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Sample records for burmeister hemiptera reduviidae

  1. Predation of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae by Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Brazil

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    TKR Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae is an important pest of eucalyptus in several countries and the strategies for the integrated management of this insect in commercial plantations needs to be investigated. The predatory behavior of Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae on T. peregrinus is described. Adults of A. opsimus feed on nymphs and adults of the bronze bug and also present phytophagy. A. opsimus has potential as a natural enemy for the biological control of T. peregrinus.

  2. Histogical and ultrastructural aspects of the brindley's glands of pantrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

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    Jacenir Reis dos Santos-Mallet; Wanderley de Souza

    1990-01-01

    The Brindley's glands of Panstrongylus megistus were studied under the antomic, histologic and ultrastructural point of view. These glands located in the insect's methatorax are paired and have an opening near the third parir of the feet. Beside this aperture, ther are evaporation areas. Shape, sixe and aspect of the gland vary according to the feeding status. The glands are composed by a tubular part corresponding to the duct and a sack-like portion corrsponding to the secretory part. By ele...

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of the dorsal vessel of Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Nadir Francisca Sant'Anna Nogueira

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the microanatomy of the dorsal vessel of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus. The organ is a tuble anatomically divided into an anterior aorta anad a posterior heart, connected to the body wall through 8 pairs of alary muscles. The heart is divided in 3 chambers by means of 2 pairs of cardiac valves. a pair of ostia can be observed in the lateral wall of each chamber. A bundle of nerve fibers was found outside the organ, running dorsally along its major axis. A group of longitudinal muscular fibers was found in the ventral portion of the vessel. The vessel was found to be lined both internally and externally by pericardial cells covered by a thin laminar membrane. Inseide the vessel the pericardial cells were disposed in layers and on the outside they formed clusters or rows.

  4. Glandular areas associated with the male genitalia in Triatoma rubrofasciata (Triatominae, Reduviidae, Hemiptera and other Reduviidae

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    Christiane Weirauch

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, glandular areas associated with the phallus in Triatoma rubrofasciata are described and illustrated for the first time. The glandular areas lie in the membrane surrounding the articulatory apparatus. In order to unambiguously define the locality of the respective glandular areas, some features of the pygophore-phallus connection are redescribed. A possible functional context of the gland secretions is discussed. A preliminary study of several other Reduviidae implies that the described glandular areas occur in a wider range of taxa in this group.

  5. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  6. Microgeographic Spatial Structuring of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Populations Using Wing Geometric Morphometry in the Argentine Chaco

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    GASPE, M. S.; Schachter-Broide, J.; Gurevitz, J. M.; KITRON, U.; Gürtler, R. E.; Dujardin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of spatial structuring in Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations 12 yr after the last community-wide insecticide spraying campaign in rural Pampa del Indio, in the Gran Chaco of northeastern Argentina. In total, 172 male and 149 female right wings collected at 16 georeferenced sites with at least 10 individuals of the same sex were analyzed using geometric morphometry. Mean female body length and wing centroid size (CS) were significantly ...

  7. Efeito de extratos de plantas do Cerrado em Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Effect of Cerrado plant extracts on Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    André A. M. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão da doença de Chagas ocorre, principalmente, por meio de fezes de hemípteros hematófagos (Triatominae, os quais ingerem o Trypanosoma cruzi ao se alimentarem do sangue de pessoas ou outros mamíferos infectados. Para o controle dos triatomíneos, os piretróides são os principais inseticidas utilizados. Entretanto, algumas populações de insetos demonstraram resistência a determinados piretróides, indicando a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos inseticidas eficazes no controle desses vetores. Assim, foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de 83 extratos vegetais, pertencentes a 35 espécies diferentes, em ninfas do primeiro estádio de Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, triatomíneo encontrado no México. Para o teste tópico, foram aplicados 50 ìg de cada extrato nos tergitos abdominais de dez ninfas, em duplicata. Como controles, foram utilizados insetos tratados com etanol, acetona ou sem nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os triatomíneos foram observados durante 28 dias. Nenhum extrato apresentou atividade inseticida significativa, entretanto, o extrato hexânico do fruto e o etanólico da casca do caule de Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inibiram a taxa de ecdise em D. maxima (40% e 25%, respectivamente. Sugere-se que estes extratos sejam quimicamente investigados e monitorados por ensaios biológicos a fim de determinar os componentes, para que estes possam ser utilizados como modelos moleculares ou como compostos biorracionais nos programas de controle de insetos.Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is chiefly transmitted by faeces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or other mammals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of

  8. Identification of Bloodmeal Sources and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Triatomine Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) From Residential Settings in Texas, the United States

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    Kjos, Sonia A.; Marcet, Paula L.; Yabsley, Michael J.; KITRON, URIEL; Snowden, Karen F.; LOGAN, KATHLEEN S.; Barnes, John C.; Dotson, Ellen M.

    2013-01-01

    The host–vector–parasite interactions in Chagas disease peridomestic transmission cycles in the United States are not yet well understood. Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection prevalence and bloodmeal sources were determined for adult and immature triatomine (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens collected from residential settings in central Texas. Sequenced cytochrome b DNA segments obtained from triatomine digestive tract identified nine vertebrate hosts and one invert...

  9. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida species subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Gustavo Mario Calderon-Fernandez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39 represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.

  10. First record of Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini in Riohacha, La Guajira – Colombia

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    Edith Natalia Gómez-Melendro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of vector insect species, their habitat and geographical distribution is crucial for determining the risk of transmission of the etiologic agents that cause disease in humans, which allows defining strategies for prevention, surveillance and control in line with the characteristics of each area. Objective. To determine the presence and public health importance of vectors of Chagas disease in the indigenous settlements of Marbacella and El Horno of the Wayúu ethnic group in the municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and methods. From active search, installation and inspection of biosensors and occasional catches, Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini were collected intra and in the peridomicile housing of the indigenous settlements of El Horno and Marbacella of the the Wayúu ethnic group. Indices of intra and peridomestic infestation, colonization, density, dispersion and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 were calculated. Results. 79.6% (n = 90 of the specimens were collected around the homes and 20.3% (n = 23 inside the homes, all corresponding to Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848. The natural infection indices with T. cruzi accounted for 43.5% for Marbacella and 36% for El Horno. Conclusion. This is the first reported capture of individuals of T. maculata, considered a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia, naturally infected with T. cruzi in the municipality of Riohacha expanding the geographical distribution of the species in the department of La Guajira.

  11. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

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    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  12. Triatoma boliviana sp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) de los valles subandinos de La Paz - Bolivia, similar a Triatoma nigromaculata Stål, 1859

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    Martinez Avandano, Eddy; Chávez Espada, Tamara; Sossa Gil, Dino; Aranda Asturizaga, Roberto; Vargas Mamani, Benigno; Vidaurre Pietro, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma bolivianasp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from Sub Andean valleys of La Paz - Bolivia, related to Triatoma nigromaculata Stål, 1859. We present the description of Triatoma boliviana sp. n. based on morphological external characters of 3 males and 3 females following the keys of Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979) and Carcavallo et al. (1997). The new species are very similar to Triatoma nigromaculata and was captured in Sub Andean valleys from Muñecas Province, Department of La Pa...

  13. Irradiation effects on the duration of intermolt in nymphs of the fourth instar of Panstrongylus megistus Burmeister, 1835 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The duration of intermolt, in nymphs of the fourth instar, of P. megistus, submitted to irradiation with Cobalt 60, 24 hs after the blood meal is studied. The insects were divided in four groups of 40 and were irradiated with doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80 Gray, respectively. (M.A.C.)

  14. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae, vectors of Chagas' disease.

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    Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  15. Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (insecta: hemiptera: Reduviidae: insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction.

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    Wei Song Hwang

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp. and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies to date based on molecular data (5 markers. This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma, but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma. The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of

  16. Behavioral and Toxicological Responses of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to the Insect Repellents DEET and IR3535.

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    Alzogaray, Raúl A

    2016-03-01

    ,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is a broad-spectrum insect repellent used by millions of people since the 1950s. Ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535) is a repellent developed more recently that is still not used as extensively. This study compares the behavioral and toxicological effects of both substances in fifth-instar nymphs of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Repellency was quantified using filter paper discs as experimental arenas. Half the discs were treated with solution of repellent in acetone, and the other half with acetone alone. The lowest observed effect level was identical for both substances, 74 µg/cm2. Nymph age (between 1-3 h and 99 d from last ecdysis) had no influence on repellency. Topical application of 750 µg of DEET per nymph produced a mortality rate between 0% (24 h after application) and 40% (7 d later). The same dose of IR3535 produced no mortality during the same period of time. Simultaneous treatment with piperonylbutoxide (a mixed function microsomal oxidase inhibitor) synergized the lethal effect of DEET. Only DEET increased locomotor activity in nymphs exposed to a treated surface. Nymph antennectomy abolished DEET repellency but not its effect on locomotor activity. The concentrations of both these compounds required to produce either behavioral or toxicological effects are too high to have any practical applications in the control of R. prolixus. PMID:26637386

  17. First observation of alternative food usage (extrafloral nectar by the assassin bug Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs (Reduviidae are voracious insects that prey on other arthropods. Recent evidences have pointed out that these predators also feed on plant derived substances in rare opportunities. The present study describes the feeding behavior of the reduviid Atopozelus opsimus on extrafloral nectaries of Inga vera (Fabaceae in a Neotropical savanna area. It was investigated if the insects feed more frequently of extrafloral nectar or prey, and if individuals of different stages of development vary according to feeding behavior. Notably, the results suggest that the diet of all instars and adults consist mainly of extrafloral nectar (N = 1013, in detriment of captured prey ingestion (N = 18. Also, there was no variation on feeding behavior and life stage.

  18. Chromosomal variation, macroevolution and possible parapatric speciation in Mepraia spinolai (Porter (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Frias Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepraia spinolai is an endemic species in Chile that lives in wild and domestic habitats. It is the only species of the Reduviidae family that shows alate polymorphism; females are always wingless, but males can be found with and without wings. The M. spinolai karyotype consists of 10 pairs of autosomes and a complex sex determination system. Males from the northernmost regions I and II (latitude 18°-26° South are always winged (braquipterous and are X1X2Y, with a large Y chromosome. From region III to the metropolitan region (latitude 26°-33° South, males may be either winged or wingless but appear to be polymorphic for a small neo-Y chromosome, which may have originated by fracture of the large holocentric Y chromosome found in populations from farther north. Experimental crosses suggest that the genes for wings are linked in the Y chromosome and also that there are two cytologically indistinguishable types of neo-Y chromosomes. One form (Y1 bears a gene or genes for wings while the other (Y2 lacks such genes. Males that are X1X2Y1, X1X2Y1Y1 and X1X2Y1Y2 are winged, while the absence of Y1 (X1X2Y2 and X1X2Y2Y2 results in a wingless male. These chromosomes and morphological changes are correlated with a shift of the southern population into more arid habitats of the interior in the metropolitan region and region III.

  19. Phylogenetics and biogeography of the endemic Madagascan millipede assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae).

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    Forthman, Michael; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    For at least the past 80my, Madagascar, a major biodiversity hotspot, has been isolated from all other landmasses. This long-term isolation, along with geologic and climatic factors within Madagascar and throughout the Indian Ocean, has undoubtedly influenced the evolution of the island's biota. However, few systematic analyses incorporating modern divergence dating and biogeographic analyses have focused on Madagascan insects. The diverse Madagascan millipede assassin bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae) offer an opportunity to contribute to a limited body of insect-related research that explores Madagascar's historical biogeography. A molecular dataset (COI mtDNA and 18S, 28S D2 and D3-D5 rDNAs) for 56 taxa (39 ingroup) and a combined morphological (145 characters) and molecular dataset for 110 taxa (93 ingroup) are analyzed with maximum likelihood (ML) and parsimony approaches. Based on the molecular ML phylogeny, divergence times were estimated using fossil and secondary calibrations and biogeographic analyses performed using DIVA, DEC, and DEC+j models to determine the role and patterns of vicariance and dispersal in the origin of Madagascan Ectrichodiinae. Results indicate that Ectrichodiinae in Madagascar do not form a monophyletic group, different clades are closely related to Afrotropical and Oriental lineages, and have colonized the island via transoceanic dispersal at least twice from the Oriental region and once from the Afrotropical region in the last ∼68my. Additionally, the DEC+j and DIVA models infer a single out-of-Madagascar dispersal event to the Afrotropical region. Oceanic and geologic factors that may have facilitated dispersal between these three regions are discussed. Results of the combined analyses are used to explore character support for Madagascan taxa and inform taxonomic diagnoses. Our results are congruent with the small but growing body of biogeographic research supporting Cenozoic transoceanic dispersal for Madagascan

  20. Fauna Triatominae do Estado de Bahia, Brasil.V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini Triatomidae fauna of the State of Bahia, Brazil. V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. - Hemiptera,Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolderini

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock; Neide Guitton

    1982-01-01

    Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. de Hemíptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini, é descrita no presente trabalho com base em um exemplar coletado em domicílio da cidade do Salvador, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. A espécie se distingue facilmente das outras conhecidas do gênero, principalmente por apresentar asas sem manchas e conexivo com largas manchas claras e escuras alternadas.Microtriatoma pratai n. sp. (Hemíptera, reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini) is described from a single specimen colle...

  1. Embryology of Triatoma infestans (KLUG, (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, a Chagas' disease vector Embriología del Triatoma infestans, vector de la enfermedad de Chagas

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    Laura E. Fichera

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the embryogenesis of T. infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae. Morphological parameters of growth sequences from oviposition until hatching (12-14 d 28ºC were established. Five periods, as percent of time of development (TD, were characterized from oviposition until hatching. The most important morphological features were: 1 formation of blastoderm within 7% of TD; 2 germ band and gastrulation within 30% of TD; 3 nerve cord, limb budding, thoracic and abdominal segmentation and formation of body cavity within 50% of TD; 4 nervous system and blastokinesis end, and development of embryonic cuticle within 65% of TD; 5 differentiation of the mouth parts, fat body, and Malphigian tubules during final stage and completion of embryo at day 12 to day 14 around hatching. These signals were chosen as appropriate morphological parameters which should enable the evaluation of embryologic modifications due to the action/s of different insecticidesEn este estudio se caracterizó el desarrollo embrionario del T. infestans (Hemiptera Reduviidae. Se establecieron parámetros morfológicos secuenciales de crecimiento desde la oviposición hasta la eclosión, (12-14 d 28ºC. Cinco períodos de crecimiento fueron determinados y expresados como fracciones porcentuales del tiempo total del desarrollo (TD hasta la eclosión. Los eventos morfológicos mas importantes fueron: 1 La formación del blastodermo hasta el 7% del TD; 2 La aparición de la banda germinativa y su gastrulación transcurridos un 30% del TD; 3 El comienzo de la formación del cordón nervioso, de las extremidades, la segmentación torácica y abdominal y la formación del mixocele cuando la embriogénesis alcanzó el 50% del TD; 4 La terminación de la blastoquinesis, el desarrollo completo del sistema nervioso y la aparición de la cutícula embrionaria hasta el 65% del TD; 5 En la etapa final de la embriogenesis se observó la diferenciación del aparato mandibular, el cuerpo graso

  2. Effect of sequential heat and cold shocks on nuclear phenotypes of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Garcia Simone L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal shocks induce changes in the nuclear phenotypes that correspond to survival (heterochromatin decondensation, nuclear fusion or death (apoptosis, necrosis responses in the Malpighian tubules of Panstrongylus megistus. Since thermal tolerance increased survival and molting rate in this species following sequential shocks, we investigated whether changes in nuclear phenotypes accompanied the insect survival response to sequential thermal shocks. Fifth instar nymphs were subjected to a single heat (35 or 40°C, 1 h or cold (5 or 0°C, 1 h shock and then subjected to a second shock for 12 h at 40 or 0°C, respectively, after 8, 18, 24 and 72 h at 28°C (control temperature. As with specimen survival, sequential heat and cold shocks induced changes in frequency of the mentioned nuclear phenotypes although their patterns differed. The heat shock tolerance involved decrease in apoptosis simultaneous to increase in cell survival responses. Sequential cold shocks did not involve cell/nuclear fusion and even elicited increase in necrosis with advancing time after shocks. The temperatures of 40 and 0ºC were more effective than the temperatures of 35 and 5ºC in eliciting the heat and cold shock tolerances, respectively, as shown by cytological analysis of the nuclear phenotypes. It is concluded that different sequential thermal shocks can trigger different mechanisms of cellular protection against stress in P. megistus, favoring the insect to adapt to various ecotopes.

  3. Effect of sequential heat and cold shocks on nuclear phenotypes of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

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    Garcia Simone L; Pacheco Raquel M; Rodrigues Vera LCC; Mello Maria Luiza S.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal shocks induce changes in the nuclear phenotypes that correspond to survival (heterochromatin decondensation, nuclear fusion) or death (apoptosis, necrosis) responses in the Malpighian tubules of Panstrongylus megistus. Since thermal tolerance increased survival and molting rate in this species following sequential shocks, we investigated whether changes in nuclear phenotypes accompanied the insect survival response to sequential thermal shocks. Fifth instar nymphs were subjected to a ...

  4. Fauna Triatominae do Estado de Bahia, Brasil.V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini Triatomidae fauna of the State of Bahia, Brazil. V - Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. - Hemiptera,Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolderini

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Microtriatoma pratai sp. n. de Hemíptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini, é descrita no presente trabalho com base em um exemplar coletado em domicílio da cidade do Salvador, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. A espécie se distingue facilmente das outras conhecidas do gênero, principalmente por apresentar asas sem manchas e conexivo com largas manchas claras e escuras alternadas.Microtriatoma pratai n. sp. (Hemíptera, reduviidae, Triatominae, Bolboderini is described from a single specimen collected inside a house in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. This species is easily distinguished from the others belonging to the genus principally by the existence of alternating broad light and dark coloured spots on the connexivum and the absence of spots on the hemelytra.

  5. Comparative study of enzymes in testes and ovaries from adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler) and triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). correlation with fine structural organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaraffia, P Y; Maldonado, C; Aoki, A; De Burgos, N M

    2001-01-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler) and Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes. PMID:11759815

  6. Comparative study of enzymes in testes and ovaries from adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Correlation with fine structural organization

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    PY Scaraffia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities of hexokinase (HK, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK, glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes.

  7. Miridae, Reduviidae and Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera collected in Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Iberá watershed, Corrientes, Argentina Reduviidae, Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera recolectados en Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Esteros de Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina

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    María C. Melo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of contributing to the knowledge of the biodiversity in the protected areas of Argentina, terrestrial Heteroptera were collected in the Natural Reserve of the Iberá. The sampling site was the locality of Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57° 09'W and the following collection methods were used: sweeping, beating, fogging and light-trapping. A list is presented, with 90 species belonging to the superfamilies Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae, and Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae and Rhyparochromidae, 13 of them are new records for the Argentine Republic (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis, Oncopeltus luctuosus, Ischnodemus gayi, Oedancala nana, Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus, Pseudopachybrachius vinctus and 36 new records for the province of Corrientes.Con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad en las áreas protegidas de la Argentina, se realizaron recoleccciones de Heteroptera terrestres en la Reserva Natural del Iberá. El sitio de muestreo fue la localidad de Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57°09'W y se utilizaron los siguientes métodos de recoleccion: rastreo, golpeteo, fogging y trampa de luz. Se presenta una lista con 90 especies pertenecientes a las superfamilias Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae y Rhyparochromidae, de las cuales 13 representan primeras citas para la República Argentina (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis , Oncopeltus luctuosus , Ischnodemus gayi , Oedancala nana , Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus

  8. Detección de triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos. Corrientes, Argentina Detection of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in domiciliary and extra-domiciliary ecotopes. Corrientes, Argentina

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    Miryam Pieri Damborsky

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar los triatominos que predominan en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos de diferentes departamentos de la Provincia de Corrientes mediante muestreos llevados a cabo desde 1985 hasta 1995. En los ecótopos domiciliarios se detectaron Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811 y Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835. T. infestans y T. sordida se hallaron también en ambientes peridomésticos. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida y Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 se colectaron en biótopos silvestres. En los domicilios, se confirmó el predominio de T. infestans. Esta especie fue la única parasitada por tripanosomas cruziformes. Si bien T. sordida fue más frecuente en los ecótopos extradomésticos, se demostró su tendencia a colonizar los ambientes domésticos.In order to identify intra- and extra-domiciliary triatomines, a study in different counties of Corrientes Province, Argentina, was conducted from 1985 to 1995. Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811, and Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 were detected in domestic ecotopes. T. infestans and T. sordida were also found in the peridomicile. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida, and Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 were collected in sylvatic biotopes. T. infestans was confirmed as the predominant species in the domestic environment and was the only species infected with Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites. T. sordida was most frequent in extra-domiciliary ecotopes, but could be considered capable of colonizing human dwellings.

  9. Distribuição Geográfica e Dispersão Alti-latitudinal de Alguns Gêneros e Espécies da Tribo Triatomini Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Galvão Cleber

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Distribution and Alti-latitudinal Dispersion of Some Genera and Species of the Tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae - With the currently known distribution of genera and species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, maps and diagrams were prepared, showing the geographical area occupied by the species and their respective dispersion in grades of latitude and altitude. Two genera are not treated: Panstrongylus Berg, 1879, already published and Triatoma Laporte, 1832, that is being published partially in several articles. Genus Eratyrus Stal, 1859, has two species, while Dipetalogaster Usinger, 1939, Mepraia Mazza, Gajardo & Joerg, 1940, Paratriatoma Barber, 1938 and recently created genus Hermanlentia Jurberg & Galvão, 1997, have only one each. The study of these maps and diagrams permits a better knowledge about some ecological requirements of Chagas' disease vectors and detects gaps in the geographical distribution, where the species were not found but probably they could be prevalent

  10. Male meiosis, heterochromatin characterization and chromosomal location of rDNA in Microtomus lunifer (Berg, 1900 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Hammacerinae

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    María Poggio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we analysed the male meiosis, the content and distribution of heterochromatin and the number and location of nucleolus organizing regions in Microtomus lunifer (Berg, 1900 by means of standard technique, C- and fluorescent bandings, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe. This species is the second one cytogenetically analysed within the Hammacerinae. Its male diploid chromosome number is 31 (2n=28+X1X2Y, including a minute pair of m-chromosomes. The diploid autosomal number and the presence of m-chromosomes are similar to those reported in M. conspicillaris (Drury, 1782 (2n=28+XY. However, M. lunifer has a multiple sex chromosome system X1X2Y (male that could have originated by fragmentation of the ancestral X chromosome. Taking into account that M. conspicillaris and M. lunifer are the only two species within Reduviidae that possess m-chromosomes, the presence of this pair could be a synapomorphy for the species of this genus. C- and fluorescent bandings showed that the amount of heterochromatin in M. lunifer was small, and only a small CMA3 bright band was observed in the largest autosomal pair at one terminal region. FISH with the 18S rDNA probe demonstrated that ribosomal genes were terminally placed on the largest autosomal pair. Our present results led us to propose that the location of rDNA genes could be associated with variants  of the sex chromosome systems in relation with a kind of the sex chromosome systems within this family. Furthermore, the terminal location of NOR in the largest autosomal pair allowed us to use it as a chromosome marker and, thus, to infer that the kinetic activity of both ends is not a random process, and there is an inversion of this activity.

  11. Sinopse dos Chryxinae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Synopsis of the Chryxinae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma sinopse da taxonomia dos Chryxinae com chaves para os gêneros e espécies da subfamília são apresentados. Chryxus bahianus sp. nov. e o macho de Wygodzinskyella travassosi (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1944 são descritos.Synopsis of the Chryxinae with keys to the genera and species of the subfamily are presented. Chryxus bahianus sp. nov. and the male of Wygodzinskyella travassosi (Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1944 are described.

  12. The hemocytes of Panstrogyllus Megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Os hemócitos de Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Margherita Anna Barracco

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Five hemocyte types were identified in the hemolymph of Panstrongylus megistus by phase contrast and common light microscopy using some histochemical methods. These are: Prohemocytes, small cells presenting a great nucleus/cytoplasm ratio; Plasmatocytes, the most numerous hemocytes, are polymorphic cells mainly characterized by a large amount of lysosomes; Granulocytes, hemocytes very similar to plasmatocytes which contain cytoplasmic granules and are especially rich in polysaccharides; Oenocytoids, cells presenting a small nucleus and a thick cytoplasm; they show many small round vacuoles when observed in Giemsa smears and many cytoplasmic granules under phase microscopy; Adipohemocytes, very large hemocytes, presenting many fat droplet inclusions which could correspond to free fat bodies which entered the hemolymph. Only prohemocytes and plasmatocytes can be clearly classified; all the other hemocyte types have a more ambiguous classification.Cinco tipos de hemócitos foram identificados na hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus através da microscopia de constraste de fase e de luz, usando alguns testes histoquímicos: Pró-hemócitos-células pequenas que mostram uma grande relação núcleocitoplasmática; Plasmotócitos-células polimporficas, que se caracterizam principalmente pela sua grande abundância em lisossomos - são os hemócitos mais numerosos; Granulócitos-células muito semelhantes aos plasmatócitos que contêm grânulos citoplasmáticos particularmente ricos em polissacarídeos; Enocitóides-hemócitos que apresentam um núcleo pequeno e cujo citoplasma basofílico revela-se muito denso e homogênio - mostram uma série de pequenos vacúolos esféricos quando observados nos esfregaços corados pelo Giemsa, mas a microscopia de fase revela uma grande quantidade de pequenos grânulo ao invés de vacúolos; Adipo-hemócitos-hemócitos muito grandes que contêm uma grande quantidade de inclusões lípicas - poderiam corresponder a células do corpo gorduroso que, destacando-se, penetram na hemolinfa. Somente os p´r-hemócitos e os plasmatócitos podem ser classificados com precisão; os outros tipos podem gerar ambiguidade de classificação.

  13. Mecistogaster amalia (Burmeister Odonata: Pseudostigmatidae: First Record from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Marina Dalzochio

    2011-07-01

    Resumo. Mecistogaster é um gênero da Família Pseudostigmatidae, restrito ao Novo Mundo e pobremente estudado devido sua preferência por clareiras e trilhas dentro de matas. No Brasil, apenas uma espécie é conhecida, Mecistogaster amalia (Burmeister. A distribuição de M. amalia se estende do sudeste do Brasil (nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo até a Argentina. Aqui, reportamos pela primeira vez M. amalia para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul State, Sul do Brasil. O presente estudo amplia o registro de ocorrência da espécie em 630 km, a partir do registro anterior na Floresta Paranaense, na Província de Missiones, Argentina.

  14. Rhodnius stali n. sp., afim de Rhodnius pictipers Stal, 1872 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Rhodnius stali n. sp. related to Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Herman Lent

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhdnius stali n. sp. was described based on specimens deposited in the Herman Lent Collection of Entomological Collection of Oswaldo Cruz Institute, until now identified as Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 and compared with specimens of R. pictipes proceeding from state of Amazonas and Pará, Brazil. R. stali is related to R. pictipes though distinguished by the total length, 15 to 17 mm male and 16,5 to 19 mm female, the anteocular region 2,5 times larger than postocular region and by the shape of phallic strictures known as: phallosoma, struts, gonopore process and endosoma process.

  15. Descrição de ovos e ninfas de Triatoma klugi (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Description of eggs and nymphs of Triatoma klugi (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    José Jurberg

    Full Text Available Os autores descreveram as características morfológicas de Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão, 2001 pertencente ao grupo de espécies que compõem o "complexo T. oliveirai". Até o presente tem sido difícil separar essas espécies com base nas características ninfais, o que justifica o desenvolvimento deste trabalho. Os espécimes foram coletados em frestas de rochas no morro Malavok na localidade de Linha Brasil, município de Nova Petrópolis, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O local de captura dos triatomíneos situa-se entre 700 e 800 m de altitude (29º18'38''S, 51º04'57''W. Juntamente com T. oliveirai (Neiva, Pinto & Lent, 1939, espécie morfologicamente mais próxima, são as únicas do complexo que não foram encontradas, até o momento, no Estado do Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul e Goiás, Brasil. Em condições experimentais, já foi testada e comprovada a sua susceptibilidade à infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 e Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920. A análise comparativa das ornamentações do exocório dos ovos e de três estádios ninfais de T. klugi por microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou algumas particularidades morfológicas, com destaque para: a face ventral da cabeça, o sulco estridulatório e os últimos segmentos abdominais (IX, X - futura genitália e XI - tubo anal. Esses dados contribuem para a ampliação dos parâmetros diferenciais visando à diagnose de T. klugi durante o seu desenvolvimento ninfal.The authors had described the morphologic characteristics of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão, 2001 to the group of species belonging to "T. oliveirai complex". Until the moment it has been difficult to separate on the nymphs characteristics basis these species, what it justifies the development of this work. The specimens had been collected in openings of rocks in the Malavok mount in the locality of Linha Brazil, city of Nova Petrópolis, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The local of capture of the Triatominae is placed enters 700 and 800 m of altitud (29º18'38''S, 51º04'57''W. Together with T. oliveirai (Neiva, Pinto & Lent, 1939, its morphologically related species, is the only ones of the complex that had not been found, until the moment, in the State of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, Brazil. In experimental conditions, already it was tested and proven its susceptibilities to the infection for Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 and Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920. The comparative analysis of the ornaments of the exocorium of eggs and of three nymphs of T. klugi by optic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed some morphologic particularities, with prominence for: the ventral face of the head, the stridulatory sulcus and the last abdominal segments (IX, X - future genitalia and XI - anal duct. These data contribute for the magnifying of the distinguishing parameters aiming at diagnosis of T. klugi during its nymphal development.

  16. Estudo morfométrico do gênero Panstrongylus Berg, 1879 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Morphometric study of the genus Panstrongylus Berg, 1879 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Carolina Magalhães dos Santos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae is actually represented by 137 species distributed among 6 tribes and 19 genera. Within this subfamily, the genus Panstrongylus, Berg 1879, is composed by 13 species widespread in sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic habitats of Neotropical regions. These species are vectors of Chagas disease and consequently are found associated with its main hosts, such as birds and mammals. Interest in species of this genus has been increasing in the last few years. Reports of several authors indicate these Triatominae to invade and colonize houses, increasing their epidemiological significance. Morphometry was used in this study to investigate correlations among possible closely related species. We measured 224 specimens among 13 species through a set of metric variables of the head. The results indicated that the genus Panstrongylus seems to be homogeneous since 10 of the 14 species were shown to be closely related.

  17. The morphology of Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838), a louse commonly found on the long-legged buzzard Buteo rufinus (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    DİK, Bilal; HALAJIAN, Ali; Turner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was the morphological study of Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) by light microscope as well as by scanning electron microscope. The lice specimens were collected from long-legged buzzards, Buteo rufinus (Cretzschmar) (Accipitridae), in Turkey.

  18. Atlas of Mexican Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera and vector transmission of Chagas disease

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    Janine M Ramsey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. Nineteen of the 31 Mexican triatomine species have been consistently found to invade human houses and all have been found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The present paper aims to produce a state-of-knowledge atlas of Mexican triatomines and analyse their geographic associations with T. cruzi, human demographics and landscape modification. Ecological niche models (ENMs were constructed for the 19 species with more than 10 records in North America, as well as for T. cruzi. The 2010 Mexican national census and the 2007 National Forestry Inventory were used to analyse overlap patterns with ENMs. Niche breadth was greatest in species from the semiarid Nearctic Region, whereas species richness was associated with topographic heterogeneity in the Neotropical Region, particularly along the Pacific Coast. Three species, Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma mexicana and Triatoma barberi, overlapped with the greatest numbers of human communities, but these communities had the lowest rural/urban population ratios. Triatomine vectors have urbanised in most regions, demonstrating a high tolerance to human-modified habitats and broadened historical ranges, exposing more than 88% of the Mexican population and leaving few areas in Mexico without the potential for T. cruzi transmission.

