two systems of equations. We have tried to put the approximation procedure involved in the transition to 0-D models on a more formal basis. This is the topic of chapter 3. The 1-D equilibrium solution is also investigated with respect to its stability properties, which are shown to be the same as those derived from the simplest 0-D space averaged model. Chapter 4 contains a few emerging thoughts on burn control. First, the limited swing of the auxiliary heating gives rise to limitations on the possibilities to intervene against temperature excursions by an auxiliary heating modulation. This problem becomes severe when one operates at high Q values. Another analysis concerns the problem of selecting a proper control action when a temperature profile differs from the equilibrium shape. A couple of alternative schemes for burn control, minor radius alterations and dynamic stabilization are tentatively discussed; no definite answers on their feasibility are obtained. The problem of diagnosing the plasma with respect to burn conditions is the topic of chapter 5. The influence on the energy distribution of control actions and the reliability of neutron measurements are discussed, and the question of how to handle sawteeth is briefly revisited. Chapter 6 is a description of process identification and how it could be used for burn control. A particular advantage is that it can be combined with physical

  7. Managing smoke from wildfires and prescribed burning in southern Australia (United States)

    Alan Wain; Graham Mills; Lachlan McCaw; Timothy Brown


    In Australia the responsibility for management of forests and other public lands rests largely with state governments, and multiple government agencies may be involved in fire management. Whether resulting from wildfire, fuel reduction, or silvicultural operations, biomass burning often stimulates community concerns about hazards from fine particulates and chemical...

  8. The Burn-Out Syndrome in the Day Care Setting (United States)

    Maslach, Christina; Pines, Ayala


    Results of a study of personal job-stress factors among day care center personnel focus on impact of staff-child ratio, working hours, time out, staff meetings and program structure. Recommended institutional changes for prevention of staff "burn-out" involve reduction in amount of direct staff-child contact, development of social-professional…

  9. Childhood burns in Sulaimaniyah province, Iraqi Kurdistan: a prospective study of admissions and outpatients. (United States)

    Othman, Nasih; Kendrick, Denise; Al-Windi, Ahmad


    While it is globally observed that young children are at a higher risk of burn injuries, little is known about childhood burns in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology of burns amongst pre-school children in this region. A prospective study was undertaken from November 2007 to November 2008 involving all children aged 0-5 years attending the burns centre in Sulaimaniyah province for a new burn injury whether treated as an outpatient or admitted to hospital. 1,122 children attended the burns centre of whom 944 (84%) were interviewed (male 53%, female 47%). Mean age was 1.9 years with children aged 1 year comprising 32% and those aged 2 years comprising 21% of the sample. The incidence of burns was 1044/100,000 person-years (1030 in females and 1057 in males). Mechanisms of injury included scalds (80%), contact burns (12%) flames (6%) and other mechanisms (2%). Almost 97% of burns occurred at home including 43% in the kitchen. Winter was the commonest season (36%) followed by autumn (24%). There were 3 peak times of injury during the day corresponding to meal times. The majority of burns were caused by hot water (44%) and tea (20%) and the most common equipment/products responsible were tea utensils (41%). There were 237 admissions with an admission rate of 95 per 100,000 person-years. Scald injuries accounted for most admissions (84%). Median total body surface area affected by the burn or scald (TBSA) was 11% and median hospital stay was 7 days. In-hospital mortality was 8%. Mortality rate was 4% when TBSA was ≤25%, and 100% when TBSA was over 50%. Burn incidence is high in young children especially those aged 1-2 years. Preventive interventions targeted at families with young children & focusing on home safety measures could be effective in reducing childhood burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model. (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek


    In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (PBurn depth increased marginally from cephalic to caudal in non-debrided burns, but showed no statistical differences for these locations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Cold exposure lowers energy expenditure at the cellular level. (United States)

    Park, Seyeon; Chun, Sohyun; Kim, Danuh


    Mitochondrial function is intimately involved in various metabolic processes and is therefore essential to maintain cell viability. Of particular importance is the fact that mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) is coupled with oxidative phosphorylation to drive adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. We have examined the effects of cold temperature stress on ΔΨm and the role of cold temperature receptor expression on ΔΨm . Human bronchial endothelial cell line, BEAS-2B, and human embryonic kidney, HEK293, cell line were transfected with the gene for cold temperature responsive receptor protein TRPM8 or TRPA1, and exposed to cold temperature. ΔΨm was monitored using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazoyl carbocyanine iodide derivative (JC-10), a ΔΨm probe. While cold temperatures significantly increased ΔΨm and mitochondrial ATP levels in cells transfected with temperature responsive receptor TRPM8 or TRPA1, no change was noted in wild-type cells. Moreover, the change in ΔΨm and ATP level was a dynamic process. ΔΨm was raised to peak levels within 10 min of cold exposure, followed by a return to baseline levels at 30 min. Our findings suggest that cold temperature exposure increased mitochondrial ΔΨm via a mechanism involving cold temperature receptors. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter season ... can affect your heart, especially if you have cardiovascular disease . Some people who are outdoors in cold weather ...

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  14. Epidemiology of pediatric burns and future prevention strategies-a study of 475 patients from a high-volume burn center in North India. (United States)

    Dhopte, Amol; Tiwari, V K; Patel, Pankaj; Bamal, Rahul


    Pediatric burns have a long-term social impact. This is more apparent in a developing country such as India, where their incidence and morbidity are high. The aim of this study was to provide recent prospective epidemiological data on pediatric burns in India and to suggest future preventive strategies. Children up to 18 years old admitted to the Department of Burns, Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, between January and December 2014 were included in the study. Data regarding age, sex, etiology, total body surface area (TBSA), circumstances of injury, and clinical assessment were collected. The Mann-Whitney test or Kruskal-Wallis test or ANOVA was used to compare involved TBSA among various cohort groups accordingly. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of TBSA. There were a total of 475 patients involved in the study, including seven suicidal burns, all of whom were females with a mean age greater than the cohort average. Age, type of burns, mode of injury, presence or absence of inhalation injury, gender, and time of year (quarter) for admission were found to independently affect the TBSA involved. Electrical burns also formed an important number of presenting burn patients, mainly involving teenagers. Several societal issues have come forth, e.g., child marriage, child labor, and likely psychological problems among female children as suggested by a high incidence of suicidal burns. This study also highlights several issues such as overcrowding, lack of awareness, dangerous cooking practices, and improper use of kerosene oil. There is an emergent need to recognize the problems, formulate strategies, spread awareness, and ban or replace hazardous substances responsible for most burn accidents.

  15. Imaging with cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Kaestner, A.; Josic, L.; Hartmann, S.; Mannes, D.


    Neutrons for imaging purposes are provided mainly from thermal beam lines at suitable facilities around the world. The access to cold neutrons is presently limited to very few places only. However, many challenging options for imaging with cold neutrons have been found out, given by the interaction behavior of the observed materials with neutrons in the cold energy range (3-10 A). For absorbing materials, the interaction probability increases proportionally with the wavelength with the consequence of more contrast but less transmission with cold neutrons. Many materials are predominantly scattering neutrons, in particular most of crystalline structural materials. In these cases, cold neutrons play an important role by covering the energy range of the most important Bragg edges given by the lattice planes of the crystallites. This particular behavior can be used for at least two important aspects-choosing the right energy of the initial beam enables to have a material more or less transparent, and a direct macroscopic visualization of the crystalline structure and its change in a manufacturing process. Since 2006, PSI operates its second beam line for neutron imaging, where cold neutrons are provided from a liquid deuterium cold source (operated at 25 K). It has been designed to cover the most current aspects in neutron imaging research with the help of high flexibility. This has been done with changeable inlet apertures, a turbine based velocity selector, two beam positions and variable detector systems, satisfying the demands of the individual investigation. The most important detection system was found to be a micro-tomography system that enables studies in the presently best spatial resolution. In this case, the high contrast from the sample interaction process and the high detection probability for the cold neutrons combines in an ideal combination for the best possible performance. Recently, it was found out that the energy selective studies might become a

  16. Imaging with cold neutrons (United States)

    Lehmann, E. H.; Kaestner, A.; Josic, L.; Hartmann, S.; Mannes, D.


    Neutrons for imaging purposes are provided mainly from thermal beam lines at suitable facilities around the world. The access to cold neutrons is presently limited to very few places only. However, many challenging options for imaging with cold neutrons have been found out, given by the interaction behavior of the observed materials with neutrons in the cold energy range (3-10 Å). For absorbing materials, the interaction probability increases proportionally with the wavelength with the consequence of more contrast but less transmission with cold neutrons. Many materials are predominantly scattering neutrons, in particular most of crystalline structural materials. In these cases, cold neutrons play an important role by covering the energy range of the most important Bragg edges given by the lattice planes of the crystallites. This particular behavior can be used for at least two important aspects—choosing the right energy of the initial beam enables to have a material more or less transparent, and a direct macroscopic visualization of the crystalline structure and its change in a manufacturing process. Since 2006, PSI operates its second beam line for neutron imaging, where cold neutrons are provided from a liquid deuterium cold source (operated at 25 K). It has been designed to cover the most current aspects in neutron imaging research with the help of high flexibility. This has been done with changeable inlet apertures, a turbine based velocity selector, two beam positions and variable detector systems, satisfying the demands of the individual investigation. The most important detection system was found to be a micro-tomography system that enables studies in the presently best spatial resolution. In this case, the high contrast from the sample interaction process and the high detection probability for the cold neutrons combines in an ideal combination for the best possible performance. Recently, it was found out that the energy selective studies might become a

  17. LA50 in burn injuries. (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M


    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  18. Telemedicine and burns: an overview. (United States)

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H


    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  19. Introduction to burning plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu


    The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles, the critical plasma Q-value for the thermal instability, and the Cherenkov's emission are discussed. The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles is large even in DT burning plasma. The primary role of fusion-produced energetic charged particles is the heating of fuel plasma. If the charged particle heating is large, burning may be thermally unstable. A zero dimensional analysis shows that the critical plasma Q-values for this thermal instability are nearly 5 for DT burning plasma of 14 keV and 1.6 for D-He 3 burning plasma of 60 keV. These critical plasma Q-values are small as compared to that required for commercial reactors. Then, some methods of burning-control should be introduced to fusion plasma. Another feature of energetic charged particles may be Cherenkov's emission of various waves in fusion plasma. The relationship between this micro-instability and transport phenomena may be the important problem to be clarified. The fusion-produced energetic charged particles have large Larmor radii, and they may have effects on balooning mode instability. (Kato, T.)

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri-Heir


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  1. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual...

  2. Radioactive beams in studies of primordial nucleosynthesis and stellar burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.


    Much of the interesting nucleosynthesis in inhomogeneous big bang models occurs beyond the neutron-rich side of stability, and so involves reactions on short-lived nuclei. Thus radioactive beams are required to measure the relevant cross sections. Import reactions involving 8 Li have thus been studied in recent experiments. Nuclei heavier than carbon may also provide important tests of primordial inhomogeneity, so reactions involving nuclei up to at least mass 28 amu may also be of interest. In addition, scenarios of high temperature stellar burning exist in which rapid proton-induced nuclear reactions occur, and so involve proton-rich short-lived nuclei. Specifically, explosive hydrogen burning requires reaction rates on such nuclides as 13 N. The radioactive ion beams relevant to studies on unstable nuclei, and some of the techniques necessary to obtain the desired cross sections are discussed

  3. Burn up physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretiakoff, O.


    The present communication is devoted to a body of theoretical and experimental work carried out at the C.E.A. with the aim of adding to the current knowledge on the evolution of the reactivity (during fuel irradiation) in natural or slightly enriched Uranium reactors. The difficulties of performing direct experiments on large amounts of irradiated fuels are reviewed - especially in operating power reactors - and the necessity is underlined for fundamental research in two directions: on one hand, the change in the composition of the fuels (chains of heavy nuclei, fission products), and on the other hand the effect of changes in composition on the neutron balance. Before presenting three types of experiments which have been carried out, the importance of the problems associated with the neutron spectra is stressed and the practical methods used for the calculations are briefly described. The systematic irradiation of several types of fuel, followed by their chemical and isotopic analysis has been going on for several years. An outline of the experimental programme is given with a description of the methods employed: α, β, γ chain for the preparation of samples determination of the plutonium content by coulometry and double isotopic dilution, separation of Boron used in some cases for the measurement of integrated neutron densities. The interpretation of the measurements is discussed with some examples. A second and more recent series of experiments deals with the investigation of lattices, using synthetic fuels (Uranium-Plutonium alloys) as compared to slightly depleted or enriched Uranium Various experiments are considered on heavy water and on cold graphite, then on graphite heated up to 500 C Some results already obtained are listed. These experiments, requiring nearly a metric ton of each type of fuel cannot be pursued in a systematic manner. This is why is developed since several years a method of differential measurement by oscillation, which requires

  4. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ramos, J.; Schultz, J.; Nevins, W.N.


    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  5. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    were suggested to facilitate the transition to cleaner wood-burning regimes. Considering that 40% of the world population continues relying on traditional forms of wood-burning, the design and dissemination of cleaner technologies of WBSs constitute relevant strategies to mitigate global climate...... of improved stoves. In the Brazilian case study, it was observed that the kitchen concentrations of PM2.5 monitored during wood cooking events increased by more than 10 times in relation to the background levels due to the improper use and maintenance of the studied ICSs (rocket stoves). In Southern Europe...... to facilitate the transition to more intelligent modes of using WBSs by: 1st training solid-fuel users to better operate and maintain existing installations, 2nd harmonizing wood-burning regulations to address the use of seasoned fuels, certified stoves and functioning chimneys; 3rd designing applications...

  6. The need to be cold : cold warriors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.


    This article discussed the changing climate of Ellesmere Island and the adaptation of the Inuit in response to the climate change, with particular reference to Canada's most northern community of Grise Fiord. Because of the changing climate, the vast northern landscape that the Inuit navigated for centuries by reading its subtle signs is becoming warmer, softer, and unpredictable. The geographic history and demographics of Grise Fiord were described. The community's main water supply comes from a glacier which is sinking. The negative impacts of ice shrinkage on this northern community and on the environment were presented. These included more international shipping through the Arctic, more resource exploration, a greater risk of environmental contamination, and reduced habitat for the polar bears and seals that eat, mate, and reproduce on the ice. Climate change impacts on the sea and sea ice were also discussed. Several photographs illustrating the changing climate were presented. The article noted that climate change could destroy the Inuit culture, making climate change an issue of human rights, notably the right to live connected to the land and the right to be cold. It was concluded that in one generation, Inuit were swept up by both a social and an economic upheaval. In one more generation, they will undergo an environmental shift. 13 figs.

  7. Cold source economic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, Serge.


    This computer code is intended for the statement of the general economic balance resulting from using a given cold source. The balance includes the investments needed for constructing the various materials, and also production balances resulting from their utilization. The case of either using an open circuit condenser on sea or river, or using air cooling systems with closed circuits or as auxiliaries can be dealt with. The program can be used to optimize the characteristics of the various parts of the cold source. The performance of the various materials can be evaluated for a given situation from using very full, precise economic balances, these materials can also be classified according to their possible uses, the outer constraints being taken into account (limits for heat disposal into rivers or seas, water temperature, air temperature). Technical choices whose economic consequences are important have been such clarified [fr

  8. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.


    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  9. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  10. Images of God used by self-injurious burn patients. (United States)

    Grossoehme, D H; Springer, L S


    Suicide by burning and other forms of self-injurious behaviors which involve burning are sometimes considered to have religious overtones. The ritual death of widows upon their husband's funeral pyre is closely associated with Hindu beliefs. Buddhists have used self-immolation as a form of protest. The Judaeo-Christian traditions have imagery of fire as cleansing and purifying; there is also secular imagery associating fire with images of condemnation and evil. Previous studies have described religiosity as a common theme among survivors. The present study describes the ways in which persons who inflicted self-injurious behaviors through burning, including attempted suicide, imagine the Divinity and use religious language to give meaning to their experience.

  11. Clumpy cold dark matter (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert


    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  12. The CMS COLD BOX

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien


    The CMS detector is built around a large solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 3.8 Tesla: about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. To run, this superconducting magnet needs to be cooled down to very low temperature with liquid helium. Providing this is the job of a compressor station and the so-called “cold box”.

  13. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds. (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred


    It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain phenotype data.

  14. Support for cold neutron utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee


    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique.

  15. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee


    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  16. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  17. Air-freshener burns: A new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar


    Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  18. Inter-Facility Transfer of Pediatric Burn Patients from U.S. Emergency Departments (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Shi, Junxin; Groner, Jonathan I.; Thakkar, Rajan K.; Fabia, Renata; Besner, Gail E.; Xiang, Huiyun; Wheeler, Krista K.


    Purpose To describe the epidemiology of pediatric burn patients seen in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) and to determine factors associated with inter-facility transfer. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Current American Burn Association (ABA) Guidelines were used to identify children burn centers. Burn patient admission volume was used as a proxy for burn expertise. Logistic models were fitted to examine the odds of transfer from low volume hospitals. Results In 2012, there were an estimated 126,742 (95% CI: 116,104–137,380) pediatric burn ED visits in the U.S. Of the 69,003 (54.4%) meeting referral criteria, 83.2% were in low volume hospitals. Only 8.2% of patients meeting criteria were transferred from low volume hospitals. Of the 52,604 (95% CI: 48,433 – 56,775) not transferred, 98.3% were treated and released and 1.7% were admitted without transfer; 54.7% of burns involved hands. Conclusions Over 90% of pediatric burn ED patients meet ABA burn referral criteria but are not transferred from low volume hospitals. Perhaps a portion of the 92% of patients currently receiving definitive care in low volume hospitals are under-referred and would have improved clinical outcomes if transferred at the time of presentation. PMID:27554628

  19. Inter-facility transfer of pediatric burn patients from U.S. Emergency Departments. (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Shi, Junxin; Groner, Jonathan I; Thakkar, Rajan K; Fabia, Renata; Besner, Gail E; Xiang, Huiyun; Wheeler, Krista K


    To describe the epidemiology of pediatric burn patients seen in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) and to determine factors associated with inter-facility transfer. We analyzed data from the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Current American Burn Association (ABA) Guidelines were used to identify children burn centers. Burn patient admission volume was used as a proxy for burn expertise. Logistic models were fitted to examine the odds of transfer from low volume hospitals. In 2012, there were an estimated 126,742 (95% CI: 116,104-137,380) pediatric burn ED visits in the U.S. Of the 69,003 (54.4%) meeting referral criteria, 83.2% were in low volume hospitals. Only 8.2% of patients meeting criteria were transferred from low volume hospitals. Of the 52,604 (95% CI: 48,433-56,775) not transferred, 98.3% were treated and released and 1.7% were admitted without transfer; 54.7% of burns involved hands. Over 90% of pediatric burn ED patients meet ABA burn referral criteria but are not transferred from low volume hospitals. Perhaps a portion of the 92% of patients currently receiving definitive care in low volume hospitals are under-referred and would have improved clinical outcomes if transferred at the time of presentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Early Burn-Wound Progression in Rats (United States)

    Guo, Song Xue; Jin, Yun Yun; Fang, Quan; You, Chuan Gang; Wang, Xin Gang; Hu, Xin Lei; Han, Chun-Mao


    Introduction Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression. Methods Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS) groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h) post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn. Results The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management. Conclusion Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-κB signalling pathway may be

  1. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh


    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  2. Cold neutron production and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Noboru.


    The first part gives general introduction to cold neutrons, namely the definition and the role as a probe in basic science and technology. The second part reviews various methods of cold neutron production. Some physical characteristics required for cold moderators are presented, and a list summarizes a number of cold moderators and their reactor physics constants. The definition of flux gain factor and the measured values for liquid light- and heavy-hydrogen are also given. The cold neutron spectra in methane and liquid hydrogen measured by LINAC time-of-flight method are presented to show the advantage of solid methane. The cold neutron sources using experimental reactors or linear accelerators are explained along with the examples of existing facilities. Two Japanese programs, the one is the use of a high flux reactor and the other is the use of a LINAC, are also presented. The third part of this report reviews the application areas of cold neutrons. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt


    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  4. Diversity in the Neural Circuitry of Cold Sensing Revealed by Genetic Axonal Labeling of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 Neurons


    Takashima, Yoshio; Daniels, Richard L.; Knowlton, Wendy; Teng, James; Liman, Emily R.; McKemy, David D.


    Sensory nerves detect an extensive array of somatosensory stimuli, including environmental temperatures. Despite activating only a small cohort of sensory neurons, cold temperatures generate a variety of distinct sensations that range from pleasantly cool to painfully aching, prickling, and burning. Psychophysical and functional data show that cold responses are mediated by both C- and Aδ-fibers with separate peripheral receptive zones, each of which likely provides one or more of these disti...

  5. Burn Depth Estimation Based on Infrared Imaging of Thermally Excited Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Hoswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.