  19. Changes in nuclear phenotype frequencies following sequential cold shocks in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Silvana GP Campos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule cells in fifth instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease, were studied following sequential shocks at 0ºC, separated by intervals of 8 h and 24 h at 30ºC, under conditions of moderate fasting and full nourishment. The insects pertained to colonies reared in the laboratory and originated from domestic specimens collected in the Brazilian states of São Paulo (north and Minas Gerais (south. Since nuclear phenotypes in this species are affected by single cold shocks, it was expected that these phenotypes could also be changed by sequential shocks. Nuclear phenotypes indicative of mechanisms of cell survival (nuclear fusion and heterochromatin decondensation and cell death (apoptosis and necrosis were observed concomitantly in all the conditions tested. Nuclear fusion and heterochromatin decondensation were not found relevant for the presumed acquisition of the cold-hardening response in T. infestans. The decreased frequency of apoptosis and necrosis following sequential cold shocks including under fasting conditions, indicated that tolerance to sequential cold shocks occurred in T. infestans of the mentioned origin.

  20. Changes in nuclear phenotype frequencies following sequential cold shocks in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Silvana GP; Rodrigues Vera Lúcia CC; Mello Maria Luiza S

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule cells in fifth instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease, were studied following sequential shocks at 0ºC, separated by intervals of 8 h and 24 h at 30ºC, under conditions of moderate fasting and full nourishment. The insects pertained to colonies reared in the laboratory and originated from domestic specimens collected in the Brazilian states of São Paulo (north) and Minas Gerais (south). Since nuclear...

  1. Existence of a sex pheromone in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: I. Behavioural evidence

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    Gabriel Manrique

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Assembling behaviour associated with mating was investigated in Triatoma infestans. The spatial distribution of both sexes was observed by video films, in the presence or absence of a copulating pair. Males aggregated around copulating pairs. Females did not exhibit this behaviour and their mean spatial density remained unaffected. Spontaneous aggregation tendency was observed in males in the absence of a copulating pair, but the temporal course significantly differed from that observed in the presence of a mating pair. Results support the existence of an aggregation signal that is released during mating, affecting the behaviour of males.

  2. A genitália externa na tribo Bolboderini (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Herman Lent

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da tribo bolboderini, pertencentes aos gêneros Bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma e Parabelminus, duas das quais já encontradas naturalmente infectadas com Trypanosoma cruzi, foram analisadas e comparadas tendo como enfoque oito estruturas da genitália externa dos machos: Processo mediano do pigóforo (PrP, Processo da conjuntiva (PrCj, Extensão mediana da placa basal (EPIb, Processo do endosoma (PrEn, Suporte do falosoma (SPh, Falosoma (Ph, Processo do gonoporo (PrG e a Vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (lent, 1951 e M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 mostraram um plano estrutural morfológico semelhante a Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e P. carioca Lent, 1943 e deferindo nitidamente de Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954 e B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e de Bolbodera scabrosa, Valdés, 1910, não só pela ausência como pela forma de determinadas estruturas. Estas observações comparativas confirmam as afinidades entre Microtriatoma e Parabelminus e suas relações com belminus e Bolbodera.Seven species of the Bolboderini tribe belonging to the genera bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma and Parabelminus, two of them found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, were analysed and compared emphasizing eight structures of the male external genitalia: median process of pygophore (PrP, conjunctiva process (PrCj, pedicel (EP1b, endosoma process (PrEn, struts (SPh, phallosoma (Ph, medium bridge (PrG and vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (Lent, 1951 and M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 have shown a structural morphological aspect similar to Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and P. carioca Lent, 1943 differing clearly from Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954, B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and Bolbodera scabrosa valdés, 1910, not only by the absence but by the shape of some structures. These comparative observations confirm the affinity between Microtriatoma and Parabelminus and their relations with Belminus and Bolbodera.

  3. Occurrence of synanthropic triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the Federal District of Brazil

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    Maicon Hitoshi Maeda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Entomological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Federal District of Brazil (DF, has recorded the following triatomine species: Panstrongylus megistus, P. geniculatus, P. diasi, Rhodnius neglectus, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and T. sordida. We aimed to analyze the spatial and temporal occurrence of triatomine species collected in DF, and their indices of natural infection with trypanosomes. METHODS: The Health State Secretariat of DF recorded triatomines between 2002 and 2010 in 20 administrative regions. This retrospective analysis considered the number of adults and nymphs of each species collected and infected in both intradomicile and peridomicile. RESULTS: A total of 754 triatomines were collected in 252 reported domiciles. Panstrongylus megistus was the most frequent species (65%, followed by T. pseudomaculata (14%. Of the 309 examined insects, only 3 (1% specimens of P. megistus were infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi. The spatial occurrence indicated a higher diversity of triatomines and frequency of T. sordida in rural areas. Moreover, there was a predominance of P. megistus in urban areas. The number of records of P. megistus in the rainy season was two times higher than that during the dry season. The largest number of triatomines was collected in November. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of P. megistus specimens infected with trypanosomes in domiciles, shows the potential risk of human infection in DF. Thus, it is essential to continue entomological surveillance, intensifying it in the rainy season and in regions of greater occurrence.

  4. Mecanismo antidiurético en Rhodnius Prolixus (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Ivonne Gómez

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Se propone para R. prolixus un mecanismo antidiurético, cuya actividad se pone de manifiesto una vez transcurrido el periodo diurético y se mantiene hasta que el insecto es alimentado nuevamente. Presumiblemente este mecanismo actua a nivel del esfinter rectal proximal y es inhibido por la ingesta, distención mecanica del buche y desinhibición central por decapitación. Se sugiere que la actividad antidiurética es mantenida por vía nerviosa y se modifica cuando hay distensión del buche o canudo es interrumpida la senãl nerviosa por decapitación. Se pone de manifiesto que la excreción de orina en R. prolixus no es controlada exclusivamente por la hormona diurética, sino que factores no ligados a la hemolinfa mantienen en estado diurético y no diurético a los insectos.An antidiuretic mechanism is proposed for Rhodnius prolixus, whose activity is manifested when the diuretic phase has terminated and is maintained until the insect has fed again. Presumably this mechanism acts at the level of the proximal rectal sphincter and is inhibited by ingestion, mechanical distension of the gut and central desinhibition by decapitation. It is suggested that the antidiuretic activity is maintained by the nervous system and is modified when there is distention of the gut or when the nervous signal is interrupted by decapitacion. It is demonstrated that the excretion of urine in R. prolixus is not controlled exclusively by the diuretic hormone, but rather that factors not linked to the haemolvmph maintain the insects in a diuretic or nondiuretic state.

  5. First Finding of Melanic Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Colonies in the Argentine Chaco

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, L. A.; Piccinali, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky tra...

  6. Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae in the Pantanal region: association with Trypanosoma cruzi, different habitats and vertebrate hosts

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    Filipe Martins Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: The transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal region has been studied during the last decade. Although considerable knowledge is available regarding the mammalian hosts infected by T. cruzi in this wetland, no studies have investigated its vectors in this region. This study aimed to investigate the presence of sylvatic triatomine species in different habitats of the Brazilian Pantanal region and to correlate their presence with the occurrences of vertebrate hosts and T. cruzi infection.METHODS: The fieldwork involved passive search by using light traps and Noireau traps and active search by visual inspection. The light traps were placed at five selected points along forested areas for seven nights during each of the nine excursions. At each point where a light trap was set, eight Noireau traps were placed in palm trees and bromeliads.RESULTS: In all, 88 triatomine bugs were collected: two and one individuals from light traps and Noireau traps, respectively; three from peridomestic areas; 23 in coati nests; and 59 in thornbird nests. In this study, active search in microhabitats showed higher efficiency than passive search, since 95% of the triatomine bugs were caught in nests. Further, triatomine bugs were only found to be infected by T. cruzi in coati nests.CONCLUSIONS: Coati nests might act as a point of convergence and dispersion for triatomine bugs and mammal hosts infected by T. cruzi, thereby playing an important role in the sylvatic cycle of T. cruziin the Pantanal region.

  7. Toxicity of non-pyrethroid insecticides against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Guillermo Carvajal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans (Klug is the main vector of Chagas disease, which is a public health concern in most Latin American countries. The prevention of Chagas disease is based on the chemical control of the vector using pyrethroid insecticides. In the last decade, different levels of deltamethrin resistance have been detected in certain areas of Argentina and Bolivia. Because of this, alternative non-pyrethroid insecticides from different chemical groups were evaluated against two T. infestans populations, NFS and El Malá, with the objective of finding new insecticides to control resistant insect populations. Toxicity to different insecticides was evaluated in a deltamethrin-susceptible and a deltamethrin-resistant population. Topical application of the insecticides fenitrothion and imidacloprid to first nymphs had lethal effects on both populations, producing 50% lethal dose (LD50 values that ranged from 5.2-28 ng/insect. However, amitraz, flubendiamide, ivermectin, indoxacarb and spinosad showed no insecticidal activity in first instars at the applied doses (LD50 > 200 ng/insect. Fenitrothion and imidacloprid were effective against both deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant populations of T. infestans. Therefore, they may be considered alternative non-pyrethroid insecticides for the control of Chagas disease.

  8. Toxicity of non-pyrethroid insecticides against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Carvajal; Gastón Mougabure-Cueto; Ariel Ceferino Toloza

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas disease, which is a public health concern in most Latin American countries. The prevention of Chagas disease is based on the chemical control of the vector using pyrethroid insecticides. In the last decade, different levels of deltamethrin resistance have been detected in certain areas of Argentina and Bolivia. Because of this, alternative non-pyrethroid insecticides from different chemical groups were evaluated against two T. infestans p...

  9. Susceptibility of Triatoma sordida Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to alpha-cypermethrin under natural climatic conditions

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    Grasielle Caldas DÁvila Pessoa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:Despite the recommendations by interpretation of resistance ratios obtained in laboratory bioassays, little is known about the actual impact of these results in the effectiveness of vector control activities in the field. In this context, our objective was to determine the mean value of different resistance ratios obtained by laboratory bioassays performed as part of the chemical control strategies of Triatoma sordida in the field.METHODS:Field bioassays were developed in Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus (Southeast, Brazil. In each location, samples were formed with three domestic units treated with alpha-cypermethrin 20.0% (Alfatek (r 200 SC. One day after spraying, 10 fifth-instar nymphs remained in contact with the surfaces treated (adobe with plaster, adobe without plaster, or wood with insecticide in plastic cones for 72h. Three cones were exposed inside the intradomicile and the peridomicile. The insects in the control group were exposed to an insecticide-free piece of cardboard. Mortality was measured 72h after removal of the insects from the treated surfaces. The tests were realized in triplicate.RESULTS:Mortality was 100.0% in all locations, except for Monte Azul; Landinho (96.6% and Coração de Jesus; Barriguda (96.6%.CONCLUSIONS:Although the resistant populations in laboratory tests proved to be susceptible in the field, this observation is not sufficient to suggest that the cut-off points used to justify the resistance ratio should be changed. In this sense, we recommend that laboratory and field bioassays are carried out with a greater number of Triatominae populations to allow more in-depth consideration of the subject.

  10. Biogeography of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Ecuador: implications for the design of control strategies

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    Abad-Franch Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil, the Natural History Museum London (UK, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK, the National Institute of Hygiene (Quito, and the Vozandes Hospital (Quito. A critical review of published information and new field records are presented. We analysed these data in relation to the life zones where triatomines occur (11 life zones, excluding those over 2,200 m altitude, and provide biogeographical maps for each species. These records are discussed in terms of epidemiological significance and design of control strategies. Findings relevant to the control of the main vector species are emphasised. Different lines of evidence suggest that Triatoma dimidiata is not native to Ecuador-Peru, and that synanthropic populations of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in southern Ecuador-northern Peru might be isolated from their sylvatic conspecifics. Local eradication of T. dimidiata and these R. ecuadoriensis populations might therefore be attainable. However, the presence of a wide variety of native species indicates the necessity for a strong longitudinal surveillance system.

  11. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of northeastern Argentina

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    Bar María Esther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several palms species provide an important habitat for triatomines and associate vertebrates in tropical America. The objective of this work is to identify the triatomine species living in the palms of rural areas in the Province of Corrientes, and to estimate the potential epidemiological risk they represent for the residents of nearby houses. The survey was carried out in a palm community in Colonia Laurel, Department San Roque, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Samplings were performed in October, November and December 1998; January, February and March 1999; May and June 1999. Thirty palms: 27 (90% Butia yatay (Mart. Becc. and 3 Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart. were dissected. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 was found in 96.2% of B. yatay and in all the A. aculeata palms. A total of 272 live T. sordida was collected; 36 of them (13.2% were found in bird nests in the frond and the remainder in other locations of the tree. The mean number of triatomines per palm was 9.6 (range 1-60, mode 2. T. sordida was collected during all the sampling months and all stages were present at all seasons. The highest population density was reached in spring and the lowest in autumn. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected in 38.5% in feces of 174 examined insects and identified as such, both by microscopical examination and PCR. This is the first finding of T. sordida populations in B. yatay, an endemic palm of South America distributed in southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The high infection prevalence found in this work suggests that T. sordida plays an essential role in the maintenance of the wild T. cruzi transmission cycle in northeastern Argentina.

  12. Myrmicella, a new genus of Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłond, Dominik; Baňař, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Myrmicella verticospinosa gen. et sp. nov., is described, based on four specimens (two males and two females) collected in south-west Madagascar (Zombitse-Vohibasia National Park and Isalo National Park). Three specimens have been collected by sifting the leaf litter, one female was collected using yellow pan traps. Genitalia of both sexes are described and illustrated. PMID:26258241

  13. Metabolic Post-feeding Changes in Fat Body and Hemolymph of Dipetalogaster maximus (Hemiptera:Reduviidae

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    Lilián E Canavoso

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and glycogen in fat body as well as the modifications in the wet weight of this organ were evaluated in an unfed insect, Dipetalogaster maximus, on day 5 after adult ecdysis (time 0 and during a 30-day period after ingestion of blood meal. Total lipids, high density lipophorin (HDLp, carbohydrates, total proteins and uric acid were determined in the hemolymph during the same period. Fat body wet weight was maximum on day 10 post-feeding and represented on day 30 only 42% of the maximum weight. Lipids stored in the fat body increased up to day 15 reaching 24% of the total weight of tissue. Glycogen was maximum on day 20, representing approximately 3% of the fat body weight. HDLp represented at all times between 17-24% of the total proteins, whose levels ranged between 35 and 47 mg/ml. Uric acid showed at 20, 25 and 30 days similar levels and significantly higher than the ones shown at days 10 and 15. Hemolymphatic lipids fluctuated during starvation between 3-4.4 mg/ml and carbohydrates showed a maximum on day 15 after a blood meal, decreasing up to 0.26 mg/ml on day 25. The above results suggest that during physiological events such as starvation, the availability of nutrients is affected, involving principally the fat body reserves

  14. Geographic Distribution and Ecology of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats. PMID:26487247

  15. Biology of Triatoma pallidipennis stal 1945 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, life time, mortality, feeding behaviour and fecundity for each stage of Triatoma pallidipennis life-cycle were evaluated. The hatching rate observed for 200 eggs was 60% and the average time of hatching was 18 days. Eighty nymphs (N (40% completed the cycle and the average time from NI to adult was 168.7±11.7days. The average span in days for each stage was 18.0 for NI, 18.5 for NII, 30.0 for NIII, 35.7 for NIV and 50.1 for NV. The number of bloodmeals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 5. The mortality rate was 9.17 for NI, 5.5 for NII, 6.8 for NIII 4.17 for NIV and 13.04 for NV nymphs. The average number of eggs laid per female in a 9-month period was 498.6. The survival rates of adults were 357±217.9 and 262.53±167.7 for males and females respectively.

  16. Feeding, defecation, and development times of Meccus longipennis Usinger, 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, time-lapse between presenting the blood-meal and beginning of feeding, feeding time, postfeed defecation delay, mortality, and fecundity for each stage of Meccus longipennis life-cycle were evaluated. The bugs were maintained in a dark incubator at 27 ± 1ºC and 80 ± 5% rh, were fed weekly and checked daily for ecdysis or death. The hatching rate observed for 300 eggs was 76.7% and the average time of hatching was 19.8 days. Mean time-lapse between presentation of the blood meal and the beginning of feeding was under 5 min in nymphal stages and postfeed defecation delay was under 10 min in most stages, except in fourth and fifth stages. Mean feeding time was longer than 10 min in most stages, except in fourth stage. One hundred thirty-one nymphs (N (65.5% completed the cycle and the average time from NI to adult was 192.6 ± 34.8 days. The average span in days for each stage was 18.1 for NI, 21.4 for NII, 29.5 for NIII, 45.5 for NIV and 55.9 for NV. The number of bloodmeals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 5. The mortality rate was 3.29 for NI, 6.8 for NII, 2.92 for NIII 3.76 for NIV, and 10.16 for NV nymphs. The average number of eggs laid per female in a 9-month period was 615.6. Based on our results, we conclude that M. longipennis has some biological and behavioral characteristics which influence its capacity of becoming infected and transmitting Trypanosoma cruzi to human populations in those areas of Mexico where it is currently present.

  17. First finding of melanic sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) colonies in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, L A; Piccinali, R V; Berkunsky, I; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E

    2009-09-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as "dark morphs" were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054

  18. Assessing the mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Grasielle Caldas D‘Ávila Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma sordida is a species that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi to humans. In Brazil, T. sordida currently deserves special attention because of its wide distribution, tendency to invade domestic environments and vectorial competence. For the planning and execution of control protocols to be effective against Triatominae, they must consider its population structure. In this context, this study aimed to characterise the genetic variability of T. sordida populations collected in areas with persistent infestations from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Levels of genetic variation and population structure were determined in peridomestic T. sordida by sequencing a polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity were observed for all 14 sampled areas; π values ranged from 0.002-0.006. Most obtained haplotypes occurred at low frequencies, and some were exclusive to only one of the studied populations. Interpopulation genetic diversity analysis revealed strong genetic structuring. Furthermore, the genetic variability of Brazilian populations is small compared to that of Argentinean and Bolivian specimens. The possible factors related to the reduced genetic variability and strong genetic structuring obtained for studied populations are discussed in this paper.

  19. Biogeography of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Ecuador: implications for the design of control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Abad-Franch Fernando; Paucar C Aura; Carpio C Carlos; Cuba Cuba César A.; Aguilar V H Marcelo; Miles Michael A

    2001-01-01

    Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces) and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito), Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil), the Natural History Museum London (UK), the London School of Hygiene ...

  20. Repellency of DEET, picaridin, and three essential oils to Triatoma rubida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terriquez, J A; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Klotz, J H; Schmidt, J O

    2013-05-01

    The kissing bug, Triatoma rubida (Uhler) is a common hematophagous bug in Tucson, AZ, and is responsible for causing severe allergic reactions in some bitten individuals. DEET, picaridin, tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and citronella oil were tested for repellency to T. rubida and its ability to probe and feed on a small restrained rat. No long range repellency was observed with any of the test materials. The lowest repellent concentrations observed were: 10% DEET, 7% picaridin; 30% tea tree oil, 3.3% peppermint oil, and 0.165% citronella oil. Only citronella oil was able to stop all probing and feeding by T. rubida. Citronella oil appears to be a promising potential repellent to prevent sleeping people from being bitten by kissing bugs. PMID:23802464

  1. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  2. First Finding of Melanic Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Colonies in the Argentine Chaco

    Science.gov (United States)

    CEBALLOS, L. A.; PICCINALI, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054

  3. Flight metabolism in Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: the role of carbohydrates and lipids

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    Lilián E Canavoso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates related to flight activity in Panstrongylus megistus was investigated. Insects were subjected to different times of flight under laboratory conditions and changes in total lipids, lipophorin density and carbohydrates were followed in the hemolymph. Lipids and glycogen were also assayed in fat body and flight muscle. In resting insects, hemolymph lipids averaged 3.4 mg/ml and significantly increased after 45 min of flight (8.8 mg/ml, P < 0.001. High-density lipophorin was the sole lipoprotein observed in resting animals. A second fraction with lower density corresponding to low-density lipophorin appeared in insects subjected to flight. Particles from both fractions showed significant differences in diacylglycerol content and size. In resting insects, carbohydrate levels averaged 0.52 mg/ml. They sharply declined more than twofold after 15 min of flight, being undetectable in hemolymph of insects flown for 45 min. Lipid and glycogen from fat body and flight muscle decreased significantly after 45 min of flight. Taken together, the results indicate that P. megistus uses carbohydrates during the initiation of the flight after which, switching fuel for flight from carbohydrates to lipids.

  4. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  5. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from western Amazonia

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    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador. R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  6. Genetic structure of Triatoma venosa (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: molecular and morphometric evidence

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    Erika Vargas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma venosa presents a restricted geographical distribution in America and is considered as a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia and Ecuador. A total of 120 adult insects were collected in domestic and peridomestic habitats in an endemic area of the department of Boyacá, Colombia, in order to determine their genetic structure through morphometric and molecular techniques. The head and wings of each specimen were used for the analyses of size, shape, and sexual dimorphism. A significant sexual dimorphism was found, although no differences in size among the studied groups were detected. Differences were found in the analyzed structures except for male heads. DNA was extracted from the legs in order to carry out the internal transcriber space-2 (ITS-2 amplification and the randon amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analyses. Length polymorphisms were not detected in the ITS-2. Fst and Nm values were estimated (0.047 and 3.4, respectively. The high genetic flow found among the insects captured in the domicile and peridomiciliary environment does not permit a genetic differentiation, thus establishing the peridomicile as an important place for epidemiological surveillance.

  7. Morphometric changes of Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): in the transition from sylvatic to laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Maicon H Maeda; Jônatas B.C Ferreira; Aline da F Rosa; César A.C. Cuba

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated whether it is possible to detect morphometric changes in Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 (a candidate vector of Chagas disease in Central Brazil) populations in the transition from sylvatic to laboratory conditions. We analyzed size and shape variation in wings of sylvatic parents and their laboratory descendents (first, third and fifth generations) using geometric morphometric techniques. Sexual size dimorphism and shape of wings were maintained, but wing s...

  8. Differentiation between Triatoma arthurneivai and Triatoma wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) using cytotaxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, K C C; Imperador, C H L; Moreira, F F F; Jurberg, J; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Using classic morphometric techniques to examine the head and thorax of Triatoma specimens, researchers identified a possible taxonomic problem involving T. arthurneivai (Lent & Martins) and T. wygodzinskyi (Lent). A recent geometric morphometric study indicated that the insects captured outside the Serra do Cipó region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were T. wygodzinskyi. The misidentification of T. arthurneivai as T. wygodzinskyi could result in several problems associated with entoepidemiological lifting, the biological characterization of the species, and phylogenetic reconstruction. For the first time, we describe the use of cytogenetic analysis as a tool for differentiation between T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi. The results indicated that both species had the same number of chromosomes 2n = 22 (20A + XY). However, analyses of spermatocytes during early prophase indicated that it was possible to differentiate T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, because only T. arthurneivai exhibited heteropycnotic blocks distributed in the chromatin. Therefore, we highlight the analysis of spermatocytes as a taxonomic tool for the characterization of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, and suggest that the technique can be used for entoepidemiological lifting in vector control programs. Thus, the results presented here, in conjunction with morphometric analyses, are of utmost taxonomic and epidemiological importance for the identification of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi specimens. PMID:27420940

  9. Susceptibility characterization of residual Brazilian populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to deltamethrin pyrethroid

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    Grasielle Caldas D`avila Pessoa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance.

  10. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

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    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  11. Existence of a sex pheromone in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): I. Behavioural evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Manrique; Claudio R Lazzari

    1995-01-01

    Assembling behaviour associated with mating was investigated in Triatoma infestans. The spatial distribution of both sexes was observed by video films, in the presence or absence of a copulating pair. Males aggregated around copulating pairs. Females did not exhibit this behaviour and their mean spatial density remained unaffected. Spontaneous aggregation tendency was observed in males in the absence of a copulating pair, but the temporal course significantly differed from that observed in th...

  12. Some biological aspects of Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, in oil palm plantations from Colombia

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    L.C. Martínez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The scarabaeid Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister is described as causing damage to oil palm leaves, marking its first report as a pest in Colombia. The presence of this insect has necessitated determination of its life cycle, biometrics and food consumption as important aspects of its biology. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in the municipality of San Vicente, Santander, Colombia. Mass rearing of L. femoratus was conducted, simulating field conditions and eating habits under laboratory conditions. Its life cycle and description of its developmental stages were determined, taking into account stage-specific survival. The duration of the life cycle of L. femoratus was determined to be 170.4±6.53, with an overall survival rate of 96.7%. Biometrical measurements were taken of the insect’s width, length and weight. Adults are black, and males and females are differentiated by size and by colour of their legs. The width, length and weight of the insect are proportional to the growth stage. Daily food consumption rate was evaluated in adult L. femoratus, and damage to leaves of Elaeis guineensis is described. Adult L. femoratus consumed 13 mm2 of foliage per day, and injury to leaves of E. guineensis was square or rectangular in shape. This insect’s life cycle duration and size are factors that could be considered in determining its feeding habits and pest status. Details of the life cycle, physical description and consumption rate of L. femoratus can help in the development of strategies to manage its populations in oil palm plantations.

  13. New species of Eriopeltastes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini from South Africa

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    Enrico Ricchiardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Both male and female of a new species of Eriopeltasttes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840, E. (E. ornatus Ricchiardi, sp. n., are described from the mistbelt grassland of KwaZulu-Natal. Sexual dimorphism is extreme in this genus, with females being brachypterous, fossorial and entirely black to dark brown in general body colour. This is only the fifth out of 12 known species in this genus for which the female is known. The species appears to be restricted to areas within or in the immediate vicinities of two marginal nature reserves, Karkloof and Blinkwater, in a grassland habitat that is regarded as one of the most threatened in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. Despite its acknowledged importance as centre of endemism the area is currently in a precarious state of large-scale degradation.

  14. Synopsis of the aroid scarabs in the genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Cyclocephalini from Sumatra and description of a new species

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    Mary Jameson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a synopsis of the Sumatran species in the scarab beetle genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini, describe a new species of Peltonotus from Sumatra, and describe the male of P. cybele Jameson & Wada from Sumatra (previously known only by the female holotype. To enable identification, we include a key to the five Sumatran species of Peltonotus, comparative images and diagnoses for all species, and temporal and geographical distributions.

  15. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Silvio Favero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Chagas é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública na América Latina. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a ação inseticida de óleos essenciais de Anacardium humile Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum e Eucalyptus urograndis em ninfas do 3° e 4° estádios de desenvolvimento de Triatoma infestans por ação tópica e pressão a vapor (fumigação. Para o teste tópico foram realizadas duas repetições cada uma com cinco ninfas de 3° e 4° estádios de desenvolvimento de T. infestans. Foi aplicado 1µL de cada concentração na região dorsal de cada indivíduo. Para o teste de fumigação foram utilizados potes de 2 L com tampa vedante. Os óleos essenciais de O. gratissimum e E. urograndis apresentaram atividade inseticida para T. infestans, e A. humile e C. nardus apresentaram em média 5 e 15% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para fumigação, somente o óleo de E. urograndis teve efeito, com 100% de mortalidade sobre T. infestans, sendo que para os outros óleos não foi observado efeito de fumigação. Esse trabalho relata pela primeira vez a ação inseticida de E. urograndis em potes fumígenos para o controle de triatomíneos. Os resultados são importantes devido à busca por novos modelos moleculares com ação inseticida em triatomíneos resistentes aos inseticidas sintéticos.Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticide action of essential oils of Anacardium humile, Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus urograndis on Triatoma infestans nymphs of third and fourth stages of development by topic action and steam pressure (fumigation. Two repetitions were performed at the topic test with five nymphs of third and fourth stages of development of T. infestans. It was applied 1µL of each concentration on the dorsal region of each nymph. Two-liter pots with sealing covers were used at the fumigation test. The essential oils of O. gratissimum and E. urograndis showed insecticidal activity against T. infestans and A. humile and C. nardus showed an average of 5 and 15% mortality, respectively. For the fumigation, only the E. urograndis oil had effect with 100% of mortality on T. infestans and for the other oils it was not observed any effect of the steam pressure. This paper describes for the first time the insecticidal action of E. urograndis in smoke canister to control bugs. The results are important to the search for new molecular models with insecticidal action in bugs which are resistant to synthetic insecticides.

  16. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae = Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Suellem Petilim Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A doenca de Chagas e um dos maiores problemas de saude publica na America Latina. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a acao inseticida de oleos essenciais de Anacardium humile Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum e Eucalyptus urograndis em ninfas do 3‹ e 4‹ estadios dedesenvolvimento de Triatoma infestans por acao topica e pressao a vapor (fumigacao. Para o teste topico foram realizadas duas repeticoes cada uma com cinco ninfas de 3‹ e 4‹ estadios de desenvolvimento de T. infestans. Foi aplicado 1ƒÊL de cada concentracao na regiao dorsal de cada individuo. Para o teste de fumigacao foram utilizados potes de 2 L com tampa vedante. Os oleos essenciais de O. gratissimum e E. urograndis apresentaram atividadeinseticida para T. infestans, e A. humile e C. nardus apresentaram em media 5 e 15% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para fumigacao, somente o oleo de E. urograndis teve efeito, com 100% de mortalidade sobre T. infestans , sendo que para os outros oleos nao foiobservado efeito de fumigacao. Esse trabalho relata pela primeira vez a acao inseticida de E. urograndis em potes fumigenos para o controle de triatomineos. Os resultados sao importantes devido a busca por novos modelos moleculares com acao inseticida em triatomineos resistentes aos inseticidas sinteticos.Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticide action of essential oils of Anacardium humile, Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus urograndis on Triatoma infestans nymphs of third and fourth stages of development by topic action and steam pressure (fumigation. Two repetitions were performed at the topic test with five nymphs of third and fourth stages of development of T. infestans. It was applied 1ƒÊL of each concentration on the dorsal region of each nymph. Two-liter pots with sealing covers were used at the fumigation test. The essential oils of O. gratissimum and E. urograndis showed insecticidal activity against T. infestans and A. humile and C. nardus showed an average of 5 and 15% mortality, respectively. For the fumigation, only the E. urograndis oil had effect with 100% of mortality on T. infestans and for the other oils it was not observed any effect of the steam pressure. This paper describes for the first time the insecticidal action of E. urograndis in smoke canister to control bugs. The results are important to the search for new molecular models with insecticidal action in bugs which are resistant to synthetic insecticides.

  17. Observações sôbre o ciclo evolutivo do Triatoma arthurneivai, em condições de laboratório (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Studies on the evolution cycle of Triatoma arthurneivai under laboratory conditions (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Edmundo Juarez

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de ovos de fêmeas de Triatoma arthurneivai capturadas no ecótopo natural observou-se o tempo de evolução, em condições de laboratório mantidas à temperatura de 25°C e 60-70% de umidade relativa do ar. Foram oferecidos repastos sanguíneos em camundongo albino, semanalmente. A taxa de eclosão de ovos foi de 92,8%. Observaram-se diferenças entre o tempo de evolução desde a eclosão do ôvo até a muda para adulto, quando os triatomíneos foram criados isoladamente ou em grupos de 2-9 espécimes. O tempo médio dêstes foi de 228,3 dias e o daqueles, de 314,4 dias. O mesmo tempo, também apresentou diferenças quando se levou em consideração o sexo; os machos tiveram um tempo médio de 205,4 dias enquanto para as fêmeas o tempo foi de 274,3 dias. Algumas hipóteses são apresentadas, porém nenhuma ofereceu possibilidades de confirmação. Conclue-se pela necessidade de novos trabalhos para elucidar as dúvidas e, sugere-se possibilidade de novos conhecimentos a serem utilizados no estudo da tripanossomose americana em seus focos naturais.Data about Triatoma arthurneivai reared in laboratory from eggs laids by sylvatic females are reported. Laboratory conditions were maintaned at 25°C of temperature and 60-70% of relative humidity. Blood meal were furnished weekly from white mice sources. Eggs ecloded at a proportion of 92.8%. Differences were observed between triatomid reared in a individual or in a jointly manner. They were maintened in groups of 2-9 specimens each. The egg to adult times were 314.4 and 228.3 days for these two groups. Males reared more faster spent 205.4 days from egg to adult; females took 274.3 days. Some hypotesis were presented for explaining these differences, but no conclusions were reached. It was concluded that new investigations to explain the phenomena and help to understand better the dynamics of the South American trypanosomiasis in their natural foci should be performed.

  18. Registro de ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil New records of Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Aécio Moraes de Paula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, relata-se pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius no Estado de Mato Grosso. Entre 2001 e 2009, cinco espécimes foram capturados pelos moradores dos municípios de Paranaíta, Alta Floresta, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso e Guarantã do Norte e enviados ao Laboratório de Entomologia da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso, onde foram identificados como Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837. O encontro dessa espécie no estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil, amplia a sua distribuição geográfica.In this paper is reported for the first time the occurrence of Panstrongylus lignarius in the State of Mato Grosso. From 2001 to 2009, five specimens were caught in the municipalities of Paranaíta, Alta Floresta, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso and Guarantã do Norte, and sent to the Laboratório de Entomologia da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso where they were identified as Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837. The presence of this species in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil expands its geographical distribution.

  19. Registro de ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil New records of Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aécio Moraes de Paula; Maria Ignez Castrillon; Giovana Belém Moreira Lima Maciel; Cleber Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho, relata-se pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Panstrongylus lignarius no Estado de Mato Grosso. Entre 2001 e 2009, cinco espécimes foram capturados pelos moradores dos municípios de Paranaíta, Alta Floresta, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso e Guarantã do Norte e enviados ao Laboratório de Entomologia da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso, onde foram identificados como Panstrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1837). O encontro dessa espécie no estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil, amplia a...

  20. Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 com um estudo sobre a genitália externa masculina (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 with a study on the external male genitalia (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Herman Lent

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors complement the description of Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 and present the morphology of the male external genitalia, characterized by the presence of conjuntiva process (PrCj denticulate, basal plate (Eplb too long and median process pygophore (PrP showing the apex streched and the surface rugose and scaled. The specimens examined (holotype [male symbol] and allotype [female symbol] were deposited in the Collection Herman Lent of Triatomines of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, IOC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  1. Hallazgo de Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae en ambiente domiciliario en la Región Piura, Perú Intra-domiciliary capture of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in Piura, Peru

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    Edgard Marín

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus presenta una amplia distribución en América Central y del Sur con un comportamiento de especie silvestre. En el Perú ha sido registrado en Tumbes, Piura y Cuzco, siendo descrito en casas de localidades de este último departamento. En el presente trabajo se documenta evidencia de domiciliación de P. rufotuberculatus en la localidad de Chirinos-La Pareja, Distrito de Suyo, Provincia de Ayabaca, Región Piura, Perú (4º46'S, 79º93'W. Se capturaron 28 especímenes: 3 ninfas II, 4 ninfas III, 2 ninfas IV, 8 ninfas V, 3 machos y 8 hembras, lo que evidencia la existencia de una colonia intradomiciliar en "cuyeros" (criaderos de Cavia porcellus camas y paredes del dormitorio de la vivienda. Exámenes parasitológicos de heces evacuadas espontáneamente fueron negativos a infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi. A pesar de que se ha reportado la presencia de P. rufotuberculatus en localidades de Tumbes y Piura, es la primera vez que se documenta su tendencia sinantrópica en la Región. La importancia de esta especie y posteriores investigaciones permitirán evaluar su etología y potencial vectorial de trypanosomiasis americana. Se recomienda una cuidadosa actividad de vigilancia entomo-epidemiológica para esta especie y las otras que coexisten simpátricamente, actualmente en esta región del norte de Perú.Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Peru, it has been found in Tumbes, Piura, and Cuzco. The authors report the presence of P. rufotuberculatus in Chirinos-La Pareja, Suyo district, Ayabaca Province, Piura Region, Peru. Twenty-eight specimens were collected in two of 15 dwellings: three 2nd instar, four 3rd instar, two 4th instar, and eight 5th instar nymphs, three male and eight female, in an intra-domiciliary colony of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, raised indoors as a source of diet protein and beds and bedroom walls. None of the fecal samples were naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. This is the first report of synanthropic presence of P. rufotuberculatus in the region. The finding emphasizes the need for careful entomological and epidemiological surveillance of this and other triatomine species in the Region.

  2. La aerotermia como alternativa para el control de Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae resistentes a deltametrina Air temperature elevation as an alternative for the control of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Alberto G. Gentile

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se exploraron los efectos de la elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire sobre las formas embrionarias, ninfales y adultas de Triatoma infestansresistentes a Deltametrina. En laboratorio, se expuso a temperaturas crecientes del aire la progenie completa de T. infestans, para determinar viabilidad de huevos y supervivencia en ninfas y adultos; sobre el terreno, la experimentación se llevó a cabo en una vivienda tipo rancho previamente evaluada como colonizada. Durante la fase de laboratorio se comprobó la inviabilidad del 100% de los huevos y la mortalidad del 100% de las ninfas y adultos expuestos a temperaturas del aire estanco de entre 45ºC y 55ºC, mientras que en la fase de terreno se logró reproducir el efecto ovicida del calor, como así también la negativización de las evaluaciones entomológicas de la vivienda de experimentación, llevadas a cabo a las 72 horas, a los 30, 60 y 90 días. La elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire estanco en las habitaciones resultó ser un método de control de eficacia aceptable, inocuo y técnicamente sencillo.This study explores the effects of artificial air temperature elevation on the embryonic, nymphal, and adult forms of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans. In the laboratory, complete offspring of T. infestanswere exposed to increasing air temperatures to determine the viability of eggs and survival of nymphs and adults; in the field, the experiment was conducted in a poor rural dwelling previously identified as infested with the vector. The laboratory phase showed 100% non-viability of eggs and 100% mortality of nymphs and adults exposed to airtight temperatures from 45ºC to 55ºC, while the field phase succeeded in reproducing the heat's ovicidal effect and negative conversion of entomological assays in the experimental dwelling, as conducted over the course of 72 hours at 30, 60, and 90 days from the baseline evaluation. Artificial elevation of airtight temperature on dwellings proved to be an acceptable, harmless, and technically simple control method.

  3. Estadísticos poblacionales de Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera : Reduviidae en condiciones experimentales Population statistics of Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in experimental conditions

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    Elena B. Oscherov

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el seguimiento longitudinal de cuatro cohortes de 100 huevos cada una. Los insectos fueron criados a 28°C ± 3°C y 63 % ± 10% de humedad relativa, y alimentados cada siete días sobre gallina (Gallus domesticus, durante 40 min. Las cohortes fueron controladas una vez por semana. Se observó un valor constante de supervivencia en las cuatro cohortes, sin picos importantes. La expectativa de vida de los machos, en promedio, fue de 37,4 semanas y la de las hembras 36,8. El tiempo generacional demandó 61,7 semanas. La tasa reproductiva neta indica que esta población se incrementará 143,3 veces con cada generación. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue de 0,082 por semana. El máximo valor reproductivo se verificó, en promedio, a la tercer semana del ingreso al estado adulto. La distribución estable de edades de T. sordida sería de 32% huevos, 26% ninfas de primer estadio, 19% ninfas de segundo estadio, 13% ninfas de tercer estadio, 6% ninfas de cuarto estadio, 3% ninfas de quinto estadio y 1% de adultos. Es la primera cita para Argentina sobre la tabla de vida de T. sordida. El análisis de estos parámetros permite considerar que esta especie se comporta como "K estratega", en condiciones experimentales.Foram estudados diferentes parâmetros populacionais de Triatoma sordida em condições de laboratório. Realizou-se um seguimento longitudinal de quatro coortes de 100 ovos cada uma; os insetos foram criados a 28°C ± 3°C e 63% ± 10% de umidade relativa, e alimentados cada sete dias sobre galinha (Gallus domesticus durante 40'. As coortes foram controladas uma vez por semana. A expectativa de vida média dos machos foi de 37,4 semanas e a das fêmeas de 36,8.O tempo médio de desenvolvimento foi de 61,7 semanas. A taxa reprodutiva líquida indica que esta população aumentará 143,2 vezes durante cada geração. A taxa intrínseca do crecimento natural foi de 0,082 por semana. A média do valor máximo reprodutivo verificou-se na terceira semana no início do estádio adulto.A distribuição estável de idades de T. sordida seria de 32% ovos, 26% ninfas do primeiro estádio, 19% ninfas do segundo estádio, 13% ninfas do terceiro estádio, 6% ninfas do quarto estádio, 3% ninfas do quinto estádio e 1% de adultos. A análise dos parâmetros permite considerar que esta espécie comporta-se como K-estrategista em condições experimentais.Four cohorts of 100 Triatoma sordida eggs were reared under standard laboratory conditions (28ºC, 63% R.H. and fed weekly on hens during 40 minutes. The numbers of dead insects, moults and eggs laid were recorded weekly. A constant survival value was observed without any important peaks in the four cohorts. Life expectancy was 37.4 weeks for males and 36.8 weeks for females. The average generation time was 61.7 weeks. The average net reproduction rate suggests that this population would increase 143.2 times during each generation. The average intrinsic rate of natural increase was 0.082 per individual per week. The highest reproductive value was observed 3 weeks after entering the adult stage. The age structure, assuming stable age distribution, would be 32% eggs, 26% of first instar nymphs, 19% of second instar nymphs, 13% of third instar nymphs, 6% of fourth instar nymphs, 3% of fifth instar nymphs and 1% of adults. Our results suggest that this species behaves as a k-strategist under experimental conditions.

  4. Examining Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in Eggs of Two Populations of the Chagas' Disease Vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I; Capriotti, N; Sierra, I; Santo-Orihuela, P L

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis transmitted to man by blood-sucking triatomine bugs found in the Americas. Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) is the main vector of Chagas' disease in Argentina. The control of this illness relies heavily on vector control through the use of insecticide. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides associated with ineffective field treatments has been increasingly reported in T. infestans from Argentina and Bolivia. There are few reports on the expression and causes of resistance in eggs of resistant populations, and even fewer studies on insecticide resistance throughout embryonic development. In this study, we explore the biochemical and molecular mechanisms potentially associated with the deltamethrin resistance assessed in the developing eggs of the Argentinean (Campo Largo) and Bolivian (Entre Ríos) T. infestans populations.We found measurable activity of monooxigenases and pyrethroid esterases throughout embryonic development. The pyrethroid esterase activity grew steadily throughout development in all the studied populations and was highest in eggs 12 d old. Mean enzyme activity increased from 13.6 to 16.3 and 22.2 picomol 7-hydroxycoumarin/min (7-OHC) in eggs of 4-, 7-, and 12 d old from the susceptible reference bug colony. Mean activity of resistant populations increased from 16.0 to 25.9 picomol 7-OHC/min in eggs of 4- to 12 d old in Entre Ríos population, and from 15.9 to 28.9 picomol 7-OHC/min in Campo Largo population. Molecular analysis of susceptible and resistant developing eggs detected L1014F mutation in both resistant populations, but no L925I mutation was found in any of the studied populations.Higher esterase activity and L1014F presence justify the resistance to pyrethroid throughout developing eggs of both studied T. infestans populations. The description of resistance profiles including resistance mechanisms involved will allow a rational design of campaigns for the control of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:26336218

  5. Toxicity of pyrethroids and repellency of diethyltoluamide in two deltamethrin-resistant colonies of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Sfara

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the currrent investigation was to evaluate (a the toxicity of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin; (b the effect of these insecticides on the locomotor activity; and (c the repellent effect of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET on two deltamethrin-resistant strains of Triatoma infestans from Argentina (El Chorro and La Toma, and one susceptible strain. The resistance ratios (RRs obtained for the La Toma strain were: > 10,769, 50.7, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The RRs for the El Chorro strain were: > 10,769, 85.8, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The hyperactivity usually caused by the three pyrethroids was in both the deltamethrin-resistant strains compared to the susceptible reference strain. No differences were observed in the repellent effect of DEET between the three groups. These results indicate that the deltamethrin-resistant insects have a cross resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and tetramethrin, and are also resistant to the first symptom of pyrethroid poisoning (hyperactivity. However, the sensorial process related to DEET repellency does not appear to be altered.

  6. A new triatomine host of trypanosoma from the Central Amazon of Brazil: Cavernicola lenti n.sp. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby V. Barrett

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Cavernicola lenti, new species, from Amazonas state, Brazil, are described and illustrated. Observations on the biology of the new species are presented. Preliminaty findings indicate that C. lenti is a probable vector of bat trypanosomes.Cavernícola lenti, n.sp. é descrita com base em exemplares coletados em uma árvore viva, oca, perto das obras da usina hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Incluímos descrições dos adultos e ninfas de primeiro e quinto estádio, e observações sobre a biologia da nova espécie. Salientamos alguns detalhes morfológicos da nova espécie que ampliam os conceitos prévios do gênero e da tribo Cavernicolini. Flagelados encontrados nas fezes de C. lenti foram identificados provisoriamente como parasita de morcegos, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei.

  7. Duplication and Remolding of tRNA Genes in the Mitochondrial Genome of Reduvius tenebrosus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Jiang; Hu Li; Fan Song; Yao Cai; Jianyun Wang; Jinpeng Liu; Wanzhi Cai

    2016-01-01

    Most assassin bugs are predators that act as important natural enemies of insect pests. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these insects are double-strand circular DNAs that encode 37 genes. In the present study, we explore the duplication and rearrangement of tRNA genes in the mt genome of Reduvius tenebrosus, the first mt genome from the subfamily Reduviinae. The gene order rearranges from CR (control region)-trnI-trnQ-trnM-ND2 to CR-trnQ-trnI2-trnI1-trnM-ND2. We identified 23 tRNA genes, includ...

  8. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalá SS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles. Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long-established laboratory material for experimental studies designed to extrapolate the natural behaviour and physiology of these species.

  9. Nuevos registros de flebotominos (Diptera: Psychodidae y triatominos (Hemiptera:Reduviidae para Risaralda, Cauca y Valle del Cauca,Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Barreto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los flebotominos y los triatominos son insectos hematófagos. Buena parte de los primeros transmiten leishmaniasis y los segundos la enfermedad de Chagas o tripanosomiasis americana. Con técnicas como trampas de luz, cebo humano, red entomológica, y búsqueda en sitios de reposo, se capturaron flebotominos y triatominos en 12 localidades rurales colombianas (de las que se dan las alturas sobre el nivel del mar y sus formaciones ecológicas de los siguientes departamentos: Cauca (municipios: Guapi, Popayán; Risaralda (Guática, La Virginia, Pereira, Pueblo Rico; y Valle del Cauca (Buenaventura, Cali, Calima o Darién. Sólo en Cali las capturas se hicieron en la zona urbana. Se colectaron 21 especies o subespecies de flebotominos y dos de triatominos. Tanto de los unos como de los otros se establecen nuevos registros que amplían la distribución geográfica de estos insectos en Colombia. Se discuten sus relaciones en la transmisión de enfermedades.

  10. Estadísticos poblacionales de Triatoma sordida Stäl 1859 (Hemiptera : Reduviidae en condiciones experimentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscherov Elena B.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el seguimiento longitudinal de cuatro cohortes de 100 huevos cada una. Los insectos fueron criados a 28°C ± 3°C y 63 % ± 10% de humedad relativa, y alimentados cada siete días sobre gallina (Gallus domesticus, durante 40 min. Las cohortes fueron controladas una vez por semana. Se observó un valor constante de supervivencia en las cuatro cohortes, sin picos importantes. La expectativa de vida de los machos, en promedio, fue de 37,4 semanas y la de las hembras 36,8. El tiempo generacional demandó 61,7 semanas. La tasa reproductiva neta indica que esta población se incrementará 143,3 veces con cada generación. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural fue de 0,082 por semana. El máximo valor reproductivo se verificó, en promedio, a la tercer semana del ingreso al estado adulto. La distribución estable de edades de T. sordida sería de 32% huevos, 26% ninfas de primer estadio, 19% ninfas de segundo estadio, 13% ninfas de tercer estadio, 6% ninfas de cuarto estadio, 3% ninfas de quinto estadio y 1% de adultos. Es la primera cita para Argentina sobre la tabla de vida de T. sordida. El análisis de estos parámetros permite considerar que esta especie se comporta como "K estratega", en condiciones experimentales.

  11. Selective Insecticide Applications Directed Against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Affected a Nontarget Secondary Vector of Chagas Disease, Triatoma garciabesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Planes, L I; Vazquez-Prokopec, G M; Cecere, M C; Canale, D M; Gürtler, R E

    2016-01-01

    The control of nondomiciliated triatomine species adapted to peridomestic habitats represents a challenge because they are connected to sylvatic colonies, and pyrethroid insecticides have limited effects outdoors. The effects of residual insecticide spraying have rarely been assessed on secondary triatomines. Triatoma garciabesi (Carcavallo, Martinez, Cichero, Prosen & Ronderos, 1967) is a nontarget vector that inhabits the dry western Chaco region, and a member of the Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 complex. Little is known on the capacity of T. garciabesi to invade and establish viable domestic or peridomestic colonies, and on its response to residual insecticide sprays directed against Triatoma infestans Klug 1834. The presence and abundance of triatomines were assessed by timed manual collections annually or biannually (spring and fall) during 10 yr after a community-wide insecticide spraying campaign and selective insecticide sprays directed against T. infestans in a rural village of northwestern Argentina. T. garciabesi mainly occupied peridomestic habitats associated with chickens, and was unable to colonize human sleeping quarters. Trees with chickens occurred in nearly all houses and were infested in >25% of the occasions. The abundance of bugs at house-compound level was best explained by a generalized estimating equation model that included selective insecticide sprays during the previous semester (negative effects), chicken abundance (positive effects), seasonality, and their interactions. Our results suggest that insecticide applications targeting T. infestans affected the abundance of T. garciabesi, and reduced the likelihood of future infestation. PMID:26490000

  12. New structures for goat corrals to control peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the Gran Chaco of Argentina

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    David Eladio Gorla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Goat production is an important economic activity for rural communities in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Goat corrals are important for the survival of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans. This study evaluated the impact of modifying the traditional structure of goat corrals on T. infestans populations and goat productivity in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja. Thirty-nine experimental corrals were constructed and 57 traditional corrals were used as controls. We evaluated the infestations of the control and experimental corrals for five years following construction of the structures. The results showed that the new structures did not prevent the colonization, although it enhanced the detection of infestation at low densities of T. infestans. No significant difference was found in T. infestans population abundance between control and experimental corrals, probably because of the different detectability in the two types of structures, especially among the small nymphs. Although goat productivity average was higher in experimental than in control corrals, no significant difference was found because of high variability. The new structures can be used as a complement to promote the development of rural communities. Acceptability and adoption of the new corrals by the owners was high, as the enclosures offered better protection for the goats, increased growth of kids and facilitated herd handling.

  13. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  14. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept.de Entomologia. Lab. da Colecao Entomologica; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Transmissores de Leishmanioses. Nucleo de Ultraestrutura; Prado, Angelo P. do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2007-11-15

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  15. Occurrence of Triatoma costalimai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in different environments and climatic seasons: a field study in the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi-infected specimens of Triatoma costalimai have been detected in domiciliary units of Central Brazil, thereby maintaining the potential risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and natural infection of T. costalimai in different environments (gallery forest, dry forest and peridomicile and climatic seasons (wet and dry, in the municipality of Mambaí, State of Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were captured in October 2010 and in June 2011, employing two different methods (manual capture and mouse-baited adhesive traps. The insects were later separated by sex and nymphal stage, counted and examined parasitologically by abdominal compression and microscopic analysis of feces. RESULTS: Triatoma costalimai was found in three environments and in the two seasons studied. Overall, capture success of 900 traps and 60 blocks of rocks inspected was 5.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The occurrence of T. costalimai was higher among rocks in the peridomicile, where 97% of the 131 specimens were captured. The proportion of nymphs (98% was much higher than that of adults, which were only detected in peridomicile. Most (95% insects were captured during the wet season, with predominance of early-stage nymphs. None of the 43 specimens examined were infected by trypanosomatids. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a greater occurrence of T. costalimai in peridomiciliary environments and during the wet season in Mambaí, Goiás, highlighting the synanthropic behavior of this triatomine species in one area of the Brazilian savanna and the importance of entomological surveillance.

  16. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

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    Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.

  17. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus - like (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) wing asymmetry under controlled conditions of population density and feeding frequency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E J Màrquez; C I Saldamando-Benjumea

    2013-09-01

    Habitat change in Rhodnius spp may represent an environmental challenge for the development of the species, particularly when feeding frequency and population density vary in nature. To estimate the effect of these variables in stability on development, the degree of directional asymmetry (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the wing size and shape of R. prolixus and R. robustus–like were measured under laboratory controlled conditions. DA and FA in wing size and shape were significant in both species, but their variation patterns showed both inter-specific and sexual dimorphic differences in FA of wing size and shape induced by nutrition stress. These results suggest different abilities of the genotypes and sexes of two sylvatic and domestic genotypes of Rhodnius to buffer these stress conditions. However, both species showed non-significant differences in the levels of FA between treatments that simulated sylvan vs domestic conditions, indicating that the developmental noise did not explain the variation in wing size and shape found in previous studies. Thus, this result confirm that the variation in wing size and shape in response to treatments constitute a plastic response of these genotypes to population density and feeding frequency.

  18. Antibacterial activity of Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab. and Catamirus brevipennis (Servile (Hemiptera: reduviidae venomS against human pathogens

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    K. Sahayaraj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduviid predators Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab. and Catamirus brevipennis (Servile use their venoms to paralyze their preys. We detected the antibacterial activity of R. marginatus and C. brevipennis venoms against seven Gram-negative and four Gram-positive bacteria by using the disc diffusion method. Rhynocoris marginatus venom exhibited antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium and one Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes. Catamirus brevipennis venom showed antibacterial activity against six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium and three Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus sphaericus bacteria. Both C. brevipennis (90.91% and R. marginatus (45.45% venoms were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria (80% and 70% for R. marginatus and C. brevipennis, respectively. The venoms of both reduviid predators are composed of low molecular weight proteins (7-33 kD.

  19. Inter-specific and developmental differences on the array of antennal chemoreceptors in four species of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    M Gracco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to investigate the pattern of chemoreceptor sensilla in adults and fifth stage nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Triatoma infestans and T. sordida in order to study differences and similarities between genera and species. Three types of sensilla were analyzed by light microscopy: thin-walled trichoidea, thick-walled trichoidea and basiconica. The number of sensilla of each three types were counted. The length of the antennal segments were also used as a variable for the analysis. The statistical analysis showed that the number of these antennal chemoreceptors had significant differences between species and between adults and nymphs of each species. Discriminant analysis separates incompletely the fifth stage nymphs of the four species and showed similarity between them. Discriminant analysis performed with 12 variables of the antennae, allowed a complete separation of the adults of the four species.

  20. Influence of temperature and humidity on the biology of Triatoma mexicana (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Several biological parameters related to the Triatoma mexicana life-cycle were evaluated in this study. Three cohorts were maintained under different combinations of temperature and relative humidity (RH: 25ºC/50% RH; 25ºC/75% RH; and 30ºC/75% RH. Observed hatching rates varied from 49-57.5% whereas the average time of hatching varied from 19.5-22.7 days. In the three cohorts studied, the mean time-lapse between presentation of the blood meal and the beginning of feeding was less than 5 min in all instars; the mean feeding time was longer than 10 min in all the instars; the post-feed defecation delay was over 10 min in all the instars. Less than 50% of nymphs in each cohort completed the cycle and the average time from 1st instar nymph to adult was more than 255 days for the three cohorts. The number of blood meals before molt at each nymphal instar varied from 1-9. Our results appear to indicate a lack of influence of temperature and RH on the biological parameters of T. mexicana that were studied, which could reflect the adaptation capacity of this species. We also conclude that T. mexicana can not be considered an effective transmitter of Trypanosoma cruzi to human populations in areas where this species is currently present.

  1. The nuclear elongation factor-1α gene: a promising marker for phylogenetic studies of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sebastián; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    Molecular systematics is a remarkable approach for understanding the taxonomic traits and allows the exploration of the inter-population dynamics of several species in the Triatominae subfamily that are involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Compared to other relevant species that transmit vector-borne diseases, such as some species of the Diptera, there are relatively few nuclear genetic markers available for systematic studies in the Triatominae subfamily. Molecular systematic studies performed on Triatominae are based on mitochondrial gene fragments and, less frequently, on nuclear ribosomal genes or spacers. Due to the fact that these markers can occasionally present problems such as nuclear mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) or intra-genomic variation for high gene copy numbers, it is necessary to use additional nuclear markers to more reliably address the molecular evolution of Triatominae. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene in individuals from 12 species belonging to the Triatomini and Rhodniini tribes. Genetic diversities and phylogenetic topologies were compared with those obtained for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and Cytochrome b (cyt b) genes, as well as for the D2 variable region of the ribosomal 28S rRNA gene. These results indicate that the EF-1α marker exhibits an intermediate level of diversity compared to mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes, and that phylogenetic analysis based on EF-1α is highly informative for resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in Triatominae, such as tribe or genera. PMID:27268149

  2. First report of colonies of sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Paraguayan Chaco, using a trained dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolón, Miriam; Vega, María Celeste; Román, Fabiola; Gómez, Ana; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    In the Gran Chaco region, control of Triatoma infestans has been limited by persistent domestic infestations despite the efforts of the Vector Control Services. In Paraguay, this region is the highest endemic area in the country, showing high levels of indoor and outdoor infestation. Although sylvatic T. infestans have been found in the Bolivian and Argentine Chaco, similar searches for sylvatic populations of this species in Paraguay had been unsuccessful over the last 20 years. Here we present a new approach to detecting sylvatic Triatominae, using a trained dog, which has successfully confirmed sylvatic populations of T. infestans and other triatomine species in Paraguay. A total of 22 specimens corresponding to dark morph forms of T. infestans were collected, and 14 were confirmed as T. infestans by the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene analysis. Through this analysis, one of which were previously reported and a second that was a new haplotype. Triatomines were captured from amongst vegetation such as dry branches and hollows trees of different species such Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Bulnesia sarmientoi and Stetsonia coryne. The colonies found have been small and without apparent infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. During the study, Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana have also been found in ecotopes close to those of T. infestans. PMID:21572522

  3. The biology of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta and Triatoma rubida

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The values of biological parameters related to hatching, lifespan, the number of blood meals between moults, mortality, time lapse before the beginning of feeding, feeding time and defecation delay for each instar of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae, Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta (former subspecies protracta and Triatoma rubida (former subspecies uhleri, were evaluated and compared. No significant (p > 0.05 differences were recorded among the three species with respect to the average time required to hatch. This time was approximately 19 days. The average egg-to-adult development time was significantly (p < 0.05 shorter for T. rubida. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from one-five for each species. The mortality rates were higher for the first-instar nymphs of the three species studied. The mean time lapse before the beginning of feeding was between 0.3-3 min for most nymphs of all instars of each species studied. The mean feeding time was the longest for T. recurva, followed by T. protracta. The defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. recurva and T. rubida. Given these results, only T. rubida should be considered an important potential vector of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans in areas of Mexico where these species exist, whereas T. recurva and T. protracta would be of secondary importance.

  4. Description and characterization of the melanic morphotype of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Fernando Braga Stehling Dias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For the first time we provide the description of the melanic (dark morphotype of Rhodnius nasutus and determine the pattern of genetic inheritance for this characteristic. Methods Dark morph R. nasutus specimens were crossbred with standard (typically patterned R. nasutus. Results We present the first occurrence of the melanic morphotype in the genus Rhodnius. The crossbreeding results demonstrate that the inheritance pattern of this characteristic follows Mendel's simple laws of segregation and an independent assortment of alleles. Conclusions Phenotypic variation of R. nasutus reinforces the heterogeneity found in the Triatominae. Descriptions of new species in this subfamily require rigorous validation criteria.

  5. Anatomy of the Spermatophore in Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) and Its Applications to the Study of Chagas Disease Vector Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lourenço, Ariane S.; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R.; Freitas, Simone P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on spermatophore structure, transfer, and subsequent destination inside bloodfeeding females of the species Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius neglectus. The morphology of the spermatophore differed between the species studied, such that in T. infestans, the shape was ovaloid, whereas in R. neglectus, the shape resembled a rod. Structures' spine-like cuticulars distributed across the inner surface of the vagina of both species were observed; however, the role of these cuticulars is unknown in Triatominae. In both species, there was an opening in the spermatophore exactly where the common oviduct is connected, thereby making it possible to confirm that the process of spermatozoid migration takes place through this opening. The results obtained show that the spermatophores of T. infestans and R. neglectus differ in size, shape, and structure. Therefore, they can be used as taxonomic markers and may provide information regarding physiology and evolution. PMID:23958911

  6. Infestation of thornbird nests (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) by Psammolestes tertius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) across Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions

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    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; César Augusto Cuba Cuba

    2011-01-01

    Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 is a sylvatic triatomine bug species that occurs in thornbird nests in Brazil. We studied infestation of 527 nests of Phacellodomus rufifrons Wied, 1821 and Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817 by P. tertius in eight Brazilian states across the Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions. Psammolestes tertius occurred in 44% of the nests, mainly in those of P. ruber. Overall, 3,261 specimens (52% nymphs) were captured, with an average of 14 bugs per infested nest (...

  7. Secretory activity and endocrine regulation of male accessory glands in the blood-sucking bug Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Lêda Regis

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial cells of Panstrongylus megistus male accessory glands (MAG present ultrastructural characteristics of a secretory cell. Their secretory products are accumulated in the lumen of the four MAG lobes. During the first 8 days of adult life a strong secretion activity occurs, accumulating enough material to produce the first spermatophore. Cerebral neurosecretions as well as juvenile hormone are both involved in MAG secretory activity regulation. Juvenile hormone seems to be the responsible for the stimulation of most protein synthesis in male accessory glands. Cerebral neurosecretion seems to be necessary to stimulate juvenile hormone production and release by the corpus allatum. Furthermore, neurosecretion is required for some polypeptides synthesis by MAG. Although topic application of precocene II to adult males does not reproduce the same effects on MAG as does allatectomy, this compound causes strong reduction on male reproductive capacity.

  8. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

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    Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila Pessoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph of the SRL. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50 that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  9. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidae)from Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae)in the semiarid region of Guatemala

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    Ricardo Marroquín M; Silvia Bor A; M.Carlota Monroy E

    2004-01-01

    A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).The insects were mainly foun...

  10. Morphological Studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Genital Structures and Eggs of Different Chromatic Forms

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    Jane Costa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm.

  11. Environmental management for the control of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Costa Rica: a pilot project

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    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecological control method, using environmental management operations, based on biological and behavioral characteristics of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, was implemented as a pilot project in an area of Costa Rica where the bug is prevalent. The sample was represented by 20 houses with peridomestic colonies (two also had indoor infestation, divided in two equivalent groups of 10 each. In one group we intervened the houses, i.e. all objects or materials that were serving as artificial ecotopes for the bugs were removed, and the second group was used as control houses. After a year of periodic follow up, it became evident that in those houses with a modified environment the number of insects had decreased notoriously even after the first visits and this was more evident after a period of 12.5 to 13.5 months in which no insects were detected in eight of the houses. It also became clear that in this group of houses, recolonization by wild bugs from the surrounding areas, became more difficult, probably due to the absence of protection from bug predators. In the control houses, with the exception of three in which the inhabitants decided to intervene on their own, and another house with a peculiar situation, the insect populations remained the same or even showed a tendency to increase, as confirmed at the end of the experiment. We believe that the method is feasible, low costing and non contaminating. It could be used successfully in other places where T. dimidiata is common and also in countries where other species colonize peridomestic areas of homes. Environmental management of this kind should seek the participation of the members of the communities, in order to make it a more permanent control measure.

  12. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms. PMID:27420943

  13. Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera-Reduviidae-Triatominae III: patterns of feeding, defecation and resistance to starvation

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    Carlos Eduardo Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Chagas Disease Control Program indicate a growing domiciliary and peridomiciliary invasion of Triatoma rubrovaria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, where it has become the most frequent triatomine species captured there since the control of T. infestans. Bionomic characteristics that could influence the vectorial capacity of T. rubrovaria as vector of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated: patterns of (i feeding, (ii defecation, and (iii resistance to starvation, using insects fed on mice. Fifty three percent of the females showed a defecation pattern conducive to chagasic transmission, defecating either on or near the bite site. The averages of the resistance to starvation varied from 48.1 to 179 days, for the first and fifth nymphal stages, respectively. Our study shows that with respect to the patterns of feeding, defecation and resistance to fasting, T. rubrovaria presented similar rates to the ones observed for other effective vector species, such as T. infestans. Thus, based on our studies we conclude that T. rubrovaria has biological characteristics that can positively influence its capacity to become infected and transmit T. cruzi, and also to keep residual populations after chemical control interventions.