    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5 C for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  6. Venous malformations: MR imaging features that predict skin burns after percutaneous alcohol embolization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Carrino, John A.; Bluemke, David A.; Mitchell, Sally


    To examine the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for predicting the occurrence of skin burns in patients with venous malformations who undergo percutaneous alcohol embolization was the objective of the study. Pre-procedural MR imaging at 1.5 T from 40 patients with venous malformations who had undergone percutaneous alcohol embolization was retrospectively reviewed by two observers for these features: anatomic location, definition (well-defined or ill-defined), and the presence of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, tendon, bone, joint, and deep venous system involvement. One observer recorded the length of skin involvement and volume of the malformation. Univariate and multivariate analysis tests were used to determine whether an association between the occurrence of skin burns and MR imaging features existed. The anatomic locations of the venous malformations were the lower extremity (20 out of 40), upper extremity (11 out of 40), trunk (four out of 40), head/neck (three out of 40) and pelvis (two out of 40). Of the 40 subjects, 15% (six out of 40) experienced skin burns. There was a significant association between the absence of muscle involvement (p=0.0198) as well as the length of skin involvement (p=0.027), with the occurrence of skin burns. Malformation size and all other features were not significantly associated with skin burns. Skin burns in patients with venous malformations treated with alcohol embolization are associated with the length of skin involvement and with the absence of deeper tissue involvement, as depicted on MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. Neuronal Plasticity Associated with Burn Injury and Its Relevance for Perception and Management of Pain in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J Coderre


    Full Text Available Through the introduction of the gate control theory and various subsequent works, Ronald Melzack has inspired many investigators worldwide to realize two important facts about pain. First, incoming pain messages are subject to both negative and positive modulation, which significantly affect its perception. Second, the progression of knowledge about the basic mechanisms underlying persistent and chronic pain is critically dependent on the increased understanding of the complexity of the symptoms experienced by pain patients. The present paper examines these two very important issues in an effort to understand better the mechanisms that underlie the pain suffered by burn patients. The physiological responses to burn injury involve many different mediators and mechanisms, all of which contribute to pain perception and development of neuronal plasticity underlying short and long term changes in pain sensitivity. While experimental burn injuries in humans and animals are typically well controlled and mild, in burn victims, the severity is much more variable, and clinical care involves repeated traumas and manipulations of the injured sites. Recurrent inputs from damaged and redamaged tissue impinge on a nervous system that becomes an active participant in the initiation of changes in sensory perception and maintenance of long term sensory disturbances. Recently acquired experimental evidence on postburn hyperalgesia, central hyperexcitability and changes in opioid sensitivity provides strong support that burn patients need an analgesic approach aimed at preventing or reducing the 'neural' memory of pain, including the use of more than one treatment modality. Burn injuries offer a unique opportunity to combine experimental and clinical research to understand pain mechanisms better. Over the years, Ronald Melzack has insisted that one of the most laudable enterprises in research is to span the gap between these two often separate worlds.

  8. Open Burning Sources of Air Pollution (United States)

    This slide presentation will focus on Open Burning Sources f Air Pollution, with sections on Sources, Pollutants, Perspective, Quantification. The various sources of domestic and international open burning pollutants will be discussed. The focus pollutants and their effects wil...

  9. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Protect the Ones You Love: Child Injuries are Preventable Note: Javascript is disabled ... ways you can help protect the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns ...

  10. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical procedures in acute burns can be broadly divided into four groups: ablative (tangential or fascial ... tissue oedema due to extravasation of plasma into the interstitium. Fluid replacement will worsen the oedema, ... include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic ...

  11. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2010 ... thereafter the head decreases in relative size by approximately 1% and each leg gains 0.5%. The Lund and Browder charts can also be used for children. Table I. Characteristics of burn wounds at different depths. Depth. History. Aetiology. Sensation. Appearance. Healing. Superficial. Momentary exposure ...

  12. Insulin and the Burned Patient (United States)


    Substrate mobilization by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis is similarly up- regulated in the face of high serum glu- cose (26). The complete mechanism of...Akt/PKB regulates skeletal muscle growth or loss, providing a link between insulin resistance and cat - abolic muscle wasting in burns (27). Other

  13. Antibiotics and the burn patient. (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard


    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece. (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O


    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  15. Respiratory symptoms in relation to residential coal burning and environmental tobacco smoke among early adolescents in Wuhan, China: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo Paivi; Xia Jiang; Johnson C Anderson; Li Yan; Kissling Grace; Avol Edward; Liu Chunhong; London Stephanie


    Seventh grade students from 22 randomly selected schools in the greater metropolitan area of Wuhan, China, completed an in-class self-administered questionnaire on their respiratory health and home environment. Results show that coal burning for cooking and/or heating increased odds of wheezing with colds and without colds. For smoking in the home, the strongest associations were seen for cough and phlegm production without colds among children who lived with two or more smokers. Chinese children living with smokers or in coal-burning homes are at increased risk for respiratory impairment. While economic development in China may decrease coal burning by providing cleaner fuels for household energy use, the increasing prevalence of cigarette smoking is a growing public health concern due to its effects on children. Adverse effects of tobacco smoke exposure were seen despite the low rates of maternal smoking (3.6%) in this population. 49 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Astronomical Constraints on Quantum Cold Dark Matter (United States)

    Spivey, Shane; Musielak, Z.; Fry, J.


    A model of quantum (`fuzzy') cold dark matter that accounts for both the halo core problem and the missing dwarf galaxies problem, which plague the usual cold dark matter paradigm, is developed. The model requires that a cold dark matter particle has a mass so small that its only allowed physical description is a quantum wave function. Each such particle in a galactic halo is bound to a gravitational potential that is created by luminous matter and by the halo itself, and the resulting wave function is described by a Schrödinger equation. To solve this equation on a galactic scale, we impose astronomical constraints that involve several density profiles used to fit data from simulations of dark matter galactic halos. The solutions to the Schrödinger equation are quantum waves which resemble the density profiles acquired from simulations, and they are used to determine the mass of the cold dark matter particle. The effects of adding certain types of baryonic matter to the halo, such as a dwarf elliptical galaxy or a supermassive black hole, are also discussed.

  17. Legal scenario in burn care in India


    Shah Atul


    Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen′s compensati...

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia in burns. (United States)

    Gang, R K; Bang, R L; Sanyal, S C; Mokaddas, E; Lari, A R


    Out of 1415 patients treated as inpatients at Al-Babtain Center for Burns and Plastic Surgery, Ibn Sina Hospital, Kuwait spanning over a period of 6 years from June 1992 to June 1998, 102 developed clinically and microbiologically proven septicaemia. Only 15 out of them had either single or multiple episodes of septicaemia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and were studied during their stay in the hospital. Five of them were males and 10 females, with a mean age of 26 years (range 3-51 years) and mean total body surface area of burns (TBSA) of 66% (range 25-90%). All of them had flame burns and resuscitation was found to be difficult in eight patients either due to delayed hospitalization or accompanied inhalation injury. Seven patients were intubated, four due to inhalation injury and three for septicaemic complications. Among the 15 patients under study, a total of 36 septicaemic episodes were detected of which 21 were due to P. aeruginosa. This organism was found in the first episodes in nine patients, in second episodes in six, in third episodes in three and fourth, fifth and sixth episodes in one patient, each at a variable postburn day. Ten patients had 38 sessions of excision and skin grafting, six of them survived. Nine of the 15 patients under study died due to septicaemia, but only six of them had P. aeruginosa as the last isolate. Except for one, all patients had > 40% TBSA burn, two had difficult resuscitation and four were intubated. The day of death varied between 3 to 52 days postburn (mean 19 days). This study showed that females with flame burns are susceptible to P. aeruginosa septicaemia. Difficult resuscitation and intubation also proved to be important risk factors. Septicaemia could occur quite early in the postburn days and the mortality due to this organism was quite high. Early excision and grafting with other effective management may result in a better outcome.

  19. How cold is it? TRPM8 and TRPA1 in the molecular logic of cold sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKemy David D


    Full Text Available Abstract Recognition of temperature is a critical element of sensory perception and allows us to evaluate both our external and internal environments. In vertebrates, the somatosensory system can discriminate discrete changes in ambient temperature, which activate nerve endings of primary afferent fibers. These thermosensitive nerves can be further segregated into those that detect either innocuous or noxious (painful temperatures; the latter neurons being nociceptors. We now know that thermosensitive afferents express ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP family that respond at distinct temperature thresholds, thus establishing the molecular basis for thermosensation. Much is known of those channels mediating the perception of noxious heat; however, those proposed to be involved in cool to noxious cold sensation, TRPM8 and TRPA1, have only recently been described. The former channel is a receptor for menthol, and links the sensations provided by this and other cooling compounds to temperature perception. While TRPM8 almost certainly performs a critical role in cold signaling, its part in nociception is still at issue. The latter channel, TRPA1, is activated by the pungent ingredients in mustard and cinnamon, but has also been postulated to mediate our perception of noxious cold temperatures. However, a number of conflicting reports have suggested that the role of this channel in cold sensation needs to be confirmed. Thus, the molecular logic for the perception of cold-evoked pain remains enigmatic. This review is intended to summarize our current understanding of these cold thermoreceptors, as well as address the current controversy regarding TRPA1 and cold signaling.

  20. The treatment of extensively burned patents and β irradiational injury skin burn patients with irradiated pigskin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhongyi; Lu Xingan; Jing Ling; Qi Qiang


    Obvious therapeutic effects achieved by the covering of irradiation sterilized pigskin on burn wounds, escarectomized 3rd degree burn wounds β injured burns are discussed. The article also describes the manufacture processes of irradiated pigskins and the selection of surgical treatments of various burns. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  2. Epidemiology of pediatric burns requiring hospitalization in China: a literature review of retrospective studies. (United States)

    Kai-Yang, Lv; Zhao-Fan, Xia; Luo-Man, Zhang; Yi-Tao, Jia; Tao, Tan; Wei, Wei; Bing, Ma; Jie, Xiong; Yu, Wang; Yu, Sun


    This review was an effort to systematically examine the nationwide data available on pediatric burns requiring hospitalization to reveal burn epidemiology and guide future education and prevention. The China Biomedical Disk Database, Chongqing VIP Database, and China Journal Full-Text Database were searched for articles reporting data on children and their burns from January 2000 through December 2005. Studies were included that systematically investigated the epidemiology of pediatric burns requiring hospitalization in China. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria, all of which were retrospective analyses. For each study included, 2 investigators independently abstracted the data related to the population description by using a standard form and included the percentage of patients with burn injury who were burn; anatomical sites of burn; severity of burn; and mortality and cause of death. These data were extracted, and a retrospective statistical description was performed with SPSS11.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Of the pediatric patients studied, the proportion of children with burn injury ranged from 22.50% to 54.66%, and the male/female ratio ranged from 1.25:1 to 4.42:1. The ratio of children aged 3 years was 0.19:1 to 4.18:1. The rural/urban ratio was 1.60:1 to 12.94:1. The ratio of those who were burned indoors versus outdoors was 1.62 to 17.00, and there were no effective hints on the distribution of seasons and anatomical sites of burn that could be found. The peak hours of pediatric burn were between 17:00 and 20:00. Most articles reported the sequence of reasons as hot liquid > flame > electricity > chemical, and scalding was, by far, the most predominant reason for burn. The majority of the studies reported the highest proportion involved in moderate burn, and the lowest proportion was for critical burn. The mortality rate ranged from 0.49% to 9.08%, and infection, shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome were the most common causes of

  3. Inducing Cold-Sensitivity in the Frigophilic Fly Drosophila montana by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M Vigoder

    Full Text Available Cold acclimation is a critical physiological adaptation for coping with seasonal cold. By increasing their cold tolerance individuals can remain active for longer at the onset of winter and can recover more quickly from a cold shock. In insects, despite many physiological studies, little is known about the genetic basis of cold acclimation. Recently, transcriptomic analyses in Drosophila virilis and D. montana revealed candidate genes for cold acclimation by identifying genes upregulated during exposure to cold. Here, we test the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (Inos, in cold tolerance in D. montana using an RNAi approach. D. montana has a circumpolar distribution and overwinters as an adult in northern latitudes with extreme cold. We assessed cold tolerance of dsRNA knock-down flies using two metrics: chill-coma recovery time (CCRT and mortality rate after cold acclimation. Injection of dsRNAInos did not alter CCRT, either overall or in interaction with the cold treatment, however it did induced cold-specific mortality, with high levels of mortality observed in injected flies acclimated at 5°C but not at 19°C. Overall, injection with dsRNAInos induced a temperature-sensitive mortality rate of over 60% in this normally cold-tolerant species. qPCR analysis confirmed that dsRNA injection successfully reduced gene expression of Inos. Thus, our results demonstrate the involvement of Inos in increasing cold tolerance in D. montana. The potential mechanisms involved by which Inos increases cold tolerance are also discussed.

  4. Local cooling does not prevent hyperalgesia following burn injury in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Pedersen, Juri L


    One of the oldest methods of pain relief following a burn injury is local application of ice or cold water. Experimental data indicate that cooling may also reduce the severity of tissue injury and promote wound healing, but there are no controlled studies in humans evaluating the anti......-inflammatory or anti-hyperalgesic potential of early cooling after thermal injury. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in this randomized, single-blinded study. Following baseline measurements, which included inflammatory variables (skin temperature, erythema index) and sensory variables (thermal...... and mechanical detection thresholds, thermal and mechanical pain responses, area of secondary hyperalgesia), first degree burn injuries were induced on both calves by contact thermodes (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 min). Eight minutes after the burn injury, contact thermodes (12.5 cm(2)) were again applied...

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica : Genes involved in cold-adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.L.J.


    It is known from the literature that: -The application of chilling as a means of food preservation has frequently resulted in food borne infections with psychrotrophic micro-organisms, such as Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila; - The injurious effect on

  6. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.


    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  7. Pattern of burns identified in the Pediatrics Emergency Department at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City: Riyadh. (United States)

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Al Mutairi, Mohammad; AlQueflie, Sulaiman; Nefesa, Aminah Bin; Manie, Najd Bin; Nafesa, Salahaldin Bin; Al Zahrani, Fawaz Saeed


    The objective of the study was to report the incidence of pediatric burn injuries and describe the pattern and the trend of pediatrics burns seen in King Abdul-Aziz Medical City. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data collected through chart review of pediatrics patients aged 1-month to 14 years who presented with a burn injury to the pediatric emergency department during the year 2013. Burn patients were divided into two groups based on the percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) burned: Either <10% or more than 10%. Variables were compared between the two groups to identify the risk factors associated with more than 10% body surface area involvement. Burn incidence rate was 4.9 patients/1000/year. Children with burns on more than 10% TBSA accounted for 16% incidence (0.8/1000 emergency department patients). The burn injury severity ranged from 1% TBSA to 37%, with a mean of 5%. The proportion of male and female burn patients was 54.1% and 45.9%, respectively. Children between 1 and 3 years of age sustained the majority (48.6%) of burn injuries. Scald burns were found to be the most common cause of injury. Hot water and beverages were considered root for most of the scald burn injuries. As children advance in age, scald injury becomes less likely, and they are more obviously subjected to flame burn injuries. Burn injuries sustained at home were 35% compared to 2.7% occurring outside the home. None of the study variables were good predictors for severe burn injuries affecting more than 10% TBSA. The incidence and the severity of burn injuries remain high at the national level. Burn injuries continue to affect the pediatric population, predominantly, young children, which indicate the need for increasing parent educational programs and government regulations. Because we reported scald burns as the most common causes of burn injury, which are consistent with previous national reports, we recommend having legislation that focuses on scald burn prevention.

  8. COLPEX - Cold Pool Experiment (United States)

    Wells, H.; Price, J.; Horlacher, V.; Sheridan, P. F.; Vosper, S. B.; Brown, A. R.; Mobbs, S. D.; Ross, A. N.


    Planning has started towards designing a new field campaign aimed at studying the behaviour of the boundary layer over complex terrain. Of specific interest is the formation of cold-pools in valleys during stable night-time conditions. The field campaign will run continuously until the end of the winter in 2009/10. The experiment will make use of a wide variety of ground-based sensors including turbulence towers, automatic weather stations, Doppler lidar, radiation sensors and soil temperature probes. We also hope to deploy an instrumented car and a tethered balloon facility for limited periods. Data from the field campaign will be used for a number of purposes. Firstly, to increase our understanding of how the valley cold pools form and why, for instance, some valleys offer a more favourable environment for their formation than others. Secondly, to investigate the formation and dissipation of fog in complex terrain. Thirdly, the data set will also be used to help validate and develop the Met Office Unified Model at high resolution. An area for the experiment has been identified in the Shropshire/Powis area of the UK where a network of valleys and low hills exist with a typical valley width of ~1.5km and hill top to valley floor heights of 75-200m. 0m.

  9. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten


    Full Text Available The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two burned area models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs and Earth system models (ESMs. We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic burned area modelling.

    We used 9 years of data (2000–2008 for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index, population density, and annual proportion of area burned derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on burning conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index.

    We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs, one with the full variable set (model VC and one considering only climate variables (model C. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone areas though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of burned area: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C. We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional

  10. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.


    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  11. Domestic bioethanol-fireplaces--a new source of severe burn accidents. (United States)

    Neubrech, Florian; Kiefer, Jurij; Schmidt, Volker J; Bigdeli, Amir K; Hernekamp, J Frederick; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Radu, Christian Andreas


    Bioethanol-fueled fireplaces are popular interior home decoration accessories. Although their safety is promoted frequently, actual presentations of severe burn injuries in our burn intensive care unit (ICU) have focused the authors on safety problems with these devices. In this article we want to explore the mechanisms for these accidents and state our experiences with this increasingly relevant risk for severe burn injuries. The computerized medical records of all burn intensive care patients in our burn unit between 2000 and 2014 were studied. Since 2010, 12 patients with bioethanol associated burn injuries were identified. Their data was compared to the values of all patients, except the ones injured by bioethanol fireplaces that presented themselves to our burn ICU between the years 2010 and 2014. At time of admission the bioethanol patients had a mean ABSI-score of 4.8 (+/- 2.2 standard deviation (SD)). A mean of 17 percent (+/- 9.1 SD) body surface area was burned. Involvement of face and hands was very common. An operative treatment was needed in 8 cases. A median of 20 days of hospitalization (range 3-121) and a median of 4.5 days on the ICU (range 1-64) were necessary. No patient died. In most cases the injuries happened while refilling or while starting the fire, even though safety instructions were followed. In the control group, consisting of 748 patients, the mean ABSI-score was 5.6 (+/- 2.7 SD). A mean of 16.5 percent (+/- 10.1 SD) body surface area was burned. Treatment required a median of 3 days on the burn ICU (range 1-120). Regarding these parameters, the burden of disease was comparable in both groups. Bioethanol-fueled fireplaces for interior home decoration are a potential source for severe burn accidents even by intended use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns (United States)

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.


    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  13. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S


    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  14. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  15. The NBT test in burned patients. (United States)

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R. J.


    The number of polymorphs which stained with the dye nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT "Positive") increased sharply during the first week after burning, reaching levels 4--5 times above values for healthy volunteers. In burns of more than 20% of the body surface a second, smaller increase in the number of NBT "positives" occurred 4 to 6 weeks after burning. The high levels of NBT "positive" polymorphs occurred independently of infection on the burns. A burned patient who died from septicaemia had very low numbers of NBT "positive" polymorphs for 3 weeks before death. PMID:444418

  16. RNA-Seq-based analysis of cold shock response in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, a bacterium harboring a single cold shock protein encoding gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cold shock responses and the roles of cold shock proteins in microorganisms containing multiple cold shock protein genes have been well characterized, related studies on bacteria possessing a single cold shock protein gene have not been reported. Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4, a thermophile harboring only one known cold shock protein gene (TtescpC, can survive from 50° to 80 °C, but has poor natural competence under cold shock at 50 °C. We therefore examined cold shock responses and their effect on natural competence in this bacterium. RESULTS: The transcriptomes of T. tengcongensis before and after cold shock were analyzed by RNA-seq and over 1200 differentially expressed genes were successfully identified. These genes were involved in a wide range of biological processes, including modulation of DNA replication, recombination, and repair; energy metabolism; production of cold shock protein; synthesis of branched amino acids and branched-chain fatty acids; and sporulation. RNA-seq analysis also suggested that T. tengcongensis initiates cell wall and membrane remodeling processes, flagellar assembly, and sporulation in response to low temperature. Expression profiles of TtecspC and failed attempts to produce a TtecspC knockout strain confirmed the essential role of TteCspC in the cold shock response, and also suggested a role of this protein in survival at optimum growth temperature. Repression of genes encoding ComEA and ComEC and low energy metabolism levels in cold-shocked cells are the likely basis of poor natural competence at low temperature. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated changes in global gene expression under cold shock and identified several candidate genes related to cold shock in T. tengcongensis. At the same time, the relationship between cold shock response and poor natural competence at low temperature was preliminarily elucidated. These findings provide a foundation for future studies on genetic

  17. Two key temporally distinguishable molecular and cellular components of white adipose tissue browning during cold acclimation. (United States)

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Golic, Igor; Markelic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato


    White to brown adipose tissue conversion and thermogenesis can be ignited by different conditions or agents and its sustainability over the long term is still unclear. Browning of rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rpWAT) during cold acclimation involves two temporally apparent components: (1) a predominant non-selective browning of most adipocytes and an initial sharp but transient induction of uncoupling protein 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α, PPARγ and PPARα expression, and (2) the subsistence of relatively few thermogenically competent adipocytes after 45 days of cold acclimation. The different behaviours of two rpWAT beige/brown adipocyte subsets control temporal aspects of the browning process, and thus regulation of both components may influence body weight and the potential successfulness of anti-obesity therapies. Conversion of white into brown adipose tissue may have important implications in obesity resistance and treatment. Several browning agents or conditions ignite thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). To reveal the capacity of WAT to function in a brownish/burning mode over the long term, we investigated the progression of the rat retroperitoneal WAT (rpWAT) browning during 45 days of cold acclimation. During the early stages of cold acclimation, the majority of rpWAT adipocytes underwent multilocularization and thermogenic-profile induction, as demonstrated by the presence of a multitude of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-immunopositive paucilocular adipocytes containing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) in their nuclei. After 45 days, all adipocytes remained PRDM16 immunopositive, but only a few multilocular adipocytes rich in mitochondria remained UCP1/PGC-1α immunopositive. Molecular evidence showed that thermogenic recruitment of rpWAT occurred following cold exposure, but returned to starting levels after cold

  18. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations. (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard


    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009 (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  20. [Burns care following a nuclear incident]. (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T


    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries.

  1. Method for burning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Akinori; Tejima, Takaya.


    Purpose: To completely process less combustible radioactive wastes with no excess loads on discharge gas processing systems and without causing corrosions to furnace walls. Method: Among combustible radioactive wastes, chlorine-containing less combustible wastes such as chlorine-containing rubbers and vinyl chlorides, and highly heat generating wastes not containing chloride such as polyethylene are selectively packed into packages. While on the other hand, packages of less combustible wastes are charged into a water-cooled jacket type incinerator intermittently while controlling the amount and the interval of charging so that the temperature in the furnace will be kept to lower than 850 deg C for burning treatment. Directly after the completion of the burning, the packed highly heat calorie producing wastes are charged and subjected to combustion treatment. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Burned forests impact water supplies. (United States)

    Hallema, Dennis W; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V; Norman, Steven P; Cohen, Erika C; Liu, Yongqiang; Bladon, Kevin D; McNulty, Steven G


    Wildland fire impacts on surface freshwater resources have not previously been measured, nor factored into regional water management strategies. But, large wildland fires are increasing and raise concerns about fire impacts on potable water. Here we synthesize long-term records of wildland fire, climate, and river flow for 168 locations across the United States. We show that annual river flow changed in 32 locations, where more than 19% of the basin area was burned. Wildland fires enhanced annual river flow in the western regions with a warm temperate or humid continental climate. Wildland fires increased annual river flow most in the semi-arid Lower Colorado region, in spite of frequent droughts in this region. In contrast, prescribed burns in the subtropical Southeast did not significantly alter river flow. These extremely variable outcomes offer new insights into the potential role of wildfire and prescribed fire in regional water resource management, under a changing climate.

  3. Candidemia in major burns patients. (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier


    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Civilian blast-related burn injuries. (United States)

    Patel, J N; Tan, A; Dziewulski, P


    There is limited English literature describing the experience of a civilian hospital managing blast-related burn injuries. As the largest regional burn unit, we reviewed our cases with the aim of identifying means to improve current management. A 6-year retrospective analysis of all patients coded as sustaining blast-related burns was conducted through the unit's burns database. Medical case notes were reviewed for information on burn demographics, management and outcomes. 42 patients were identified. Male to female ratio was 37:5. Age range was 12-84 years, (mean=33 years). Total body surface area (%TBSA) burn ranged from 0.25% to 60%, (median=1%). The most common burn injury was flame (31/42, 73.8%). Gas explosions were the most common mechanism of injury (19 cases; 45.2%). 7/42 cases (16.7%) had full ATLS management pre-transfer to the burns unit. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 0-43 (median=2). 17/42 (40.4%) patients required admission. 37/36 (88.1%) patients were managed conservatively of which 1 patient later required surgery due to deeper burns. 5/42 (11.9%) patients required surgical management at presentation and these were noted to be burns with >15% TBSA requiring resuscitation. One case required emergency escharotomies and finger amputations. All patients survived their burn injuries. Blast-related burn injuries are generally uncommon in the civilian setting. Following proper assessment, most of these cases can be deemed as minor injuries and managed conservatively. Improvement in burns management education and training at local emergency departments would provide efficient patient care and avoid unnecessary referrals to a burns unit.

  5. Radioactive implications from coal burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Manolopoulou, M.; Charalambous, S.


    Lignites burning in the Greek Coal Power Plants (CPP) contain naturally occurring radionuclides mainly arising from the uranium series. Radium-226 concentrations in lignites burning in the three Coal Power Plants of the 3.02 GW energy centre, the greatest in Greece (Valley of Ptolemais, North Greece), varied from about 30 to 132 Bq kg -1 (average 65.5 Bq kg -1 . About 1.3 % of 226 Ra is discharged to the environment in particulate form - fly ash - by the stacks of thermal power stations, burning coal at a rate 14.3 Mt (GH y) -1 . The collective effective dose equivalent (EDE) commitment to the population 44400 living in the region of these plants, due to inhalation was estimated to be 0.13 man Sv y -1 , that is an order of magnitude higher than that recommended for such a population. Doses from inhaled radon and radon progeny might cause an excess of 3-7 cancer deaths this year. (author)

  6. The Role of a Burn Research Coordinator: A Guide for Novice Coordinators. (United States)

    Honari, Shari; Caceres, Maria; Romo, Mariana; Gibran, Nicole S; Gamelli, Richard L


    As health-care complexity and costs increase, evidence-based research has become essential to the advancement of burn care. Multicenter trials involve procedures, regulations, and guidelines that require meticulous attention to details and strict adherence to compliance issues. Taking on a large, multicenter trial can be a daunting task for a new burn research coordinator. The purpose of this article is to provide a resource for new burn research coordinators in multicenter clinical trial planning, especially in the field of burns. The burn research coordinator must possess organizational and multitasking skills, attention to detail, professionalism, initiative, and motivation. The burn research coordinator must exercise five principles of practice: compliance, confidentiality, consistency and correctness, and collaboration. Compliance assures subject safety, study integrity, and burn center reputation. Confidentiality is essential, especially when handling sensitive health information. Maintaining subject privacy through secure links and destruction of linked data in a timely matter protects the subjects and complies with the regulations of many governing bodies. Consistency and correctness minimize human errors through continuous data validation and self-auditing and peer auditing. Collaboration between the Principal Investigator/burn research coordinator and all departments involved in the study maintains the study focus and allows for enforcement of procedures. Preparing a budget confirms adequate compensation for work done by the research team and can be broken down into the following five steps: protocol review, calculation of initial payment, establishment of indirect costs, calculation of direct costs, and budget negotiation. Over time, one becomes familiar with the details involved with study success. Advocating for subject safety and protocol adherence are of highest priority. Study design is the most important element that dictates the success of the

  7. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns. (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A


    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  8. Burns in Israel, comparative study: Demographic, etiologic and clinical trends 1997-2003 vs. 2004-2010. (United States)

    Harats, M; Peleg, K; Givon, A; Kornhaber, R; Goder, M; Jaeger, M; Haik, J


    To review hospitalised burn patients from 2004 to 2010 admitted to Israeli burn units and compare these result with data from 1997 to 2003. Retrospectively, data was collected from the Israeli Trauma Registry (ITR) encompassing all burn admissions to Israeli burn units from 2004-2010 and compared to 1997-2003. Of the 5269 burn patients admitted from 2004 to 2010, 39.8% were non-Jewish. Infants under two years were the prominent age group (24.1%). Second to third degree burns 1-9% TBSA/first degree burns were 71%, second to third degree burns 10-19% TBSA were 16% and those 20%>TBSA consisted of 13%. Only 2.7% involved an inhalation injury. The average length of stay was 11.67 days and mortality rate 3.72%. All data was compared to the previous year's 1997-2003 and trends were identified. Within Israel, high risk populations remain infants under two years of age, males and those from non-Jewish populations. National prevention strategies and campaigns are warranted to inform and educated parents of young children and those at risk of burns. Of note, advances in burn care and procedures might have contributed to a decrease in the length of hospital stay (LOS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring the vaccine cold chain.


    Cheriyan, E


    Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunisation programme. A continuous electronic temperature monitor helped to identify breaks in the cold chain in the community and the study led to the issue of proper guidelines and replacement of faulty equipment.

  10. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de


    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  11. LS1 Report: A cold, cold summer

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    The cooling of the LHC is advancing quickly, with the second sector having now reached 200 K (about -73°C). By the end of the summer, four of the sectors will have been cooled. To achieve this, trucks carrying around 20 tonnes of nitrogen each are clocking up the miles to bring the cryogenic liquid to CERN. When the whole process is complete, almost four times the mass of the Eiffel Tower will have been cooled, using more than 10,000 tonnes of nitrogen and 140 tonnes of helium.   Liquid nitrogen, arriving to CERN on trucks, is injected into exchangers that pre-cool the helium flow used to cool the magnets. Cooling a sector (about 3 kilometres long) of the LHC is a fairly complex operation involving several stages. This summer, for the first time, the first two sectors will be cooled to 20 K (and not directly to the nominal temperature of 1.9 K) and will be maintained at this temperature for two weeks. “This plateau is necessary to allow the teams to carry out check...

  12. Analysis of rugae in burn victims and cadavers to simulate rugae identification in cases of incineration and decomposition. (United States)

    Muthusubramanian, M; Limson, K S; Julian, R


    The most challenging situations in Forensic Odonto-Stomatology are mass disasters, where the forensic dentist is usually confronted with charred human remains or heavily decomposed or fragmented bodies. This article determines the extent of preservation of palatal rugae for use as an alternative identification tool in such situations, using a study group comprising burn victims and cadavers simulating forensic cases of incineration and decomposition. The thermal effects and the decomposition changes on the palatal rugae of burn victims with panfacial third degree burns and human cadavers in storage were respectively assessed and graded on a new scale. Ninety three percent of burn victims and 77% of human cadavers had Grade 0 changes (normal). When changes were noted, they were less pronounced than the generalized body involvement of burns in burn victims and the generalized body decomposition of human cadavers.

  13. The QSE-Reduced Network for Silicon Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parete-Koon, Suzanne T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hix, William Raphael [ORNL; Freiburghaus, Christian [Universitat Basel, Switzerland; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl W. [Universitat Basel, Switzerland


    Iron and neighboring nuclei are formed in massive stars before core collapse and during supernova outbursts. Complete and incomplete silicon burning is responsible for the production of a wide range of nuclei with atomic mass numbers from 28 to 70. Because of the large number of nuclei involved, accurate modeling of silicon burning is computationally expensive. Examination of the physics of silicon burning reveals that the nuclear evolution is dominated by large groups of nuclei in mutual equilibrium. We present a hybrid equilibrium scheme, which takes advantage of this quasi-equilibrium (QSE) in order to reduce the number of independent variables calculated. This allows accurate prediction of the nuclear abundance evolution, deleptionization, and energy generation. During silicon burning the QSE-reduced network runs about an order of magnitude faster than the full network that it replaces and requires roughly a third as many variables without a significant loss of accuracy. These reductions in computational cost make the QSE-reduced network well suited for inclusion within hydrodynamic simulations, particularly in multi-dimensional applications.

  14. The QSE-reduced Nuclear Reaction Network for Silicon Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hix, William Raphael [ORNL; Parete-Koon, Suzanne T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Freiburghaus, Christian [Universitat Basel, Switzerland; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl W. [Universitat Basel, Switzerland


    Iron and neighboring nuclei are formed in massive stars shortly before core collapse and during their supernova outbursts as well as during thermonuclear supernovae. Complete and incomplete silicon burning are responsible for the production of a wide range of nuclei with atomic mass numbers from 28 to 64. Because of the large number of nuclei involved, accurate modeling of silicon burning is computationally expensive. However, examination of the physics of silicon burning has revealed that the nuclear evolution is dominated by large groups of nuclei in mutual equilibrium. We present a new hybrid equilibrium network scheme which takes advantage of this quasi-equilibrium in order to reduce the number of independent variables calculated. This allows accurate prediction of the nuclear abundance evolution, deleptonization, and energy generation at a greatly reduced computational cost when compared to a conventional nuclear reaction network. During silicon burning, the resultant QSE-reduced network is approximately an order of magnitude faster than the full network it replaces and requires the tracking of less than a third as many abundance variables, without significant loss of accuracy. These reductions in computational cost and the number of species evolved make QSE-reduced networks well suited for inclusion within hydrodynamic simulations, particularly in multi-dimensional applications.

  15. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept (United States)

    Menikoff, R.; Shaw, M. S.

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i) the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t) = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps) = [Nbc(Ps)]-1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t) = ∫t0 D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P) is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  16. Outcomes of Geriatric Burns Treated as Outpatients. (United States)

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke


    Most literature about geriatric burns has focused on inpatient management; therefore, our study investigated the effects of burn characteristics and preexisting medical comorbidities on treatment outcomes for geriatric burn patients treated as outpatients. A retrospective review was conducted for 391 patients over 65 years of age seen in the emergency department of Fukui Prefectural Hospital over a 10-year period. Charts were reviewed for age, sex, burn characteristics, burn mechanisms, preexisting medical comorbidities, and treatment outcomes. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between outcomes of outpatients and comorbidities, which were calculated by the Charlson comorbidity index. Seventy-three patients aged 65 years and older were treated as outpatients at Fukui Prefectural Hospital. The majority (80%) of these patients had burns on less than 5% of their total body surface area. Scald burns accounted for 63% of burn mechanisms, with burns to the lower extremities being the most frequent. The mean percentage of total burn surface area was 4% in the outpatient group and 28% for the inpatient group. The mean time to healing was 24.3 days in outpatients. Of the 73 outpatients, 17 (23%) showed delayed healing. Of these 17 patients, 3 patients experienced wound infection and 2 patients had documented hypertrophic scarring. Four patients ultimately underwent excision and grafting. The common preexisting medical comorbidities in the outpatient group were congestive heart failure and diabetic mellitus. There were no significant differences for medical comorbidities between outpatients and inpatients. The Charlson comorbidity index for outpatients with delayed healing was higher than that for those without delayed healing. The Charlson comorbidity index was associated with delayed healing of outpatients, but age or total burn surface area were not. The characteristics of geriatric burn outpatients were distinct from those of inpatients

  17. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ferreira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision.CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision.COMMENTS: Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up.

  18. The big chill: interpersonal coldness and emotion-labeling skills. (United States)

    Moeller, Sara K; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Hanson, Devin M


    Interpersonally cold (relative to warm) individuals may be less skilled in inferring the emotional states of others, a factor that should contribute to their poorer social relationships. Systematic support for this hypothesis was obtained in 4 studies (total N = 434 undergraduates) involving diverse emotion- and affect-decoding tasks. Specifically, relatively cold individuals exhibited lower accuracy in decoding emotional facial expressions (Study 1), in labeling the emotions of others from audio and video clips (Study 2), in predicting the emotions of others from social scenario descriptions (Study 3), and in the normative accuracy of their word evaluations (Study 4). Altogether, the results demonstrate that cold individuals appear broadly deficient in linking emotion and affect to relevant environmental stimuli. Implications of the findings for understanding the nature and correlates of interpersonal coldness are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Design and safety aspects of the Cornell cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellet, Carol G.; Clark, David D.


    The cold neutron beam facility at the Cornell University TRIGA Mark II reactor will begin operational testing in early 1993. It is designed to provide a low background subthermal neutron beam that is as free as possible of fast neutrons and gamma rays for applied research and graduate-level instruction. The Cornell cold neutron source differs from the more conventional types of cold sources in that it is inherently safer because it uses a safe handling material (mesitylene) as the moderator instead of hydrogen or methane, avoids the circulation of cryogenic fluids by removing heat from the system by conduction through a 99.99% pure copper rod attached to a cryogenic refrigerator, and is much smaller in its size and loads. The design details and potential hazards are described, where it is concluded that no credible accident involving the cold source could cause damage to the reactor or personnel, or cause release of radioactivity. (author)

  20. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK


    Full Text Available Ever since man invented fire he has been more frequently burning himself by this creation than by the naturally occurring bushfires. It is estimated that over 1.152 million people in India suffer from burn injuries requiring treatment every year and majority of them are women aged between 16-40 years and most of them occur in the kitchen. The treatment for burns basically involves autologous skin grafting, which originated in India more than two thousand years ago (Sushruta Samhita, is still the gold standard for the wound resurfacing, although, autografting is difficult where graftable donor sites are limited. Although, Cadaver skin, porcine or bovine xenografts are used alternatively over the past thirty years, modern approaches like the Bioengineering of skin substitutes emerged during the past 20 years as advanced wound management technologies with no social impediment. They can be broadly categorized as Acellular and Cellular biotechnological products. The acellular products like Alloderm (LifeCell Corporation, Integra (Integra Life Sciences act like template and depend on natural regeneration, while the cellular ones are either ‘Off-the-Shelf’ products like Apligraf (Organogenesis Inc and Orcel (Ortec International have allogenic elements and ‘home grown’ autologous cell products like Cultured Epithelial Autograft (CEA and epidermal-dermal composite skin use synthetic or natural non-human matrices. The CEA is based on the ex-vivo epidermal stem cell-expansion and our laboratory has been engaged in CEA technique development with innovative cost-effective approach and yielded promising preliminary clinical success. The basic methodological approach in CEA technique which is still clinically adopted by several developed countries involves the use of growth arrested mouse dermal fibroblasts as growth supportive matrix and is thus considered a drawback as a whole. Additionally, there is no superior enough method available to augment the

  1. Satellite Contributions to the Quantitative Characterization of Biomass Burning for Climate Modeling (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kahn, Ralph; Chin, Mian


    Characterization of biomass burning from space has been the subject of an extensive body of literature published over the last few decades. Given the importance of this topic, we review how satellite observations contribute toward improving the representation of biomass burning quantitatively in climate and air-quality modeling and assessment. Satellite observations related to biomass burning may be classified into five broad categories: (i) active fire location and energy release, (ii) burned areas and burn severity, (iii) smoke plume physical disposition, (iv) aerosol distribution and particle properties, and (v) trace gas concentrations. Each of these categories involves multiple parameters used in characterizing specific aspects of the biomass-burning phenomenon. Some of the parameters are merely qualitative, whereas others are quantitative, although all are essential for improving the scientific understanding of the overall distribution (both spatial and temporal) and impacts of biomass burning. Some of the qualitative satellite datasets, such as fire locations, aerosol index, and gas estimates have fairly long-term records. They date back as far as the 1970s, following the launches of the DMSP, Landsat, NOAA, and Nimbus series of earth observation satellites. Although there were additional satellite launches in the 1980s and 1990s, space-based retrieval of quantitative biomass burning data products began in earnest following the launch of Terra in December 1999. Starting in 2000, fire radiative power, aerosol optical thickness and particle properties over land, smoke plume injection height and profile, and essential trace gas concentrations at improved resolutions became available. The 2000s also saw a large list of other new satellite launches, including Aqua, Aura, Envisat, Parasol, and CALIPSO, carrying a host of sophisticated instruments providing high quality measurements of parameters related to biomass burning and other phenomena. These improved data

  2. Burns (United States)

    ... equipment Unsafe use of firecrackers and other fireworks Kitchen accidents, such as a child grabbing a hot ... Do NOT apply ointment, butter, ice, medicines, cream, oil spray, or any household remedy to a severe ...

  3. Burn injuries and adolescents in Israel. (United States)

    Morad, Mohammed; Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Kandel, Isack; Hyam, Eytan; Merrick, Joav


    Burn injury is a public health concern often associated with individual pain, emotional stress, prolonged hospitalizations, permanent disfigurement and family stress. In this paper we studied the avaliable data on burn injury among adolescents in Israel through a Medline search and found three relevant studies with data on this population. The incidence rate of burn injury was 0.46 per 1,000 children aged 5-14 years for Jews and 0.91 for Bedouin. Most of the burn injury in this age group was caused by hot liquids, followed by fire and chemical burns for both Jews and Bedouin, but electical burns occurred more often in Bedouins. Mortality was very low for the adolescent group. Prevention programs in schools since the 1980s have been found effective, but the public health focus should now be geared towards groups at risk.

  4. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr......) a depression of leukocytes in the peripheral blood was found of the burned mice. This depression was due to a reduction in the polymorphonuclear cells. The burned mice were not able to clear a Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection, since the infection spread to the blood as compared to mice only infected...... with P. aeruginosa subcutaneously. The burn model offers an opportunity to study infections under these conditions. The present model can also be used to examine new antibiotics and immune therapy. Our animal model resembling the clinical situation is useful in developing new treatments of burn wound...