  14. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

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    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  15. Sex Attraction in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

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    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction, assessing male and female response to male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. In laboratory olfactometer assays, pot...

  16. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

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    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  17. Descripción de una nueva especie de Tropinota Mulsant, 1842 del subgénero Epicometis Burmeister, 1842 del norte de Marruecos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae

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    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A species of the genus Tropinota Mulsant, 1842, T. iec sp. n., is described using specimens from northwestern Morocco (region of Tangier-Tetouan. This new species is included in subgenus Epicometis Burmeister, 1842, because it shows the main diagnostic characters of the subgenus: pronotum without smooth areas and 5th interstria not strongly elevated as a keel and not bifurcated at the base. Diagnostic traits of T. iec sp. n. are defined, and differential characters with respect to all other species of Epicometis discussed. Based on morphological traits, the closest species to T. iec sp. n. is Tropinota (Epicometis hirta (Poda von Neuhaus, 1761. Tropinota iec sp. n. differs from T. hirta in tegument shine, density of corporal pilosity, pronotal and elytral punctuation, tarsal length, punctuation of the mesosternal plate, and also in the structure of the aedeagus, with parameri clearly widening along the apical region in T. iec. Main morphological differences between the new species and the other two species of Tropinota inhabiting northern Africa, T. (Tropinota squalida (Scopoli, 1763 and T. (Hemiopta bleusei (Bedel, 1896, are also indicated. Finally, the presence of T. hirta in Morocco, where possibly it has been confused with T. iec sp. n., is also discussed.Se describe una especie nueva del género Tropinota Mulsant, 1842 a partir de ejemplares del noroeste de Marruecos (región de Tánger-Tetuán: T. iec sp. n. Esta nueva especie se adscribe al subgénero Epicometis Burmeister, 1842 por presentar los principales caracteres diagnósticos del mismo: pronoto sin áreas lisas y la 5ª interestría no fuertemente elevada a modo de costilla ni bifurcada en la base. Se definen los rasgos diagnósticos de T. iec sp. n. y se discuten los caracteres diferenciales respecto a las demás especies de Epicometis. La especie morfológicamente más afín a T. iec sp. n. es Tropinota (Epicometis hirta (Poda von Neuhaus, 1761, de la que se segrega

  18. Metagenomics of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

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    A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...

  19. Metagenomics of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new insect-infecting viruses, three endosymbiotic bacteria, a fungus, and a bacterial phage were discovered using a metagenomics approach to identify unknown organisms that live in association with the sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The genetic composition of ...

  20. SMALL SCALE LABORATORY REARING OF A REDUVIID PREDATOR, RHYNOCORIS MARGINATUS FAB. (HEMIPTERA: REDUVIIDAE ON CORCYRA CEPHALONICA STAINTON LARVAE BY LARVAL CARD METHOD

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    K SAHAYARAJ

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A reduviid predator, Rhynocoris marginatus Fab. was reared at four different densities (25, 50, 75 and 100 on Corcyra cephalonica Stainton larvae. Fifty predators per rearing container were the suitable density for small scale laboratory rearing of this predator because this density had shorter nymphal developmental, preoviposition and incubation periods, female biased sex ratios minimum food requirements and maximum fecundity and hatchability. A life table was constructed in relation to the predator density. The net reproductive rate was higher in the 50 predator group and it decreased with an increase in the predator density. R. marginatus population doubling time (14.9 days was found to be higher in the 100 predator category and increased as the predator density decreased. Cost of production of this predator for field release was also lower when compared to insecticide or NPV application.

  1. Biologia do Triatoma nitida Usinger, 1939 em laboratório (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Biology of Triatoma nitida usinger, 1939 under laboratory coditions

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    Cleber Galvão

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida is a wild species occurring in Mexico and Central America. In order to establish the length of its life cycle and transmission potential, the following parameters were observed: the incubation period, the interval between hatching, or moulting, and the first feeding; the number of blood meals and the time of development. The time-lapse before the bite, the length of feeding and the interval between the end of the blood meal and defecation, as well as the site of defecation were also analyzed. Average length of the egg incubation period was 18.2 days. Time interval between the food source offering and the bite was less than 4 min in 60//of the analyzed cases, except in the fifth instar, where only 38//of the insects began feeding in less than 5 min. The blood-sucking period was long and rising until the fifth instar, decreasing in adults, and ranging from 1 min to 2 and a half hours. Only 26//of the blood meals were followed by defecations within 20 min. The average length of the life cycle was 897.5 days.

  2. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham G. Cáceres; Lucinda Troyes; Antero Gonzáles-Pérez; Enrique Llontop; Carmen Bonilla; Murias; Nixón Heredia; César Velásquez; Carlos Yáñez

    2002-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca) y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas). Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos) y Jaén (10 distritos) del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas). El muestreo fue ...

  3. Biology of Triatominae (Reduviidae Hemiptera from North of Formosa County (Goiás-Brazil I. Length of life cycle of Triatoma sordida (Stal. 1859

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the life cycle of Triatoma sordida was studied. The mean length from egg to adult was 213 days. The mean length in days from each stage was: 24.3 (± 1.30 for the first. 32.8 (± 1.45 (2nd, 36.1 (± 1.50 (3rd, 44.6 (± 1.85 (4th and 52.0 (± 1.92 (5th. The mean egg incubation períod was 23.2 (± 1.40. Overall mortality was 18.8% and egg viability was 82.5%.Foi estudado no presente trabalho o ciclo biológico do Triatoma sordida A média da duração do ciclo de ovo a adulto foi 213 dias. A média de duração em dias para cada estágio foi 24,3 (± 1,30 para o primeiro, 32,8 (± 1,45 para o segundo, 36,1 (± 1,50 para o terceiro, 44,6 (± 1,85 para o quarto e 52,0 (± 1,92 para o quinto. A média do período de incubação dos ovos foi 23,2 (± 1,40. A mortalidade em todos ps estágios foi 18,8% e a viabilidade dos ovos foi 82,5%.

  4. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

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    Guillermo Carvajal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01. A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.

  5. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Carvajal; María Inés Picollo; Ariel Ceferino Toloza

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of th...

  6. Peridomiciliary colonies of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in rural areas of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Claudiney Biral dos Santos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the colonization of human dwellings by triatomines occurs in areas with native vegetation of the caatinga or cerrado types. In areas of Atlantic forest such as in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo, there are no species adapted to live in human habitations. The few autochthonous cases of Chagas disease encountered in Espírito Santo have been attributed to adult specimens of Triatoma vitticeps that invade houses from forest remnants. In recent years, the entomology unit of the Espírito Santo State Health Secretariat has recorded nymphs infected with flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi in rural localities. Entomological surveys were carried out in the residences and outbuildings in which the insects were found, and serological examinations for Chagas disease performed on the inhabitants. Four colonies were found, all associated with nests of opossums (Didelphis aurita, 111 specimens of T. vitticeps, and 159 eggs being collected. All the triatomines presented flagellates in their frass. Mice inoculated with the faeces presented trypomastigotes in the circulating blood and groups of amastigotes in the cardiac muscle fibres. Serological tests performed on the inhabitants were negative for T. cruzi. Even with the intense devastation of the forest in Espírito Santo, there are no indications of change in the sylvatic habits of T. vitticeps. Colonies of this insect associated with opossum nests would indicate an expansion of the sylvatic environment into the peridomicile.

  7. Risk of Trypanosoma cruzi I (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) transmission by Panstrongylus geniculatus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Caracas (Metropolitan District) and neighboring States, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J; Torrellas, Annhymariet; García, Carlos; Segovia, Maikell; Feliciangeli, M Dora

    2005-11-01

    The collection of Panstrongylus geniculatus bugs by inhabitants of dwellings in Caracas city (Metropolitan District) and in the neighboring Miranda and Vargas Sates, Venezuela, allowed for the gathering of data on the potential role of this sylvatic triatomine bug as a vector of Chagas disease in this area. The natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was recorded by examining fresh and stained faeces of the bugs. Additionally, a random amplification of polymorphic DNA technique for parasite identification and group typing was employed. A dot-ELISA test was used to identify the gut content of the triatomine bugs with the aim of assessing and quantifying the vector-human contact. Sixty-seven specimens (76.1%) were positive to T. cruzi (identified as T. cruzi I) and 60.2% (53/88) gave a positive reaction to the human antiserum. The human blood-positive samples included mixed blood meals with domestic animals (dog, pig and cow) (9.4%) and with mouse (3.8%). The overall Human Blood Index, measured as the percentage of bugs whose gut contents reacted with human antiserum on the total numbers of bugs that reacted with all the antisera tested, was 98.1%. Almost 41% of the bugs that had fed on humans were also positive for T. cruzi. These data show that the feeding of P. geniculatus on humans does not seem to be accidental and that its rate of infection by T. cruzi is high in this area which is not regarded as endemic for Chagas disease by the National Control Programme. This situation is particularly striking because it occurs in and around Caracas, the capital city, where 20% of the whole population of Venezuela live, human migrations from endemic areas are continuous, people in the crowded shantytown as well as people living in high-quality country houses are equally at risk and the epidemiological cycle Didelphis marsupialis/Rattus rattus-P. geniculatus-human does appear to occur successfully. PMID:16019006

  8. Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae II: trophic resources and ecological observations of five populations collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Almeida Carlos Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma rubrovaria has become the most frequently captured triatomine species after the control of T. infestans in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. Isoenzymatic and chromatic studies indicate the existence of, at least, two distinct phenotypic patterns of T. rubrovaria in RS. The geographic variation noted through molecular tools may also result in distinct profiles of vectorial potentiality. In order to enhance our understanding of the bionomic knowledge of T. rubrovaria separate batches of the species were collected from different municipalities of RS distant from 72 to 332 km: Santana do Livramento (natural ecotope, Santana do Livramento (artificial ecotope, Santiago (natural ecotope, Canguçu (peridomicile and Encruzilhada do Sul (natural ecotope. A total of 285 specimens were collected, 85 specimens kept sufficient fecal material in their guts for the precipitin analysis. The results indicated the food eclecticism for this species and the anti-rodent serum showed the highest positivity in most localities. From the total of analyzed samples, only 1.3% of unique positivity for human blood was registered, all of them for Santiago population. This reactivity to human blood may be associated to pastures activities in the field.

  9. Synanthropic triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: geographical distribution and natural Trypanosoma infection rates between 2006 and 2007

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    Maria Beatriz Araújo Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study shows a descriptive analysis of triatomine occurrence and its natural Trypanosoma infection rates in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2006 and 2007. METHODS: Entomological data for the species, such as specimens captured in both intra and peridomiciles and natural infection index, were obtained via domiciliary capture in 147 municipalities from 11 Regional Managements of Health. The database was obtained from a sample of insects (100% infected and 20% non-infected sent to the Central Laboratory of Pernambuco. RESULTS: A total of 18,029 triatomines were analyzed from 138 municipalities of the state. Triatoma pseudomaculata (35%, Triatoma brasiliensis (34%, and Panstrongylus lutzi (25% were the most captured species. These species also showed a widespread geographical distribution in the state. Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma petrocchiae, Triatoma melanocephala, Triatoma sordida, Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, and Triatoma infestans showed more limited geographical distribution and lower relative abundance. The parasitological research showed that 8.8% of the triatomines were naturally infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi and 91.3% of them were captured inside houses in 113 municipalities. P. lutzi showed the highest rates of natural infection. CONCLUSIONS: After the control of T. infestans, synanthropic species, such as T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, and P. lutzi, maintain the risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans in the state of Pernambuco. These species are widely distributed, and infected specimens have been found inside houses. Thus, an enhanced surveillance and vector control of Chagas disease is recommended in Pernambuco.

  10. Species of the subfamily Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae present in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC, State of Minas Gerais

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    Rita de Cássia Moreira de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biological collections are depositories of information on different species and contribute to the knowledge, protection, conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. Methods A list of triatomine species currently included in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC was prepared from the database made available by the Reference Center on Environmental Information. Results COLVEC curatorship houses 4,778 specimens of triatomines, of which 811 come from other American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the United States of America, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela and 3,967 are autochthonous from Brazil. Altogether, 56 species of Chagas disease vectors are represented in the COLVEC: two species of the Tribe Cavernicolini Usinger, 1944; fifteen species of the tribe Rhodniini Pinto, 1926, of which 12 are of the genus Rhodnius and 3 are of the genus Psamolestes; and 39 species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, represented by the genus Dipetalogaster, two species of the genus Eratyrus, two of the genus Meccus, seven of the genus Panstrongylus and 27 of the genus Triatoma. Conclusions This list provides important data on the diversity of triatomines currently included in COLVEC, including the expanded area of Panstrongylus lutzi occurrence in the municipalities Pirapora and Januária, State of Minas Gerais. The maintenance and expansion of the collection ensures the preservation of biodiversity and further studies.

  11. Aristathlus imperatorius Bergroth, a newly recognized synonym of Reduvius iopterus Perty, with the new combination Aristathlus iopterus (Perty, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) ​

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    Forero, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Reduvius iopterus Perty 1834 was first described from the Rio Negro, Brazil. It was then included in Zelus Fabricius 1803 as Z. iopterus (Perty 1834) without critical examination of this action (Stål 1872).The Neotropical genus Aristathlus Bergroth 1913 was described to include two species from the Amazon basin: A. imperatorius Bergroth 1913 and A. regalis Bergroth 1913. New information Based on the original description and illustration of Reduvius iopterus, Aristathlus imperatorius is considered to be its junior synonym, with the resulting new combination: Aristathlus iopterus (Perty 1834). PMID:26175611

  12. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil

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    Fernando Braga Stehling Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera, catolé (Syagrus oleracea and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens. Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species. The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  13. Life cycle, feeding and defecation patterns of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Lent & León 1958 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Anita G Villacís

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the second most important vector of Chagas Disease (CD in Ecuador. The objective of this study was to describe (and compare the life cycle, the feeding and defecation patterns under laboratory conditions of two populations of this specie [from the provinces of Manabí (Coastal region and Loja (Andean region]. Egg-to-adult (n = 57 development took an average of 189.9 ± 20 (Manabí and 181.3 ± 6.4 days (Loja. Mortality rates were high among Lojan nymphs. Pre-feeding time (from contact with host to feeding initiation ranged from 4 min 42 s [nymph I (NI] to 8 min 30 s (male; feeding time ranged from 14 min 45 s (NI-28 min 25 s (male (Manabí and from 15 min 25 s (NI-28 min 57 s (nymph V (Loja. The amount of blood ingested increased significantly with instar and was larger for Manabí specimens (p < 0.001. Defecation while feeding was observed in Manabí specimens from stage nymph III and in Lojan bugs from stage nymph IV. There was a gradual, age-related increase in the frequency of this behaviour in both populations. Our results suggest that R. ecuadoriensis has the bionomic traits of an efficient vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. Together with previous data on the capacity of this species to infest rural households, these results indicate that control of synanthropic R. ecuadoriensis populations in the coastal and Andean regions may have a significant impact for CD control in Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  14. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

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    Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2014-09-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level. PMID:25141281

  15. Isolation of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in an endemic area in Argentina.

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    Marti, Gerardo A; Lastra, Claudia C López; Pelizza, Sebastian A; García, Juan J

    2006-11-01

    A survey for entomopathogenic fungi of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans was conducted in two provinces of Argentina from March-December 2003. Field-collected insects that died in the laboratory were individually maintained in moist chamber and incubated at 22 degrees C. Triatominae adults infected with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus were found at El Quebracho (27 degrees 34'S-64 degrees 31'W), Santiago del Estero province, Argentina, in December 2003. Paecilomyces lilacinus was cultured and isolated from infected insects in SDAY, PYG and MEA media. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results were recorded. The median survival time (MST) of T. infestans exposed to a P. lilacinus conidial suspension was 12.8 days, and 100% mortality occurred at 30 days post-treatment. This is the first record of natural infection caused by P. lilacinus in T. infestans in the world. PMID:17123036

  16. Ecological niche modelling and differentiation between Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 and Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Brazil

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    Taíza Almeida Batista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modelling was used to predict the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius nasutus Stål and Rhodnius neglectus Lent, in Brazil and to investigate the niche divergence between these morphologically similar triatomine species. The distribution of R. neglectus covered mainly the cerrado of Central Brazil, but the prediction maps also revealed its occurrence in transitional areas within the caatinga, Pantanal and Amazon biomes. The potential distribution of R. nasutus covered the Northeastern Region of Brazil in the semi-arid caatinga and the Maranhão babaçu forests. Clear ecological niche differences between these species were observed. R. nasutus occurred more in warmer and drier areas than R. neglectus. In the principal component analysis PC1 was correlated with altitude and temperature (mainly temperature in the coldest and driest months and PC2 with vegetation index and precipitation. The prediction maps support potential areas of co-occurrence for these species in the Maranhão babaçu forests and in caatinga/cerrado transitional areas, mainly in state of Piaui. Entomologists engaged in Chagas disease vector surveillance should be aware that R. neglectus and R. nasutus can occur in the same localities of Northeastern Brazil. Thus, the identification of bugs in these areas should be improved by applying morphometrical and/or molecular methods.

  17. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

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    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  18. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

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    Abraham G Cáceres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  19. Entomological and ecological aspects of six sylvatic species of triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae from the collection of the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica, Central America

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    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 797 specimens of wild adult triatomines, belonging to six species from the entomological collections of the Costa Rican National Biodiversity Institute, was studied from the standpoint of their relative abundance, as reflected by light traps, distribution in the country, seasonal variations and climatic and altitudinal preferences. Triatoma dimidiata was the most abundant species (32.9% of the total specimens, with a very extensive distribution in different ecological zones, being more common between 100 to 400 m above sea level mainly at the end of the dry season. T. dispar was the third in frequency (21.5%, with narrower distribution, more abundant between 600 to 800 m and scarce during the dry season. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. rufotuberculatus, second and fourth in frequency (22.1% and 15.1%, respectively, were widely distributed on both the Pacific and Caribbean basins, the former being more common between 80 to 270 m all year round and the latter below 800 m mainly during the first semester. Eratyrus cuspidatus which represented only 4.9% of the insects, was also present on both basins mainly below 200 m with a tendency to be scarce during certain months of the year, and was found in all types of ecological zones. Finally, Rhodnius pallescens, the least abundant species (3.6% was restricted to very humid areas below 20 m, on the north side and Caribbean basin. With the exception of R. pallescens, males were more commonly found than females. Some epidemiological implications related to the six species are discussed.

  20. Entomological Indices, Feeding Sources, and Molecular Identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) One of the Main Vectors of Chagas Disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; De La Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma c...

  1. Entomological indices, feeding sources, and molecular identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.

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    Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection indices were 2.1% in San Mateo del Mar and 39.4% in Tehuantepec City. This difference could be related to the high numbers of triatomine feeding on hens in the former community. In contrast, in Tehuantepec, dogs were the principal triatomine feeding sources. All nymphs and adults that were genetically analyzed belonged to the species T. phyllosoma. Low levels of genetic variation were found between vectors from both communities. PMID:21896810

  2. Estrutura populacional da Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae nas áreas de reprodução do Oceano Atlântico Sul Minke whale Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae population structure in the breeding grounds off South Atlantic Ocean

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    Alineide Lucena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo da composição dos grupos de baleias minke, Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister, 1867, capturadas nas águas de Costinha, Paraíba, Brasil, na época da caça comercial, foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a dinâmica dos principais parâmetros biológicos, assim como aspectos do comportamento reprodutivo desta espécie. Foram analisados dados da caça coletados pela Superintendência para o Desenvolvimento da Pesca e Companhia de Pesca Norte do Brasil acerca do tamanho e composição dos grupos, proporções sexuais e grau de maturidade das baleias capturadas entre os anos de 1975 a 1985. Os grupos encontrados nas águas de Costinha foram em geral de pequeno tamanho e compostos de animais de ambos os sexos, com predominância de fêmeas e animais maturos sexualmente. Os filhotes, as fêmeas lactantes e prenhes foram raramente encontrados. Esta população de baleias encontrava-se em maior número na costa da Paraíba entre os meses de setembro e outubro, principal período de concepção para a espécie, devendo ocorrer grande número de fecundações nesta área e período. A ausência de fêmeas prenhes ou lactantes e filhotes nesta população demonstra que os nascimentos não ocorrem nesta área. O encalhe e a avistagem de filhotes da baleia minke na costa leste da América do Sul (entre 25ºS e 40ºS sugere o nascimento dos filhotes em médias latitudes desta região, onde a temperatura da água é inferior à encontrada na costa do nordeste brasileiro. Desta forma há indícios de que existam distintas áreas para o nascimento de filhotes e o acasalamento da baleia minke nas águas do Oceano Atlântico Sul Ocidental. A poligamia é um comportamento reprodutivo apresentado pela baleia minke, tendo sido observado através da proporção sexual das capturas e da composição dos grupos formados apenas por animais maturos sexualmente nesta área de acasalamento.A group composition study of the minke whale, Balaenoptera

  3. The species of Aspona Stål and nomenclatural notes (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae As espécies de Aspona Stål e notas nomenclaturais (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aspona Stål contains now only two species: A. bullata Stål, 1862 (= Aspona gibosa Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 syn. nov. = Taunaya gibbosa Remes-Lenicov, 1973 syn. nov. and A. quadrinodosa (Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 comb. nov. (formerly in Cyphotes Burmeister.O gênero Aspona Stål passa a ter apenas duas espécies: A. bullata Stål, 1862 (= Aspona gibosa Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 syn. nov. = Taunaya gibbosa Remes-Lenicov, 1973 syn. nov. e A. quadrinodosa (Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 comb. nov. (antes em Cyphotes Burmeister.

  4. Estudo comparativo da genitália externa masculina de Triatoma neotomae Neiva, 1911 e Triatoma nitida Usinger, 1939 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae A comparative study of the male external genitalia of Triatoma neotomae Neiva, 1911 and Triatoma nitida Usinger, 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Herman Lent

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological comparative study of the phallus organs, of both species, shown five structures wich may be used as taxonomic characters. They are: parameres (Pa, median process pygophore (PrP, basal plate (EPbi, gonopore (PrG and endosoma process (PrEn.

  5. A Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae population from Roraima, Amazon region, Brazil, has some bionomic characteristics of a potential Chagas disease vector Uma população de Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae proveniente de Roraima, Amazônia, Brasil, possui algumas características bionômicas de vetor potencial de doença de Chagas

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    José Francisco Luitgards-Moura

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though Chagas disease is rare in the Brazilian Amazon, the conditions for the establishment of domiciliated cycles prevail in many areas where triatomines are of frequent occurrence. In Roraima, a previous serological and entomological survey in three agricultural settlements showed the existence of all transmission cycle elements, i.e., individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, triatomine species previously found harboring T. cruzi in the broader Amazon region of neighboring countries and, domicile/ peridomicile conditions favorable to triatomine colonization. Triatoma maculata was the most frequent species, found in chicken houses in the peridomicile and sporadically within residences. Aiming to investigate the possibility of T. maculata to possess the potentiality to transmit T. cruzi in the area, bionomic characteristics were studied under laboratory conditions. These were feeding frequency, time for defecation after a blood meal, time elapsed in voluntary fasting pre- and pos-ecdysis, moulting time periods, pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and index of oviposition, incubation period, egg viability, longevity and mortality rate. Results show that the Passarão population of T. maculata should be considered a potential vector of T. cruzi since it shows a capacity to infest artificial ecotopes in the peridomicile, to carry out large number of meals during the nymphal cycle, to have a relatively short developmental cycle capable of producing 2.9 generations/year, to blood source eclecticism, to defecate immediately after the blood meal while still on the host and to the fact that has been previously found naturally infected by T.cruzi.A doença de Chagas é de rara ocorrência na Região Amazônica Brasileira, onde contudo as condições para o estabelecimento de ciclos domésticos existem. Um estudo previamente realizado em áreas de colonização agrícola no Estado de Roraima, mostrou a possibilidade de ciclos autóctones de transmissão virem a ocorrer uma vez que todos os elementos estavam lá presentes, indivíduos infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi, espécies de triatomíneos anteriormente descritas como infectadas por T. cruzi na Região Amazônica de países fronteiriços e, ambientes domiciliares e peri-domiciliares favoráveis à colonização de triatomíneos. Triatoma maculata foi a espécie mais frequentemente encontrada, tendo sido coletada em galinheiros no peridomicílio e esporadicamente nos domicílios. Visando investigar a potencialidade de T. maculata como espécie vetora na área, algumas características bionômicas foram estudadas em condições de laboratório incluindo freqüência de alimentação, tempo de defecação pós-prandial, tempo de jejum voluntário na pré- e na pós-ecdise, período inter-mudas, períodos de pré-oviposição e de oviposição, índice de oviposição, período de incubação, viabilidade dos ovos, índices de longevidade e de mortalidade. Os resultados mostraram que a população de T. maculata da Colônia Agrícola do Passarão deve ser considerada vetora em potencial do T. cruzi uma vez que mostrou capacidade de infestar ecótopos artificiais no peridomicílio, de se alimentar com freqüência durante o período ninfal, de possuir um ciclo de desenvolvimento relativamente curto com 2,9 gerações/ano, de possuir hábitos ecléticos de alimentação, de defecar imediatamente após a hematofagia quando ainda no hospedeiro e devido ao fato de ter sido previamente encontrada infectada por T. cruzi.

  6. A genitália externa dos machos de sete espécies de Triatoma Laporte, 1832 da região Neártica (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Male external genitalia in seven species of Triatoma Laporte, 1832 from neartic region (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Lent

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da região neártica: Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gertaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 e T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 foram analisadas comparativamente, tendo como enfoque as estruturas da genitália do macho: falosoma (Ph, suporte do falosoma (SPh, processo do endosoma (PrEn, vesica (V e aparelho articular (Apb. As estruturas fálicas se mostraram capazes de serem usadas como critério morfológico suplementar aos padrões atualmente usados, em taxonomia. Estas espécies silvestres são encontradas nos Estados Unidos e México, naturalmente infectadas pelo T. cruzi; algumas vivem no perdomicílio e outras eventualmente no domicílio, sem contudo colonizá-lo.Seven species from the neartic region, Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gerstaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 and T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 were comparatively analysed with emphasis on the genital structures of the male bug: the phallosome (Ph, the phallosome struts (SPh, the endosoma process (PrEn, the vesica (V and the articulatory apparatus (Apb. The phallic structures were useful as a supplementary morphological criterion to the present taxonomical standards. These wild species are found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in the United States and Mexico. Some of them live outside human dwellings while other are occasionally domiciliary, although they do not colonize these homes.

  7. Eficiência de alfacipermetrina e cipermetrina no controle de triatomíneos em Camalaú, no sul da Paraíba (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Efficiency of alphacyspermethrin and cypermethrin in the control of triatomine bugs in Camalaú, south of Paraíba (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Carlos Brisola Marcondes

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available We sprayed, in three groups of Domiciliary Units, 10 and 15 g of alphacypermethrin and 31.3 g of cypermethrin per pump of 10 liters, equivaling, if applied on 250 [squared meters, respectiveliy, to 60 and 40 mg of a alphacypermethrin [per squared meter] and 125,2 mg of cypermethrin [per squared meter]. The invasion, colonization and cumulative indices in the houses and the positivity index in shelters near houses were very low and similar in the three groups, in the 15 months of evaluation, indicating that alphacypermethrin can replace cypermethrin. Triatoma infestans predominated in the Domiciliary Units before treatment and T. brasiliensis and T. pseudomaculata predominated after it.

  8. Alterações biomorfogênicas causadas pela aplicação de precoceno II em ninfas de Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera, reduviidae, triatominae Biomorphogenetic changes caused by the application or prococene II in nymphs of Triatoma infestans (klug, 1834 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    José Jurberg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available O precoceno II aplicado topicamente em ninfas de 4ª estádio, nas dosagens de 200, 300 e 400 micron-grama/1 micron-litro de acetona, proporcionou o aparecimento de adultóides, em diferentes percentagens com as seguintes características: tegumento alterado, aparelho bucal deformado, asas braquípteras, tarsos trímeros, ocelos, evidentes e genitália externa com estruturas desenvolvidas e deformadas; genitália interna em estágio intermediário entre ninfas de 4§ e 5§ estádios. Os adultóides apresentaram um período de sobrevivência inversamente proporcional à dosagem aplicada, variando de 3 a 22 dias, não tendo se alimentado devido as alterações.The morphogenetic effect of precocene II on 4th instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans was examined. Topical treatment with precocene II (200, 300 and 400 µg/nymph induced the formation of adultoids with the following characteristics; rudimentary wings, three segmented tarsi, ocelli, deformed genitalia and mouth-parts and testes with intermediary development. Precocene II also increases the duration of the molting cycle. The survival of the adultoid insects was related to the inverse of the applied doses. These data extend our knowledge of the action of precocene II on triatominae species.

  9. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): immature stages and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) are described, keyed and illustrated. The descritpion of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are body size, color, number...

  10. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  11. An assassin among predators: the relationship between plant-ants, their host Myrmecophytes and the Reduviidae Zelus annulosus.

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    Messika Revel

    Full Text Available Tropical plants frequently live in association with ants that protect their foliage from defoliators. Among them, myrmecophytes have evolved mutualisms with a limited number of plant-ants that they shelter and feed, and, in return, benefit from some protection. Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae, for example, houses Allomerus decemarticulatus (Myrmicinae that build gallery-shaped traps to catch large prey. In French Guiana, we frequently observed the assassin bug Zelus annulosus (Reduviidae, Harpactorinae on the leaves of H. physophora. Here, we studied the distribution of Zelus annulosus among understory plants in the Guianese rainforest and found it only on pubescent plants, including H. Physophora, whether or not it was sheltering an A. decemarticulatus colony, but only rarely on other myrmecophytes. The relationship between Z. annulosus and its host plants is, then, also mutualistic, as the plant trichomes act as an enemy-free space protecting the nymphs from large predatory ants, while the nymphs protect their host-plants from herbivorous insects. Through their relationship with A. decemarticulatus colonies, Z. annulosus individuals are protected from army ants, while furnishing nothing in return. In those cases where H. physophora sheltered both an A. decemarticulatus colony and Z. annulosus nymphs, certain plant individuals repeatedly sheltered nymphs, indicating that female bugs may select not only pubescent plants but also particular H. physophora treelets having characteristics more favourable to the development of their progeny.

  12. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  13. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, W. Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Horton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). ...

  14. Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Culik, Mark P.; David S Martins; José A. Ventura; Wolff, Vera S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are newly recorded from Espírito Santo, Brazil, and information on the host plants and geographic distribution of the 31 species of Diaspididae that have been identified in the State is provided. New plant host records are reported for 11 of the diaspidid species studied and results are discussed with respect to development of agriculture in this and similar areas with objectives of modernization and diversification.

  15. Jumping performance of planthoppers (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    The structure of the hind limbs and the kinematics of their movements that propel jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) were analysed. The propulsion for a jump was delivered by rapid movements of the hind legs that both move in the same plane beneath the body and parallel to its longitudinal axis, as revealed in high-speed sequences of images captured at rates up to 7500 images s(-1). The first and key movement was the depression of both trochantera about their coxae, powered by large depressor muscles in the thorax, accompanied by rapid extension of the tibiae about their femora. The initial movements of the two trochantera of the hind legs were synchronised to within 0.03 ms. The hind legs are only 20% longer than the front and middle legs, represent 65% of the body length, and have a ratio of 1.8 relative to the cube root of the body mass. The two hind coxae have a different structure to those in frog- and leafhoppers. They are fused at the mid-line, covered ventrally by transparent cuticle, and each is fixed laterally to a part of the internal skeleton called the pleural arch that extends to the articulation of a hind wing. A small and pointed, ventral coxal protrusion covered in microtrichia engages with a raised, smooth, white patch on a dorsal femur when a hind leg is levated (cocked) in preparation for a jump. In the best jumps by a male Issus, the body was accelerated in 0.8 ms to a take-off velocity of 5.5 m s(-1), was subjected to a force of 719 g and was displaced a horizontal distance of 1.1 m. This performance required an energy output of 303 microJ, a power output of 388 mW and exerted a force of 141 mN, or more than 700 times its body mass. This performance implies that a catapult mechanism must be used, and that Issus ranks alongside the froghopper Philaenus as one of the best insect jumpers. PMID:19684220

  16. Young citrus leaves decrease dispersal distance of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To manage citrus Huanglongbing, understanding factors that affect dispersal behavior of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is required to answer questions related to disease epidemiology and to improve management tactics. Currently, little is known about cues medi...