  5. Training and burn care in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamania Shobha


    Full Text Available Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention.

  6. Intracompartmental Sepsis With Burn: A Case Report. (United States)

    Chou, Chieh; Lee, Su-shin; Wang, Hui-Min; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Lee, Hsiao-Chen; Chang, Chih-Hau; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lin, Sin-Daw; Huang, Shu-Hung


    Intracompartmental sepsis (IS) is a rare complication in patients with burns. Intracompartmental sepsis presents in patients with inadequate perfusion of intracompartmental tissues and subsequent ischemic necrosis and infection. Contributing factors include high-volume resuscitation, delayed escharotomies, and previous bacteremia. We describe a case of massive burns from a gas explosion and the subsequent development of IS in our intensive care burn unit. The patient presented with a 75% total body surface area burn on admission, with 39% superficial, deep partial-thickness and 26% full-thickness burns. Intracompartmental sepsis was diagnosed 45 days after admission. Anterior compartment muscles, including the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus, were necrotic with relatively fair nerve and vascular structures. Intracompartmental sepsis is an overwhelming, infectious complication that appears late and can occur easily in patients with major burns. Early diagnosis and management are a must for improving outcomes.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of the cold response and signaling pathways in Lilium lancifolium. (United States)

    Wang, Jingmao; Yang, Yang; Liu, Xiaohua; Huang, Jie; Wang, Qing; Gu, Jiahui; Lu, Yingmin


    Lilium lancifolium, a very important cold-resistant wild flower for lily cold resistance breeding, is widely distributed in southwestern and northeastern China. To gain a better understanding of the cold signaling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the cold response, we performed a genome-wide transcriptional analysis using RNA-Seq. Approximately 104,703 million clean 90- bp paired-end reads were obtained from three libraries (CK 0 h, Cold-treated 2 h and 16 h at 4 °C); 18,736 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot protein database, and 15,898, 13,705 and 1849 unigenes aligned to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases (comprising 25 COG categories) and formed 12 SOM clusters, respectively. Based on qRT-PCR results, we studied three signal regulation pathways--the Ca(2+) and ABA independent/dependent pathways--that conduct cold signals to signal transduction genes such as LlICE and LlCDPK and transcription factor genes such as LlDREB1/CBF, LlAP2/EREBP, LlNAC1, LlR2R3-MYB and LlBZIP, which were expressed highly in bulb. LlFAD3, Llβ-amylase, LlP5CS and LlCLS responded to cold and enhanced adaptation processes that involve changes in the expression of transcripts related to cellular osmoprotectants and carbohydrate metabolism during cold stress. Our study of differentially expressed genes involved in cold-related metabolic pathways and transcription factors facilitated the discovery of cold-resistance genes and the cold signal transcriptional networks, and identified potential key components in the regulation of the cold response in L lancifolium, which will be most beneficial for further research and in-depth exploration of cold-resistance breeding candidate genes in lily.

  8. Phosphoproteome profiling for cold temperature perception. (United States)

    Park, Seyeon; Jang, Mi


    Temperature sensation initiates from the activation of cellular receptors when the cell is exposed to a decrease in temperature. Here, we applied a phosphoproteome profiling approach to the human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B to elucidate cellular cold-responsive processes. The primary aim of this study was to determine which intracellular changes of phosphorylation are accompanied by cold sensation. Eighteen protein spots that exhibited differentially phosphorylated changes in cells were identified. Most of the proteins that were phosphorylated after 5 or 10 min were returned to control levels after 30 or 60 min. Identified proteins were mainly RNA-related (i.e., they were involved in RNA binding and splicing). Temperature (18 and 10°C) stimuli showed homologies that were detected for time course changes in phosphoproteome. The data indicated a time-shift between two temperatures. The phosphorylation of putative cold responsive markers, such as ribosomal protein large P0 and heterochromatin-associated proteins 1, were verified by Western blotting in cells transfected with TRPM8 or TRPA1. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Extracorporeal Blood Purification in Burns: A Review (United States)


    during the first week after the burn injury [18,19]. Enhanced catabolism and metabolism , which have an important impact on prolonged morbidity and...shock and endotoxemia will be examined. The primary outcome measure is 28 day mortality, while secondary outcomes include 90 day, 6 month, and 12...the setting of burn injury [39,40]. Therefore, polymyxin B columns could be a therapeutic option in burn patients with endotoxemia . Peng et al

  10. Pediatric Burns and Characteristics in Konya Region


    GÜNDÜZ, Metin


    Objective: Weevaluated the etiology factors ant treatment modalities of pediatricburns MaterialMethod:Thisretrospective study was carried out using data from Konya Educationand Research Hospital Burn Unit. Patients those admitted to ourhopital between September 2013- April2014 were evaluated.Results:Clinical data, including age and sex of the patient, depth of burninjury, TBSA (total body surface area) burned %, etiology of burn andtreatement were evaluated. The 48 study subjects included 26 ...

  11. Total intravenous anesthesia for major burn surgery


    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M


    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a t...

  12. Cheiloplasty in Post-burn Deformed Lips


    Saadeldeen, W.M.


    The lip is a part of the face that is frequently affected by burn injury. Post-burn scar sequelae in this area often result in cosmetic disfigurement and psychological upsets in patients, especially young adult females. A burn destroys the aesthetic features and lines of the lip. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the face has a long history. Many local and regional flaps have been used for reconstruction of surgical or traumatic defects. Procedures to enhance the cosmetic features of the ...

  13. Inappropriate Vasopressin Secretion (SIADH) in Burned Patients (United States)


    reportedly elevated in burned patients (12). Because further dilution of plasma, with a fall in urine concentra- of increased gluconeogenesis , burned patients... dogs , apparently through alterations seen in burned patients, tachycardia does not explain the in AVP secretion (24). Hypothyroidism is associated with...806, 27. Spielman, W.S., Davis. J.O., Gotshall, R.W.: Hypersecretion of 1967. renin in dogs with a chronic aorto-caval fistula and high-output 5

  14. Initial Burn Pan (JMTF) Testing Results (United States)


    Accession Number 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Initial Burn Pan (JMTF) Testing Results 5. Report Date March 2016 6...trough is filled with water to provide cooling of the fire pan walls. Figure 4 shows the interior of the refurbished burn pan. There are a number of...first test (static burn of 378 liters (100 gallons) of diesel), was used to calculate the fuel regression based on the fuel depth prior to the fire and

  15. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.


    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options

  16. Cold fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akihito.


    A Pt wire electrode is supported from the periphery relative to a Pd electrode by way of a polyethylene or teflon plate in heavy water, and electrolysis is applied while varying conditions successively in a sawteeth fashion at an initial stage, and after elapse of about one week, a pulse current is supplied to promote nuclear reaction and to generate excess heat greater than a charged electric power. That is, small amount of neutron emission is increased and electrolytic cell temperature is elevated by varying the electrolysis conditions successively in the sawteeth fashion at the initial stage. In addition, when the pulse electric current is supplied after elapse of about one week, the electrolytic cell temperature is abnormally elevated, so that the promotion of nuclear reaction phenomenon and the generation of excess heat greater than the charged electric power are recognized. Then, a way to control power level and time fluctuation of cold fusion is attained, thereby contributing to development of a further method for generating excess heat as desired. In addition, it contributes to a development for a method of obtaining such an excess heat that can be taken as a new energy. (N.H.)

  17. Cold Rydberg molecules (United States)

    Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming


    Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers at the interface of atomic and molecular physics. These include research on novel types of Rydberg molecules. Three types of molecules will be reviewed. Long-range, homonuclear Rydberg molecules, first predicted in [1] and observed in [2], are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a ground-state atom within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S- and P-wave triplet scattering. We use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom (in rubidium [3]). The hyperfine structure gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials for both low-L and high-L Rydberg molecules [3]. A classification into Hund's cases [3, 4, 5] will be discussed. The talk further includes results on adiabatic potentials and adiabatic states of Rydberg-Rydberg molecules in Rb and Cs. These molecules, which have even larger bonding length than Rydberg-ground molecules, are formed via electrostatic multipole interactions. The leading interaction term of neutral Rydberg-Rydberg molecules is between two dipoles, while for ionic Rydberg molecules it is between a dipole and a monopole. NSF (PHY-1506093), NNSF of China (61475123).

  18. Legal scenario in burn care in India. (United States)

    Shah, Atul Kumar


    Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen's compensation act, Persons with disabilities act and guidelines for calculation of physical impairments are listed.

  19. Legal scenario in burn care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Atul


    Full Text Available Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen′s compensation act, Persons with disabilities act and guidelines for calculation of physical impairments are listed.

  20. High burn rate solid composite propellants (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  1. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  2. Special considerations in hazardous materials burns. (United States)

    Robinett, D Adam; Shelton, Benjamin; Dyer, K Sophia


    Those practicing Emergency Medicine are frequently faced with a patient presenting with a chemical burn. Most dermal chemical burns are minor and do not require specialized treatment. Occasionally, however, the clinician may be in the position of responding to a chemical burn in which standard therapy of irrigation and good wound care may not be sufficient or, at worst, contraindicated. Several burn conditions will be reviewed, some of those requiring only specific decontamination techniques, as in hot tar, others posing special hazards to clinicians, as in elemental metals, and finally, examples are given of hazardous materials requiring attention to systemic effects, as in hydrofluoric acid. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)


    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  4. Graphical Calculation of Estimated Energy Expenditure in Burn Patients. (United States)

    Egro, Francesco M; Manders, Ernest C; Manders, Ernest K


    Historically, estimated energy expenditure (EEE) has been related to the percent of body surface area burned. Subsequent evaluations of these estimates have indicated that the earlier formulas may overestimate the amount of caloric support necessary for burn-injured patients. Ireton-Jones et al derived 2 equations for determining the EEE required to support burn patients, 1 for ventilator-dependent patients and 1 for spontaneously breathing patients. Evidence has proved their reliability, but they remain challenging to apply in a clinical setting given the difficult and cumbersome mathematics involved. This study aims to introduce a graphical calculation of EEE in burn patients that can be easily used in the clinical setting. The multivariant linear regression analysis from Ireton-Jones et al yielded equations that were rearranged into the form of a simple linear equation of the type y = mx + b. By choosing an energy expenditure and the age of the subject, the weight was calculated. The endpoints were then calculated, and a graph was mapped by means of Adobe FrameMaker. A graphical representation of Ireton-Jones et al's equations was obtained by plotting the weight (kg) on the y axis, the age (years) on the x axis, and a series of parallel lines representing the EEE in burn patients. The EEE has been displayed graphically on a grid to allow rapid determination of the EEE needed for a given patient of a designated weight and age. Two graphs were plotted: 1 for ventilator-dependent patients and 1 for spontaneously breathing patients. Correction factors for sex, the presence of additional trauma, and obesity are indicated on the graphical calculators. We propose a graphical tool to calculate caloric requirements in a fast, easy, and portable manner.

  5. Are parents in the UK equipped to provide adequate burns first aid? (United States)

    Graham, Hamish E; Bache, Sarah E; Muthayya, Preetha; Baker, Julie; Ralston, David R


    Simple first aid following a burn injury has been shown to improve outcome. With this in mind, a prospective study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of burns first aid amongst parents in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. This information was used to identify which aspects of burn first aid need to be highlighted in an education campaign and who the target audience should be. A simple mnemonic is suggested to assist parental education on the topic. Parents attending outpatient clinics at Sheffield Children's Hospital were interviewed and asked about the first aid they would provide for a child with a large scald. Removal of hot clothes and jewellery; application of cold water for 10-20 min; obtaining medical advice; and covering the burn with a plastic film or clean cloth were all considered to be ideal responses. Variations in responses in relation to the age and ethnicity of the parent were noted. One hundred and eighty eight parents were included in the questionnaire. Of these, 81% (n=152) were white British and 20% (n=36) were from other ethnic groups. Only 10% (n=18) of all respondent would give all the ideal first aid steps. Less than 40% (n=73) of parents questioned would remove hot clothes and jewellery. There was no significant difference in responses between ethnic groups when assessing knowledge of the need to remove hot soaked clothing. Although 73% (n=137) of parents would run the burn under cool water, only 35% (n=66) would cool the burn for an adequate length of time. White British parents were significantly more likely to run cool water over the burn, and to continue this for the recommended 10-20 min. Whilst 88% (n=165) of parents would seek medical attention, this was significantly less in parents under 20 years old. Finally, 92% (n=173) of parents would protect the wound with appropriate dressings, but of note, 26% (n=9) of parents from minority ethnic groups would potentially impair burn healing by using inappropriate dressings and topical

  6. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen


    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  7. Vegetation burning in the year 2000: Global burned area estimates from SPOT VEGETATION data


    Tansey, Kevin; Grégoire, Jean-Marie; Stroppiana, Daniela; Sousa, Adélia; Silva, Joao; Pereira, José; Boschetti, Luigi; Maggi, Marta; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Fraser, Robert; Flasse, Stéphane; Ershov, Dmitry; Binaghi, Elisabetta; Graetz, Dean; Peduzzi, Pascal


    The scientific community interested in atmospheric chemistry, gas emissions from vegetation fires, and carbon cycling is currently demanding information on the extent and timing of biomass burning at the global scale. In fact, the area and type of vegetation that is burned on a monthly or annual basis are two of the parameters that provide the greatest uncertainty in the calculation of gas and aerosol emissions and burned biomass. To address this need, an inventory of burned areas at monthly ...

  8. Vegetation burning in the year 2000: global burned area estimates from SPOT VEGETATION data.


    Tansey, Kevin; Grégoire, Jean-Marie; Stroppiana, Daniela; Sousa, Adélia; Pereira, José; Boschetti, Luigi; Maggi, Marta; Brivio, Pietro; Fraser, Robert; Flasse, Stéphane; Ershov, Dmitry; Binaghi, Elisabetta; Graetz, Dean; Peduzzi, Pascal


    The scientific community interested in atmospheric chemistry, gas emissions from vegetation fires, and carbon cycling is currently demanding information on the extent and timing of biomass burning at the global scale. In fact, the area and type of vegetation that is burned on a monthly or annual basis are two of the parameters that provide the greatest uncertainty in the calculation of gas and aerosol emissions and burned biomass. To address this need, an inventory of burned areas at...

  9. Iatrogenic burns: beware of microwaves! (United States)


    (1) The traditional hot-water bottle now faces competition from a variety of similar devices, such as microwave-heated compresses and gel packs; (2) These devices can cause severe burns; (3) Microwave-heated gel packs can be harmful for two main reasons. First, microwave ovens heat deeply and unevenly and dangerous temperatures can quickly be reached. In addition, gels retain heat longer than other materials such as cotton compresses or towels; (4) Burns are sometimes caused by lengthy contact with an object that is not hot enough to cause pain or even discomfort. The heat perceived by the user does not reflect the quantity of heat actually transferred. Instructions that can be inadequate and that vary among different brands are further contributing factors; (5) These heating devices must be used with care. The recommended microwaving duration must not be exceeded, the device should be let stand for at least 10 minutes before use, and the heat-retaining material should be homogenised before applying the device to the skin.

  10. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava


    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  11. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  12. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin Zainol; Hasim Mohammad


    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  13. Burns: The epidemiological pattern, risk and safety awareness at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many burns are preventable but there is no published local prospective data on the epidemiological pattern of burns that would form the basis of care and formulation of burn prevention strategies. Objectives: To determine the epidemiological pattern of burns and assess the awareness of burn risk and ...

  14. Burns education for non-burn specialist clinicians in Western Australia. (United States)

    McWilliams, Tania; Hendricks, Joyce; Twigg, Di; Wood, Fiona


    Burn patients often receive their initial care by non-burn specialist clinicians, with increasingly collaborative burn models of care. The provision of relevant and accessible education for these clinicians is therefore vital for optimal patient care. A two phase design was used. A state-wide survey of multidisciplinary non-burn specialist clinicians throughout Western Australia identified learning needs related to paediatric burn care. A targeted education programme was developed and delivered live via videoconference. Pre-post-test analysis evaluated changes in knowledge as a result of attendance at each education session. Non-burn specialist clinicians identified numerous areas of burn care relevant to their practice. Statistically significant differences between perceived relevance of care and confidence in care provision were reported for aspects of acute burn care. Following attendance at the education sessions, statistically significant increases in knowledge were noted for most areas of acute burn care. Identification of learning needs facilitated the development of a targeted education programme for non-burn specialist clinicians. Increased non-burn specialist clinician knowledge following attendance at most education sessions supports the use of videoconferencing as an acceptable and effective method of delivering burns education in Western Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  16. TRPA1 contributes to capsaicin-induced facial cold hyperalgesia in rats. (United States)

    Honda, Kuniya; Shinoda, Masamichi; Furukawa, Akihiko; Kita, Kozue; Noma, Noboru; Iwata, Koichi


    Orofacial cold hyperalgesia is known to cause severe persistent pain in the face following trigeminal nerve injury or inflammation, and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankylin 1 (TRPA1) are thought to be involved in cold hyperalgesia. However, how these two receptors are involved in cold hyperalgesia is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanisms underlying facial cold hyperalgesia, nocifensive behaviors to cold stimulation, the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and TG neuronal excitability to cold stimulation following facial capsaicin injection were examined in rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWRT) to cold stimulation of the lateral facial skin was significantly decreased following facial capsaicin injection. This reduction of HWRT was significantly recovered following local injection of TRPV1 antagonist as well as TRPA1 antagonist. Approximately 30% of TG neurons innervating the lateral facial skin expressed both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and about 64% of TRPA1-positive neurons also expressed TRPV1. The TG neuronal excitability to noxious cold stimulation was significantly increased following facial capsaicin injection and this increase was recovered by pretreatment with TRPA1 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPA1 sensitization via TRPV1 signaling in TG neurons is involved in cold hyperalgesia following facial skin capsaicin injection. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  17. The importance of family environment for young adults burned during childhood. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Laura; Blakeney, Patricia; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Robert, Rhonda S; Meyer, Walter J


    This study examined the role of family environment for young adult burn survivors making the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Ninety-three young adults who sustained large burns as children were asked to describe their families using the Family Environment Scale (FES). When examining the difference between burn survivors and the normative sample of the FES, burn survivors did not perceive their current family environment different than the normative group. However, burn survivors endorsed more items in the areas of achievement orientation and moral-religious emphasis, and less involvement in intellectual-cultural activities. We also examined the relationship between family characteristics on the FES and psychological adjustment of burn survivors as measured by the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR). Increased conflict on the FES was positively associated with YASR total problem score, internalizing behaviors, and externalizing behaviors. In addition, participation in recreational and social activities and organization both inversely correlated with YASR total problem score. In conclusion, increased family conflict was associated with decreased psychological adjustment of burn survivors as measured by the YASR total problem score.

  18. The radiographic spectrum of pulmonary complications in major burn patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Lee, Eil Seong; Park, Ju Youn; Kim, Soo Hyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hong Suk; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang, Ik Won


    In recent years, improved antibiotic care and physiologic fluid replacement in cases involving burn wounds have led to a decrease in the rate of fatalities caused by wound sepsis and shock. There has, however, been an upsurge and relative increase in the frequency (15-25%) and mortality rate (50-89%) of pulmonary complications. Since pulmonary lesions may result from direct injury to the respiratory tract caused by smoke inhalation, from circulatory, metablic or infectious complications in cases involving cutaneous burns, or may develop during the therapeutic management of these lesions, a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities can occur during the post-burn period. There is considerable overlap between their radiographic appearances, which are often nonspecific. Since the successful management of these patients is based on the early recognition and vigorous treatment of lesions, famikiarity with all facets of these complications, based on a pathophysiology of the injury and on the knowledge of the clinical setting, enables radiologists to make more specific diagnoses. (author)

  19. Early Cold-Induced Peroxidases and Aquaporins Are Associated With High Cold Tolerance in Dajiao (Musa spp. ‘Dajiao’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Di He


    Full Text Available Banana is an important tropical fruit with high economic value. One of the main cultivars (‘Cavendish’ is susceptible to low temperatures, while another closely related specie (‘Dajiao’ has considerably higher cold tolerance. We previously reported that some membrane proteins appear to be involved in the cold tolerance of Dajiao bananas via an antioxidation mechanism. To investigate the early cold stress response of Dajiao, here we applied comparative membrane proteomics analysis for both cold-sensitive Cavendish and cold-tolerant Dajiao bananas subjected to cold stress at 10°C for 0, 3, and 6 h. A total of 2,333 and 1,834 proteins were identified in Cavendish and Dajiao, respectively. Subsequent bioinformatics analyses showed that 692 Cavendish proteins and 524 Dajiao proteins were predicted to be membrane proteins, of which 82 and 137 differentially abundant membrane proteins (DAMPs were found in Cavendish and Dajiao, respectively. Interestingly, the number of DAMPs with increased abundance following 3 h of cold treatment in Dajiao (80 was seven times more than that in Cavendish (11. Gene ontology molecular function analysis of DAMPs for Cavendish and Dajiao indicated that they belong to eight categories including hydrolase activity, binding, transporter activity, antioxidant activity, etc., but the number in Dajiao is twice that in Cavendish. Strikingly, we found peroxidases (PODs and aquaporins among the protein groups whose abundance was significantly increased after 3 h of cold treatment in Dajiao. Some of the PODs and aquaporins were verified by reverse-transcription PCR, multiple reaction monitoring, and green fluorescent protein-based subcellular localization analysis, demonstrating that the global membrane proteomics data are reliable. By combining the physiological and biochemical data, we found that membrane-bound Peroxidase 52 and Peroxidase P7, and aquaporins (MaPIP1;1, MaPIP1;2, MaPIP2;4, MaPIP2;6, MaTIP1;3 are mainly

  20. Facts about the Common Cold (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other ... Current Pathway Introduction Treatment Options Side Effects Emotional Challenges Life Planning Summary '; if (window.location.href.indexOf(" ...