  17. Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea), tipu psyllid, new to North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rung,Alessandra; Arakelian, Gevork; Gill, Ray; Nisson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The tipu psyllid, Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea), is reported for the first time in North America (USA: California). Diagnostic characters for identification of adults and nymphs, host and damage data, and known distribution are given.

  18. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  19. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  20. The Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Wayne B.; Reese, Justin; International Psyllid Genome Consortium, The

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citrus because it vectors bacteria responsible for huanglongbing, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide.  The first genome draft of D. citri (DIACI_1.0) was completed in 2011 (ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL), however, gaps in the assembly prompted additional sequencing using the long run PacBio system at the Los Alamos National Lab, NM.  The revised draft genome (DIACI_1.1) was assembled using the new...

  1. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

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    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  2. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W., III; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  3. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality. PMID:26249933

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper. PMID:26436567

  5. Observations on the Biology and Anatomy of Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea

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    Roman Rakitov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. The Malpighian tubules of this species produce no brochosomes and, unlike in most previously studied Membracoidea, comprise no specialized secretory segment. Each tubule comprises secretory cells scattered among excretory ones, a condition not previously known among Hemiptera.

  6. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289

  7. Behavior of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) vectors of Chagas' disease: III. Influence of the number of matings on the fecundity and fertility of Panstrongylus megistus (Burm. 1835) in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Maria Lima; Pedro Jurberg; Josimar Ribeiro de Almeida

    1987-01-01

    A study of the effect of mating in the fecundity and fertility of females of P. megistus fed on pigeon blood every 14 days, was carried out in the laboratory. Two groups were constituted: I - females which mated only once; II - females which stayed always with the males. Only 56.7% of group I females laid fertile eggs, while as much as 90% of group II females laid fertile eggs. The duration of the fertile oviposition was greater in the females which stayed always with the males. Some females ...

  8. Behavior of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae vectors of Chagas' disease: III. Influence of the number of matings on the fecundity and fertility of Panstrongylus megistus (Burm. 1835 in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Maria Lima

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of mating in the fecundity and fertility of females of P. megistus fed on pigeon blood every 14 days, was carried out in the laboratory. Two groups were constituted: I - females which mated only once; II - females which stayed always with the males. Only 56.7% of group I females laid fertile eggs, while as much as 90% of group II females laid fertile eggs. The duration of the fertile oviposition was greater in the females which stayed always with the males. Some females of this group were able to mate up to seven times throughout their life-span. This fact render useless sterile males in the control of these insects. It is suggested that the components of pigeon's blood used for feeding the triatomines could have an influence upon the fecundity and fertility of the female sof the two groups.Estudou-se, em laboratório, a influência do acasalamento na fecundidade e fertilidade de fêmeas de P. megistus, alimentadas a cada 14 dias. Foram formados dois grupos: I - fêmeas que copularam uma única vez; II - fêmeas que permaneceram sempre com os machos. Das fêmeas do grupo I, apenas 56,7% puseram ovos férteis, enquanto que 90% das fêmeas do grupo II tiveram ovos férteis. A duração da ovipostura fértil foi também maior nas fêmeas do grupo II. Destas últimas, algumas foram capazes de copular até sete vezes ao longo de sua vida, o que inviabiliza o uso de machos estéreis no controle desses insetos. Os autores discutem também a influência na fecundidade e fertilidade das fêmeas dos dois grupos e na longevidade dos insetos, de componentes no sangue dos pombos que serviram de repasto aos triatomíneos.

  9. Ampliação da distribuição geográfica de Triatoma deaneorum Galvão, Souza & Lima 1967, nova denominação para Triatoma deanei (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão Cleber; Rocha Dayse da Silva; Jurberg José; Carcavallo Rodolfo U

    2001-01-01

    A distribuição geográfica de Triatoma deaneorum Galvão, Souza & Lima, 1967, nova denominação para Triatoma deanei, é ampliada baseada em um espécime recentemente encontrado no município de Chapada de Guimarães, próximo a Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. A nova denominação é baseada no Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica.

  10. Estudo morfológico comparativo de ovos e ninfas de Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848 e Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola, 1964 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Monte Goncalves

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando a microscopia ótica (MO e eletrônica de varredura (MEV procurou-se fornecer dados a taxionomia através da estrutura dos ovos e morfologia das ninfas, destes vetores da doença de Chagas. Os ovos em MO apresentam a superfície exocorial do opérculo e do corpo dividida em áreas poligonais com ornamentação própria; em T. maculata o exocório do corpo tem áreas indefinidas. Em MEV o exocório dos opérculos apresenta áreas poligonais de superfície estofada com pequena sulcos irregulares e perfurações distribuídas aleatoriamente nas duas espécies. O exocório do corpo apresenta: em T. maculata áreas acolchoadas com perfurações mais numerosas nos bordos, visualizando-se a borda corial, goteira espermática, aerópilas e micrópilas; em T. pseudomaculata as áreas são planas com numerosas perfurações. Nas ninfas o sulco estridulatório e o rostro apresentam diferenças significativas. O sulco estridulatórios em MO possibilitou diferenciar ninfas de 1º, 2º e 3º estádios, os 4º e 5º estádios apresentam-se semelhantes. Em MEV a diferenciação é acentuada. O rostro em MO apresenta pilosidade característica a partir do 3º estádio. T. maculata apresenta pêlos curtos e esparsos no 1º e 2º artículos e longos e numerosos no 3º, em T. pseudo-maculata semelhantes, porém mais curtos no 3º artículo.As an aid in the identification of vectors of Chagas' disease we have studied the structure of the eggs and morphology of nymphs by optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The eggs as seen by OM show the exochorion of the body doesn't have defined areas. In SEM the exochorion of the cap appears as upholstered polygonal areas with small irregular grooves and perforations spread at random in both species. The exochorion of the body in T. maculata is upholstered with more numerous perforations on the edge visualizing the rim of the shell, spermatic groove, pseudomicropyles and micropyles; in T. pseudomaculata there are flat areas with numerous perforations. The nymphs show differences cencerning the stridulatory groove and rostrum. The stridulatory groove when seen by OM shows differences in nymphs of 1st, 2nd and 3rd intars, while 4th and 5th are similar; in SEM the differences are clear. In OM the rostrum shows typical pilosity to each species from 3rd instar. In T. maculata the setae are short and scattered on the 1st and 2nd segments and are long and numerous on the 3rd. In T. pseudomaculata the setae are similar but are short on the 3rd segment.

  11. Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

  12. Efficacy of insecticide residues on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) mortality and injury in apple and peach orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary threat from Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) originates from populations continuously dispersing from and among wild and cultivated hosts. Many individuals may not come in contact with freshly applied insecticides, but only dried, aged residues. Limited information e...

  13. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...

  14. Biology, ecology, and control of the Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an economic pest of Ficus plant species in India, Burma and China. Severe infestations result in leaf dropping or shedding and defoliation. Since its initial US report in south Florida in 2007, the whitefly has expanded its ...

  15. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  16. FK506-binding protein from adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We successfully identified a new member of the FK-binding proteins from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). FK-binding proteins (FKBP) function in many critical pathways needed for psyllid survival. The full length mRNA transcript provides us a new genetic target for ...

  17. Movement of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-affected and healthy citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...

  18. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  19. A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera:Dictyopharide) from South America associated with Water Hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is described. All the stages were collected on the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) at several localities on the Paraguay River in Argentina, and the upper Amazon River in Perú. Taosa impictifrons Remes Leni...

  20. Variation in susceptibility to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae),among Solanum verrucosum germplasm accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato and the vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. Development of potato cultivars with genetic resistance to potato psyllid would enable cost-effecti...

  1. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  2. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Cicadomorpha (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) inferred from the wing base structure

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Wagatsuma, Mutsumi

    2012-01-01

    The infraorder Cicadomorpha is a monophyletic group of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, and is composed of three superfamilies: Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Cicadoidea (cicadas) and Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers). Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies have been highly controversial morphologically and molecularly, but recent molecular phylogenetic analyses provided support for Cercopoidea + Cicadoidea. In this study, we examined morphology of the wing bas...

  4. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae) on avocado (Persea americana Mill.) from Colombia, South America

    OpenAIRE

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-01-01

    A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  5. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: estados inmaduros y biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mariani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m

  6. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  7. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  8. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  9. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  10. Morfometría geométrica del borde corial y del collar de huevos de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Páez-Colasante; Elis Aldana

    2008-01-01

    Resumen. La taxonomía y sistemática de la subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae) se basan principalmente en caracteres biométricos y morfológicos de las formas adultas y, en algunos casos, de las ninfas. La Morfometría Geométrica es capaz de descomponer la forma en sus componentes tamaño isométrico y conformación. En el presente trabajo se utilizó laMorfometría Geométrica como herramienta de análisis de la configuración geométrica que resulta de la unión de los extremos del borde co...

  11. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  12. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in brazilian vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor Cezar; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-Francois; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Braz...

  13. Laboratory Rearing of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae): A Predator of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Salom, S. M.; L. T. Kok; Lamb, A B; Jubb, C

    2012-01-01

    Coleopteran species are biological control agents of numerous invasive pests. Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a predaceous, univoltine species, spends the summer aestivating but is active for the rest of the year. Laricobius nigrinus possesses many essential attributes for effective biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The predator must be reared in large numbers for field releases. We describe some of the studies that led to the successful ...

  14. Primer Registro para el Perú de Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae, “pulgón pardo del duraznero”. La especie ha sido colectada en el departamento de Tacna. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Referencial de Insectos de la Unidad del Centro de Diagnóstico de Sanidad Vegetal del SENASA, Lima, Perú.

  15. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletta Faraone; N Kirk Hillier; G Christopher Cutler

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids wer...

  16. BIOLOGY OF Trissolcus latisulcus Crawford (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), AN EGG PARASITOID OF Chrysocoris javanus Westw (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae)

    OpenAIRE

    D. Adidharma; Y.D. Ciptadi

    2012-01-01

    The biology of Trissolcus latisulcus Crawford was studied on eggs of Chrysocoris javanus Westw (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) which is a serious pest of Jatropha curcas L.. The aim of this study was to investigate the biology of Trissolcus latisulcus as a basic knowledge for developing a more suitable biological control programme in controlling the pest C. javanus. The current laboratory study was designed to evaluate developmental duration from egg to adult of C. javanus under room conditi...

  17. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given. PMID:27395169

  18. Responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Hemiptera: Alydidae) to color and male-lured traps

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Ursi Ventura; Antônio Ricardo Panizzi

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, the relative responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) to colors in traps were assessed in the field. Colors were printed in white alkaline paper and covered with transparent plastic. Printed colors were black, green, yellow, red and blue. Treatments also included white paper and aluminum foil. Green traps captured more bugs than the other traps (except yellow). Yellow traps caught significantly more N. parvus males than blue, black and aluminum traps. White...

  19. Characterization of a Newly Discovered Symbiont of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum,” and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species Chi...

  20. Wing base morphology of Aetalionidae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha) and its phylogenetic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Naoki; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The Aetalionidae is a small family belonging to the treehopper superfamily Membracoidea (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha). Although the wing-base morphology of Cicadomorpha was examined in detail recently, the wing base of this family has not been investigated to date. We examined morphology of the wing-base structure of Aetalionidae. Using the characters selected from the wing base, we inferred the phylogenetic placement of this family and confirmed that it belongs to the superfamily Membracoidea an...

  1. Jumping mechanisms of treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M

    2013-03-01

    The kinematics and jumping performance of treehoppers (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae) were analysed from high speed images. The eight species analysed had an 11-fold range of body mass (3.8-41 mg) and a 2-fold range of body length (4.1-8.4 mm). Body shape was dominated by a prothoracic helmet that projected dorsally and posteriorly over the body, and in some species forwards to form a protruding horn. Jumping was propelled by rapid depression of the trochantera of the hindlegs. The hindlegs were only 30-60% longer than the front and middle legs, and 47-94% the length of the body in different species. They were slung beneath the body and moved together in the same plane. In preparation for a jump, the hindlegs were initially levated and rotated forwards so that the femora were pressed into indentations of the coxae. The tibiae were flexed about the femora and the tarsi were placed on the ground directly beneath the lateral edges of the abdomen. Movements of the front and middle legs adjusted the angle of the body relative to the ground, but for most treehoppers this angle was small, so that the body was almost parallel to the ground. The rapid depression of the hindlegs accelerated the body to take-off in 1.2 ms in the lighter treehoppers and 3.7 ms in the heavier ones. Take-off velocities of 2.1-2.7 m s(-1) were achieved and were not correlated with body mass. In the best jumps, these performances involved accelerations of 560-2450 m s(-2) (g forces of 47-250), an energy expenditure of 13.5-101 μJ, a power output of 12-32 mW and exerted a force of 9.5-29 mN. The power output per mass of muscle far exceeds the maximum active contractile limit of normal muscle. Such requirements indicate that treehoppers must be using a power amplification mechanism in a catapult-like action. Some jumps were preceded by flapping movements of the wings, but the propulsive movements of the hindlegs were crucial in achieving take-off. PMID:23155084

  2. Bioefficacy of gamma radiation on Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible alternative for treating agricultural products to overcome quarantine barriers against the Solenopsis mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Exposure of ionizing radiation is one of the quarantine treatments which penetrate commodities quickly and most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest. Evaluation of various bio-characteristics (survival, metamorphosis and reproductive potential) of Phenacoccus solenopsis irradiated in various life stages was attempted to ascertain the lethal doses and sublethal doses having sterilizing potential. A dose of 40Gy administered to the first instar nymph (N1) inhibited formation of adult male, whereas 100Gy checked the transformation of N1 up to adult female. Males exhibited short life span and appeared to have no or limited role in progeny formation. Males were more radio-sensitive than the female mealy bugs. Further, in case of N2 treatment, a dose of 100Gy completely inhibited adult male formation, and 150 Gy could completely inhibit male adult formation. The sexes were discernible only after N2. A dose of 500Gy given to female-N3 totally inhibited adult formation. The developmental period of female N3 was protracted with increase in radiation dosage. The efficacy of radiation at dose range, 5-300Gy, was evaluated on N3 and N4 male nymphs. Irradiation affected metamorphosis and reduced adult formation. For instance, a dose of 300Gy caused 0% male adult development from N4. 400Gy was almost sterilizing dose for 11-12 day old female mealy bug, and this sterilizing dose reduced oviposition by 28.1%; whereas 200Gy was found to induce sterility in 5-6 day old female mealy bug, with about 50% reduction in oviposition. The freshly emerged female adults (0-1 day old) was the most sensitive stage than the adult mealy bugs in their older phase, and it was completely sterilized by 40Gy. The data suggests a definite role of ionizing

  3. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  4. A Leafhopper Pest of Plants in the Mint Family, Eupteryx decemnotata Rey (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), Ligurian Leafhopper, New to North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rung, Alessandra; Halbert, Susan E.; Ziesk, David C.; Gill, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    The Ligurian leafhoppter, Eupteryx decemnotata Rey (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), is reported for the first time in North America (USA: Florida and California). Diagnostic characters for species identification, summary of hosts and damage, and U.S. known distribution are given.

  5. Molecular profiling of proteolytic and lectin transcripts in Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) feeding on sunflower and cowpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Takiya et al. 2006, syn. H. coagulata (Say)) gut and salivary gland EST libraries were used to isolate cDNA fragments of the genes encoding for cathepsin L, asparaginyl endopeptidase, cathepsin B, metalloendopeptidase, cathepsin D, multi...

  6. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  7. Newly recorded genus Pantilius Curtis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae from the Korean Peninsula, with a key to the world Pantilius species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junggon Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A genus, Pantilius Curtis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae, is reported for the first time from the Korean Peninsula, based on finding a species of Pantilius hayashii Miyamoto and Yasunaga, 1989, which was hitherto known only from Honshu, Japan. The morphological information, such as description and diagnosis, is presented with photographs and illustrations of adult habitus and male genitalia.

  8. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró; Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-01-01

    Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010) in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  9. FIRST RECORD IN ITALY OF PSYLLAEPHAGUS BLITEUS RIEK (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae) PARASITOID OF GLYCASPIS BRIMBLECOMBEI MOORE (Hemiptera Psyllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Caleca, V.; LO VERDE, G; Maltese, M.

    2011-01-01

    Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae), parasitoid of the red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera Psyllidae), has been recorded for the first time in Italy in September 2011. The arrival of P. bliteus in Sicily is due to an accidental introduction, probably together with its host, as already happened in New Zealand, Brazil, Spain and Morocco.

  10. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  11. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  12. OCORRÊNCIA DE Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae EM Eucalyptus spp. NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo da Silva Oliveira

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Em janeiro de 2005, pela primeira vez, foi constatada a ocorrência de Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae em espécies de Eucalyptus spp. no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A observação ocorreu nos municípios de Butiá, Caçapava do Sul e Santa Maria.

  13. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  14. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  15. Phalacrococcus howertoni Hodges & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), a new soft scale record for the island of Guadeloupe

    OpenAIRE

    Étienne, Jean; Matile-Ferrero, Danièle; Kondo, Takumasa

    2014-01-01

    The croton scale, Phalacrococcus howertoni Hodges & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) is newly reported from the island of Guadeloupe, French West Indies, on several host-plants, including some new host records, i.e., on Spondias cytherea Sonnerat; (Euphorbiaceae), Ocotea membranacea (Sw.) R.A. Howard (Lauraceae), Miconia furfuracea (Vahl) Griseb (Melastomataceae), Ficus citrifolia Mill. (Moraceae) and Piper dilatatum Rich. (Piperaceae).

  16. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  17. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  18. Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was accidently introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in...

  19. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  20. Introduction and Recovery of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a predator of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Alyerodidae) is an important pest of many crops on a global scale. The use of biological control organisms such as coccinelid predators can help manage this pest. Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is an obligate predator of whiteflies, in...

  1. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  2. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  3. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2015-01-01

    Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) es una de las plagas claves en el cultivo de clementinos de la cuenca Mediterránea. En primavera, este pulgón coloniza las brotaciones tiernas de los clementinos y causa importantes pérdidas económicas todos los años. Actualmente la gestión integrada de A. spiraecola en clementinos está basada en el control químico ya que se desconoce bastante sobre el control biológico de A. spiraecola en cítricos. Los esfuerzos realizados hasta la fecha se han ...

  4. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Wang; Jing Chen; Li-Yun Jiang; Ge-Xia Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eri...

  5. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F; Horton, David R

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0-3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318

  6. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures. PMID:26198869

  7. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the treehopper Leptobelus gazella (Membracoidea: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The first complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leptobelus gazelle (Membracoidea: Hemiptera) is determined in this study. The circular molecule is 16,007 bp in its full length, which encodes a set of 37 genes, including 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and contains an A + T-rich region (CR). The gene numbers, content, and organization of L. gazelle are similar to other typical metazoan mitogenomes. Twelve of the 13 PCGs are initiated with ATR methionine or ATT isoleucine codons, except the atp8 gene that uses the ATC isoleucine as start signal. Ten of the 13 PCGs have complete termination codons, either TAA (nine genes) or TAG (cytb). The remaining 3 PCGs (cox1, cox2 and nad5) have incomplete termination codons T (AA). All of the 22 tRNAs can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure. The complete mitogenome sequence data of L. gazelle is useful for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Membracoidea and Hemiptera. PMID:25714149

  8. Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil Preferência de alimentação e oviposição de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) por Eucalyptus spp. e outras Myrtaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz; Keti M. R. Zanol; Edílson B. Oliveira; Norivaldo dos Anjos; Jonathan Majer

    2010-01-01

    Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil. The Australian psyllid, Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), was first detected in Brazil in 1994, where it was found on drought-affected shoots of Eucalyptus grandis in a plantation located in the northern part of Paraná State. The oviposition and feeding preferences of this psyllid were examined on 19 Eucalyptus species, one Eucalypt...

  9. Desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae em duas cultivares de abacaxi Development of the pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae on two pineapple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas para vasos (250 mL e aclimatadas em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas com até um dia de vida foram confinadas em gaiolas de PVC (1 cm de diâmetro, e fixadas em folhas de ambas as cultivares. Não foram detectadas diferenças no desenvolvimento de D. brevipes nos dois substratos alimentares utilizados. O desenvolvimento ninfal de fêmeas e machos de D. brevipes foi 39,9 e 32,0 dias na cv. Pérola e 38,5 e 32,4 dias na cv. Cayenne, respectivamente. A sobrevivência da fase ninfal foi 32,3 e 40,5%; a razão sexual, 0,39 e 0,33; e a longevidade de fêmeas, 20,3 e 26,1 dias nas cvs. Pérola e Cayenne, respectivamente.The pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the main pest on pineapple crops and biological studies of this insect are necessary on different cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development time of this mealybug on the pineapple cultivars Pérola and Cayenne. The experiment was performed in climated chambers at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase. Pinneapple plants were reproduced in vitro, transplanted to pots (250 mL and kept in greenhouse. One-day-old nymphs were kept inside a clipcage (1 cm diameter fixed on the plants. No differences in development of D. brevipes among the cultivars were found. Development times of females and males, respectively, were 39.9 and 32 days on cv. Pérola and 38.5 and 32.4 days on cv. Cayenne. Nymphs survivals were 32.3 and 40.5%, sexual rates

  10. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, M. C. G.; Zaviezo, T.; Le Maguet, Jean; HERRBACH, Etienne; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of in...

  11. Portanus Ball: descrição de uma espécie nova (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.

  12. Fumigant Toxicity of Petroselinum Crispum L. (Apiaceae) Essential Oil on Trialeurodes Vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Adults Under Greenhouse Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodi Leila; Valizadegan Oroj; Mahdavi Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most harmful, world-wide known pests of greenhouse crops and ornamental plants. This insect feeds on plant sap, produces honeydew, and transmits plant viruses, while causing quantitative and qualitative damage to plants. For controlling this pest in greenhouses, plant essential oils are used as an alternative to chemical insecticidal. So in this study, fumigant toxicity of Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae) plant oil ...

  13. Taxonomic Status of the Bemisia tabaci Complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Reassessment of the Number of Its Constituent Species

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wonhoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Gwan-Seok; Lee, Seunghwan; Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important insect pests in the world. In the present study, the taxonomic status of B. tabaci and the number of species composing the B. tabaci complex were determined based on 1059 COI sequences of B. tabaci and 509 COI sequences of 153 hemipteran species. The genetic divergence within B. tabaci was conspicuously higher (on average, 11.1%) than interspecific genetic divergence within the respective genera of the 153 species (on averag...

  14. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Ye; Gengping Zhu; Jakob Damgaard; Xin Chen; Pingping Chen; Wenjun Bu

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + IT...

  15. Variabilidad de la tolerancia a insecticidas en distintas poblaciones mediterráneas de Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Balanza Martínez, Virginia; Mendoza Rivas, José Enrique; Bielza Lino, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) es un enemigo natural usado ampliamente en el control biológico de plagas, principalmente del trips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). La instalación y establecimiento de O. laevigatus en los cultivos resulta de vital importancia, pero en ocasiones existen problemas de compatibilidad con algunos tratamientos fitosanitarios. Este problema siempre se ha abordado desde el punto de vista del plaguicid...

  16. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Samah Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking tomato plants in Egypt

  17. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Samah Sayed; Moharum Fatma Abdelhalim; Abd El-Ghany Nesreen Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking ...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Paysandisia archon (Burmeister

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    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Paysandisia archon for the European Union territory. P. archon is a well-defined pest species attacking many palm species. It is currently present in several southern European Member States (Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Slovenia and Spain. Malta and Portugal are considered to be very important areas for further spread of the pest. The pest is listed in Annex IIAII of Council Directive 2000/29/EC and special requirements for host plants with respect to P. archon are formulated in Annexes IVAI and IVAII of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. This moth is a strong flier, but its main pathway of spread is via ornamental palms traded from outside the European Union and between Member States. Wherever its hosts are present outdoors in southern Europe, P. archon has the potential to establish. Although P. archon can complete its development in protected cultivation and in private/public indoor plant collections, there is no evidence of establishment. The damage produced by the larvae can cause the death of the plant with consequences for cultivated and native palm trees, and therefore on ecosystem services and biodiversity. At the moment no fully effective chemical or biological control methods are available against spread and impact of P. archon, while the use of glues on the stipe of the palm can be effective but affects the ornamental value of the plant. P. archon meets all pest categorisation criteria for both quarantine pests and regulated non-quarantine pests.

  19. Nuclear phenotype changes after heat shock in Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister

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    Garcia Simone L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of male nymphs of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus, subjected to short- and long-duration heat shocks at 40ºC were analyzed immediately after the shock and 10 and 30 days later. Normal nuclei with a usual heterochromatic body as well as phenotypes indicative of survival (unravelled heterochromatin, giants and death (apoptosis, necrosis responses were observed in control and treated specimens. However, all nuclear phenotypes, except the normal ones, were more frequent in shocked specimens. Similarly altered phenotypes have also been reported in Triatoma infestans following heat shock, although at different frequencies. The frequency of the various nuclear phenotypes observed in this study suggests that the forms of cell survival observed were not sufficient or efficient enough to protect all of the Malpighian tubule cells from the deleterious effects of stress. In agreement with studies on P. megistus survival following heat shock, only long-duration shock produced strongly deleterious effects.

  20. Advances in the use of the RNA interference technique in Hemiptera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Xiao-Ping Wang; Man-Qun Wang; Wei-Hua Ma; Hong-Xia Hua

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference(RNAi)suppresses the expression of target genes by posttranscriptional regulation.Because double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)mediated gene silencing is a conserved mechanism in many eukaryotes,RNAi has become a valuable tool for unveiling gene function in many model insects.Recent research has also shown that RNAi can also be effective in the downregulation of target genes in Hemiptera.In this review,we discuss the use of the RNAi technique in gene functional analysis in hemipterans,highlighting the methods of dsRNA uptake by these insects and discuss the knock-down efficiency of these techniques.Although the RNAi technique has disadvantages,our primary goal here is to determine whether it can be exploited further in the discovery of new gene functions,and as a pest control strategy,in some important Hemipteran pests.

  1. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  2. VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM GALLS INDUCED BY Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae ON LEAVES OF Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

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    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of the galls induced by the insect Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyflame- ionisation detection (GC-FID, and then comparison with volatile oil samples from healthy leaves collected in the vicinity. The galls produced around 3.5% of the total organic volatiles whereas healthy leaves rendered an average yield of 0.6%. The observed higher proportions of germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, limonene, and β-pinene in the galls suggest that all these compounds are important targets in the search for natural enemies of this Psyllid. Moreover, higher relative percentages of (E-nerolidol and spathulenol were found in healthy leaves.

  3. On dorsal prothoracic appendages in treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and the nature of morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J; Hines, Heather M; Deitz, Lewis L; Bertone, Matthew A; Seltmann, Katja C; Wallace, Matthew S; Deans, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the "helmet" (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the "helmet" was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the "helmet" could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the "helmet"-wing homology, the relationship of the "helmet" to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the "helmet"-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the "helmet" actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the "T1 tergum" is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the "helmet" and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies. PMID:22272287

  4. Responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Hemiptera: Alydidae to color and male-lured traps

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    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the relative responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Hemiptera: Alydidae to colors in traps were assessed in the field. Colors were printed in white alkaline paper and covered with transparent plastic. Printed colors were black, green, yellow, red and blue. Treatments also included white paper and aluminum foil. Green traps captured more bugs than the other traps (except yellow. Yellow traps caught significantly more N. parvus males than blue, black and aluminum traps. White, red and blue traps captured significantly more N. parvus males than black traps. In 1999, the same treatments were used and additionally included the factor presence (X absence of males in cages in the traps. Four males were confined in the cages together with pigeon pea seeds and water. Control traps received only pigeon pea seeds and water. No responses were found for color comparisons. Male-lured traps captured significantly more males than control traps.Em 1998, as respostas relativas de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Hemiptera: Alydidae a cores em armadilhas foram avaliadas no campo. As cores foram impressas (preto, verde, amarelo, vermelho e azul, em papel alcalino branco e coberto com plástico transparente. Também se incluiu papel branco e folha de alumínio, como tratamentos. Armadilhas verdes capturaram mais insetos que outras armadilhas (exceto amarelo. Armadilhas amarelas capturaram significativamente mais machos de N. parvus do que armadilhas azuis, pretas e alumínio. Armadilhas brancas, vermelhas e azuis capturaram significativamente mais machos de N. parvus do que armadilhas pretas. Em 1999, os mesmos tratamentos foram usados e também se incluiu fator presença (X ausência de machos em gaiolas nas armadilhas. Quatro machos foram confinados nas gaiolas junto com sementes de guandu e água. Testemunhas receberam somente sementes de guandu e água. Não foram obtidas respostas significativas à cores. Armadilhas com machos capturaram

  5. Primera cita de Blastopsylla occidentalis y Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para la República Argentina First record of Blastopsylla occidentalis and Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. R. Bouvet

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez para la República Argentina dos especies de "psílidos" (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, plagas provenientes de Australia que atacan a especies del género Eucalyptus L´Hér. Una de ellas, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore es de gran importancia económica en países vecinos, debido a los daños que produce. De la otra, Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, es escasa la información referente a su biología y daños que ocasiona.Two psyllid species are recorded for the first time from Argentina. They are pests originating from Australia that attack species of the genus Eucalyptus L´Hér. One of them, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore is of great economic importance in neighboring countries for the damage which it is causing on its hosts. Little information on the biology and damage caused is available for the second species, viz Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor.

  6. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

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    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  7. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål) (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål) (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855) (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae) on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple), causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios,...

  8. Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Souto Almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae é uma importante praga de Gossypium spp. (algodoeiro, Citrus Sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae (laranjeira e Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae (tangerineira, além de sementes de Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (paineira. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de D. maurus. Foram realizados oito tratamentos, seis em que os percevejos foram alimentados com sementes de paineira e mantidos a 15, 18, 20, 25 e 30 ± 1ºC, UR 80 ± 3% e fotofase de 12 h ou em condições ambientais de laboratório (23,5 ± 2,6ºC, UR 73,3 ± 9,9 %, e dois em que foram alimentados com sementes de algodão variedade IAC-22 e mantidos a 25 e 30ºC. Em todos os tratamentos foram observados cinco estágios imaturos. O aumento da temperatura proporcionou diminuição do tempo de desenvolvimento. A temperatura de 15ºC foi letal para ovos e ninfas de D. maurus. A menor mortalidade de ninfas ocorreu quando os percevejos foram alimentados com sementes de algodão a 25ºC (24,07%. A menor temperatura base (Tb foi obtida para o 1º ínstar (11,54ºC e a maior para o 2º ínstar (15,33ºC. As fêmeas de D. maurus necessitam de maior quantidade de graus-dias (329,93 graus-dias que os machos (300,49 graus-dias para atingir o estádio adulto.Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree, Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 ± 1ºC, 80 ± 3% RH and 12h photophase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 ± 2.6ºC, 73.3 ± 9.9 % RH, and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety

  9. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Botton; George Wellington Bastos de Melo; Odoni Loris Pereira de Oliveira; Ismael Onzi

    2010-01-01

    O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano,...

  10. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae) biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler; Carlos Frederico Wilcken; Nádia Cristina de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Oliveira de Matos

    2009-01-01

    Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD), sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o...

  11. NUEVO REGISTRO DE Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) EN GUAYABO Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) EN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NEW REGISTRATION OF Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) IN GUAVA Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Darío David Giraldo; Jhon Albeiro Quiroz Gamboa; Francisco Yepes Rodríguez; Allan Henry Smith Pardo

    2009-01-01

    Se encuentra por primera vez en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia) y asociado al guayabo (Psidium guajava L.), la especie Greenidea ficicola Takahashi ( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) colectada durante muestreos intensivos realizados durante el primer semestre de 2008 en el Valle de Aburrá y municipios aledaños. Dicha especie de áfido también fue colectada en falso laurel (Ficus benjamina). Dada la importancia que tienen los frutos de guayabo en la alimentación humana y de los ani...