  1. Management of Critical Burn Injuries: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Dries


    Full Text Available Background Burn injury and its subsequent multisystem effects are commonly encountered by acute care practitioners. Resuscitation is the major component of initial burn care and must be managed to restore and preserve vital organ function. Later complications of burn injury are dominated by infection. Burn centers are often called to manage problems related to thermal injury, including lightning and electrical injuries. Methods A selected review is provided of key management concepts as well as of recent reports published by the American Burn Association. Results The burn-injured patient is easily and frequently over resuscitated, with ensuing complications that include delayed wound healing and respiratory compromise. A feedback protocol designed to limit the occurrence of excessive resuscitation has been proposed, but no new “gold standard” for resuscitation has replaced the venerated Parkland formula. While new medical therapies have been proposed for patients sustaining inhalation injury, a paradigm-shifting standard of medical therapy has not emerged. Renal failure as a specific contributor to adverse outcome in burns has been reinforced by recent data. Of special problems addressed in burn centers, electrical injuries pose multisystem physiologic challenges and do not fit typical scoring systems. Conclusion Recent reports emphasize the dangers of over resuscitation in the setting of burn injury. No new medical therapy for inhalation injury has been generally adopted, but new standards for description of burn-related infections have been presented. The value of the burn center in care of the problems of electrical exposure, both manmade and natural, is demonstrated in recent reports.

  2. Gas fireplace contact burns in young children. (United States)

    Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin


    Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them.

  3. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J


    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  4. In-situ burning: NIST studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.


    In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible

  5. Myocardial Autophagy after Severe Burn in Rats (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng


    Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe burn. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-burn in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface area 3rd degree burns. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-burn, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-burn cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe burns and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-burn, which may contribute to post-burn cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. PMID:22768082

  6. Emergency management of pediatric burn victims. (United States)

    Mlcak, R; Cortiella, J; Desai, M H; Herndon, D N


    Pediatric burn injuries present a major challenge to the health care team, but an orderly, systematic approach can simplify the initial stabilization and management. A clear understanding of the pathology of burn injuries is essential in providing quality burn care in the prehospital setting and at the referring hospital. After the patient has been rescued from the offending agent, assessment of the burn victim begins with the primary survey and life-threatening injuries initially addressed first. This is followed by a secondary survey to document and treat other injuries or problems. Intravenous access may be established in concert with the local/regional medical control and appropriate fluid resuscitation begun. Burn wounds should be covered with clean, dry sheets, and the patient kept warm with blankets to prevent hypothermia. The patient should be transported to the local hospital ED in the most appropriate mode available. At the local hospital, it should be determined if the burn patient needs burn center care, using the ABA Guidelines. In preparing for and organizing the transfer of the burn victim, consideration must be given to the continued monitoring and management of the patient during transport. In transferring burn patients the same priorities developed for the prehospital management are still operative. During the initial assessment and treatment and throughout the transport, an adequate airway, breathing, circulation, fluid resuscitation, urine output, and pain control must be assured. Ideally, transport of burn victims will occur through and organized, protocol driven plan that includes specialized transport mechanisms and personnel. Successful transport of burn victims, whether in the pre-hospital phase or during inter-hospital transfer, requires careful attention to treatment priorities, protocols, and attention to detail.

  7. Geographic access to burn center hospitals. (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Kramer, C Bradley; Nelson, Jason; Rivara, Frederick P; Gibran, Nicole S; Concannon, Thomas


    The delivery of burn care is a resource-intensive endeavor that requires specialized personnel and equipment. The optimal geographic distribution of burn centers has long been debated; however, the current distribution of centers relative to geographic area and population is unknown. To estimate the proportion of the US population living within 1 and 2 hours by rotary air transport (helicopter) or ground transport of a burn care facility. A cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to US burn centers utilizing the 2000 US census, road and speed limit data, the Atlas and Database of Air Medical Services database, and the 2008 American Burn Association Directory. The proportion of state, regional, and national population living within 1 and 2 hours by air transport or ground transport of a burn care facility. In 2008, there were 128 self-reported burn centers in the United States including 51 American Burn Association-verified centers. An estimated 25.1% and 46.3% of the US population live within 1 and 2 hours by ground transport, respectively, of a verified burn center. By air, 53.9% and 79.0% of the population live within 1 and 2 hours, respectively, of a verified center. There was significant regional variation in access to verified burn centers by both ground and rotary air transport. The greatest proportion of the population with access was highest in the northeast region and lowest in the southern United States. Nearly 80% of the US population lives within 2 hours by ground or rotary air transport of a verified burn center; however, there is both state and regional variation in geographic access to these centers.

  8. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)


    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  9. Tip model of cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goennenwein, F.; Boersig, B.


    Cold fission is defined to be the limiting case of nuclear fission where virtually all of the available energy is converted into the total kinetic energy of the fragments. The fragments have, therefore, to be born in or at least close to their respective ground states. Starting from the viewpoint that cold fission corresponds to most compact scission configurations, energy constraints have been exploited to calculate minimum tip distances between the two nascent fragments in binary fission. Crucial input parameters to this tip model of cold fission are the ground-state deformations of fragment nuclei. It is shown that the minimum tip distances being compatible with energy conservation vary strongly with both the mass and charge fragmentation of the fission prone nucleus. The tip distances refer to nuclei with equivalent sharp surfaces. In keeping with the size of the surface width of leptodermous nuclei, only configurations where the tip distances are smaller than a few fm may be considered as valid scission configurations. From a comparison with experimental data on cold fission this critical tip distance appears to be 3.0 fm for the model parameters chosen. Whenever the model calculation yields tip distances being smaller than the critical value, a necessary condition for attaining cold fission is considered to be fulfilled. It is shown that this criterion allows to understand in fair agreement with experiment which mass fragmentations are susceptible to lead to cold fission and which fragment-charge divisions are the most favored in each isobaric mass chain. Being based merely on energy arguments, the model cannot aim at predicting fragment yields in cold fission. However, the tip model proposed appears well suited to delineate the phase space where cold fission phenomena may come into sight. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of long term health-related quality of life in extensive burns: a 12-year experience in a burn center. (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Xiao, Shi-chu; Zhu, Shi-hui; Xia, Zhao-fan


    We sought to evaluate the long term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients survived severely extensive burn and identify their clinical predicting factors correlated with HRQOL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 patients survived more than 2 years with extensive burn involving ≥70% total body surface area (TBSA) between 1997 and 2009 in a burn center in Shanghai. Short Form-36 Medical Outcomes Survey (SF-36), Brief Version of Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS-B) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) were used for the present evaluation. SF-36 scores were compared with a healthy Chinese population, and linear correlation analysis was performed to screen the clinical relating factors predicting physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores from SF-36. HRQOL scores from SF-36 were significantly lower in the domains of physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, pain, social functioning and role limitations due to emotional problems compared with population norms. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that only return to work (RTW) predicted improved PCS. While age at injury, facial burns, skin grafting and length of hospital stay were correlated with MCS. Work, body image and heat sensitivity obtained the lowest BSHS-B scores in all 9 domains. Improvements of HRQOL could still be seen in BSHS-B scores in domains of simple abilities, hand function, work and affect even after a quite long interval between burns and testing. Hand function of extensive burn patients obtained relatively poor MHQ scores, especially in those without RTW. Patients with extensive burns have a poorer quality of life compared with that of general population. Relatively poor physical and psychological problems still exist even after a long period. Meanwhile, a trend of gradual improvements was noted. This information will aid clinicians in decision-making of comprehensive systematic regimens for long term rehabilitation

  11. Influence of nuclear burning of the stability of degenerate and nondegenerate accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taam, R.E.; Fryxell, B.A.


    The structure and stability of accretion disks composed of hydrogen-rich matter rotating about a central neutron star have been investigated for known sources of viscosity. Two general classes of solutions have been found. For one class the energy generated in the disk is provided by hydrogen burning, whereas for the other class the gravitational binding energy released by viscous dissipation dominates. The former solutions are thermally unstable (stable) whenever hydrogen burns via the normal CNO cycle ( pp chain) in a partially or fully degenerate region of the disk. Solutions characterized by nuclear burning via the β-limited CNO cycle or by viscous dissipation only are always stable. On the basis of a local analysis it is shown that modulations of the mass flow in the disk are possible for a range of mass inflow rates into the disk. In such circumstances the disk can undergo a phase transition from a cold, low-viscosity state to a hot, high-viscosity state as a result of the thermonuclear flash instability. Phase transitions from the hot state to the cold state also occur whenever the mass input rate into the disk is less than the equilibrium mass flow rate corresponding to the hot state. It is also shown that for sufficiently high mass flow rates all the hydrogen-rich matter can be processed to helium in the inner regions of the disk before it can be accreted by a neutron star

  12. Task-dependent cold stress during expeditions in Antarctic environments. (United States)

    Morris, Drew M; Pilcher, June J; Powell, Robert B


    This study seeks to understand the degree of body cooling, cold perception and physical discomfort during Antarctic tour excursions. Eight experienced expedition leaders across three Antarctic cruise voyages were monitored during occupational tasks: kayaking, snorkelling and zodiac outings. Subjective cold perception and discomfort were recorded using a thermal comfort assessment and skin temperature was recorded using a portable data logger. Indoor cabin temperature and outdoor temperature with wind velocity were used as measures of environmental stress. Physical activity level and clothing insulation were estimated using previous literature. Tour leaders experienced a 6°C (2°C wind chill) environment for an average of 6 hours each day. Leaders involved in kayaking reported feeling colder and more uncomfortable than other leaders, but zodiac leaders showed greater skin temperature cooling. Occupational experience did not predict body cooling or cold stress perception. These findings indicate that occupational cold stress varies by activity and measurement methodology. The current study effectively used objective and subjective measures of cold-stress to identify factors which can contribute to risk in the Antarctic tourism industry. Results suggest that the type of activity may moderate risk of hypothermia, but not discomfort, potentially putting individuals at risk for cognitive related mistakes and cold injuries.

  13. Burning--Gravitational, Chemical, and Nuclear. (United States)

    Jones, Goronwy Tudor


    Energy problems that incorporate power generation in hydroelectric, fossil-fuel burning, and nuclear power stations are presented. The burning process and the energy released are discussed. Practice problems and solutions, a summary of various energy units and conversion factors, and lists of thought-provoking energies and powers are included. (KR)

  14. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly☆ (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid


    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    BACKGROUND Burn injury has been observed as a world wide problem.. The knowledge of the epidemiology is important for planning of management and preventive programmes and every community is encouraged to study the epidemiology of burns since this important problem varies from community to community.

  16. Avoiding oral burns during electrocautery tonsillectomy. (United States)

    Lowry, Thomas R; Workman, Jonathon R


    Electrocautery tonsillectomy is a common method of tonsil removal, and electrocautery devices are widely available. Although these devices are relatively safe, inadvertent patient injury may occur with their use, such as oral cavity burns. We describe a simple surgical technique that reduces the risk of oral burns during electrocautery tonsillectomy and review additional safety considerations.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    O. Box 903 Enugu400001 Enugu state, Nigeria. Abstract. BACKGROUND Burn injury has been observed as a world wide problem. ... technological advances have not made the desired impact on the citizens in burns management. 4 – 8 . ... managed in our unit over 5 year period. Materials And Methods. The plastic surgery ...

  18. Burning for birds: concepts and applications (United States)

    R. Todd Engstrom; David J. Brownlie


    Prescribed fire is being used extensively for habitat management of non-game birds, although the area burned today is small relative to the amount of land that burned historically. Results of a non-scientific questionnaire of public and private land managers in the eastern U.S. revealed prescribed fire is being used to provide winter, breeding season, and migration...

  19. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a tobacco...

  20. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food? (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won


    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of burning spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.; Ferek, R.J.


    The full potential for in situ burning as a controlled oil spill response technique is a subject of growing interest throughout the world. Information now available from burning oil during accidental fires, war-related fires in Kuwait, spillage from the Exxon Valdez, and controlled test burns, permits an objective and comprehensive assessment of both the positive and negative aspects of in situ burning. A thorough analysis has been made of direct and indirect impacts and concerns typically associated with the decision, to burn or not to burn. These factors, together with the comparative costs of various response techniques, have been identified and described to provide spill control planners and response organizations with a means of assessing the potential use of burning to clean up offshore oil spills. Some of the advantages for in situ burning are high elimination rate, minimal environmental impact, minimal disposal and cleanup, and ease of control. Some of the disadvantages are localized reduction of air quality, oil conditions, and limited window of opportunity

  2. Persistence of muscle catabolism after severe burn. (United States)

    Hart, D W; Wolf, S E; Mlcak, R; Chinkes, D L; Ramzy, P I; Obeng, M K; Ferrando, A A; Wolfe, R R; Herndon, D N


    The hypermetabolic response to severe burn is characterized by muscle protein catabolism. Current opinion states that the hypermetabolic state resolves soon after complete wound closure. Clinically, we have witnessed that burned children appear to be hypermetabolic and catabolic long after full healing of their wounds. Our goal in this study was to determine scientifically if burn-associated hypermetabolism persists after full wound healing. To determine the duration of muscle catabolism and systemic hypermetabolism after severe burn in children, patients with > 40% total body surface area burns were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study; resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry, muscle protein kinetics were determined by using stable isotopic methodology, and body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging. Data were collected at 6, 9, and 12 months after injury. The mean total body surface area burned was 65% +/- 13%, and the mean age was 7.6 +/- 1. 5 years. Resting energy expenditure was elevated above the predicted age-matched levels from the Harris-Benedict equation and incrementally declined throughout the 12-month study. The net protein balance and lean mass reflected catabolic persistence at 6 and 9 months after severe burn. Between 9 and 12 months, protein breakdown decreased, net protein balance improved, and lean body mass increased. In severely burned children, hypermetabolism and catabolism remain exaggerated for at least 9 months after injury. This suggests that therapeutic attempts to manipulate the catabolic and hypermetabolic response to severe injury should be continued long after injury.

  3. BURN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF Euphorbia hirta. (United States)

    Jaiprakash, B; Chandramohan; Reddy, D Narishma


    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract burns]. (United States)

    Gerasimova, L I; Loginov, L P; Smol'skii, B G; Pelikh, S T; Skripal', A Iu


    The work gives an analysis of clinical signs in 111 patients with burns of the respiratory tract. Two complexes of curative measures are proposed according to anatomical changes found in fibrobronchoscopy. The fibrobronchoscopies are of special importance in the treatment of burns of the tracheobronchial tree.



    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan,; Reddy, D. Narishma


    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  6. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. Jeschke


    Full Text Available Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p  0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  7. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  8. Intensive Care Management in Pediatric Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ebru Sakallıoğlu Abalı


    Full Text Available Burn injury is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This article aimed to review the current principles of management from initial assessment to early management and intensive care for pediatric burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 62-9

  9. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud


    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  10. Satisfaction with life after burn: A Burn Model System National Database Study. (United States)

    Goverman, J; Mathews, K; Nadler, D; Henderson, E; McMullen, K; Herndon, D; Meyer, W; Fauerbach, J A; Wiechman, S; Carrougher, G; Ryan, C M; Schneider, J C


    While mortality rates after burn are low, physical and psychosocial impairments are common. Clinical research is focusing on reducing morbidity and optimizing quality of life. This study examines self-reported Satisfaction With Life Scale scores in a longitudinal, multicenter cohort of survivors of major burns. Risk factors associated with Satisfaction With Life Scale scores are identified. Data from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) Burn Model System (BMS) database for burn survivors greater than 9 years of age, from 1994 to 2014, were analyzed. Demographic and medical data were collected on each subject. The primary outcome measures were the individual items and total Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores at time of hospital discharge (pre-burn recall period) and 6, 12, and 24 months after burn. The SWLS is a validated 5-item instrument with items rated on a 1-7 Likert scale. The differences in scores over time were determined and scores for burn survivors were also compared to a non-burn, healthy population. Step-wise regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of SWLS scores at different time intervals. The SWLS was completed at time of discharge (1129 patients), 6 months after burn (1231 patients), 12 months after burn (1123 patients), and 24 months after burn (959 patients). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in terms of medical or injury demographics. The majority of the population was Caucasian (62.9%) and male (72.6%), with a mean TBSA burned of 22.3%. Mean total SWLS scores for burn survivors were unchanged and significantly below that of a non-burn population at all examined time points after burn. Although the mean SWLS score was unchanged over time, a large number of subjects demonstrated improvement or decrement of at least one SWLS category. Gender, TBSA burned, LOS, and school status were associated with SWLS scores at 6 months

  11. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War (United States)

    Neff, Thomas


    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  12. Physiology of cold tolerance in insects. (United States)

    Zachariassen, K E


    From the available experimental data a relatively clear picture can be established with regard to the physiological importance of some of the mechanisms involved in insect cold hardening. In freeze-avoiding insects, all potent ice-nucleating agents are removed or inactivated, leading to a depression of the supercooling points to about 20 degrees C. Accumulation of polyols causes a further depression with a magnitude of about twice the corresponding melting-point depression. Production of thermal hysteresis factors causes a stabilization of the supercooled state. In freeze-tolerant insects, potent ice-nucleating agents are produced in the extracellular body fluid, ensuring a protective extracellular freezing at a few degrees below zero. Accumulation of polyols causes a steep drop in the lethal temperature, due to a reduction of the amount of ice by a colligative mechanism. However, there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms by which ice-nucleating agents, polyols, and thermal hysteresis agents are acting. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the production and elimination of these components from the body fluid of the insects are not understood. Also, when it comes to the influence of environmental factors, like photoperiod and temperature, there is much to be learned. In addition to giving attention to these topics, future research should be focused on the possible role of other factors in cold hardening such as bound water, dehydration, low-molecular-weight solutes other than polyols, and the biochemical mechanisms forming the basis of the seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of insects.

  13. Specific and unspecific responses of plants to cold and drought stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan


    Mar 22, 2007 ... the specific examples, this communication focuses on stress by cold and drought (figure 1), which are .... Hik33 and Hik19 could be detected in plants, alternative concepts of cold-sensing have been .... hardening, as in the yew tree (Taxus x media, Verhoeven et al. Figure 8. Involvement of various signal ...

  14. Simple flaps for reconstruction of pediatric scalp defects after electrical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makboul Mohamed


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the management of high-voltage electrical burn injury of the scalp in our hospital. Methods: This study involved 10 patients who suf-fered from high-voltage electrical burn injury of the scalp. Scalp reconstruction was done by different modalities ac-cording to the size and location of the defect. Results: Complete flap viability was achieved in all the cases. We had one case of gapped wound which was managed only by dressing. Widening of the scar was found in 2 cases. Conclusion: Rotation, advancement and transposi-tion scalp flaps are used for reconstructing scalp defects caused by electrical burn. The choice of ideal flaps for re-construction depends upon the size and site of scalp defect. Key words: Burns, electric; Scalp; Reconstructive surgical procedures; Surgical flaps; Skull

  15. Increased admissions for diabetes mellitus after burn. (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; O'Halloran, Emily; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M


    Currently, limited long-term data on hyperglycaemia and insulin sensitivity in burn patients are available and the data that do exist are primarily related to paediatric severe burns. The aim of this study was to assess if burn is associated with increased post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus. A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of all persons hospitalized for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012 and a frequency matched non-injury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll (n=123,399). Crude admission rates and summed length of stay for diabetes mellitus were calculated. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn cohort had 2.21 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.36-1.56) as many admissions and almost three times the number of days in hospital with a diabetes mellitus diagnosis (IRR, 95% CI: 2.94, 2.12-4.09) than the uninjured cohort. Admission rates were significantly elevated for those burned during childhood (burn cohort during the first 5 years post-burn when compared with the uninjured (HR, 95% CI: 1.96, 1.46-2.64); no significant difference was found beyond 5 years post-burn (HR, 95% CI: 1.08, 0.82-1.41). Findings of increased hospital admission rates and prolonged length of hospital stay for diabetes mellitus in the burn cohort provide evidence that burns have longer term effects on blood glucose and insulin regulation after wound healing. The first five years after burn discharge appears to be a critical period with significantly elevated incident admissions for diabetes mellitus during this time. Results would suggest prolonged clinical management after discharge and or wound healing to minimise post-burn

  16. Nosocomial infections in pediatric patients with burns. (United States)

    Weber, J M; Sheridan, R L; Pasternack, M S; Tompkins, R G


    Nosocomial infections (NI) are believed to occur more commonly in patients with burns than in patients undergoing surgery, but benchmark rates have not been well described, and widely accepted definitions of NI in patients with burns are not available. We present a clinically useful set of definitions for NI for the pediatric burn population and provide benchmark infection rates for NI at selected sites. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions were modified to more accurately describe nosocomial burn infection and secondary bloodstream infections (BSI) in the burn population. A surveillance system was developed and included calculation of NI rates by 1000 patient or device days, stratified into one of three risk groups (burn injury, 30% to 60% burn injury, and > 60% burn injury). All patients with acute burns admitted from January 1990 to December 1991 were included, and NI rates were calculated for burn infection, primary and secondary BSI, ventilator-related pneumonia and urinary catheter-related urinary tract infection (UTI). Overall 12.5% of patients with central venous catheters had development of primary BSI for a rate of 4.9/1000 central venous catheter-days. Incidence of secondary BSI was 5.8% of patients for a rate of 5.3/1000 patient-days. Incidence of burn infection was 10.1% of patients for a rate of 5.6/1000 patient-days. Incidence of ventilator-related pneumonia was 17.5% of patients for a rate of 11.4/1000 ventilator-days. Incidence of urinary catheter-related UTI was 17.9% of patients, for a rate of 13.2/1000 urinary catheter-days. When rates were stratified by risk groups, incidence increased with increasing burn size for secondary BSI (p number of patient-days or device-days more accurately reflected risk of infection over time. Infection remains a cause of significant morbidity and death for patients with burns. The definitions and benchmark rates reported here may be useful in evaluation of NI surveillance strategies and

  17. Five-year experience with burns from glass fireplace doors in the pediatric population. (United States)

    Baryza, Mary Jo; Hinson, Michelle; Conway, Jennifer; Ryan, Colleen M


    Burns from contact with glass doors of gas fireplaces have been previously reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and severity of this injury in our population. Patients were identified for inclusion in the retrospective chart review study using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS) and our local outpatient database. Criteria for inclusion were burn injuries sustained from contact with fireplace glass doors treated at our pediatric burn center from 2007 through 2011. Fifty children met these criteria, including two children whose burns were caused by electric fireplace glass doors. BSA burned was 1.5 ± 1.5% (mean ± SD), range 0.5 to 10%. Age was 27.2 ± 27.3 months, range 8 months to 13 years. Forty-five children (90%) had hand burns; of these, 18 children had bilateral hand involvement. Facial burns were found in three children (6%), and eight children (16%) had other areas burned. One patient developed cellulitis. Two patients required surgery. Six children (12%) required hospitalization; mean length of stay was 5.8 ± 5 days, range 1 to 5 days. Although the number of inpatient admissions was relatively few, 329 outpatient visits and 309 rehabilitation visits were required for treatment of these children. Nineteen patients (38%) required splints and six patients (12%) required scar treatment with pressure garments. Burns from contact with fireplace glass doors are a recurring problem. Toddlers are most at risk. Directed preventive strategies including parent education, safety warnings, and design modifications such as temperature sensors and barrier screens could be potentially helpful in reducing the incidence of this injury.

  18. Superheavy nuclei – cold synthesis and structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), given for the cold synthesis of new and superheavy elements, is reviewed and the use of radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) and targets (RNT) is discussed. The QMFT is a complete theory of cold nuclear phenomena, namely, the cold fission, cold fusion and ...

  19. Cold acclimation and cognitive performance: A review. (United States)

    Jones, Douglas M; Bailey, Stephen P; Roelands, Bart; Buono, Michael J; Meeusen, Romain


    Athletes, occupational workers, and military personnel experience cold temperatures through cold air exposure or cold water immersion, both of which impair cognitive performance. Prior work has shown that neurophysiological pathways may be sensitive to the effects of temperature acclimation and, therefore, cold acclimation may be a potential strategy to attenuate cold-induced cognitive impairments for populations that are frequently exposed to cold environments. This review provides an overview of studies that examine repeated cold stress, cold acclimation, and measurements of cognitive performance to determine whether or not cold acclimation provides beneficial protection against cold-induced cognitive performance decrements. Studies included in this review assessed cognitive measures of reaction time, attention, logical reasoning, information processing, and memory. Repeated cold stress, with or without evidence of cold acclimation, appears to offer no added benefit of improving cognitive performance. However, research in this area is greatly lacking and, therefore, it is difficult to draw any definitive conclusions regarding the use of cold acclimation to improve cognitive performance during subsequent cold exposures. Given the current state of minimal knowledge on this topic, athletes, occupational workers, and military commands looking to specifically enhance cognitive performance in cold environments would likely not be advised to spend the time and effort required to become acclimated to cold. However, as more knowledge becomes available in this area, recommendations may change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Superheavy nuclei–cold synthesis and structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), given for the cold synthesis of new and superheavy elements, is reviewed and the use of radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) and targets (RNT) is discussed. The QMFT is a complete theory of cold nuclear phenomena, namely, the cold fission, cold fusion and cluster ...

  1. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  2. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs ... to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special ...

  3. Effects of season of burn on shrub survival, regeneration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    burning trials at Cathedral Peak in the Natal Drakensberg. Results showed that neither hot winter burns, nor cool summer burns, affected the ability of Buddleia salviifolia, Leucosidea sericea, Widdringtonia nodiflora or Philippia evansii to ...

  4. Epidemic of charcoal burning suicide in Japan. (United States)

    Yoshioka, Eiji; Hanley, Sharon J B; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Saijo, Yasuaki


    The charcoal burning suicide epidemics in both Hong Kong and Taiwan have been well documented. However, little is known about the situation in Japan. To examine the impact of charcoal burning suicide on the overall and other method-specific suicide rates between 1998 and 2007 in Japan. Using data obtained from the Vital Statistics of Japan, negative binomial regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the charcoal burning method. In males and females aged 15-24 and 25-44 years, the charcoal burning epidemic led to a substantial increase in overall suicides, without a decrease in other methods. In all other age groups, no such trend was observed. In young Japanese, the charcoal burning method may have appealed to individuals who might not have chosen other highly or relatively lethal methods, and consequently led to an increase in overall suicides.

  5. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  6. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline


    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...... management addresses and alleviates these complications. The aim of our study was to compare clinical guidelines for pain management in burn patients in selected European and non-European countries. We included pediatric guidelines due to the high rate of children in burn units. METHOD: The study had...... a comparative retrospective design using combined methodology of instrument appraisal and thematic analysis. Three investigators appraised guidelines from burn units in Denmark (DK), Sweden (SE), New Zealand (NZ), and USA using the AGREE Instrument (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation), version II...

  7. Nose burns: 4-dimensional analysis. (United States)

    Bouguila, J; Ho Quoc, C; Viard, R; Brun, A; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Foyatier, J-L


    The nose is the central organ of the face. It has two essential roles, aesthetic and breathing. It is often seriously damaged in the context of facial burns, causing grotesque facial disfigurement. As this disfigurement is visible on frontal and profile views, the patient suffers both socially and psychologically. The nose is a three-dimensional organ. Reconstruction is therefore more difficult and needs to be more precise than in other parts of the face. Maintaining symmetry, contour and function are essential for successful nasal reconstruction. Multiple factors determine the optimal method of reconstruction, including the size of the defect, its depth and its site. Satisfactory social life is recovered only after multiple surgical procedures and long-term rehabilitation and physiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of cold acclimatization on exercise economy in the cold. (United States)

    Muller, Matthew D; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bellar, David M; Ryan, Edward J; Seo, Yongsuk; Muller, Sarah M; Glickman, Ellen L


    We sought to determine if cold acclimatized men display higher economy (i.e. lower oxygen consumption at a given workload) during graded cycle ergometry in the cold (5°C). After completing a familiarization trial 1 week prior, five cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight physically active men (NON) underwent graded exercise tests to volitional fatigue in 5°C. The protocol always started at 60 W and increased by 20 W each minute. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)), respiration rate (RR), tidal volume (TV), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determined via open circuit spirometry. Individuals were matched for body size and minutes of weekly physical activity. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted across time (workload) and cold acclimatization was entered as a between subjects factor. VO(2) peak was not different between groups but CWA had lower VO(2) at 60 and 240 W. CWA also had lower RR at 180 and 260 W as well as lower RER at 240 and 260 W. At submaximal workloads, cold acclimatized men have higher exercise economy than non-acclimatized men. This could have implications for those who work in this context.

  9. Beta-haemolytic Streptococcus infection in burns. (United States)

    Bang, R L; Gang, R K; Sanyal, S C; Mokaddas, E M; Lari, A R


    Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus has been one of the most serious infections in the burn patients resulting in severe cellulitis and sepsis. Penicillin has been used ever since its introduction as prophylaxis against these conditions. Penicillin prophylaxis was used in our burn unit as well without any serious evaluation until December 1992. This prospective study was therefore, undertaken to evaluate the incidence of beta haemolytic Streptococcus infection in burn patients, and its clinical outcome over a period of 5 years in the absence of prophylaxis with penicillin. 14 of the 1213 burn patients admitted to the Al-Babtain Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns from January 1993 to December 1997 had either colonization or infection with Streptococcus spp. Their mean age was 15 years (range 1 month to 52 years) and the mean burn surface area was 20% (range 5 to 90%). Streptococci were isolated from burn wounds in 10 patients, throat in 3 and blood culture in 1. Group A Streptococcus was found in 5, group C in 3 and group D in 6 patients. In all patients except one the organisms were isolated > or =72 h post burn. The infections were successfully controlled by antibiotic and no detrimental effect was observed either on wound healing or skin graft take. There was no mortality amongst these 14 patients. The study showed that only 1.1% of the burn patients in our unit acquired Streptococcus of which only one third comprised of group A. This study thus demonstrates that the practice of penicillin prophylaxis during the first five post burn days may not be of any value and therefore, deserves discontinuation in units where the incidence of this organism is minuscule.

  10. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran. (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra


    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  11. Clinical evaluation of a silver impregnated foam dressing in paediatric partial-thickness burns. (United States)

    Glat, P M; Zhang, S H; Burkey, B A; Davis, W J


    MepilexAg, a silver-impregnated foam dressing, was introduced to our institution in 2007 and our outcomes in the treatment of paediatric burns were observed to improve significantly. In order to confirm these observations, we wanted to evaluate the results of using the silver-impregnated foam dressing in partial-thickness paediatric burns.Method: In this retrospective, study, the St. Christopher's Hospital burn registry was used to identify subjects, who were otherwise in excellent health at baseline, over an 18-month period,. Outcomes included length of stay, intravenous narcotic use, and time to healing. No direct comparative studies were performed. This was followed by a non-comparative prospective study involving 22 paediatric patients, aged 1-4 years, with partial-thickness burns. This was a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial involving adults with partial-thickness burns, comparing the silver-impregnated foam dressing with Silvadene. In the retrospective part of the study, the silver-impregnated foam dressing was used successfully for the treatment of partial-thickness paediatric burns, with few complications and infections, allowing a shorter hospital stay, fewer dressings, and less pain medication than for historical controls. In the non-comparative prospective study, of 22 paediatric patients 50% healed completely within I week of treatment. The mean length of stay was 3.77 days and the mean number of dressings used was 1.64.Aithough narcotic usage was not assessed, patient surveys showed stinging or burning to be recorded as 'never' in 13 patients, 'rarely' in 8 patients, and 'sometimes' in I patient. The silver-impregnated foam dressing is effective and safe for use in partial-thickness paediatric burns, eliminating the need for daily dressings.

  12. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein mediates cold air inducible airway mucin production through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. (United States)

    Chen, Lingxiu; Ran, Danhua; Xie, Wenyue; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Xiangdong


    Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases and cold air stimulation has been shown to be associated with the severity of these diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms that mediate excessive mucin production under cold stress remain elusive. Recently, the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) has been shown to be markedly induced after exposure to cold air. In this study, we sought to explore the expression of CIRP within bronchial biopsy specimens, the effect on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) production in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and the potential signaling pathways involved in cold air stimulation process. We found that CIRP protein expression was significantly increased in patients with COPD and in mice treated with cold air. Moreover, cold air stimulation induced MUC5AC expression in wild-type mice but not in CIRP(-/-) mice. In vitro, cold air stress significantly elevated the transcriptional and protein expression levels of MUC5AC in human bronchial epithelial cells. CIRP, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-p65) increased significantly in response to cold stress and CIRP siRNA, TLR4 - neutralizing Ab and a specific inhibitor of NF-κB could attenuated cold stress inducible MUC5AC expression. In addition, CIRP siRNA could hindered the expression levels of TLR4 and p-p65 both induced by cold stress. Taken together, these results suggest that airway epithelial cells constitutively express CIRP in vitro and in vivo. CIRP is responsible for cold-inducible MUC5AC expression by activating TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study (United States)


    ... the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will... National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The teleconference meeting will be...

  14. Finger and toe temperatures on exposure to cold water and cold air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Struijs, N.R.; van Es, E.M.; Raymann, R.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.


    Introduction: Subjects with a weak cold-induced vasodilatation response (CIVD) to experimental cold-water immersion of the fingers in a laboratory setting have been shown to have a higher risk for local cold injuries when exposed to cold in real life. Most of the cold injuries in real life, however,

  15. Five-year epidemiology of liquefied petroleum gas-related burns. (United States)

    Jin, Ronghua; Wu, Pan; Ho, Jon Kee; Wang, Xingang; Han, Chunmao


    The incidence of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-related burns has increased over recent years, and it has become a serious public health issue in developing countries such as India and Turkey. This paper aims to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of LPG-related burns to provide assistance and suggestions for planning prevention strategies. A 5-year retrospective study was conducted in patients with LPG-related burns admitted to the Department of Burns & Wound Care Center, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, College of Medicine, between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2015. Information obtained for each patient included age, gender, education status, occupation, medical insurance, average hospital cost, length of hospital stay, monthly distribution of incidence, place of burns, mechanism of burns, extent of burns, site of burns, accompanying injuries, and treatment outcomes. For the first 4 years (2011-2014), the yearly incidence of LPG-related burns was at approximately 10% of all burns; however, in the fifth year (2015) alone, there was a surge to 26.94%. A total of 1337 burn patients were admitted during this period. Of these, 195 patients were admitted because of 169 LPG-related accidents; there were 11 accidents involving more than one victim. LPG-related burns occurred most frequently in patients aged 21-60 years (73.85%). The majority of injuries occurred from May to August (56.41%), and the most common place was home (83.08%, 162 patients). Gas leak (81.03%) was the main cause of LPG-related burns, followed by inappropriate operation (7.69%) and cooking negligence (2.05%). The mean burn area was 31.32±25.40% of TBSA. The most common sites of burns were the upper extremities (37.47%), followed by the head/face and neck (24.80%) and lower extremities (19.95%). The most common accompanying injuries included inhalation injury (23.59%), shock (8.71%), and external injury (7.18%). The average hospital stay was 22.90±19.47days (range

  16. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.


    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  17. TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cong-Yi


    Full Text Available Abstract Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through autonomic nerve reflex. However, molecular mechanisms by which vagal afferent fibers are excited by cold remain unknown. Using retrograde labeling, immunostaining, calcium imaging, and electrophysiological recordings, here we show that a subpopulation of airway vagal afferent nerves express TRPM8 receptors and that activation of TRPM8 receptors by cold excites these airway autonomic nerves. Thus activation of TRPM8 receptors may provoke autonomic nerve reflex to increase airway resistance. This putative autonomic response may be associated with cold-induced exacerbation of asthma and other pulmonary disorders, making TRPM8 receptors a possible target for prevention of cold-associated respiratory disorders.

  18. Identification and expression analysis of cold and freezing stress responsive genes of Brassica oleracea. (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Cho, Yong-Gu; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup


    Cold and freezing stress is a major environmental constraint to the production of Brassica crops. Enhancement of tolerance by exploiting cold and freezing tolerance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this problem. Cold-induced transcriptional profiling is a promising approach to the identification of potential genes related to cold and freezing stress tolerance. In this study, 99 highly expressed genes were identified from a whole genome microarray dataset of Brassica rapa. Blast search analysis of the Brassica oleracea database revealed the corresponding homologous genes. To validate their expression, pre-selected cold tolerant and susceptible cabbage lines were analyzed. Out of 99 BoCRGs, 43 were differentially expressed in response to varying degrees of cold and freezing stress in the contrasting cabbage lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, 18 were highly up-regulated in the tolerant lines, which is consistent with their microarray expression. Additionally, 12 BoCRGs were expressed differentially after cold stress treatment in two contrasting cabbage lines, and BoCRG54, 56, 59, 62, 70, 72 and 99 were predicted to be involved in cold regulatory pathways. Taken together, the cold-responsive genes identified in this study provide additional direction for elucidating the regulatory network of low temperature stress tolerance and developing cold and freezing stress resistant Brassica crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele Hartmut


    Full Text Available We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron β-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10−4 level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS allows to test Newton’s gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  20. Steel weldability. Underbead cold cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, F.; Defourny, J.; Bragard, A.


    The problem of underbead cold cracking has been studied by the implant technique. This approach allows to take into account in a quantitative manner the different factors acting on the cold cracking phenomenon: structure under the weld bead, level of restraint, hydrogen content in the molten metal. The influence of the metallurgical factors depending from the chemical composition of the steel has been examined. It appeared that carbon equivalent is an important factor to explain cold cracking sensitivity but that it is not sufficient to characterize the steel. The results have shown that vanadium may have a deleterious effect on the resistance to cold cracking when the hydrogen content is high and that small silicon additions are beneficient. The influence of the diffusible hydrogen content has been checked and the important action of pre- and postheating has been shown. These treatments allow the hydrogen to escape from the weld before the metal has been damaged. Some inclusions (sulphides) may also decrease the influence of hydrogen. A method based on the implant tests has been proposed which allows to choose and to control safe welding conditions regarding cold cracking

  1. Early management in children with burns: Cooling, wound care and pain management. (United States)

    Baartmans, M G A; de Jong, A E E; van Baar, M E; Beerthuizen, G I J M; van Loey, N E E; Tibboel, D; Nieuwenhuis, M K


    Early management in burns, i.e. prior to admission in a burn center, is essential for an optimal process and outcome of burn care. Several publications have reported suboptimal early management, including low levels of pain medication after trauma, especially in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current practice in the Netherlands and factors related to early management in pediatric burns, i.e. cooling, wound covering and pain management. To study possible change and improvement over time, two study periods were compared. This study involved two periods; January 2002-March 2004 (period 1) and January 2007-August 2008 (period 2). All children (0-15 years of age) with acute burns admitted within 24h after burn to one of the three Dutch Burn centers with a formal referral were eligible. Data were obtained from patient records, both retrospectively and prospectively. A total of 323 and 299 children were included in periods 1 and 2, respectively. The vast majority of children in both study periods had been cooled before admission (>90%). Over time, wound covering increased significantly (from 64% to 89%) as well as pain treatment (from 68% to 79%). Predominantly paracetamol and morphine were used. Referral from ambulance services (OR=41.4, 95%CI=16.6-103.0) or general practitioners (OR=59.7, 95%CI=25.1-141.8) were strong independent predictors for not receiving pre-burn center pain medication. On the other hand, flame burns (OR=0.2, 95%CI=0.1-0.5) and more extensive burns (TBSA 5-10%: OR=0.4, 95%CI=-0.2 to 0.8; TBSA≥10%: OR=0.2, 95%CI=0.1-0.4) were independent predictors of receiving pain medication. Referring physicians of children with burns were overall well informed: they cool the wound after burns and cover it before transport to prevent hypothermia and reduce the pain. Additional studies should be conducted to clarify the duration and temperature for cooling to be effective. Furthermore, there is room and a need for improvement regarding early

  2. Probing the Physics of Burning DT Capsules Using Gamma-ray Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hale, Gerald M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Paris, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic developed and lead by the Los Alamos National Laboratory GRH Team is used to determine the bang time and burn width of imploded inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility. The GRH team is conceptualizing and designing a new Gamma-­to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS), that would be capable of an energy resolution ΔE/E~3-­5%. In this whitepaper we examine the physics that could be explored by the combination of these two gamma-ray diagnostics, with an emphasis on the sensitivity needed for measurements. The main areas that we consider are hydrodynamical mixing, ablator areal density and density profile, and temporal variations of the density of the cold fuel and the ablator during the DT burn of the capsule.