  12. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  13. Controle químico da forma galícola da filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) na cultura da videira Chemical control of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856) leaf form (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) on vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Botton; Rudiney Ringenberg; Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi

    2004-01-01

    A filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) é considerada a principal praga da videira. O inseto se alimenta da parte aérea e raízes sendo que os maiores prejuízos são observados em raízes de Vitis vinifera cultivada como pé-franco. O dano nas folhas é importante em viveiros, quando o ataque ocorre nos ramos utilizados como porta-enxertos, resistentes à forma radícola. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar inseticidas que possam ser emprega...

  14. Otroacizzia soriae sp. nov., a new Miocene psyllid (Insecta, Hemiptera, Psyllidae from Dominican amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Gimeno, V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available new species of the fossil genus Otroacizzia Klimaszewski, 1996 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae is described as Otroacizzia soriae sp. nov. on the basis of a female specimen. This species is preserved in mid-Miocene amber from La Toca mines, Dominican Republic. The genus Otroacizzia is the most diverse psylloid genus in Dominican amber, with four known species. The new species differs from the three previously known species by the presence of a subapical dark band in the fore wing from the anterior part of the end of vein Rs to the end of vein Cu1b, which has a gap in the middle of the cell c1. Other differences in the fore wing are the presence of a strongly curved vein Cu1b and a cell c1 clearly longer than cell m1. Finally, the antennal segment 3 of the new species is one and a half times longer than segment 4.Se describe una nueva especie del género fósil Otroacizzia Klimaszewski, 1996 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae a partir de un ejemplar hembra: Otroacizzia soriae sp. nov. Esta especie está conservada en ámbar del Mioceno medio de las minas de La Toca en República Dominicana. Con cuatro especies conocidas, el género Otroacizzia es el género de psiloideo con mayor diversidad en el ámbar dominicano. La nueva especie difiere de las tres especies ya conocidas por la presencia de una banda oscura subapical en el ala anterior desde la parte anterior del final de la vena Rs hasta el final de la vena Cu1b, la cual presenta una discontinuidad en el medio de la celda c1. Otras diferencias en el ala anterior son la presencia de una vena Cu1b fuertemente curvada y una celda c1 claramente más larga que la celda m1. Finalmente, el tercer segmento antenal de la nueva especie es una vez y media más largo que el cuarto segmento.

  15. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha

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    Baumann Paul

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the

  16. Potential of the bean alpha-amylase inhibitor alpha-AI-1 to inhibit alpha-amylase activity in true bugs(Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    True bugs (Hemiptera) are an important pest complex not controlled by Bt crops. An alternative source of resistance includes inhibitors of digestive enzymes. aAI-1, an a-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, has been shown to inhibit a-amylases of bruchid pests of grain legumes. Here we quantify t...

  17. Preliminary evaluation of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)as a predator of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The predatory lady beetle Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent against the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants. Adult D. catalinae females were starved for ...

  18. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  19. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  20. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  1. A review of the Oriental genus Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Achilidae with description of one new species from Hainan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun Long

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae: Plectoderini, E. alatea Long & Chen sp. n. from Hainan, China, is described and illustrated. The generic characters are modified, including the addition of male genitalia characters. A key to the species of the genus is provided.

  2. A review of the Oriental genus Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Achilidae) with description of one new species from Hainan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Kun Long; Lin Yang; Xiangsheng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae: Plectoderini), Eudeferunda alatea Long & Chen sp. n. from Hainan, China, is described and illustrated. The generic characters are modified, including the addition of male genitalia characters. A key to the species of the genus is provided.

  3. Assessment of Impact of Insecticides on Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae), an Egg Parasitoid of the Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Anagrus Nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae) is a major natural enemy of the rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). It plays an important role in the IPM of the rice planthopper. Contact and oral toxicity and residual effect of fourteen pesticide...

  4. Impact of the Arundo scale Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on the weight of Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) rhizomes in Languedoc southern France and Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) is native to Mediterranean Europe and invasive in the Rio Grande Basin of North America. Rhizomes from nine sites in France and Spain infested with a candidate control agent, the armoured scale Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) weighed 50% less than those fro...

  5. Taxonomic revision of the genus Megoura Buckton (Hemiptera : Aphididae) from the Korean Peninsula with the description of a new species and a key to the world species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, S.; Holman, Jaroslav; Havelka, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2002), s. 447-457. ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Hemiptera * Aphididae * Megoura Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.392, year: 2002

  6. A revision of the genus Macrosiphoniella del Guercio (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) from the Korean peninsula, part I: Subgenera Asterobium, Chosoniella, Papillomyzus, Phalangomyzus, Sinosiphoniella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holman, Jaroslav; Lee, S.; Havelka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2006), s. 174-197. ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Hemiptera * Aphididae * Macrosiphoniella Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2006

  7. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  8. Mirideos neotropicais, CCLXXII: descrições de sete espécies novas da tribo Resthenini Reuter (Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    José C.M. Carvalho; Diego L. Carpintero

    1987-01-01

    Os autores descrevem sete espécies novas da tribo Resthenini Reuter (Hemiptera, Miridae, coligidos nas repúblicas da Argentina e do Chile, como segue: Nanniresthenia penai, sp. n, Chile; N. cordobensis, sp. it, Argentina, Platytylus saltensis, sp. n., Argentina; Prepops correntinoides, sp. n., Argentina; P. entrerianus, sp. n., Argentina; P. iguazuensis, sp. n., Argentina; P. oranensis, sp. n., Argentina. Ilustrações de corpo inteiro e genitália do macho acham-se incluídas.The authors describ...

  9. Nuevo registro de greenidea ficicola takahashi (hemiptera: sternorrhyncha:aphididae) en guayabo psidium guajava (myrtaceae) en antioquia, colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    David Giraldo, Rubén Darío; Quiroz Gamboa, Jhon Albeiro; Yepes Rodríguez, Francisco; SmithPardo, Allan Henry

    2011-01-01

    Se encuentra por primera vez en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia) y asociado al guayabo (Psidium guajava L.), la especie Greenidea ficicola Takahashi ( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) colectada durante muestreos intensivos realizados durante el primer semestre de 2008 en el Valle de Aburrá y municipios aledaños. Dicha especie de áfido también fue colectada en falso laurel (Ficus benjamina). Dada la importancia que tienen los frutos de guayabo en la alimentación humana y de los ...

  10. Identification of defensive compounds in metathoracic glands of adults of the stink bug Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Francisco A.; Wendler, Edison P.; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N. Sales [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: francisco.marques@pesquisador.cnpq.br; Ventura, Mauricio U.; Arruda-Gatti, Iara Cintra [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Agronomia

    2007-07-01

    The contents of metathoracic glands of adults of the stink bug Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) were analyzed. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC), coupled GC-mass spectrometry and matching retention indices and mass spectra with those of authentic samples. Tridecane was the major component followed by lesser and approximately equal amounts of (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal. Other compounds identified include (E)-2-hexenal, decane, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, undecane, (E)-4-oxo-2-octenal, dodecane, (E)-2-octenyl acetate, 1-tridecene, tetradecane and pentadecane. (author)

  11. Effect of Mineral Oil on Host Selection and Control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psillidae) on Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Miranda; Micelli, M. L.; Felippe, M. R.; Caldeira, R. E.; Yamamoto, P. T.

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to study the influence of mineral oil on landing and permanence; oviposition; and mortality of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on citrus plants. For all experiments, mineral oil (Argenfrut®) was sprayed on sweet orange plants at 1% concentration. Landing-permanence and oviposition were assessed using choice and non-choice tests. For the first parameter, 50 adult psyllids were released in the center of the screen house (5mx2.5mx2m) (n = 10) and th...

  12. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellieu, Louis, E-mail: louis.dellieu@unamur.be; Sarrazin, Michaël, E-mail: michael.sarrazin@unamur.be; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Department of Physics, University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  13. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada $\\textit{Cicada orni}$ (Hemiptera)

    CERN Document Server

    Dellieu, Louis; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-01-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada $\\textit{Cicada orni}$ (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  14. Study on species composition of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton in Çukurova plain, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KARUT, Kamil; Kaydan,M. Bora; CASTLE, Steven J.; KAZAK, Cengiz; ULUSOY, M. Rifat

    2014-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important pest species on cotton in the Çukurova Plain as well as in all cotton growing areas of Turkey. Although numerous studies on population dynamics, population development and parasitism were conducted on B. tabaci in the Çukurova Plain, there has been a few studies on the species complex of B. tabaci for this region. The aims of this study were to present genetic polymorphism and species compositi...

  15. Energy storage and synchronisation of hind leg movements during jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M

    2010-02-01

    The hind legs of Issus (Hemiptera, Issidae) move in the same plane underneath the body, an arrangement that means they must also move synchronously to power jumping. Moreover, they move so quickly that energy must be stored before a jump and then released suddenly. High speed imaging and analysis of the mechanics of the proximal joints of the hind legs show that mechanical mechanisms ensure both synchrony of movements and energy storage. The hind trochantera move first in jumping and are synchronised to within 30 micros. Synchrony is achieved by mechanical interactions between small protrusions from each trochantera which fluoresce bright blue under specific wavelengths of ultra-violet light and which touch at the midline when the legs are cocked before a jump. In dead Issus, a depression force applied to a cocked hind leg, or to the tendon of its trochanteral depressor muscle causes a simultaneous depression of both hind legs. The protrusion of the hind leg that moves first nudges the other hind leg so that both move synchronously. Contractions of the trochanteral depressor muscles that precede a jump bend the metathoracic pleural arches of the internal skeleton. Large areas of these bow-shaped structures fluoresce bright blue in ultraviolet light, and the intensity of this fluorescence depends on the pH of the bathing saline. These are key signatures of the rubber-like protein resilin. The remainder of a pleural arch consists of stiff cuticle. Bending these composite structures stores energy and their recoil powers jumping. PMID:20086132

  16. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  17. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran-Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida-Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan-Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks' lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  18. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions. PMID:26895870

  19. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness. PMID:27247354

  20. The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov., its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae.The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846, comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843, comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803, comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940, comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851, comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999, comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: , Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana, Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo, Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia, and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais. Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787 = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  1. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  2. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  3. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  5. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

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    Yuan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution. PMID:26597967

  7. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption. PMID:26352752

  8. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant. PMID:21510203

  9. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  10. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  11. Gut Content Analysis of a Phloem-Feeding Insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Unruh, Thomas R; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-08-01

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the Solanaceae. A better understanding of landscape-level ecology of B. cockerelli would substantially improve our ability to predict which potato fields are most likely to be colonized by infected psyllids. We developed three PCR-based methods of gut content analysis to identify what plant species B. cockerelli had previously fed upon. These methods included-1) sequencing PCR amplicons of regions of plant-derived internal transcribed spacer (ITS) or the chloroplast trnL gene from psyllids, 2) high-resolution melting analysis of ITS or trnL real-time PCR products, and 3) restriction enzyme digestion of trnL PCR product. Each method was used to test whether we could identify psyllids that had been reared continuously on potato versus psyllids reared continuously on the perennial nightshade, Solanum dulcamara. All three methods of gut content analysis correctly identified psyllids from potato and psyllids from S. dulcamara Our study is the first to demonstrate that plant DNA can be detected in a phloem-feeding insect. Gut content analysis, in combination with other landscape ecology approaches, could help elucidate patterns in landscape-level movements and host plant associations of B. cockerelli. PMID:27271944

  12. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Lashkari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB, is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida. The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1, Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1, and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6, to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001. The body length (BL, circumanal ring length (CL, antenna length (AL, forewing length (WL and Rs vein length of forewing (RL were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1 Iran, (2 USA (Florida and (3 Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  13. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

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    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  14. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI. PMID:19886461

  15. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008). PMID:27615953

  16. Infectivity and transmission of Xylellua fastidiosa by Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Cornara, Daniele; Yokomi, Raymond K; De Stradis, Angelo; Boscia, Donato; Bosco, Domenico; Martelli, Giovanni P; Krugner, Rodrigo; Porcelli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Discovery of Xylella fastidiosa from olive trees with "Olive quick decline syndrome" in October 2013 on the west coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards during a 3-mo survey was the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Adult P. spumarius, collected in November 2013 from ground vegetation in X. fastidiosa-infected olive orchards, were 67% (40 out of 60) positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Euscelis lineolatus Brullé were also collected but tested negative for the pathogen. Transmission tests with P. spumarius collected from the Salento area were, therefore, conducted. After a 96-h inoculation access period with 8 to 10 insects per plant and a 30-d incubation period, PCR results showed P. spumarius transmitted X. fastidiosa to two of five periwinkle plants but not to the seven olive plants. Sequences of PCR products from infected periwinkle were identical with those from X. fastidiosa-infected field trees. These data showed P. spumarius as a vector of X. fastidiosa strain infecting olives trees in the Salento Peninsula, Italy. PMID:25195417

  17. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance. PMID:24331611

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. PMID:27313962

  19. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops. PMID:26313176

  20. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, T.D.; Kidd, K.A.; Cunjak, R.A.; Arp, P.A. [University of New Brunswick, St John, NB (Canada). Canadian Rivers Institute

    2009-07-15

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (similar to 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species.

  1. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards. PMID:17849850

  2. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. PMID:26503344

  3. Descrição dos Ovos e dos Estádios Ninfais de Triatoma jurbergi Carcavallo, Galvão & Lent, 1998 Vistos Através de Microscopia Óptica e Eletrônica de Varredura (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Description of Eggs and Nymphs of Triatoma jurbergi Carcavallo, Galvão & Lent, 1998 Through Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jurberg

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Eggs and nymphs of Triatoma jurbergi were described using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. T. jurbergi is a wild species, found in State of Mato Grosso (15ºS and 300 m.a.s.l, Brazil. Eggs showed the operculum and surface with pentagonal and hexagonal cells, with small fractures and punctuations randomly distributed. Differences were found in the five nymphal stages of T. jurbergi, that allow their to be distinguished from the similar species T. guazu. The diagnostic characters most useful for differentiation were the general color of the insect, abdomen shape and its length.

  4. Fonte alimentar e potencial vetorial de Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 com relação à doença de Chagas humana no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Feeding and vectorial capacity of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 in relation with human chagas' disease in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In paralel with several other epidemiologic and entomologic data of 19 Municipalities of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, the feeding pattern of 222 Triatoma vitticeps is studied through precipitin tests. Very high levels of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi are observed in adult insects, in contrast with the abscence or minimum degrees of infection among nymphs and human individuals. The precipitin tests showed the contact of the insects with multiple blood sources, chiefly human and birds, followed by rodents and marsupials. The data suggest that T. vitticeps in spite of being highly antropophilic, become infected by T. cruzi in sylvatic ambient and occasionally invade houses. The species doesn't seem to be - at least until now - a good vector in the domestic cycle of Chagas' disease. Several factors seem to be involved in this conclusion, mainly the low density of the insect in the houses, its hardness to coloniza them, its slowness concerning to suction and defecation and possibly its low susceptibility to different T. cruzi strains.

  5. Hemiptera acuáticos asociados a los estuarios de la costa pacífica colombiana Aquatic Hemiptera associated to estuaries of the colombian pacific coast

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    DORA N. PADILLAGIL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available la mayoría de los hemípteros acuáticos son insectos predadores que habitan en agua dulce, estuarios y mar. Las familias que incluyen especies de hábitat salobres y estuarios son Gerridae y Veliidae. Con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento faunístico y ecológico de los hemípteros acuáticos asociados a los estuarios de la Costa Pacífica de Colombia y de la región del Chocó biogeográfico, se estudiaron seis estuarios del municipio de Tumaco: El Bajito, El Morro, Villa del Sol, Agua clara, Chilvi, e Inguapi, donde se realizaron recolecciones y se caracterizó el hábitat a través de la medición de algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua. En total se colectaron diez especies, pertenecientes a tres familias: Gerridae con cuatro géneros Limnogonus, Rheumatobates, Telmatometroides y Trepobates; Veliidae, con dos géneros Microvelia y Rhagovelia; y un Mesoveliidae, con Mesovelia. Se caracteriza el hábitat y se señalan las especies más abundantes por sitio de muestreo. Se registra por primera vez en Colombia la especie Microvelia inquilina y se adicionan nuevos datos para las especies en la costa Pacífica del departamento de Nariño.Most of the aquatic hemipterans are predatory insects that inhabit fresh waters, estuaries and a few live in the open ocean. Ocean-dwelling and estuarine-inhabiting families include Gerridae and Veliidae. With the purpose of contributing to the biodiversity and ecology of aquatic hemipterans associated with estuaries of the Pacific coast of Colombia and the Chocó biogeographical region, six estuaries were studied from the municipality of Tumaco: El Bajito, El Morro, Villa del Sol, Agua clara, Chilvi, and Inguapi. Aquatic hemiptera were collected and each habitat was characterized measuring physical-chemical parameters of the water. In total, ten species were collected belonging to four genera Limnogonus, Rheumatobates, Telmatometroides, and Trepobates (Family: Gerridae; and two genera Microvelia and

  6. Nuevos registros de Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae en el oriente del Estado de México New records of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae in the east of Mexico State

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    Marina Ruiz-Machuca

    Full Text Available El nopal tunero (Opuntia spp. se cultiva en todo el país, pero sólo en el Estado de México se concentra cerca de 35% de la producción nacional de tuna. Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Miller, es la especie predominante en la obtención de tunas, pero se carece de información que identifiquen taxonómicamente algunas plagas del cultivo; tal es el caso de la chinche roja (Hemiptera: Miridae. se realizaron colectas sistemáticas de este insecto sobre nopales (Opuntia spp., en diferentes municipios del Estado de México en 2008 y se encontraron 20 nuevos registros de Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter.The prickly pear nopal (Opuntia spp. is cultivated throughout entire country, but 35% of the national production is found only within State of Mexico. Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Miller is the predominant species for obtaining prickly pears, but there is not any information available that would taxonomically identify some plagues particular to this crop; such is the case of red bug (Hemiptera: Miridae. Some of these insects were gathered from prickly pear nopal (Opuntia spp. in different municipalities of State of Mexico in 2008 and 20 new cases of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter were found.

  7. Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton

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    Martin D. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton. The striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, is a widely distributed and polyphagous pest species, which naturally occurs on cotton plants in Brazil. This study evaluated the establishment and population growth as well as the within-plant distribution of F. virgata on four cotton cultivars: CNPA 7H (white fibers, BRS Verde, BRS Safira, and BRS Rubi (colored fibers. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with four treatments (cultivars and 18 replications of each. Thus, cotton plants of each cultivar were infested with 100 newly hatched nymphs of F. virgata. The number of adult female mealybugs and the total number of mealybugs per plant were quantified, respectively, at 25 and 50 days after infestation. The developmental and pre-reproductive periods were also determined. Furthermore, we verified the distribution of F. virgata on the plant parts at 25 and 50 days after infestation. Ferrisia virgata showed similar growth of 412-fold in the four cotton cultivars studied. Also, the nymphs were spread on infested leaves; the secondgeneration nymphs were spread and established in all plant parts. Our results characterize F. virgata as having much potential as an important cotton pest in Brazil.

  8. Performance of nymphs and adults of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae on soybean pods at different developmental stages

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    Émerson D. M. Oliveira

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the laboratory to test the suitability of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] pods at different phenological stages of development (R3-R8 on the performance of nymphs and adults of the small green stink bug Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Nymphs and adults showed better performance when fed on soybean pods during the pod-filling stage (R5-R6, compared to those fed on soybean pods at the remaining stages of development. When fed on soybean pods without seeds (R3-R4 no nymphs survived and no adults reproduced.Estudos foram conduzidos em laboratório para testar a adequabilidade de vagens de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em diferentes fases fenológicas (R3-R8 na performance de ninfas e adultos do percevejo verde pequeno Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Tanto ninfas como adultos mostraram uma melhor performance quando se alimentaram das vagens de soja na fase de enchimento de grãos (R5-R6, comparado com aqueles que se alimentaram de vagens de soja nas demais fases de desenvolvimento. Em vagens sem grãos (R3-R4 nenhuma ninfa sobreviveu e não houve reprodução.

  9. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  10. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

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    Sagata, Katayo; Gibb, Heloise

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C), 2050 (25°C) and 2100 (29°C), respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C). This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts. PMID:27434232

  11. Seasonality and Distribution Pattern of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia Vineyards.

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    Basnet, S; Kuhar, T P; Laub, C A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2015-08-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous invasive insect pest from eastern Asia that feeds on numerous fruit, vegetable, and field crops. Four commercial vineyards in Virginia were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to study the basic biology, seasonality, and distribution pattern of H. halys in vineyards. At each vineyard, two blocks were selected. Weekly 3-min timed count visual samplings were performed in border and interior sections from late May until mid-September. Overwintering adult bugs were first detected in vineyards in May; however, the timing of first detection differed among vineyards. Egg masses were found primarily in June and July, and were usually found on the lower surface of grape leaves, although they were occasionally on the upper leaf surface, on the berry, or on the rachis. All developmental stages of H. halys were found in vineyards, suggesting that grape can serve as a reproductive host for H. halys. Substantial variation in H. halys densities was found among vineyards and throughout the growing season. The first instars were found on egg masses and after molting, dispersed throughout the grape vines. The date on which the first egg mass was collected was considered as a biofix. Based on a degree-day model, there were sufficient degree-days for completion of a generation in Virginia vineyards. Significantly higher numbers of H. halys were collected in border sections compared with interior sections. These results are discussed in relation to the potential pest status of H. halys in vineyards and implications for possible control strategies. PMID:26470333

  12. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

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    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  13. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB. PMID:24772551

  14. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

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    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Geisha distinctissima (Hemiptera: Flatidae) and comparison with other hemipteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Aiping

    2009-03-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Geisha distinctissima (Hemiptera: Flatidae) has been determined in this study. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,971 bp with a total A+T content of 75.1%. The gene content, order, and structure are consistent with the Drosophila yakuba genome structure and the hypothesized ancestral arthropod genome arrangement. All 13 protein-coding genes are observed to have a putative, inframe ATR methionine or ATT isoleucine codons as start signals. Canonical TAA and TAG termination codons are found in nine protein-coding genes, and the remaining four (cox1, atp6, cox3, and nad4) have incomplete termination codons. The anticodons of all transfer RNA (tRNAs) are identical to those observed in D. yakuba and Philaenus spumarius, and can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure except for tRNA(Ser(AGN)). The major non-coding region (the A+T-rich region or putative control region) between the small ribosomal subunit and the tRNA(Ile) gene includes two sets of repeat regions. The first repeat region consists of a direct 152-bp repetitive unit located near the srRNA gene end, and the second repeat region is composed of a direct repeat unit of 19 bp located toward tRNA(Ile) gene. Comparisons of gene variability across the order suggest that the gene content and arrangement of G. distinctissima mitogenome are similar to other hemipteran insects. PMID:19280059

  16. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  17. Biology and harmfulness of Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Belgrade area

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    Draga Graora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.

  18. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  19. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P.; Nielsen, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  20. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Shirk, Paul D

    2009-04-01

    Commercial shipments of Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller). To determine whether modified dietary conditions might improve predation, newly eclosed adult female Orius pumilio (Champion) were fed on E. kuehniella eggs plus encapsulated water, encapsulated 5% sucrose solution only, or encapsulated water only for periods of 24, 48, or 72 h. Feeding activity was assessed by measuring the area of a crop in digital images of dissected digestive tracts. Adult females fed continuously on eggs had larger crops than did females fed on encapsulated sucrose solution. When females were prefed encapsulated water or sucrose and then fed 3 h on eggs, their crops became highly engorged and were larger than those in females fed continuously on eggs for the same periods. In behavioral choice tests, adult females prefed on encapsulated water or 5% sucrose solution spent a larger portion of time in contact with eggs, presumably feeding, whereas females prefed on eggs showed no preference between eggs or encapsulated water. After overnight shipping, females prefed on water or sucrose and held for 48 h total consumed 3.6- and 4.3-fold, respectively, more western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in 3 h than those prefed on eggs. Survival rates when prefed on sugar or water were comparable with prefeeding on eggs. Thus, inundative releases of Orius can be enhanced by starvation, because females initially feed much more voraciously after shipment with no apparent reduction in fitness. PMID:19449628

  1. Early-season host switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae of differing host breadth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009-2012, we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species and A. lineolatus (7 species. Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill., whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management.

  2. Warm-Season (C4) Turfgrass Genotypes Resistant to Spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, M R; Valério, J R; Matta, F P; Souza, F H D; Vigna, B B Z; Fávero, A P; Barioni, W; Inácio, G R

    2016-08-01

    Screening for resistance to insect pests is one of the early stages of grass breeding programs. Pasture spittlebugs are sap-sucking insects that potentially cause severe damage to turfgrasses, including the loss of functional quality and perenniallity. The Brazilian flora has a large number of grass species with wide morphological variability and adaptability to different soil and climate conditions that can potentially be used as lawns. However, no study has screened turfgrass genotypes for resistance to spittlebug attack. In this study, we evaluated the intra- and interspecific variability of 35 turfgrass genotypes in the genera Paspalum, Axonopus, and Zoysia for resistance to the pasture spittlebugs, Deois flavopicta (Stal) and Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), as measured by damage scores, densities of nymphs and adults, and level of antibiosis resistance. Genotypes were grouped into three groups using cluster analysis and principal component analysis: GroupI had genotypes associated with low damage scores and high density of adult spittlebugs; GroupII had genotypes with intermediate damage scores and low density of nymphs and adults; and GroupIII was formed by genotypes with high damage scores and high nymph density. Intra- and interspecific genotypic variability was related to antibiosis resistance and morphological variation among genotypes with some indicating nonpreference resistance and others indicating tolerance resistance. Our results indicate that besides antibiosis resistance studies, it is essential to evaluate the morphological variability of grass genotypes when screening for resistance to insects. Further studies are needed to elucidate the intraspecific variability of Paspalum notatum Flüggé genotypes for resistance to spittlebug attack. PMID:27329631

  3. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy. PMID:27203082

  4. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A; Cunjak, Richard A; Arp, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (approximately 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species. They also suggest that striders may be more appropriate as a terrestrial rather than an aquatic Hg sentinel, underscoring the importance of understanding the origin of food for organisms used in contaminant studies. PMID:19215185

  5. Residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation of organophosphates and piriproxifen on the mortality of deltamethrin resistant Triatoma infestans populations in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco region

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Gemio Alarico; Nahuel Romero; Laura Hernández; Silvia Catalá; David Gorla

    2010-01-01

    The Bolivian Chaco is part of the endemic region of Chagas disease and an area where pyrethroid resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations has been reported. The World Health Organization identified these resistant populations as an important focus for research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation containing organophosphate active ingredients and a juvenile hormone analogue (Inesfly 5A IGR) on the mortality ...

  6. Impacts of Synergy-505 on the Functional Response and Behavior of the Reduviid Bug, Rhynocoris marginatus

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrose, D. P.; Rajan, S. J.; Raja, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the insecticide, Synergy-505 (chlorpyrifos 50% and cypermethrin 5% E.C), on the functional response, predatory behavior, and mating behavior of a non-target reduviid, Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a potential biological control agent, were studied. Though both normal and Synergy-505-exposed R. marginatus exhibited Holling's type II curvilinear functional response, Synergy-505 caused a less pronounced type II functional response with reduced numbers o...

  7. Arreglo de los polígonos del exocorion de huevos eclosionados de algunas especies de los géneros Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae.

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    Glauco López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En este trabajo se estudiaron estructural y cuantitativamente las celdas exocoriales de huevos eclosionados de Triatoma infestans (Klug, Triatoma lenti Sherlock & Serafim, Triatoma maculata (Erichson, Triatoma sordida (Stal, Meccus picturatus (Usinger, Meccus longipennis (Usinger, Meccus pallidipennis (Stal and Nesotriatoma flavida (Neiva. Los huevos se analizaron por regiones: caudal, media y cefálica. Se encontró que el hexágono fue el polígono más abundante en todas las regiones del huevo y en todas las especies, seguido del pentágono y del heptágono; se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el número tanto de hexágonos y pentágonos entre regiones de una misma especie y entre la misma región de las diferentes especies, sin embargo, el número promedio de heptágonos no varió al comparar la región media entre las diferentes especies y al comparar las diferentes regiones en una misma especie. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el promedio de polígonos, segmentos totales, heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, al comparar las especies examinadas del género Meccus. Se propone un protocolo de identificación y análisis de teselaciones, con el cual se encontró que en 108 campos examinados de 385.000 µm2 cada uno, se identificaron teselaciones compartidas en los 108 campos observados con determinadas combinaciones de heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, y se observaron teselaciones no compartidas en la totalidad de los campos, con combinaciones de polígonos de cuatro a nueve lados, y cada teselación se representó por un grafo. Se discuten las implicaciones taxonómicas, funcionales, filogenéticas y construccionales de los arreglos poligonales descritos.Arragement of exochorial polygons of hatched eggs in several species of the genera Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae. Abstract. In this study a structural and quantitative

  8. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Finding of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in the Brazilian State of "Rio Grande do Sul"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae, especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.Triatoma platensis, an ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay is reported for the first time in Brazil. It was found in the county of Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul in nests of Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae where it cohabited with cricetids belonging to the species Orizomys flavescens. None of the seven individuals collected were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.

  9. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Braga da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? O percevejo Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae é um predador encontrado em várias regiões brasileiras, que possui atributos desejáveis como agente de controle natural ou em

  10. Ecology of Meimuna mongolica (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) Nymphs: Instars, Morphological Variation, Vertical Distribution and Population Density, Host-Plant Selection, and Emergence Phenology

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    Hou, Zehai; Li, Qinglong; Yang,Mingsheng; Liu, Yunxiang; Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    The cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is one of the most important pests of economic forest in Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province, China. Information about ecological characteristics and some sustainable control measures of this species is urgently required for its control. In this study, nymphal instars, morphological variation, vertical distribution, and population density in soil, and emergence phenology of nymphs of M. mongolica on three main host plants (Pinus ta...

  11. Effect of a gall-inducing psylloid, Pseudophacopteron alstonium Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Phacopteronidae) on defensive chemistry of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Gentianales: Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhen-De; Lv, Wen-Ling; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Yu, Shu-Zhong; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Gall-inducing insect species are capable to escape from defence of host plant species. However, effect of gall-inducing insects on defensive mechanism of host plants is still unclear. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible chemical changes in the defensive system of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Gentianales: Apocynaceae) caused by Pseudophacopteron alstonium Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Phacopteronidae) feeding. Total phenolic and tannin, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catala...

  12. Evaluating the suitability of Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Ashley B.

    2005-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest injurious to hemlock trees (Tsuga spp.) in the eastern United States. HWA currently infests hemlock in over 50% of its geographic range and has the potential to spread throughout its entire range. Since HWA populations in the eastern United States are not regulated effectively by natural enemies (Wallace and Hain 2000), classical biological control is the most promising option for controlling t...

  13. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

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    Mustafa, Tariq; Horton, David R.; Cooper, W. Rodney; Swisher, Kylie D.; Zack, Richard S.; Pappu, Hanu R.; Munyaneza, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of Lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (Central, Western, Northwestern). All haploty...

  14. Behavioral, Ultrastructural and Chemical Studies on the Honeydew and Waxy Secretions by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

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    Ammar, El-Desouky; Alessandro, Rocco; Shatters Jr, Robert G.; Hall, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences ...

  15. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of ‘naturally w...

  16. Rôle des ennemis naturels dans la lutte biologique contre le puceron cendré, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini (Hemiptera aphididae) en vergers de pommiers

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Hazem

    2010-01-01

    In the current political and social context (reduced use of pesticides), there is a need for the development of alternative solutions to control the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini (Hemiptera : Aphididae), especially in organic farming. One of these alternatives is the increased and improved use of natural enemies against this pest. In this thesis, we provided some elements of responses regarding this problem in term of research study and technical application. Based on weekl...

  17. Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a natural enemy of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Life table and intrinsic rate of population increase

    OpenAIRE

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Life table data of natural enemies are often used to understand their population dynamics and estimate their potential role in the biological control of pests. Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of several crops and its intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) is 0.282 at 22°C. The life table parameters (immature mortality, developmental time, sex ratio of emerging adults, fecundity and longevity) of Praon volucre (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: ...

  18. Stone Lakes Virus (Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus), a Variant of Fort Morgan Virus Isolated From Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) West of the Continental Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M. Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV)...