  3. One World, One Standard for Burn Care: Nursing's Role in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl A Ramstad


    Full Text Available In 1978, a landmark United Nations conference in Alma-Ata declared the goal of health for all by the year 2000 (WHO, 1978. Yet, today significant disparities exist between the health care afforded individuals in resource-limited countries and those in the industrialized world. Nursing, as a global profession, can become a powerful force for change so that better health is universally achieved. Problem/Background: This project started with a partnership between a burn center in the United States and a pediatric burn center (Burn Center in Peru, a country in which it is estimated that 15,000 children endure burn injuries each year (Huby-Vidaurre, 2016. Most are under the age of five, and suffer scald burns from pots with hot liquids left to cool on the floors of their homes. Pressure garment therapy (PGT is a major treatment to reduce scarring for pediatric burn survivors in the United States since the early 1970s, but is unavailable in Peru. Strategy: The Doctor of Nursing Practice project leader worked with the Burn Center team to develop a plan to use PGT as an intervention to address disfiguring scarring among pediatric burn survivors, utilizing the twinning approach. Methods: This quality improvement project involved interdisciplinary collaboration and international partnerships between resource-rich and resource-challenged nations. Obtaining supplies needed to promote PGT in Peru required cultivating relationships with many people in the United States, including translators and interpreters to assist in overcoming language barriers among the participants, manufacturers and distributors of pressure garments to donate fabrics, and people regularly traveling to Peru who transported the donated PGT materials. It also involved working closely with the Burn Center team on developing a culture conducive to conforming to an international standard of practice. Results: Resources were successfully leveraged to build a sustainable PGT program for all

  4. Fibrinogen function after severe burn injury. (United States)

    Schaden, Eva; Hoerburger, David; Hacker, Stefan; Kraincuk, Paul; Baron, David M; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle


    Evidence regarding hypercoagulability in the first week after burn trauma is growing. This hypercoagulable state may partly be caused by increased fibrinogen levels. Rotational thrombelastometry offers a test which measures functional fibrinogen (FIBTEM(®)). To test the hypothesis that in patients with severe burn injury fibrinogen function changes over time, we simultaneously measured FIBTEM(®) and fibrinogen concentration early after burn trauma. After Ethics Committee approval consecutive patients with severe burn trauma admitted to the burn intensive care unit of the General Hospital of Vienna were included in the study. Blood examinations were done immediately and 12, 24 and 48 h after admission. At each time point fibrinogen level (Clauss) and 4 commercially available ROTEM(®) tests were performed. 20 consecutive patients were included in the study. Fibrinogen level and FIBTEM(®) MCF were within the reference range until 24 h after burn trauma but increased significantly 48 h after trauma. There was a significant correlation between FIBTEM(®) MCF and fibrinogen level (R=0.714, p<0.001). The results of this prospective observational clinical study show that fibrinogen function changes early after burn trauma and can be visualized by ROTEM(®) with the fibrinogen-sensitive FIBTEM(®) test. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting. (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered.

  6. Suicide by burning barbecue charcoal in England. (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Bennewith, Olive; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Nav; Gunnell, David


    Suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning from burning barbecue charcoal has become a common method of suicide in several Asian countries over the last 15 years. The characteristics of people using this method in Western countries have received little attention. We reviewed the inquest reports of 12 English Coroners (11% of all Coroners) to identify charcoal-burning suicides. We compared socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of suicide by charcoal burning occurring between 2005 and 2007 with suicides using other methods in 2005. Eleven charcoal-burning suicides were identified; people using this method were younger (mean age 33.4 versus 44.8 years, P = 0.02), and more likely to be unemployed (70.0 versus 30.1%, P = 0.01) and unmarried (100 versus 70%, P = 0.04) than those using other methods. Charcoal-burning suicides had higher levels of contact with psychiatric services (80.0 versus 59.1%) and previous self-harm (63.6 versus 53.0%) compared with suicides using other methods, but these differences did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. Over one-third of people dying by charcoal burning obtained information on this method from the Internet. Working with media, including Internet Service Providers, and close monitoring of changes in the incidence of suicide using this method might help prevent an epidemic of charcoal-burning suicides such as that seen in some Asian countries.

  7. [Burns, new challenges to take on]. (United States)

    Galí-Llàcer, Rosa; Sena-Fernández, Beatriz; Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel


    This article concerns a transversal descriptive study which shows the characteristics of burns treated in a Primary Health Care Center in an urban environment in Barcelona from 19 July 2005 unti 11 August 2007 (N=93). Patients younger than 15 were excluded from this study. 88% (82; CI of 95% 81,47-94,59) of the burns treated were caused by a thermal agent. Kitchen cooking oil ranks first as the cause of burns (24; 27%, CI of 95% 17,99-36,01). 70% of the burns studied had signs of superficial skin damage (65, CI of 95% 60,70-79,30). 61% (57; CI of 95% 51,70-70,30) of these burns were located on upper extremities The average recorded body surface burned was 0.0076% (median = 0,005%, range = 0,0001-0,5000%). The greatest number of wounds were observed among men aged 31 to 45 (17%; 16; CI of 95% 9,38-24,62). Educational health programs which focus on prevention of, and first aid care for, burns are needed. Studies like this one may prove useful when starting preventive or educational strategies.

  8. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang


    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  9. No influence of burn size on ventilator-associated pneumonia in burn patients with inhalation injury. (United States)

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Koichiro


    Burn size and inhalation injury are important predictors of mortality following burn. The important factors for predicting ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) following burn remain unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of burn size on VAP in burn patients with inhalation injury. We retrospectively studied 52 burn patients with inhalation injury requiring mechanical ventilation admitted to the Department of Acute Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital, Okayama, Japan, between June 2007 and October 2010. The overall mortality for all patients was 15%. Twenty-six patients (50%) developed VAP. Patients with VAP required longer ICU stay and mechanical ventilation than those without VAP. There was no difference in age, gender, mortality, and TBSA between burn patients with inhalation injury with and Without VAP. VAP rate had no difference with increasing TBSA in burn patients with inhalation injury. Our data indicated that burn size had no relationship with the development of VAP in burn patients with inhalation injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L.


    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs

  11. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients. (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M


    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of difficult pediatric facial burns: reconstruction of burn-related lower eyelid ectropion and perioral contractures. (United States)

    Egeland, Brent; More, Sunita; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S


    Despite significant burn treatment advances, modern multidisciplinary care, and improved survival after burns, facial burn scars remain clinically challenging. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. Pediatric facial burns present the same reconstructive challenges seen in adults, with additional developmental and psychologic concerns. In this paper, we describe the basic principals of facial burn care in the pediatric burn population, with a specific focus on lower-eyelid burn ectropion and oral commissure burn scar contracture leading to microstomia. Several cases are demonstrated.

  13. Burn care professionals' attitudes and practices regarding discussions of sexuality and intimacy with adult burn survivors. (United States)

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Rutter, Cindy E; Lessard, Collette R; Pressman, Melissa Singer; Jost, Janet Cusick; Bosch, James; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M


    Burn injury survival means coping with more than just the physical changes and disabilities often encountered after burn injury. Overall quality of life is important, and issues such as sexuality and intimacy are significant facets of quality of life. A literature review revealed limited research regarding current burn center practices related to sexuality and intimacy concerns of burn survivors and their partners. A 28-item survey, designed by seasoned burn care professionals and survivors, was distributed to burn care practitioners attending general sessions at several burn conferences in the United States. Seventy-one (86%) of the invited respondents completed the survey, with nursing representing the majority (63%). Mean tenure working in burn care was 10 years. Mean age of respondents was 40.5 years, with 75% being female and 25% male. Nearly half (47%) reported that specific staff was not designated to discuss sexuality and intimacy with survivors in their center. Sixty-two percent reported that special training regarding sexuality and intimacy was not available at their burn center. Only 14% of respondents indicated that they were "very comfortable" initiating conversation regarding these topics. Fifty-five percent said they were only likely to discuss sexuality and intimacy if the patient/partner initiated the discussion; however, 95% agreed that the patient should not have this responsibility. Although results represent findings from only 37 burn centers, the issues of sexuality and intimacy are not being effectively addressed in the participating centers. Designated staff to provide education is lacking, and there is limited comfort on the part of health care providers in initiating such conversations. These factors seem to often prevent burn care professionals from adequately addressing burn survivor's sexuality and intimacy needs and establish the need for further development of training and educational materials specific to sexuality, intimacy, and

  14. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow? (United States)

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed.

  15. Global biomass burning. Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.


    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric gases and, as such, may contribute to global climate changes. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The chapters in this volume include the following topics: remote sensing of biomass burning from space;geographical distribution of burning; combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; impacts of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions. A total of 1428 references are cited for the 63 chapters. Individual chapters are indexed separately for the data bases

  16. Electromagnetic trapping of cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V.I.; Minogin, V.G.; Letokhov, V.S.


    This review describes the methods of trapping cold atoms in electromagnetic fields and in the combined electromagnetic and gravity fields. We discuss first the basic types of the dipole radiation forces used for cooling and trapping atoms in the laser fields. We outline next the fundamentals of the laser cooling of atoms and classify the temperature limits for basic laser cooling processes. The main body of the review is devoted to discussion of atom traps based on the dipole radiation forces, dipole magnetic forces, combined dipole radiation-magnetic forces, and the forces combined of the dipole radiation-magnetic and gravity forces. Physical fundamentals of atom traps operating as waveguides and cavities for cold atoms are also considered. The review ends with the applications of cold and trapped atoms in atomic, molecular and optical physics. (author)

  17. 360-Degree Iris Burns Following Conductive Keratoplasty. (United States)

    Çakir, Hanefi; Genç, Selim; Güler, Emre


    The authors report a case with multiple iris burns after conductive keratoplasty to correct hyperopia. Case report. A 52-year-old woman with hyperopia had a previous conductive keratoplasty procedure and underwent a conductive keratoplasty re-treatment 6 months later. Postoperatively, she presented with 360-degree iris burns in both eyes that were correlated with the corneal conductive keratoplasty scars. In addition, specular microscopy revealed decreased endothelial cell density for both eyes. This is the first reported case of iris burns associated with conductive keratoplasty. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(11):776-778.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Design of a cross-sectional study on physical fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents after burn injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disseldorp Laurien M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries have a major impact on the patient’s physical and psychological functioning. The consequences can, especially in pediatric burns, persist long after the injury. A decrease in physical fitness seems logical as people survive burn injuries after an often extensive period of decreased activity and an increased demand of proteins leading to catabolism, especially of muscle mass. However, knowledge on the possibly affected levels of physical fitness in children and adolescents after burn injury is limited and pertains only to children with major burns. The current multidimensional study aims to determine the level of physical fitness, the level of physical activity, health-related quality of life and perceived fatigue in children after a burn injury. Furthermore, interrelations between those levels will be explored, as well as associations with burn characteristics. Methods/design Children and adolescents in the age range of 6 up to and including 18 years are invited to participate in this cross-sectional descriptive study if they have been admitted to one of the three Dutch burn centers between 6 months and 5 years ago with a burn injury involving at least 10% of the total body surface area and/or were hospitalized ≥ 6 weeks. Physical fitness assessments will take place in a mobile exercise lab. Quantitative measures of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, body composition and flexibility will be obtained. Outcomes will be compared with Dutch reference values. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and fatigue will be assessed using accelerometry and age-specific questionnaires. Discussion The findings of the current study will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term consequences of burn injury in children and adolescents after burns. The results can guide rehabilitation to facilitate a timely and optimal physical recovery. Trial registration The study is registered in

  19. BurnCalc assessment study of computer-aided individual three-dimensional burn area calculation. (United States)

    Sheng, Wen-bo; Zeng, Ding; Wan, Yan; Yao, Li; Tang, Hong-tai; Xia, Zhao-fan


    Accurate estimation of a burned area is crucial to decisions about fluid resuscitation, surgical options, nutritional support, and prognosis. Widely used clinical methods to estimate a burn area are two-dimensional. They do not consider age, sex, body mass, physical deformities, or other relevant factors. Computer-aided methods have improved the accuracy of estimating burned areas by including data analysis and reducing subjective differences. Three-dimensional (3D) scanning allows us to determine body dimensions rapidly and reproducibly. We describe an individualized, cost-efficient, portable 3D scanning system, BurnCalc, that can create an individual 3D model and then calculate body surface area (BSA) and the burn area accurately and quickly. The BurnCalc system was validated by verifying the accuracy and stability of BSA calculation. We measured 10 regular objects in experiment 1, using Student's t-test and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in the analysis. In experiment 2, artificial paper patches of known dimensions were attached to various parts of the body of 40 volunteers. Their sizes were then calculated using BurnCalc. The BurnCalc data were compared to actually measured values to verify accuracy and stability. Total BSAs of these 40 volunteers were also calculated by BurnCalc and compared to those derived from an accepted formula. In experiment 3, four experts using Chinese Rule-of-Nines or Rule-of-Palms methods calculated the percentages of the total BSA in 17 volunteers. Student's t-test and ICC, respectively, were used to compare the results obtained with the BurnCalc technique. Statistically, in experiment 1, p = 0.834 and ICC = 0.999, demonstrating that there was no difference between the BurnCalc and real measurements. Also, the hypothesis of null difference among measures (experiment 2) was true because p > 0.05 and ICC = 0.999, indicating that calculations of the total BSA and the burn area were more accurate using the Burn

  20. Sustained Morphine Administration Induces TRPM8-Dependent Cold Hyperalgesia. (United States)

    Gong, Kerui; Jasmin, Luc


    It is not uncommon for patients chronically treated with opioids to exhibit opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and this has been widely reported clinically and experimentally. The molecular substrate for this hyperalgesia is multifaceted, and associated with a complex neural reorganization even in the periphery. For instance, we have recently shown that chronic morphine-induced heat hyperalgesia is associated with an increased expression of GluN2B containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, as well as of the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1, in small-diameter primary sensory neurons only. Cold allodynia is also a common complaint of patients chronically treated with opioids, yet its molecular mechanisms remain to be understood. Here we present evidence that the cold sensor TRPM8 channel is involved in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. After 7 days of morphine administration, we observed an upregulation of TRPM8 channels using patch clamp recording on sensory neurons and Western blot analysis on dorsal root ganglia. The selective TRPM8 antagonist RQ-00203078 blocked cold hyperalgesia in morphine-treated rats. Also, TRPM8 knockout mice failed to develop cold hyperalgesia after chronic administration of morphine. Our results show that chronic morphine upregulates TRPM8 channels, which is in contrast with the previous finding that acute morphine triggers TRPM8 internalization. Patients receiving chronic opioid are sensitive to cold. We show in mice and rats that sustained morphine administration induces cold hyperalgesia and an upregulation of TRPM8. Knockout or selectively blocking TRPM8 reduces morphine-induced cold hyperalgesia suggesting TRPM8 is regulated by opioids. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Different Methods of Forming Cold Fronts in Nonmerging Clusters (United States)

    Dupke, Renato; White, Raymond E., III; Bregman, Joel N.


    Sharp edges in X-ray surface brightness with continuous gas pressure called cold fronts have often been found in relaxed galaxy clusters such as Abell 496. Models that explain cold fronts as surviving cores of head-on subcluster mergers do not work well for these clusters, and competing models involving gas sloshing have been recently proposed. Here, we test some concrete predictions of these models in a combined analysis of density, temperature, metal abundances, and abundance ratios in a deep Chandra exposure of Abell 496. We confirm that the chemical discontinuities found in this cluster are not consistent with a core merger remnant scenario. However, we find chemical gradients across a spiral ``arm'' discovered at 73 kpc north of the cluster center and coincident with the sharp edge of the main cold front in the cluster. Despite the overall SN Ia iron mass fraction dominance found within the cooling radius of this cluster, the metal enrichment along the arm, determined from silicon and iron abundances, is consistent with a lower SN Ia iron mass fraction (51%+/-14%) than that measured in the surrounding regions (85%+/-14%). The ``arm'' is also significantly colder than the surroundings by 0.5-1.6 keV. The arm extends from a boxy colder region surrounding the center of the cluster, where two other cold fronts are found. This cold arm is a prediction of current high resolution numerical simulations as a result of an off-center encounter with a less massive pure dark matter halo, and we suggest that the cold fronts in A496 provide the first clear corroboration of such model, where the closest encounter happened ~0.5 Gyr ago. We also argue for a possible candidate dark matter halo responsible for the cold fronts in the outskirts of A496.

  2. Measurement of volatiles, semi-volatiles and heavy metals in an oil burn test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.; Caron, T.; Landriault, M.; Pare, J.R.J.; Fingas, M.


    Tests involving meso-scale burning of Louisiana crude oil were conducted, and during each burn, extensive samples were taken from the oil, residue, and the smoke plume. The detailed analytical work employed to obtain and analyze the burn samples is outlined and discussed. The analytical parameters included volatiles and semi-volatiles of environmental interests as well as heavy metals typically contained in the starting crude oil. Because the smoke plume did not always impinge on the samplers, the ground samplers did not collect sufficient samples for a definitive analysis. Crude/residue analyses showed the burn resulted in a significant reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the original oil. Most of the reduction was thought to be simply evaporation or destruction from combustion. The residue did not have the degree of enrichment of the higher molecular weight PAHs as was the case in bench-scale burn experiments. Volatile organic compound and dioxin/furan measurements likewise did not show high levels of contamination from the burn itself. Most of the elevated levels of contaminants could probably be due to evaporation of the oil itself. Insufficient sampling was conducted to investigate the background levels from the weathering process. A novel means of sampling using a small remote controlled helicopter was attempted and sufficiently interesting results were obtained to indicate the potential of this passive sampling device for future work. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Natural forest fires and controlled burning - a study of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoernsten, L.; Nohlgren, E.; Aldentun, Y.


    A study of the literature was made to elucidate the history of forest fires in Sweden. Both the frequency of natural forest fires and the extent of controlled burning as a forest-management technique were examined. The literature revealed that natural forest fires occurred every 40 to 160 years, depending on the type of site and the climatic conditions. Natural forest fires are an unusual occurrence nowadays, mainly thanks to effective fire-fighting methods but also because of the reduction in the quantity of combustible materials left in the stands in modern forestry practice. The report describes the factors influencing the occurrence and frequency of forest fires and the impact these have on flora and fauna. Controlled burning has a long history of use as a method of site preparation prior to natural regeneration. Peak usage of the method occurred in the 1950s and 1960s, since when it has steadily declined. An account is given of the methods used for controlled burning. In parallel with the study, we conducted a questionnaire survey among forest enterprises to identify current interest in controlled burning. The techniques used and the costs involved are discussed. In addition to Sweden, we also looked at controlled burning in Canada, Finland and the USA. Finland is closest to Sweden when it comes to the history of controlled burning and the current interest in fire for conservation purposes. 103 refs, 18 figs

  4. Evidence-based first aid advice for paediatric burns in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Varley, Alice; Sarginson, Julia; Young, Amber


    Burn and scald injuries are common in children. First aid advice for paediatric burns is offered by a range of health organisations and charities in the UK. Despite this, children still present to emergency departments and burn services having received little or inadequate first aid. A survey was undertaken regarding the content and consistency of the advice given by a cross-section of UK health organisations involved in first aid prevention and education. The advice was subsequently examined to determine if it was evidence-based. Our study has demonstrated inconsistencies in the content of the first aid advice provided by the 21 organisations included in the study. Seventy-one percent of the information was only available online. The temperature, method and duration of cooling varied substantially, as did the advice recommended for the removal of clothing and jewellery and methods for covering the burn immediately after injury. Results from the literature review concluded the following based on available evidence; cool the burn with running tap water for 20min, remove clothing and jewellery and cover the burn with cling film or a clean non-adhesive dressing. This study highlights the lack of consistency between first aid guidance provided by health organisations and charities in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Rigorous, robust and systematic: Qualitative research and its contribution to burn care. An integrative review. (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; de Jong, A E E; McLean, L


    Qualitative methods are progressively being implemented by researchers for exploration within healthcare. However, there has been a longstanding and wide-ranging debate concerning the relative merits of qualitative research within the health care literature. This integrative review aimed to exam the contribution of qualitative research in burns care and subsequent rehabilitation. Studies were identified using an electronic search strategy using the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Scopus of peer reviewed primary research in English between 2009 to April 2014 using Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method as a guide for analysis. From the 298 papers identified, 26 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies there was an average of 22 participants involved in each study with a range of 6-53 participants conducted across 12 nations that focussed on burns prevention, paediatric burns, appropriate acquisition and delivery of burns care, pain and psychosocial implications of burns trauma. Careful and rigorous application of qualitative methodologies promotes and enriches the development of burns knowledge. In particular, the key elements in qualitative methodological process and its publication are critical in disseminating credible and methodologically sound qualitative research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...... temperature, flame height, burning rate and burn residues of three alkanes (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), a mixture of these alkanes (1:1:1 volumetric ratio) and two crude oils (light and medium-light crudes). The experimental results were compared to four models for the vaporization order...... of multicomponent fuels. The alkanes were tested as benchmark fuels with a uniform vaporization order, for which all components evaporate simultaneously. As expected, these pure fuels showed a steady state burning with a near-constant surface temperature, flame height and burning rate. The alkane mixture showed...

  7. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC (United States)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi


    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  8. Formation of cold molecules through the photo-association of cold atoms of Cesium. Existence of long range forces between between cold excited atoms of Cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparat, D.


    This thesis deals with the experimental study and the theoretical interpretation of the processes involved in photo-association and the formation of cold caesium molecules. It also presents a study of the dipolar forces between a pair of cold excited caesium atoms. We present here the first photo-association experiment on cold caesium atoms: two cold atoms absorb a photon to form an excited electronically excited molecules in a rotation-vibration level. The first production of cold molecules which was realised experimentally, after the spontaneous deexcitation of the photo-associated molecules, is described, stressing the role of the potential well of the molecular states O g - (6s+6p 3/2 ) or 1 u (6s+6p 3/2 ) of caesium. The detection of the formed caesium molecules is based on a two-photons resonant ionisation that creates Cs 2 + ions, afterwards selectively detected. Temperatures around 20-200 μK have been measured. The photo-associative spectroscopy is described on the theoretical point of view: a detailed theoretical study allows to calculate precisely the asymptotic parts of the potential curves. On the experimental point of view, we present the spectroscopy of the extern potential well of the caesium state O g - (6s+6p 3/2 ) and the construction of an effective potential curve of the RKR type. A unified theory of photo-association in weak field, considered as a collision assisted by laser, is developed. The cold atoms experiments allow to study and control the collision between two atoms whose mutual interaction is of the dipole-dipole type. Two different physical systems are studied: a sample of Rydberg atoms, and the photo-association process which is a laser-assisted collision. A modification of the motion of one pair of atoms makes it possible to control the bipolar forces and to choose the atoms relative speeds. (author)

  9. Thermoregulatory and Immune Responses During Cold Exposure: Effects of Repeated Cold Exposure and Acute Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellani, John


    .... This information will be used in developing thermoregulatory models during cold exposure. During these studies several unanswered questions regarding thermoregulation in the cold were also addressed: (1...

  10. BurnCalc assessment study of computer-aided individual three-dimensional burn area calculation


    Sheng, Wen-bo; Zeng, Ding; Wan, Yan; Yao, Li; Tang, Hong-tai; Xia, Zhao-fan


    Background Accurate estimation of a burned area is crucial to decisions about fluid resuscitation, surgical options, nutritional support, and prognosis. Widely used clinical methods to estimate a burn area are two-dimensional. They do not consider age, sex, body mass, physical deformities, or other relevant factors. Computer-aided methods have improved the accuracy of estimating burned areas by including data analysis and reducing subjective differences. Three-dimensional (3D) scanning allows...

  11. Wound management and outcome of 595 electrical burns in a major burn center. (United States)

    Li, Haisheng; Tan, Jianglin; Zhou, Junyi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jiaping; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing


    Electrical burns are important causes of trauma worldwide. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics, wound management, and outcome of electric burns. This retrospective study was performed at the Institute of Burn Research of the Third Military Medical University during 2013-2015. Data including the demographics, injury patterns, wound treatment, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. A total of 595 electrical burn patients (93.8% males) were included. The average age was 37.3 ± 14.6 y, and most patients (73.5%) were aged 19∼50 years. Most patients (67.2%) were injured in work-related circumstances. The mean total body surface area was 8.8 ± 11.8% and most wounds (63.5%) were full-thickness burns. Operation times of high-voltage burns and current burns were higher than those of low-voltage burns and arc burns, respectively. Of the 375 operated patients, 83.2% (n = 312) underwent skin autografting and 49.3% (n = 185) required skin flap coverage. Common types of skin flaps were adjacent (50.3%), random (42.2%), and pedicle (35.7%). Amputation was performed in 107 cases (18.0%) and concentrated on the hands (43.9%) and upper limbs (39.3%). The mean length of stay was 42.9 ± 46.3 d and only one death occurred (0.2%). Current burns and higher numbers of operations were major risk factors for amputation and length of stay, respectively. Electrical burns mainly affected adult males with occupational exposures in China. Skin autografts and various skin flaps were commonly used for electric burn wound management. More standardized and effective strategies of treatment and prevention are still needed to decrease amputation rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of the German version of the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B). (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Smits, Dirk; Jasper, Stefanie; Berg, Lea; Claes, Laurence; Ipaktchi, Ramin; Vogt, Peter M; de Zwaan, Martina


    The Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) is recognized as a valid self-rating scale to evaluate quality of life after burn. To validate the translated German version of the BSHS-B. One hundred and forty one burn survivors (65.2% men) with a mean age of 49.62 years (SD=15.16) and a mean duration after burn of 45.01 months (SD=26.18) answered the BSHS-B. Factor structure was tested by using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability (internal consistency) of the scales was determined by means of Cronbach's α. Construct validity was explored through correlations between the BSHS-B and the Short-Form 8 Health Survey (SF-8). In addition, the know-groups technique was used to determine to which degree the BSHS-B discriminates between patients with low and high burn severity based on the abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to examine criterion validity. The nine BSHS-B subscales showed good internal consistency. A second-order confirmatory factor analysis revealed the following main components: (1) Affect and Relationship, (2) Function and (3) Skin Involvement. The second-order factors were positively correlated with the SF-8 and negatively correlated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Patients with low ABSI scored higher on all three BSHS-B domains than those with high ABSI. The results indicate good psychometric properties of the German BSHS-B. Further studies are needed to investigate the utility of the questionnaire in clinical routine practice, evaluation of burn management programs, and burn-specific research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Burns in adults in Zaria, Nigeria. (United States)

    Mabogunje, O A; Lawrie, J H


    From 1971 to 1981, 245 adults with burn injuries were admitted to the Ahmadu Bello University Hospital, Zaria. The burns were major in 197 patients, moderate in 28 and minor in 20. Socioeconomic factors contributing to the injuries included the use of wood fires for cooking, for warming the body and the dwelling during the cool harmattan season, loose indigenous garments, thatch-roofed huts, petrol hoarding and epileptic seizures. Flame burns exceeded scalds with a high seasonal frequency in both men and women during the harmattan. Scalds occurred predominantly among the women, puerperal hot baths being a major cause. The overall mortality rate of 22 per cent is excessive. General economic development, architectural improvements, proper handling of petrol and kerosene, modification or abandonment of the puerperal ritual of hot baths, the maintenance of chronic epileptics on anticonvulsants and a programme of universal active immunization against tetanus would contribute to the prevention of burns and complications in adults and decrease the mortality rate.

  14. Ash and burn control through fishbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.


    The thermal alphas will accumulate in the center of the ignited thermonuclear plasma in the long pulse experiments. This accumulation increases the Z{sub eff} leading to increased synchrotron losses and decreases the effective fuel density which reduces the power output. Also the ignited plasma is burn-unstable and its temperature is expected to increase above the design point until a stable equilibrium is reached at a higher temperature. This higher operating temperature is not expected to be beneficial. Thus we are faced with the dual problem of ash accumulation and thermonuclear burn instability in the steadily burning tokamak plasma. So some means of controlling them is desirable. Several control schemes for both problems have been proposed. But it is felt that we need alternatives with more desirable characteristics. In this paper, we explore the use of fishbones' as possible scheme that will achieve the dual purpose of ash and burn control. 3 refs.

  15. Decontamination of burns contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vykouril, L.


    The suitability of various solutions for the decontamination of burnt skin and their efficiency were tested by experiments on rats. Tested was the decontamination of undisturbed skin, second degree skin burns and third degree skin burns. Decontamination solutions used included: distilled water, jodonal (an aqueous solution of iodine, ethoxylated nonylphenols, the copolymer of ethylene oxide with propylene oxide, and phosphoric acid) and a decontamination mixture of Sapon, Komplexon (trade names of detergents) and sodium hexametaphosphate. Decontamination efficiency was 68.4% for second degree burns and 47.1% for third degree burns. Most effective was the decontamination solution with an efficiency of 72%; the efficiency of jodonal was 67% and of water - 54%. Jodonal is the most suitable: in addition, it acts as a disinfectant and antiseptic. (M.D.)

  16. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn...... model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn...... and secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P burn did not differ between dexamethasone and placebo treatments (P >.6). There were no significant...

  17. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L


    demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model...... is an example of such a model, and several groups have performed studies of analgesics and pain mechanisms based on the model. The thesis aims to provide a critical review of the human burn model as a tool in pain research, and to give suggestions for development of the model and future research. The pain...... and inflammatory responses to superficial thermal burns in skin have been studied in healthy volunteers. Burns have the potential for releasing most of the inflammatory and chemical mediators that produce sensitisation and excitation of nociceptors, and the intense nociceptive input during injury produces...

  18. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pruitt, Basil A


    Mass casualty burn disasters are potentially challenging, in part because the majority of health care providers are inexperienced in the care of thermally injured patients and in part because of the...

  19. Risk factors for mortality in burn children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Rosanova


    Conclusions: In this series of burn children age ≤ 4 years, Garces index score 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were identified as independent variables related with mortality.

  20. Treatment of burn injuries with keratinocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syring, C.; Maenig, H.J.; Von Versen, R.; Bruck, J.


    The German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement (DIZG) provides burned patients with skin and amnion for a temporary wound closure. Severely burned patients (>60% BSA for adults, >40% BSA for children) were supplied with autologous and allogenic grafts from cultured keratinocytes. The keratinocyte culture is done under GMP-conditions using the method of Rheinwald and Green. The 3T3 fibroblasts were irradiated with 60 Gy and used as feeder cells to produce keratinocyte sheets within 3 weeks. In this time up to 6.000 cm are available. The sheets were harvested by detachment with dispase (1,2 U/ml), fixed to gauze and transported to the hospital. The DIZG has a 3 years experience in the treatment of burns with keratinocyte sheets. The sheets were transplanted to patients in different hospitals, the total transplanted area is about 30.000 cm. This paper describes the experiences with ten severely burned patients treated with keratinocyte sheet

  1. Prevention of cold-associated acute inflammation in familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. (United States)

    Hoffman, Hal M; Rosengren, Sanna; Boyle, David L; Cho, Jae Y; Nayar, Jyothi; Mueller, James L; Anderson, Justin P; Wanderer, Alan A; Firestein, Gary S

    Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of rash, arthralgia, and fever after cold exposure. The genetic basis of this disease has been elucidated. Cryopyrin, the protein that is altered in FCAS, is one of the adaptor proteins that activate caspase 1, resulting in release of interleukin 1. An experimental cold challenge protocol was developed to study the acute inflammatory mechanisms occurring after a general cold exposure in FCAS patients and to investigate the effects of pretreatment with an antagonist of interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1Ra). ELISA, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to measure cytokine responses. After cold challenge, untreated patients with FCAS developed rash, fever, and arthralgias within 1-4 h. Significant increases in serum concentrations of interleukin 6 and white-blood-cell counts were seen 4-8 h after cold challenge. Serum concentrations of interleukin 1 and cytokine mRNA in peripheral-blood leucocytes were not raised, but amounts of interleukin 1 protein and mRNA were high in affected skin. IL-1Ra administered before cold challenge blocked symptoms and increases in white-blood-cell counts and serum interleukin 6. The ability of IL-1Ra to prevent the clinical features and haematological and biochemical changes in patients with FCAS indicates a central role for interleukin 1beta in this disorder. Involvement of cryopyrin in activation of caspase 1 and NF-kappaB signalling suggests that it might have a role in many chronic inflammatory diseases. These findings support a new therapy for a disorder with no previously known acceptable treatment. They also offer insights into the role of interleukin 1beta in more common inflammatory diseases.

  2. Burn Rate Modification with Carborane Polymers (United States)


    distribution and optimal coating . In general, speeds and mix times were increased in order to increase the sheer present in the sample as additional solids...using Perkin Elmer Spectrum software. Rate sticks were coated with a thin film burn rate inhibiter to ensure uniform burn down the length of the...Accessions Division 8725 John J. Kingman Road , Ste 0944 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 GIDEP Operations Center P.O. Box 8000 Corona, CA

  3. Galactorrhea and amenorrhea in burn patients. (United States)

    Goyal, Navin; Gore, Madhuri A; Shankar, Ravi


    Galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea, although uncommonly reported in post-burn patients, is a complex problem to treat. Patient is reluctant to volunteer history of these symptoms, unless asked specifically. To study profile of adult female patients with galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea in post burn period. A prospective study of all adult female patients presenting with or detected to have galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea in post burn period was conducted over 6 month's period. Detailed clinical examination, estimation of LH, FSH, Prolactin levels and X-ray of skull was done in all patients. The data collected was analyzed. Patients with hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea were treated with Bromocriptine for 3 weeks to 3 months. In all patients with amenorrhea, pregnancy was ruled out by gynecological examination and urine pregnancy test. During this period, 30 patients (15.15%) were detected to have galactorrhea and/or amenorrhoea. The extent of burn in these patients was 20-65%of body surface area. Out of 30 patients, 5 had galactorrhea and amenorrhea, 1 galactorrhea alone and 24 had amenorrhea alone. Analysis of voluntary disclosures and detection on interrogation was done. Till the end of study, 4 patients with galactorrhea had complete relief, 2 patients reported reduction in discharge. Galactorrhea was distressing for all and was always associated with high prolactine levels .The reverse was not true. All the patients had chest burns besides other body areas. Association was noted between menstrual aberration and ovulatory phase at the time of burn. Galactorrhea and menstrual disturbances do exist in female patients in reproductive age group in post burn period and patients should be especially interrogated for these symptoms by the burn care providers.

  4. [Burn rehabilitation and community reintegration-new challenge to burn surgery in China]. (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Guo


    Burn patients often have severe disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychological disorder after discharge, which may last for a long time, even for a whole life. These problems may prevent patients from returning to normal life and re-entering society. Because of demographic and socioeconomic reasons, the number of burn patients in China is huge. The rising cure rate further increases the number of patients that need rehabilitation treatment. However, the level of burn rehabilitation in China is relatively low as compared with that in the developed countries. Along with the social and economical development, it is no longer satisfied to just save the life of patient. Improving the quality of wound healing, avoiding or decreasing disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychological disorder, and finally helping patients re-enter society is the ultimate goal of burn treatment. Modern concept of rehabilitation is to restore health or normal life for patients by medical, psychosocial, educational and occupational methods. Although increasing attention has been paid to burn rehabilitation in China recently, so far it is mainly focused on the fields of improving patients' appearance and body function, whereas the importance of psychosocial, educational, occupational, and social rehabilitation has still not been realized. Some fields of burn rehabilitation have not been well established and many are not carried out by professionals. The model of multidisciplinary team in burn centers of developed countries including surgeons and nurses, as well as allied professionals such as psychologists, physical and occupational therapists, dietitians, anesthesiologists and social workers has seldom been introduced into China. In most burn centers in China, psychological support is mainly given by nurses in their spare time of nursing. Burn treatment used to be divided into the early stage of life saving and wound repair, and the late stage of rehabilitation. It has not been realized until

  5. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity (United States)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.


    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  6. Camphor Burns on the Palm: An Unusual New Presentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the center), and Type 3 (a full‑thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia). Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring‑shaped blisters and ring‑shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm. KEYWORDS: Camphor, palm burn, ring ...

  7. Using relative humidity to predict spotfire probability on prescribed burns (United States)

    John R. Weir


    Spotfires have and always will be a problem that burn bosses and fire crews will have to contend with on prescribed burns. Weather factors (temperature, wind speed and relative humidity) are the main variables burn bosses can use to predict and monitor prescribed fire behavior. At the Oklahoma State University Research Range, prescribed burns are conducted during...

  8. Rehabilitation of burn patients: an underestimated socio-economic burden. (United States)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Sander, Jan-Thorben; Weyand, Birgit; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver


    Patients with burns utilise intensive medical care and rehabilitation. Deep dermal burns lead to scar contractures. Virtually no published data exists on costs for treatment of acute burns in comparison to burn sequelae. Our purpose was to collect financial data on burn therapy to estimate the socio-economic burden of thermal injuries. German-DRG for in-patient treatment of burns was collected from our burn center. DRG-related T95.- coding served as a search tool for burn associated sequelae. To include rehabilitation costs, data from the largest health care insurance and a workmen compensation fund were acquired. Acute burn treatment comprised 92% of costs for intensive care with approximately 4.600 EUR per percent total burned surface area (TBSA). Expenses for non-intensive care patients were significantly lower than for burn sequelae. Rehabilitation expenses were 4.4-fold higher than costs for acute burns including 59% for manual therapy and 37% for auxiliary material. TBSA multiplied by factor 4600 could serve for cost calculation of severely burned patients. Approximately 0.3 billion EUR in total or 270.000 EUR per patient/year were spent on burn sequelae. Early admission to specialized burn centers is advocated with state-of-the-art treatment to minimize burn sequelae and health care expenses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Photographic assessment of burn size and depth: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.; Moues, C.; Bogomolova, K.; Nieuwenhuis, M.; Oen, I.; Middelkoop, E.; Breederveld, R.; de Baar, M.


    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of using photographs of burns to assess both burn size and depth. Method: Fifty randomly selected photographs taken on day 0-1 post burn were assessed by seven burn experts and eight referring physicians. Inter-rater

  10. Burn Injuries in Children Accused of \\'witchcraft\\' | Yiltok | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burns from assaults are common in children. Torturing of children by burning is rare. This study reports a series of cases of burn injury inflicted in children who were accused of \\'witchcraft\\'. Four childrenwhowere accused of \\'witchcraft\\' and were consequently assaulted by burning were managed at the Jos University ...

  11. Prehospital cooling of severe burns: Experience of the Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early cooling with 10 - 20 minutes of cool running water up to 3 hours after a burn has a direct impact on the depth of the burn and therefore on the clinical outcome of the injury. An assessment of the early cooling of burns is essential to improve this aspect of burns management. Objectives. To assess the rates ...

  12. Effects of burning intensity on soil water storage and transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... slight burn and heavy burn over no burn. Burning appeared beneficial to both soil water movement and crop yield although with temporary effects. To maintain soil productivity, leguminous species were suggested to protect the soil from leaching and erosion and to improve both soil physical and chemical conditions.

  13. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn may...

  14. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.


    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  15. HANARO Cold Neutron Source Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Yeoung Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong Gil [GNEC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The cold neutron source (CNS) design has been completed and confirmed by the full scale mock-up test. When its licensing is expected to be issued within 2007, the CNS will be installed in HANARO in 2009 and be operated from 2010 after the commissioning. The production of cold neutrons from 2009 will enable the neutron guides and the scattering instruments to be commissioned in parallel. From 2010, a new era of neutron science will be open in the area of biotechnology, nano-technology, and material science through the probing capability of cold neutrons with nano-wavelength. The prominent research output that will be created from this cold neutron research facility will ensure the basic science and technology, which will provide the strong foundation for the advanced engineering and technology. This paper presents the design of in-pool assembly including the nuclear design of moderator cell, the manufacturing test of in-pool assembly, the full scale mock-up test, and the safety analysis.

  16. Cold gas accretion in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, Renzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    Evidence for the accretion of cold gas in galaxies has been rapidly accumulating in the past years. HI observations of galaxies and their environment have brought to light new facts and phenomena which are evidence of ongoing or recent accretion: (1) A large number of galaxies are accompanied by

  17. Nonfreezing Cold-Induced Injuries (United States)


    infections. Chronic pain resembling causalgia or reflex sympathetic dystrophy is reported. The neuropathic foot can develop ulceration and tissue loss...under dual neural control. Firstly, under cold conditions, the hypothalamus increases sympathetic tone which results in local A-V vasoconstriction...constrictive footwear, and immobility interact in maintaining vasoconstriction through a heightened sympathetic nervous system response or

  18. The fusion trail goes cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.


    The author reviews the recent history surrounding the ''cold fusion'' controversy and blames governments and funding agencies for putting inappropriate pressure on scientists. When this happens premature publication short-circuits the proper scientific peer-group review systems and results thus displayed cannot be said to be arrived at scientifically. (UK)

  19. Images of the Cold War. (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam


    The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

  20. Electron beam welding using fusion and cold wire fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncz, F.F.


    A straight-fusion (self-filler) welding technique generally poses no problem for electron beam welding. However, where control of penetration is a critical item and burn-through cannot be tolerated, this technique may not be satisfactory. To assure against beam-spike burn-through on a 1/4-inch deep weld joint, a low-power root-fusion pass, supplemented by numerous filler passes, was selected. However, this technique proved to have numerous problems. Voiding and porosity showed frequently in the first applications of this cold-wire filler process. Taper-out cratering, bead-edge undercutting, and spatter were also problems. These imperfections, however, were overcome. Employment of a circle generator provided the necessary heating of the joint walls to eliminate voids. The moving beam spot also provided a stirring action, lessening porosity. Taper-out cratering was eliminated by adjusting the timing of the current cutoff and wire-feed cutoff. Undercutting, bead height, and spatter were controlled by beam defocus