  19. An independently evolved mutualism among ants (Myrmicinae Pheidole terramorium and Paratrechina longicornis), sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and Hemiptera: an invader-invader mutualism and invasion meltdown

    OpenAIRE

    Thayer, Lesley K

    2011-01-01

     The role of mutualisms among invasive species in facilitating invasions remains relatively unexplored. Yet such interactions have high potential to alter intact community composition and function due to their positive fitness effects on the species involved. The following study explores an interaction that evolved independently among naturalized hibiscus and invasive ants and Hemiptera that colonized the island of Mo’orea, French Polynesia centuries apart.  For this study, a geographic surve...

  20. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Takumasa; Muñoz, Jazmín Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) were collected in the State of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The study was conducted for one year, during October 2008–October 2009. As a result of this study, 34 scale insect species in seven families (Coccidae, Diaspididae, Kerriidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) were collected. Together with previous records, the number of scale insects collected on avocado in Colombia increa...

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus. PMID:26798106

  2. NUEVO REGISTRO DE Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae EN GUAYABO Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae EN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NEW REGISTRATION OF Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae IN GUAVA Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Rubén Darío David Giraldo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encuentra por primera vez en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia y asociado al guayabo (Psidium guajava L., la especie Greenidea ficicola Takahashi ( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae colectada durante muestreos intensivos realizados durante el primer semestre de 2008 en el Valle de Aburrá y municipios aledaños. Dicha especie de áfido también fue colectada en falso laurel (Ficus benjamina. Dada la importancia que tienen los frutos de guayabo en la alimentación humana y de los animales domésticos en Colombia, es necesario registrar esta especie con el fin de tomar medidas en lo referente a programas de muestreo de sus poblaciones, estudio de su ciclo de vida y determinar los posibles controladores biológicos, que conduzcan al mejor conocimiento de este insecto y faciliten la toma de medidas de contención a su dispersión en el país.It is founded for the first time, the species of aphid Greenidea ficicola, Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae in the Antioquia Department (Colombia associated to guava plants (Psidium guajava L.. The species was collected during intensive sampling done during the first semester of 2008, in the Aburra Valley and near municipalities. The species of aphid was also collected on "false laurel" (Ficus benjamina. Due to the importance of guava as food for humans as well as wild and domestic animals, it is considered important to report this species so that contention measures can be taken specially related with more sampling, life cycle and potential biological control agents to get to know better this pest and control its spread in the country.

  3. Host plant preference of harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and evaluation of a trap cropping strategy for its control in collard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Kuhar, Thomas P; Pfeiffer, Douglas G; Tholl, Dorothea B; Freeman, Joshua H; Doughty, Hélène B; Schultz, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cole crops, causing cosmetic damage in low populations, while heavy pest pressure can kill plants or entire fields. Field studies were conducted to evaluate a trap crop for control of harlequin bug in collard. Field-cage choice tests found that potential trap crop plant species, mustard (Brassica juncea 'Southern Giant Curled'), rapeseed (B. napus 'Athena'), rapini (B. rapa), and arugula (Eruca satica) attracted more harlequin bugs than collard (B. oleracea 'Champion') and a nonbrassica control, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris'Bronco'). Mustard was the most consistently selected by harlequin bug over collard in choice tests, and was found to be an effective trap crop for reducing feeding injury on collard at two experimental sites. Augmentation of the mustard trap crop with a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide provided no added control of harlequin bug for the 10 wk duration in the spring season. PMID:23448042

  4. Occurrence of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) on oaks in delaware water gap national recreation area, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    A total of 870 treehoppers and 24 species from the tribe Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) were collected from various oaks in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in 2006 using yellow sticky cards. Combining all years and collecting methods, 27 species were found in the park. A majority of the specimens collected in 2006 were males of Cyrtolobus vau and Ophiderma pubescens, as in previous years. Most of the treehoppers were caught in mid to late June, comparable to 2004 and 2005. It appears that many species are segregated either temporally or by oak group; some treehopper species show preference for either the red or white oak group rather than for one species of oak. Color photographs for 27 treehopper species (many including both sexes) are included. PMID:20302540

  5. Occurrence of Treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) on Oaks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, 2004–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Matthew S.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 870 treehoppers and 24 species from the tribe Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) were collected from various oaks in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in 2006 using yellow sticky cards. Combining all years and collecting methods, 27 species were found in the park. A majority of the specimens collected in 2006 were males of Cyrtolobus vau and Ophiderma pubescens, as in previous years. Most of the treehoppers were caught in mid to late June, comparable to 2004 and 2005. It appears that many species are segregated either temporally or by oak group; some treehopper species show preference for either the red or white oak group rather than for one species of oak. Color photographs for 27 treehopper species (many including both sexes) are included. PMID:20302540

  6. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  7. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities. PMID:23949861

  8. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  9. Differences in bacterial diversity of host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, R F; Nachappa, P; Tamborindeguy, C

    2011-04-01

    Host-associated differentiation (HAD) is the presence of genetically divergent, host-associated populations. It has been suggested that microbial symbionts of insect herbivores may play a role in HAD by allowing their insect hosts to use different plant species. The objective of this study was to document if host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory corresponded with differences in the composition of their associated bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the symbionts present in P. notabilis associated with these two tree species through metagenomic analyses using 454 sequencing. Differences in bacterial diversity were found between P. notabilis populations associated with pecan and water hickory. The bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia marcescens, were absent in the P. notabilis water hickory population, whereas both species accounted for more than 69.72% of bacterial abundance in the pecan population. PMID:21261774

  10. Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: A Highly Effective Biological Control Agent of Soft Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About 953000 individuals of the cosmopolitan parasitoid, Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, were released and evaluated during 2009-2010 for the control of the following soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae infesting the following economic crops in Egypt: Ceroplastes rusci on citrus in Beni Seuf, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus in Gharbiya, Coccus hesperidum L. on guava in Giza, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood on mango in Sharqiya, Pulvinaria psidii Maskell on mango in Ismailia, Saissetia coffeae (Walker on olive in Marsa Matruh, and Saissetia oleae (Oliver on olive in the Northern Coast. The population of C. scutellaris showed a significant correlation with the build up of the population of the soft scale insects population in all of the release sites studied. The maximum rate of parasitism of the other species of parasitoids associated with soft scale insects at the release sites decreased after the release of C. scutellaris.

  11. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  12. Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae Sistemática e filogenia das cigarrinhas neotropicais da subfamília Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae

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    Jesse L. Albertson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of adults of the treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 (Hemiptera, Membracidae including seven genera (Eudonica gen. nov.; Euwalkeria Goding, 1926; Holdgatiella Evans, 1962; Nicomia Stål, 1858; Nodonica Dietrich, McKamey& Deitz, 2001; Stalomia gen. nov.; and Tolania Stål, 1858 and 22 species (16 new are described and illustrated. Keys are provided for genera and for species of Euwalkeria, Holdgatiella, and Nicomia. Nomenclatural changes, based on study of the primary type material of 15 species, include three new combinations, one new synonymy, and reinstatement of one junior synonym. Eudonica has one species, Eudonica nanella sp. nov.; Euwalkeria has five species, including four new species: E. colorata sp. nov., E. distincta sp. nov., E. perdita sp. nov., E. rubrica sp. nov.; Holdgatiella has two species, one of which is described as new: Holdgatiella chiloensis sp. nov.; Nicomia has twelve species, nine of which are described as new: N. buccina sp. nov., N. harenosa sp. nov., N. inscripta sp. nov., N. jucunda sp. nov., N. monticola sp. nov., N. nigrifasciata sp. nov., N. notidana sp. nov., N. pulchella sp. nov., N. serrata sp. nov.; Nodonica has one species, Nodonica bispinigera Dietrich, McKamey & Deitz; and Stalomia has one species, Stalomia veruta sp. nov. Tolania contains eleven previously described species and nearly 60 new species, which will be treated in a later publication. Three new combinations are proposed: one species described in Nicomia is placed in the tribe Abelini (Centrotinae as Abelus retrospinosus (Lethierry comb. nov.; one species previously placed in Nicomia is transferred to the genus Tolania as T. obliqua (Walker, 1858, comb. nov.; one species described in Holdgatiella is placed in the genus Tolania as T. stria (Cryan & Deitz, 2002, comb. nov. One new synonymy is proposed: Hoplophera [sic] cicadoides Walker, 1862, syn. nov., a junior synonym of Nicomia interrupta Stål, 1858. Nicomia

  13. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  14. TOXICIDAD DE PAULLINIA CLAVIGERA SCHLTDL. (SAPINDACEAE) Y CHONDRODENDRON TOMENTOSUM RUIZ ET PAV. (MENISPERMACEAE) SOBRE EL PIOJO SALTADOR DEL CAMU CAMU TUTHILLIA COGNATA (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) TOXICITY OF PAULLINIA CLAVIGERA SCHLTDL. (SAPINDACEAE) AND CHONDRODENDRON TOMENTOSUM RUIZ ET PAV. (MENISPERMACEAE) ON JUMPING LICE OF CAMU CAMU TUTHILLIA COGNATA (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Pérez; José Iannacone; Alfredo Tueros

    2008-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto tóxico de dos extractos hidroalcohólicos procedentes de dos plantas amazónicas de importancia etnobotánica, Paullinia clavigera Schltdl. "sachayoco" (Sapindaceae) y Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz et Pav "curare" (Menispermaceae), ambas en desarrollo vegetativo, sobre ninfas del III estadio de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 "piojo saltador del camu camu" (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Las ninfas de T. cognata se colectaron en plantaciones del caserío San ...

  15. Effect of silicon application to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the population of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae

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    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of silicon in forestry has increased recently as it is directly related to improved resistance to insect pests. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, occurs in all eucalypt producing regions in Brazil. Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of silicon applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the psyllid population. In the first experiment, the applications were made via soil (calcium silicate and leaves (potassium silicate in a nine months old E. camaldulensis plantation. In the second experiment, we evaluated silicon on seedlings, incorporating it into the substrate (soil or applying it on leaves (foliar. Monthly, for 24 months, the number of psyllid eggs and immatures were counted on leaf samples. The plant height was measured at 9, 12, 16 and 24 months (experiment 1 and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months (experiment 2 after application. The numbers of eggs and immatures were lower in periods of higher precipitation, indicating less psyllid attack during the rainy season. The psyllid population was lower in treatments with application of silicon both foliar and via soil compared to control. No significant differences were found in the height of E. camaldulensis plants. Efeito da aplicação de silício em Eucalyptus camaldulensis em população de Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae O uso do silício na área florestal tem aumentado recentemente, pois o elemento está relacionado a uma melhoria na resistência a insetos pragas. O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei é encontrado em todas as regiões produtoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O efeito do silício aplicado em Eucalyptus camaldulensis, na população do psilídeo, foi estudado em dois ensaios. No primeiro experimento, as aplicações foram via solo (silicato de cálcio e foliar (silicato de potássio em uma plantação de nove meses. No segundo experimento, este mineral foi aplicado em mudas de eucalipto, no substrato ou sobre as folhas

  16. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

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    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  17. Controle químico da forma galícola da filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae na cultura da videira Chemical control of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 leaf form (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae on vineyards

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    Marcos Botton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae é considerada a principal praga da videira. O inseto se alimenta da parte aérea e raízes sendo que os maiores prejuízos são observados em raízes de Vitis vinifera cultivada como pé-franco. O dano nas folhas é importante em viveiros, quando o ataque ocorre nos ramos utilizados como porta-enxertos, resistentes à forma radícola. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar inseticidas que possam ser empregados como substitutos aos fosforados e piretróides no manejo da forma galícola da filoxera. Os inseticidas imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acephate, abamectin, deltamethrin e fenitrothion, foram avaliados em condições de campo, sob infestação natural, em plantas matrizes do porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. Imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 40mL 100L-1 e thiamethoxam (Actara 250 WG, 30g 100L-1 reduziram as injúrias causadas pela forma galícola da filoxera nos ponteiros em nível superior a 90%, proporcionando controle superior aos inseticidas deltamethrin (Decis 25 CE, 40mL 100L-1 e fenitrothion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150 mL/100L considerados referência no controle do inseto. Os inseticidas acephate (Orthene 750 BR, 100g 100L-1 e abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE, 80mL 100L-1 não foram eficientes.Grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae is the main grape pest. Adults and nymphs feeds on leaves and roots but major damage is observed on roots of own rooted Vitis vinifera. Damage on leaves is important in root stock nurseries where chemical control is necessary. This study was conducted to evaluate insecticides to control the leaf form in a Paulsen 1103 nursery in field condictions. Imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 40mL 100L-1 and thiamethoxam (Actara 250 WG, 30g 100L-1 reduced foliar damage in more than 90%, providing better control than deltamethrin (Decis 25 CE, 40mL 100L-1 and fenitrothion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150mL 100L-1 current

  18. Patogenicidade do fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana sobre o percevejo Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae / Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the grass bug Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Marcos Roberto Barboza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae é uma praga de cereais cultivados e pastagens, e o controle microbiano é uma alternativa para manter estas populações abaixo do nível de dano econômico. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade do isolado CG 460 de Beauveria bassiana sobre este percevejo. Insetos adultos foram inoculados em laboratório com cinco concentrações de conídios (1,0x105; 1,0x106; 1,0x107; 1,0x108 e 1,0x109 conídios.mL-1 e alimentados com folhas de trigo. A mortalidade total e confirmada (conidiogênese sobre os insetos mortos foram avaliadas durante seis dias consecutivos. O isolado apresentou alta capacidade infectiva sobre o mirideo, com mortalidade total variando de 40 a 90%. A mortalidade confirmada apresentou uma correlação linear positiva com a concentração de conídios. A taxa de conidiogênese nas concentrações mais baixas do inoculo foi em torno de 26%, sendo que nas concentrações maiores os valores chegaram a 70%. O tempo letal 50 para a concentração 109 foi de 4,3 dias.AbstractThe grass bug, Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae, is a pest of cereal crops and pastures, and the microbial control is an alternative to maintain the pest population below economic injury level. The present work had the objective to assess the pathogenicity isolate CG460 of Beauveria bassiana against this grass bug. Adult insects had been inoculated in laboratory with five conidia concentrations (1.0x105, 1.0x106, 1.0x107, 1.0x108, 1.0x109 conidia.mL-1, and fed with wheat leaves. Total and confirmed mortality (sporulation on the dead insects had been assessed during six consecutive days. CG460 showed high virulency on the grass bug, with the total mortality ranged from 40 to 90%. Confirmed mortality presented positive and linear correlation with the conidia concentrations. The conidiogenesis rates in the lowest concentrations of inoculum were around 26%, being that in the highest

  19. Phytoreovirus-like sequences isolated from salivary glands of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homolodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salivary glands of the Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821, (syn. H. coagulata, Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were collected and used to produce a cDNA library. Examination by BLASTX analyses identified 2 viral sequences, one a 610-base pair fragment and a second 839-base pair fragment, both of which had significant homology to viruses within the genus Phytoreovirus. Resequencing of the fragments confirmed sequence validities. These sequences were used for in silico protein translation and BLASTP analysis confirming the established homology. While the GWSS is the primary vector of Pierce's disease of grapes, this is the first report that GWSS may be a vector of a phytoreoviruses. Phylogenetic and homology comparisons with BLASTX, BLASTP, and PAUP analyses indicated that the viral sequences isolated from GWSS were closely related to the viruses in the Family Reoviridae, Genus Phytoreovirus, specifically Rice Dwarf Phytoreovirus (RDV). RDV is the only plant reovirus that is not limited to the phloem. Phytoreoviruses are transmitted in a propagative manner by cicadellid leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which acquire and transmit them during feeding. Phytoreoviruses have been reported from Agallian, Agalliopsis, Nephotettix, and Recilia, genera of leafhoppers, with evidence for transovarial transmission. The GWSS, although considered to feed primarily from the xylem, ingests from other plant tissues, such as the phloem and mesophyll during probing similar to other leafhoppers. The feeding behavior and wide host range of the GWSS provides an overlapping condition for these two organisms, leafhopper and virus. GWSS will feed from grasses as a transitory host, and on herbaceous and woody plants as primary hosts, which may favor the acquisition and transmission of Phytoreovirus by this leafhopper. Monitoring for an increase of Phytoreovirus spread in graminaceous crops that are in proximity to vineyards or tree crop orchards, where

  20. Host specificity testing and examination for plant pathogens reveals that the gall-forming psyllid, Calophya latiforceps (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), is safe to release for biological control of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi) is one of the worst upland exotic weeds in Florida. Foreign exploration for natural enemies led to the discovery of a pit-galling psyllid, Calophya latiforceps (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), in the state of Bahia, Brazil in 2010. Crawlers of C. latifor...

  1. The impact of some environmental factors on the fecundity of phenacoccus solenopsis tinsley (hemiptera: pseudococcidae): a serious pest of cotton and other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) was first recorded on cultivated cotton from Texas, USA in 1991. Since 2005, this New World species has emerged as serious pest of cotton in Pakistan and India, and is now a serious threat to cotton in China and other cotton-growing countries worldwide. The species is polyphagous and invasive, and can attack many other economic crops. So far, it has been reported from 173 species in 54 plant families, and from 26 countries in different ecological zones. The study found that host plant species and meteorological conditions had significant effects, whereas locality had no significant effect on the fecundity of the mealybug. (author)

  2. Control biológico del piojo rojo de California, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) y estrategias reproductivas de su principal enemigo natural Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Desfilis, Mª Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN Esta tesis describe la situación del control biológico del piojo rojo de California, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), por parasitoides en la Comunidad Valenciana El piojo rojo de California es una de las plagas más importantes de cítricos en España. Esta plaga, a pesar de todos los tratamientos químicos que se realizan para su control, se encuentra por encima del umbral económico de daños. En este trabajo se constata, tras un muestreo realizado a lo lar...

  3. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World. PMID:27394765

  4. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  5. Presencia de Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) en cultivos hortícolas minifundistas del Valle de Lerma, Salta, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Olivo, Verónica Inés; Rodríguez, Carla A.; Coscarón,María del Carmen; Corronca, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    En la Argentina, Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) es el insecto más frecuente y abundante en el control natural de trips (Insecta: Thysanoptera), y por su hábito generalista también depreda sobre pulgones y huevos de lepidópteros, entre otros. Es un depredador muy eficiente, ya que con frecuencia habita en los mismos lugares que sus presas, pudiendo sobrevivir mucho tiempo sin alimentarse, y es relativamente fácil de producir en masa por lo que se comercializa para el control bi...

  6. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Dai, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera. PMID:27253390

  7. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

    2014-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266. PMID:24345408

  8. Taxonomic status of the Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and reassessment of the number of its constituent species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhoon Lee

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of the most important insect pests in the world. In the present study, the taxonomic status of B. tabaci and the number of species composing the B. tabaci complex were determined based on 1059 COI sequences of B. tabaci and 509 COI sequences of 153 hemipteran species. The genetic divergence within B. tabaci was conspicuously higher (on average, 11.1% than interspecific genetic divergence within the respective genera of the 153 species (on average, 6.5%. This result indicates that B. tabaci is composed of multiple species that may belong to different genera or subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 212 COI sequences without duplications revealed that the B. tabaci complex is composed of a total of 31 putative species, including a new species, JpL. However, genetic divergence within six species (Asia II 1, Asia II 7, Australia, Mediterranean, New World, and Sub Saharan Africa 1 was higher than 3.5%, which has been used as a threshold of species boundaries within the B. tabaci complex. These results suggest that it is necessary to increase the threshold for species boundaries up to 4% to distinguish the constituent species in the B. tabaci complex.

  9. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (pest management programs that include T. triozae. PMID:26453717

  10. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Euborellia annulipes (DERMAPTERA: ANISOLABIDIDAE ALIMENTADA COM O PULGÃO Hyadaphis foeniculi (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE

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    ALDENI BARBOSA DA SILVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sweet herb of great economic importance for small farmers in the micro and Agrest Swamp of Paraíba and also in the state of Pernambuco. Among the natural enemies, the scissors Euborellia annulipes proves to be a voracious predator, that is, with high ability to attack and feed on different prey, particularly of eggs and immature stages of insects of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. The objective of this research was to study the biological aspects of E. annulipes on H. foeniculi laboratory. The study was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Protection at the UFPB in a climatic chamber, at 25 ± 1 ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% RH and 12 hours. Scissors were selected in adulthood from rearing on artificial diet in the laboratory. From these insects have made observations of posture, viability and morphology of eggs of E. annulipes. Fifty nymphs were selected for each stage of development (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of the scissors and fed separately with aphids (1st-2nd, 3rd and 4th instar. There has been evaluation regarding the number and duration of instars. There are five instars to the nymphal stage of E. annulipes, the average incubation period was 12.9 days, pre-oviposition period of 18.2 days and 46.75 eggs per clutch, there was an increase of nymphal E. annulipes in that it offered up more aphids developed.

  11. Performance of Three Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Miridae) on Flowering and Non-lfowering Cotton and Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen; PAN Hong-sheng; LIU Bing; LU Yan-hui; LIANG Ge-mei

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera:Miridae) is a group of key insect pests in cotton ifelds in China that includes three dominant species:A. suturalis (Jakovlev), A. lineolatus (Goeze) and A. fasciaticollis (Reuter). Previous ifeld surveys have found that adults of these Adelphocoris species usually move onto speciifc host plants when the plants enter the lfowering stage. To determine the potential trade-offs for this host-plant preference behavior, the performance of these three Adelphocoris spp. on lfowering and non-lfowering cotton and alfalfa were compared in the laboratory. The results showed that Adelphocoris spp. had signiifcantly higher nymphal developmental and survival rates, along with increased adult longevity and fecundity on lfowering cotton and alfalfa than on non-lfowering plants of either species. In addition, compared with cotton plants, alfalfa generally promoted better performance of these three Adelphocoris species, especially for A. lineolatus. Simple correlation analysis indicated that female adult longevity was positively correlated to male adult longevity and female fecundity, and female fecundity was positively correlated to nymphal development and survival rates. This study demonstrated a positive correlation between adult preference and offspring/adult performance for all three Adelphocoris species, with no evidence of any trade-offs for this preference for lfowering host plants. These ifndings support the hypothesis that hemimetabolous insects such as mirid bugs have positive adult preference-adult/nymphal performance relationships, which is likely due to the similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements of adults and nymphs.

  12. Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Paleari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles. Stiretrus decemguttatus is an important predator of two species of cassidine beetles, Botanochara sedecimpustulata (Fabricius, 1781 and Zatrephina lineata (Fabricius, 1787 (Coleoptera, Cassidinae, on the Marajó Island, Brazil. It attacks individuals in all development stages, but preys preferentially on late-instar larvae. Its life cycle in the laboratory was 43.70 ± 1.09 days, with an egg incubation period of six days and duration from nymph and adult stages of 16.31 ± 0.11 and 22.10 ± 1.67 days, respectively. The duration of one generation (T was 12.65 days and the intrinsic population growth rate (r 0.25. These data reveal the adjustment of the life cycle of S. decemgutattus with those of the two preys, but suggest greater impact on Z. lineata. However, no preference over cassidine species was shown in the laboratory. Up to 17 different color patterns can be found in adults of S. decemguttatus, based on combinations of three basic sets of color markings. Some of them resemble the markings of chrysomelids associated with Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae and are possibly a mimetic ring. Three color patterns were identified in nymphs, none of which was associated with any specific adult color pattern.

  13. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda L Torres

    Full Text Available "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae. While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention.

  14. Encasing mattresses in black plastic will not provide thermal control of bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Geary, Merilyn J; Russell, Richard C

    2006-12-01

    The suggestion that bed bug (Cimex spp.; Hemiptera: Cimicidae)-infested mattresses wrapped in black plastic and exposed to sunlight will be heated sufficiently to kill the bed bugs was tested. Two types of mattresses were tested: a thin mattress of solid foam rubber and a thick multilayered inner spring mattress. Temperature probes were placed on both upper and lower sides of the mattresses, which were wrapped in black plastic and placed outside on a summer day for >9 h wherein the ambient temperature peaked at 36.5 degrees C. The maximum recorded temperature on the upper (sun-exposed) sides was 85 degrees C for both mattresses, whereas lower side temperatures for the thick mattress never exceeded 35 degreesC, and some areas of the thin mattress failed to exceed 36.50C. Therefore, with published thermal death points of 40-45 degrees C depending on exposure time, and opportunities for bed bugs to avoid lethal temperatures by retreating from hot zones, this technique seems to be not suitable for bed bug management. PMID:17195683

  15. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae, a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Hao

    Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  16. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of a piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jessica L; Hagler, James R; Kaplan, Ian

    2012-12-01

    Immunoproteins are markers that are useful for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators important in biocontrol. We quantified the use of protein immunomarks in tracking emigration of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and predation on the hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). An external protein mark was topically applied to adult P. maculiventris to assess persistence under field conditions for >2 wk. Internal marks were incorporated into the artificial diet of M. sexta to test retention of the internal mark in the prey and uptake of the mark by predators. External marks remained detectable in 100% of individuals after 3 d and >50% still tested positive at 12 d after application in the field. Internal diet-based marking was also effective in tracking feeding by P. maculiventris on M. sexta, especially using rabbit IgG that was far more persistent than chicken IgY. Nearly 90% of stink bugs fed caterpillars previously reared on protein-enriched diet retained their mark for 24 h. Surprisingly, diet concentration and time reared on diet had comparatively little impact on mark retention. Development on unmarked tomato leaves clearly diluted the initial diet mark, but plant-reared individuals that were marked were still successfully detected in 35 and 20% of the predators. PMID:23321101

  17. Population genetic structure and post-LGM expansion of the plant bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Huaizhu; Li, Hu; Li, Shujuan; Wei, Shujun; Zhang, Lijuan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Yang, Hailin; Han, Fei; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The plant bug, Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae), is one of the most thermophilous dicyphines in agroecosystems and is widely distributed in China. Little is known regarding the genetic structure of N. tenuis and the effect of historical climatic fluctuations on N. tenuis populations. We analyzed partial sequences of three mitochondrial protein-coding genes (COI, ND2 and CytB) and nuclear genes (5.8S, ITS2 and 28S) for 516 specimens collected from 37 localities across China. Analyses of the combined mitochondrial dataset indicated that the Southwestern China group (SWC) was significantly differentiated from the remaining populations, other Chinese group (OC). Asymmetric migration and high level of gene flow across a long distance within the OC group was detected. The long-distance dispersal of N. tenuis might be affected by air currents and human interference. Both the neutrality tests and mismatch distributions revealed the occurrence of historical population expansion. Bayesian skyline plot analyses with two different substitution rates indicated that N. tenuis might follow the post-LGM (the Last Glacial Maximum) expansion pattern for temperate species. Pleistocene climatic fluctuation, complicated topography and anthropogenic factors, along with other ecological factors (e.g. temperature and air current) might have accounted for the current population structure of N. tenuis. PMID:27230109

  18. Identification of the Population Structure of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Peach Trees in China Using Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cao, Jinjun; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the genetic structure of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations in China using microsatellites. We expected that these data will reveal the genetic relationships among various populations of M. persicae and will be of value in the development of better methods for pest control. Four hundred sixty individuals from 23 areas over 13 provinces were collected in the early spring of 2010, all from their primary host, Prunus persicae. The markers analyzed were highly polymorphic, as demonstrated by the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.861) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.847), which indicated that M. persicae maintains a high level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed an intermediate level of population differentiation among M. persicae populations (FST = 0.1215). Geographic isolation existed among these populations, and, consequently, the genetic structure of the populations was split into a southern group and a northern group divided by the Yangtse River. PMID:26106085

  19. Infection Rate by Trypanosoma cruzi and Biased Vertebrate Host Selection in the Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduvidae) Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Sierra, M J; Dumonteil, E

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by hematophagous insects. Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduvidae (Latreille 1811)) is one of the main vectors, and recent molecular studies indicate that it is a species complex, with potentially different vectorial competences. We investigated the differences in natural T. cruzi infection rate within T. dimidiata complex in Yucatan, Mexico. ITS-2 hybrid bugs had a twofold higher infection rate than ITS-2 Groups 2 and 3 bugs, and this pattern was consistent over time and in several villages. To test if T. dimidiata ITS-2 hybrid bugs could feed more frequently on T. cruzi-infected hosts, we evaluated their host-seeking behavior in a dual-choice chamber. Group 2 and 3 bugs were equally attracted to T. cruzi-infected or uninfected mice. On the contrary, ITS-2 hybrid bugs reached three times more frequently the T. cruzi-infected mouse, compared to the uninfected one, indicating a significant bias toward an infected host. This behavior may explain in part their higher natural infection rate. Further studies should explore the complex and unique interactions among T. cruzi, triatomines vectors, and mammalian hosts, as this may led to new strategies to interfere with transmission cycles and improve Chagas disease control. PMID:26474882

  20. Parasitoids associated with the black scale Saissetia oleae(Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae in olive trees in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Ernesto Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae is an important pest of olive trees (Olea europaea L. that requires the use insecticides for its control. Parasitoids are important regulating agents of this pest, but currently, no information on its complex of natural enemies and their impact on black scale in Brazilian conditions exists. This study focused on identifying parasitoid wasps that were associated with the black scale on olive trees to establish their relative abundance and rate of parasitism. Samplings were maintained in an olive orchard located in Maria da Fe, south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and infested branches were stored in emergence containers to recover parasitoids. Another group was kept in Flanders batteries to evaluate the rate of parasitism in approximately 100 scales. Sixteen parasitoid species were collected during the sampling period, and the most common species were Coccophagus caridei (Brèthes (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Diversinervus elegans Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, and Mesopeltita truncatipennis (Waterston (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, the latter of which was most abundant and frequent. Parasitism ranged from 3 to 31% with peaks in summer and autumn. This level could be considered insufficient to hold the black scale under the economic injury level; however, these parasitoids should be preserved for contributions to population regulation.

  1. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

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    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  2. Identification guide to Nordic aphids associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns (Bryophyta, Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta (Insecta, Hemiptera, Aphidoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Christian Albrecht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Keys and diagnoses of North European aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns are given, based on fresh and freeze-dried material. Numerous externally visible and thus informative characters, that are absent in cleared, slide-mounted specimens, such as body shape colours, wax coating and pattern etc., are utilized. Most of the species are illustrated by photographs of live specimens and drawings. Root-feeding species living in the moss layer or otherwise often present in moss samples are also included, even if their hosts were spermatophytes. The combination of colour images and diagnoses, utilizing easily observed characters, allows the identification of a large number of species already in the field, and many more at home with the aid of a stereo microscope. Host plant relationships and association with ants are summarised, including new records. Brief accounts on aphid life cycles, freeze-drying preparation techniques, etc. are also given to support the use of the keys.

  3. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (NeemsetoR). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  4. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Grimaldi, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228–273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210–165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. PMID:27000526

  5. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6 mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale. PMID:26313991

  6. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance. PMID:26470374

  7. First evidence for (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence and sex chromosome post-reduction in Coleorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Grozeva, Snejana M.; Hartung, Viktor; Anokhin, Boris A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Telomeric repeats are general and significant structures of eukaryotic chromosomes. However, nothing is known about the molecular structure of telomeres in the enigmatic hemipteran suborder Coleorrhyncha (moss bugs) commonly considered as the sister group to the suborder Heteroptera (true bugs). The true bugs are known to differ from the rest of the Hemiptera in that they display an inverted sequence of sex chromosome divisions in male meiosis, the so-called sex chromosome post-reduction. To date, there has been no information about meiosis in Coleorrhyncha. Here we report a cytogenetic observation of Peloridium pomponorum, a representative of the single extant coleorrhynchan family Peloridiidae, using the standard chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a (TTAGG)n telomeric probe. We show that Peloridium pomponorum displays 2n = 31 (30A + X) in males, the classical insect (TTAGG)n telomere organization and sex chromosome post-reduction during spermatocyte meiosis. The plesiomorphic insect-type (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence is suggested to be preserved in Coleorrhyncha and in a basal heteropteran infraorder Nepomorpha, but absent (lost) in the advanced heteropteran lineages Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha. The telomere structure in other true bug infraorders is currently unknown. We consider here the inverted sequence of sex chromosome divisions as a synapomorphy of the group Coleorrhyncha + Heteroptera. PMID:26753072

  8. Revisão do gênero Umbonia Burmeister (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini Revision of the genus Umbonia Burmeister (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini

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    Antônio J Creão-Duarte

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen species of Umbonia are presented with descriptions, illustrations, and a key for Identification. The following nomenclatural changes are introduced: Umbonia articularia Buckton, 1901, sp. reval.; Umbonia pyramidalis Fairmaire, 1846, sp. reval.; Umbonia lativitta Walker, 1851, sp. reval. = U. erecta Goding, 1920, syn.n.; Umbonia crassicornis (Amyot & Serville, 1843 = U. ermanni Griffini, 1895, syn.n. = U octolineata Goding, 1930, syn.n.; Umbonia spinosa (Fabricius, 1775 = U. reducta Walker, 1851, syn.n. = U. terribilis Walker, 1858, syn.n. = U. rectispina Stål, 1869, syn.n. = U. immaculata Funkhouser, 1943, syn.n.. Umbonia struempeli sp.n. (from Brazil; Umbonia formosa sp.n. (from Bolivia and Umbonia richteri sp.n. (from Colombia.

  9. Revisão do gênero Tynelia Stål e descrição de um novo gênero correlato (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae Revision of the genus Tynelia Stål and description of a correlatcd newgenus (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

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    Antônio José Creão-Duarte

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Tynelia Stål, 1858 is revised and its limits redefined; two species are included: T. longula Burmeister, 1835 (= Boethoos nitida Funkhouser, 1922, Syn.n.and T. godoyae sp.n. (from Brazil, Pará. Neotynelia gen.n. (type species: Darnis pubescens Fabricius, 1803 is described and the following species are treated, as well as some nomenclatural changes introduced: Neotynelia pubescens (Fabricius, 1803 comb.n. (= Tragopa prominens Walker, 1858 Syn.n.;= Boethoos hirsuta Funkhouser, 1922 Syn.n.; = Boethoos cinctata Haviland, 1925, Syn.n.; Neotynelia vertebralis (Fairmaire, 1846 sp. reval., comb.n. (= Tragopa bilinea Walker, 1858 Syn.n.; = Boethoos brunnea Funkhouser, 1922 Syn.n.; Neotynelia distinguenda (Fowler, 1895, sp. reval., comb.n.; Neotynelia nigra (Funkhouser, 1940 comb.n. (= Tynelia flavodorsata Fonseca, 1941 Syn.n.; Neotynelia bandeirai sp.n., Neotynelia martinsi sp.n., and Neotynelia rafaeli sp.n. (all three new species from Brazil, Mato Grosso.

  10. Potential for classical biological control of the potato bug Closterotomus norwegicus (Hemiptera: Miridae): description, parasitism and host specificity of Peristenus closterotomae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, T; van Achterberg, C; Goulet, H; Barratt, B I P; Kuhlmann, U

    2006-08-01

    The potato bug, Closterotomus norwegicus (Gmelin) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an introduced pest of lucerne, white clover and lotus seed crops in New Zealand and a key pest of pistachios in California, USA. Efforts were made to identify potential biological control agents of C. norwegicus in Europe. A total of eight parasitoids, including six primary parasitoids from the genus Peristenus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and two hyperparasitoids from the genus Mesochorus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), were reared from C. norwegicus nymphs collected in various habitats in northern Germany. With a proportion of more than 85% of all C. norwegicus parasitoids, Peristenus closterotomae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new species, was the most dominant parasitoid, whereas other parasitoid species only occurred sporadically. Peristenus closterotomae did not fit in the keys to any described species and is described as new to science. Parasitism caused by P. closterotomae was on average 24% (maximum 77%). To assess the host specificity of parasitoids associated with C. norwegicus, the parasitoid complexes of various Miridae occurring simultaneously with C. norwegicus were studied. Peristenus closterotomae was frequently reared from Calocoris affinis (Herrich-Schaeffer), and a few specimens were reared from Calocoris roseomaculatus (De Geer) and the meadow plant bug, Leptopterna dolobrata (Linnaeus) (all Hemiptera: Miridae). The remaining primary parasitoids associated with C. norwegicus were found to be dominant in hosts other than C. norwegicus. Whether nymphal parasitoids may potentially be used in a classical biological control initiative against the potato bug in countries where it is introduced and considered to be a pest is discussed. PMID:16923210

  11. Predicting temporal shifts in the spring occurrence of overwintered Scotinophara lurida (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and rice phenology in Korea with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoseok; Kang, Wee Soo; Ahn, Mun Il; Cho, Kijong; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Climate change could shift the phenology of insects and plants and alter their linkage in space and time. We examined the synchrony of rice and its insect pest, Scotinophara lurida (Burmeister), under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario by comparing the mean spring immigration time of overwintered S. lurida with the mean rice transplanting times in Korea. The immigration time of S. lurida was estimated using an overwintered adult flight model. The rice transplanting time of three cultivars (early, medium, and medium-late maturing) was estimated by forecasting the optimal cultivation period using leaf appearance and final leaf number models. A temperature increase significantly advanced the 99 % immigration time of S. lurida from Julian day 192.1 in the 2000s to 178.4 in the 2050s and 163.1 in the 2090s. In contrast, rice transplanting time was significantly delayed in the early-maturing cultivar from day 141.2 in the 2000s to 166.7 in the 2050s and 190.6 in the 2090s, in the medium-maturing cultivar from day 130.6 in the 2000s to 156.6 in the 2050s and 184.7 in the 2090s, and in the medium-late maturing cultivar from day 128.5 in 2000s to 152.9 in the 2050s and 182.3 in the 2090s. These simulation results predict a significant future phenological asynchrony between S. lurida and rice in Korea.

  12. NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA A OVIPOSIÇÃO DE PERCEVEJO-DE- RENDA Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae POR CULTIVARES DE MANDIOCA

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    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a não preferência para a oviposição de Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae importante inseto com potencial de causar danos econômicos em cultivares de mandioca. Compararam-se as cultivares Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 e IAC 576, essas com potencial produtivo para a região sul de Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram realizados ensaios de preferência para oviposição, com o teste sem chance de escolha, em condições de semi-campo. Um casal adulto de V. illudens foi liberado nas folhas de mandioca das respectivas cultivares. Permitiu-se a alimentação e oviposição desses insetos por 72 horas. Avaliou-se o número de ovos/fêmea/folha, o número de excrementos/casal/folha e o índice de preferência para oviposição. A cultivar M Ecu 72 revelou-se altamente resistente ao percevejo-de-renda. Esse estudo evidenciou que há mecanismos de resistência a V. illudens em cultivares de mandioca, o que justifica a realização de novos estudos sobre essas cultivares em programas de seleção, visando o controle dessa praga e identificação de tais mecanismos.Non-Preference for Oviposition Cassava Lace Bug Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae by Cassava CultivarsThe aim of this study was to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae in cassava cultivars. The following cultivars were compared: Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 and IAC 576, preference tests for oviposition were conducted, with a choice test in semi-field conditions. An adult double V. illudens was released in the leaves of cassava of their cultivars. Allowed to feeding and oviposition of these insects for 72 hours. We evaluated the number of eggs / female / leaf, the number of droppings / couple / sheet and the preference index for oviposition. The cultivar M Ecu 72 demonstrated to be highly resistant to cassava lace bug. This study showed that there are

  13. Laboratory rearing technique of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Técnicas de criação, em latoratório, de Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae

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    José Francisco Garcia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of cercopids as pests in sugarcane and forage grass, researches have been conducted in order to address aspects related to the bioecology and control of these insects. The objective of this study was to develop a rearing technique for Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on sugarcane, in the laboratory (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; and 14-hour photophase. Adults were isolated in cylindrical cages containing one sugarcane plant, with a moistened cotton disc surrounding the base of the plant as a site for oviposition. Eggs were removed from the cotton disc by washing it in running water over sieves and maintained in Petri dishes on moistened filter paper until the nymphs hatched. The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their development and maintaining the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. This method allowed M. fimbriolata to be maintained in laboratory conditions throughout the year, which would certainly foster research on this insect.Devido à importância da cigarrinha como praga da cultura da cana-de-açúcar, diversos estudos tem sido conduzidos para elucidar aspectos relacionados à bioecologia e controle desses insetos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de desenvolver uma técnica de criação para Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae sobre cana-de-açúcar, em laboratório (25 ± 1ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Adultos foram isolados em gaiolas cilíndricas, com uma planta de cana-de-açúcar, contendo um disco de algodão úmido, envolto à base, como local de oviposição. Os ovos foram retirados mediante lavagem em água corrente sobre peneiras e mantidos em placas de Petri sobre papel filtro umedecido até a eclosão das ninfas. Logo após, as ninfas foram transferidas para raízes da planta e acondicionadas em caixa com tampa, para

  14. Danos qualitativos e quantitativos de Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae em mudas de Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae1 Qualitative and quantitative damage by Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Pinus taeda Linnaeus seedlings (Pinaceae

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    Scheila R. M. Zaleski

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O pulgão-gigante-do-pinus, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, é considerado atualmente uma das principais pragas dos reflorestamentos de pinus no Brasil. Como a informação sobre os danos causados por esta praga é restrita, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar e quantificar os danos de C. atlantica em Pinus taeda. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram testados três níveis de infestação com densidades populacionais de zero (testemunha protegida com inseticida 10 ± 2, 20 ± 2 e 50 ± 2 afídeos por muda de P. taeda com idades de 90 e 150 dias. As mudas atacadas apresentaram redução no desenvolvimento, entortamento do fuste, superbrotação e presença abundante de fumagina devido ao desenvolvimento de fungo sobre o honeydew eliminado pelos afídeos. O diâmetro do colo diminuiu significativamente em 16,1% na densidade de 50 ± 2 afídeos/planta, nas mudas com 90 dias, quando comparado à testemunha. Nas mudas com 150 dias não houve diferença significativa no diâmetro do colo entre as parcelas infestadas e a testemunha. Houve uma redução de 24,4% na altura das mudas de 90 dias com a densidade de 50 ± 2 afídeos e 32,6% nas mudas de 150 dias, com intensidade de 20 ± 2 afídeos.The giant conifer aphid, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, is one of the main insect pests on pine reforestation areas in Southern Brazil, nowadays. Since there is very few information about its damage, the objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the damage of C. atlantica on Pinus taeda. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, using a random design, with three infestation levels: 0 (control, 10 ± 2, 20 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 aphids on each P. taeda seedling of 90 and 150 days old, with 20 replicates/treatment. The main damage observed were stunting, twisting, oversprouting and large amount of sooty mold on honeydew

  15. Aspectos biológicos, morfológicos e comportamentais de Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Biological, morphological and behavioral aspects of Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae

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    Kelly Cristina Gonçales Rocha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os aspectos biológicos, morfológicos e comportamentais de uma linhagem unipariental de Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, sob condições controladas (25±1oC, 70±10% de UR e 12 horas de fotofase, tendo abóboras híbridas "cabotiá" como hospedeiro. Ninfas recém-eclodidas foram transferidas da criação massal para abóboras "cabotiá", devidamente higienizadas, dispostas em câmaras climatizadas. O período médio para fixação das ninfas móveis foi de 2,4±0,33 horas. A duração média do 1° e 2° estádios, após a fixação das ninfas, foi de 8,3±0,06 e 19,4±0,11 dias, respectivamente, totalizando fase ninfal média de 27,9±0,11 dias. Das ninfas que atingiram a fase adulta, 36 fêmeas foram acompanhadas diariamente até o final do ciclo. A duração média dos períodos pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo foi de 17,3±0,18 e 68,2±4,33 dias, respectivamente. O número total médio de ninfas/fêmea foi 175,5±10,29 e o número médio de ninfas/fêmea/dia foi 2,7±0,11. A longevidade média das fêmeas foi 100,5±4,51 dias.The objective of this work was to study the biology, morphology and behavior of Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae under controlled conditions (25±1°C, 70±10% R.H. and 12 hours of photophase, using "cabotiá" cucumber pumpkins as hosts. Nymphs of the 1st stage obtained of mass rearing (mother culture were transfered to "cabotiá" pumpkins, properly cleaned and disposed in acclimatized cameras. The medium period for fixation of the nymphs was of 2.4±0.33 hours. The 1st and 2nd stages, after the fixation of the nymphs, lasted 8.3±0.06 and 19.4±0.11 days, respectively, totalizing a nymphal phase of 27.9±0.11 days. 36 females were observed daily until the end of the cycle. The pre-reproductive and reproductive periods lasted 17.3±0.18 and 68.2±4.33 days, respectively. The medium total number of nymphs/female was 175.5±10

  16. Phytophagy on eucalyptus plants increases the development and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae = Fitofagia em plantas de eucaliptos aumenta o desenvolvimento e a reprodução do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

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    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant feeding on biological aspects of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was evaluated. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae on Eucalyptus urophylla plants inthe field or only with pupae of this prey in the laboratory. The development and nymphal survival, as well as the pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number, fertility and viability of eggs and the longevity of females of this predator were evaluated. The eucalyptus plants improved the development of P. nigrispinus. This demonstrates that this predator can present higher population growth with eucalyptus plants and T. molitor pupae than in the laboratory (controlled conditions only with this prey. These plants can supply nutrients that can the population growth and efficiency of P. nigrispinus for biological control in eucalyptus plantations.O efeito da alimentação em plantas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae foi avaliado. Ninfas e adultos desse predador foram alimentados com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleotpera: Tenebrionidae em plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla no campo ou, apenas, em laboratório. O desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência ninfal desse predador, além do período de pré-oviposição, número de posturas, viabilidade dos ovos e afertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas foram avaliados. A planta de eucalipto proporcionou um incremento no desenvolvimento de P. nigrispinus. Isto demonstra que esse predador pode apresentar maior crescimento populacional com plantas de eucalipto e pupas de T. molitor alimentado com apenas a presa (condições controladas. A planta pode fornecer nutrientes que aumentam o crescimento populacional e a eficiência de P. nigrispinus para o controle biológico em plantios de eucalipto.

  17. Threecornered alfalfa hopper (Hemiptera: Membracidae): seasonal occurrence, girdle distribution, and response to insecticide treatment on peanut in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khalidur; Bridges, William C; Chapin, Jay W; Thomas, James S

    2007-08-01

    A survey of threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say) (Hemiptera: Membracidae), damage in 60 South Carolina peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., fields showed that 89 and 58% of plants had feeding girdles during 2003 and 2004, respectively. Use of a foliar insecticide for other target pests reduced hopper damage. Hopper damage was not affected by sampling distance from the field edge; therefore, injury was adequately assessed at 10 m from field borders. In-furrow insecticide choice, planting date, soil texture, previous crop, or tillage did not measurably affect girdling. Subsequent field experiments demonstrated a cultivar effect on threecornered alfalfa hopper injury, with the standard runner-type cultivar ('Georgia Green') more susceptible than the standard Virginia-type ('NC-V11'). More than 50% of stem girdling occurred on the basal quarter (first five internodes) of the plant. Most feeding occurred on secondary branches of main and lateral stems. Weekly sampling of seven grower fields showed that adult hoppers colonize peanut during June and produce two generations on peanut. Only low levels of plant girding were observed in June, but plant girdling increased gradually through late July, when girdling markedly increased contemporary with peak populations of first generation nymphs and adults. A second increase in plant girdling, observed in early September, coincided with the second generation of nymphs on peanut. Foliar treatments at 45- 60 d after planting (DAP) were most effective in suppressing injury. Granular chlorpyrifos treatment also suppressed hopper injury. There was no yield response to insecticide treatments at the hopper injury levels in these tests (up to six girdles per plant). Although the economic injury level (EIL) for this pest has not been defined, our data indicate that a critical interval for monitoring hopper activity is the first 3 wk of July, before the occurrence of significant injury. Where growers have a consistent risk of

  18. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively Ro= 205.38 and 164.08 females; rm= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; λ= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  19. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides. PMID:26470216

  20. Risk assessment of selected insecticides on Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Trizoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Peng, Li-Nian; Rojas, Patricia; Trumble, John T

    2012-04-01

    Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an important parasitoid of the potato or tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Trizoidae), a serious pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and other solanaceous vegetables in many countries. To produce a marketable crop, insecticides are required when B. cockerelli populations reach economically damaging levels. We evaluated 11 commonly used insecticides for their effects on T. triozae. Glass-surface residues of spinetoram, imidacloprid-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and tolfenpyrad caused 100% mortality of T. triozae in 72 h, and the leaf residue of spinetoram was extremely toxic to T. triozae adults; even 15-d-old residues caused 100% mortality. Cyantraniliprole, fenpyroximate, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, and chenopodium oil did not cause significant mortality in either glass surface or leaf-residue bioassays. Ingestion of spinetoram, abamectin, and imidacloprid+cyfluthrin (Leverage) by the adults resulted in 100% mortality in 12 h, and tolfenpyrad, 75.0% mortality in 12 h; whereas chenopodium oil and pymetrozine showed moderate effects on adult survival. Ingestion of abamectin, imidacloprid-cyfluthrin, and spinetoram killed all adults in the first day of treatment, whereas female adults in the treatment of pymetrozine lived 80.8 d, which was similar to those in the control. Ingestion of abamectin, imidacloprid-cyfluthrin, chenopodium oil, and spinetoram killed all male adults in the first day, whereas ingestion of other insecticides did not cause significant mortality, but reduced percent parasitism. Abamectin, imidacloprid-cyfluthrin, and spinetoram had the most deleterious effects on T. triozae, and have the least potential for use in integrated control programs using this parasitoid. PMID:22606819

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the stalk-eyed bug Chauliops fallax Scott, and the monophyly of Malcidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Li

    Full Text Available Chauliops fallax Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Malcidae: Chauliopinae is one of the most destructive insect pests of soybean and rice fields in Asia. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,739 bp long, with an A+T content of 73.7%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a control region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Heteroptera. A remarkable strand bias was found for all nine protein coding genes (PCGs encoded by the majority strand were positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew, whereas the reverse were found in the remaining four PCGs encoded by the minority strand and two rRNA genes. The models of secondary structures for the two rRNA genes of sequenced true bugs and Lygaeoidea were predicted. 16S rRNA consisted of six domains (domain III is absent as in other known arthropod mitochondrial genomes and 45 helices, while three domains and 27 helices for 12S rRNA. The control region consists of five subregions: a microsatellite-like region, a tandem repeats region and other three motifs. The unusual intergenic spacer between tRNA-H and ND4 only found in the species of Lygaeoidea, not in other heteropteran species, may be the synapomorphy of this superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on all the 13 PCGs showed that Chauliopinae was the sister group of Malcinae and the monophyly of Lygaeoidea.

  2. The Effect of an Interspersed Refuge on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Their Natural Enemies, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2016-02-01

    Soybean production in the north central United States has relied heavily on the use of foliar and seed applied insecticides to manage Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae). An additional management strategy is the use soybean cultivars containing A. glycines resistance genes (Rag). Previous research has demonstrated that Rag cultivars are capable of preventing yield loss equivalent to the use of foliar and seed-applied insecticides.However, the presence of virulent biotypes in North America has raised concern for the durability of Rag genes. A resistance management program that includes a refuge for avirulent biotypes could limit the frequency at which virulent biotypes increase within North America. To what extent such a refuge reduces the effectiveness of aphid-resistant soybean is not clear. We conducted an experiment to determine whether a susceptible refuge mixed into resistant soybean (i.e., interspersed refuge or refuge-in-a-bag) affects the seasonal exposure of aphids, their natural enemies, biological control, and yield protection provided by aphid resistance. We compared three ratios of interspersed refuges (resistant: susceptible; 95:5, 90:10, 75:25) to plots grown with 100%susceptible or resistant soybean. We determined that an interspersed refuge of at least 25% susceptible seed would be necessary to effectively produce avirulent individuals. Interspersed refuges had negligible effects onyield and the natural enemy community. However, there was evidence that they increased the amount of biological control that occurred within a plot. We discuss the compatibility of interspersed refuges for A. glycines management and whether resistance management can prolong the durability of Rag genes. PMID:26476557

  3. Lethal and Inhibitory Activities of Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanela, T L M; Baldin, E L L; Pannuti, L E R; Cruz, P L; Crotti, A E M; Takeara, R; Kato, M J

    2016-04-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most severe tomato pests in the world. The damage caused by this insect may compromise up to 100% of crop production, and management of this pest has relied on spraying of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the environmental issues associated with this practice, alternative methods such as the use of botanical pesticides are now used as a strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated the effects of essential oils of five plant species on B. tabaci biotype B in tomato and demonstrate that the essential oils (0.5%) of Piper callosum (PC-EO), Adenocalymma alliaceum (AA-EO), Pelargonium graveolens (PG-EO), and Plectranthus neochilus (PN-EO) inhibit the settlement and oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B adults in tomato plants. In fumigation tests, A. alliaceum (AA-EO) at 0.4 μL/L of air after 72 h and 0.1 μL/L of air after 6 h was the most effective against nymphs and adults of B. tabaci biotype B, respectively. The major chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified as being safrole (29.3%), α-pinene (19.2%), and β-pinene (14.3%), whereas diallyl trisulfide (66.9%) and diallyl disulfide (23.3%) were the major compounds identified in AA-EO. This is the first report on the reduction of oviposition by the use of P. callosum (PC-EO) and A. alliaceum (AA-EO). In addition, the fumigant effect of A. alliaceum (AA-EO) on nymphs and adults has also been reported here for the first time. PMID:26712319

  4. Transgenic Cotton-Fed Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Affects the Parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, R; Rossi, G D; Busoli, A C

    2016-02-01

    Cotton cultivars expressing Cry proteins are widely used to control lepidopteran pests. The effects of transgenic plants containing insecticidal Cry proteins on non-target species must be comprehended for a better and rational use of this technology for pest management. We investigated the influence of the Bt cotton cultivars NuOPAL and FM 975 on biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a non-target pest of Bt cotton cultivars and on its parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The experiments were conducted in a climatized room, and the non-transgenic near isolines were used for rearing whiteflies as control hosts. The effects of the Bt cotton cultivars on the period of embryonic and larval development and the percentage of adult emergence of B. tabaci were assessed. The period required for embryonic, larval, and pupal development and the percentage of emergence and longevity of E. desantisi females were determined using Bt cotton-fed and non-Bt cotton-fed B. tabaci as hosts. Both Bt cotton cultivars resulted in a decrease of approximately 20% of adult emergence of B. tabaci. Differently, an increase of approximately 10% of adult emergence of E. desantisi was observed for parasitoids that used hosts fed with both Bt cotton cultivars. However, female parasitoid longevity decreased when their hosts were fed on Bt cotton cultivars. Our data suggest that the use of Bt cotton cultivars in association with the biological control agent E. desantisi could be functional for the management of B. tabaci in Bt cotton crops. PMID:26431703

  5. Evaluation of six different groups of insecticides for the control of citrus psylla Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

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    Rakhmin Gul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the efficacy of different insecticides against citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae were carried out at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Six insecticides viz. Actara 25 WG, (thiamethoxam Cascade 10 DC (Flufenoxuron, Match 050 EC (lufenuron, Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan, Karate 2.5 EC (α-cyhalothrin, and Supracide 40 EC (methidathion, were tested for their effectiveness against D. citri. After first spray overall mean population of D. citri was 3.63, 4.75, 5.59, 6.66, 7.47, 8.11 per six inches tender shoot on Actara 25 WG, Cascade 10 DC, Match 050 EC, Thiodan 35 EC, Karate 2.5 EC and Supracide 40 EC treated plants respectively, while on control plants the population was 12.39. Similarly, after the second spray of each of the same insecticides the population of D. citri was 2.65, 4.23, 5.61, 6.41, 7.35 and 8.73 respectively. Where in controls there were 15.18 psyllids. Percent decrease of D. citri population in comparison to control after the first spray was highest in Actara 25 WG (72.20 followed by Cascade 10 DC (62.91, Match 050 EC (54.07, Thiodan 35 EC (47.61, Karate 2.5 EC (38.94 and Supracide 40 EC (35.74. After the second spray percent decrease over control recorded was highest in Actara 25 WG (83.54, followed by Cascade 10 DC (71.08, Match 050 EC (63.94, Thiodan 35 EC (60.79, Karate 2.5 EC (52.52 and Supracide 40 EC (45.62.

  6. Morphological differences among egg nests and adult individuals of Cicadatra persica (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, distributed in Erneh, Syria

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    Marah Dardar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the different patterns of egg nests and the morphological differences between the specimens of Cicadatra persica Kirkalidy, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae distributed in fruit orchards in Erneh located on AL-Sheikh mountain southwest of Syria. The appearance of 80 egg nests was studied, and the results showed that there were two basic patterns of egg nests laid by C. persica, 90% of the egg nests were of the first pattern (consists of several adjacent slits, while 10% of them were of the second pattern (consists of several divergent slits. A random sample consisting of 300 specimens (150 males and 150 females were also studied concentrating on the differences in the color of the supra-antennal plate and in the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. The results showed that there were two basic patterns of individuals based on the differences in the color of supra-antennal plate. The first pattern (individuals with yellow supra-antennal plates, constituted more than 90%, and the second one (individuals with black supra-antennal plates constituted less than 10%. The results also showed that there were 27 different patterns based on the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. One of them was a common pattern (2, 3 whose individuals have 2 spurs on the upper side of the tibia of the hind legs and 3 spurs on the lateral side of the tibia of the hind legs. The total percent of this common pattern was 76%. The other 26 patterns were different from each other, and the total percent of all these different patterns was 24%.

  7. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea V. Andorno; Silvia N. López; Eduardo N. Botto

    2007-01-01

    Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae) se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday,...

  8. Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz; Sonia Maria Noemberg Lazzari; Regina Célia Zonta-de-Carvalho; Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira; Lindáurea Alves de Souza

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini). Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867). Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study ...

  9. Differences in Stylet Sheath Occurrence and the Fibrous Ring (Sclerenchyma) between xCitroncirus Plants Relatively Resistant or Susceptible to Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Richardson, Matthew L.; Abdo, Zaid; David G Hall; Shatters, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (UN-3881) or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459) to ACP adul...

  10. Report of new invasive scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Monophlebidae) and Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Pseudococcidae), on the islands of San Andres and Providencia, Colombia, with an updated taxonomic key to iceryine scale insects of South America

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Takusama; Gullan, Penny; Ramos Portilla, Andrea Amalia

    2013-01-01

    The multicicatrices fluted scale, Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae) is reported from the islands of San Andres and Providencia, Colombia, as a recent invasive species. This scale insect is polyphagous, and attacks numerous plants of economic importance such as avocado, breadfruit, mango, papaya and tropical ornamental plants. A compiled list of 95 host plant species of C. multicicatrices is given. A diagnosis of the adult female of C. multicicat...

  11. Factors affecting the biological control of California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) by Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in eastern Spain citrus: host size, ant activity, and adult parasitoid food sources

    OpenAIRE

    PEKAS, APOSTOLOS

    2011-01-01

    California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), one of the most important pests of citrus worldwide, began to cause damages in eastern Spain in 1986. The main biological control agents of A. aurantii in this zone are the native parasitoid A. chrysomphali (Mercet) and the introduced A. melinus DeBach (both Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Nevertheless, the control they exert is insufficient. In order to improve the biological control of A. aurantii we studied seve...

  12. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

    OpenAIRE

    Ezio Santos Pinto; Eduardo Moreira Barros; Jorge Braz Torres; Robério Carlos dos Santos Neves

    2012-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products...

  13. The jumping plant-louse Diaphorina teucrii sp. nov. (Hemiptera, Liviidae) associated with Teucrium (Lamiaceae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia dorchinae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from the Negev desert, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Daniel; Yefremova, Zoya; Yegorenkova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Adults and immatures of Diaphorina teucrii sp. nov. (Hemiptera, Liviidae, Euphyllurinae) and adults of Tamarixia dorchinae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae) from Israel are described, diagnosed and illustrated. D. teucrii sp. nov. develops on Teucrium capitatum (Lamiaceae), representing a family which was previously not recorded as a psyllid host from Israel, and is parasitised by Tamarixia dorchinae sp. nov. Identification keys are provided for the Diaphorina and Tamarixia species occurring in Israel. PMID:25781261

  14. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and

  15. Primer registro de Conidiobolus coronatus (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales en crías experimentales de dos especies plaga del maíz: Delphacodes kuscheli y D. haywardi (Hemiptera: Delphacidae en la Argentina First record of Conidiobolus coronatus (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in experimental breeding of two pest species of corn: Delphacodes kuscheli and D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Toledo

    Full Text Available Se investigó la ocurrencia natural del hongo entomopatógeno Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales en adultos de Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah y D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, criados sobre Hordeum vulgare L. bajo condiciones de invernadero. Los insectos muertos, por una sospechada infección fúngica, fueron recolectados, esterilizados superficialmente, y examinados en el laboratorio. Conidiobolus coronatus fue aislado en cultivos puros, descrito morfológicamente y depositado en colecciones micológicas. Este trabajo presenta el primer registro de C. coronatus contra insectos perjudiciales en la Argentina.The natural occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah and D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, reared on Hordeum vulgare L. under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. Dead insects, suspected of fungal infection, were collected, surface sterilized, and examined in the laboratory. Conidiobolus coronatus was isolated in pure cultures, described morphologically, and deposited in mycological collections. This paper presents the first record of C. coronatus against harmful insects in Argentina.

  16. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Andorno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.Ten aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae were found parasitized by seven aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops. Myzus persicae (Sulzer was the most frequent aphid found on a wide variety of crops, with the largest parasitoid diversity associated. Aphidius colemani Viereck was the most frequent aphidiine attacking several species of aphids. Eight tritrophic associations involving Aphidius matricariae Haliday are reported for the first time for Argentina.

  17. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  18. Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

  19. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  20. A study of the super-abundant Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in cassava Mosaic disease pandemic areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajebe, Lensa Sefera

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex comprising at least 35 morphologically indistinguishable species that exhibit high genetic variation. B. tabaci is the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) causing cassava mosaic disease (CMD) to cassava...... and forcing some farmers to abandon the cultivation of the crop. The severe CMD pandemic is mainly characterized by high severity and incidence of the disease dominated by whitefly-borne infection and super-abundant populations of B. tabaci. All Bemisia tabaci individuals harbour a primary bacterial symbiont...... (Portiera aleyrodidarum) essential for their survival, and many also harbour non-essential secondary symbionts. In an attempt to understand the cause of the super-abundant populations, it was suggested that a distinct genotype cluster is associated with the pandemic, however, there was no definitive proof...

  1. Tip of the clade on the top of the World—the first fossil Lophopidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from the Palaeocene of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Stroiński, Adam; Lin, Qibin

    2015-06-01

    Lophopidae is a family of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) present today in tropical and subtropical zones of the Old World. The most recent taxonomic studies and phylogeny of these insects do not include the extinct representatives. Therefore, each new discovery of a fossil lophopid is of high interest, giving new insights to their evolutionary history and enabling to test the proposed relationships. The recent findings of extinct Lophopidae in Europe, in various Palaeogene deposits, put in doubts their proposed evolutionary and biogeographic scenario. The new fossil from the Palaeocene of Northern Tibet is related to one of the Lophopidae clades, Apia+ group, believed to be the most advanced one, and recently distributed in the recent Sundaland-New Guinea-Queensland area. A new genus and species Gesaris gnapo gen. et sp. n. provide information on early lophopids diversity and relationships and demonstrates the necessity for a revision of the existing hypotheses for the initial diversification and distributional pattern of the Lophopidae.

  2. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies. PMID:24763094

  3. The A2'N mutation of the RDL gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor conferring fipronil resistance in Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Kawase, Ayumi; Kinoshita, Ayako; Abe, Reiko; Hama, Masako; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2011-04-01

    The planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a serious insect pest of rice, Oryza sativa L., and has developed resistance to fipronil in Japan. Sequence analysis of L. striatellus RDL gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit (LS-RDL) genes from a fipronil-resistant population and a fipronil-susceptible strain identified the A2'N mutation (index number for M2 membrane-spanning region), that was previously implicated in fipronil resistance in the planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Nineteen of 21 fipronil-resistant L. striatellus individuals were genotyped as heterozygous for the A2'N mutation, suggesting that this mutation is associated with fipronil resistance and that most fipronil-resistant L. striatellus express wild-type and A2'N mutant LS-RDL simultaneously. To confirm the role of the A2'N mutation of LS-RDL, Drosophila Mel-2 cells were transfected with wild-type and A2'N mutant LS-RDL genes, either individually or together. A membrane potential assay showed that fipronil had no inhibitory effect at 10 microM on cells transfected with the A2'N mutant LS-RDL gene with or without the wild-type LS-RDL gene. By contrast, the IC50 value of fipronil for wild-type LS-RDL homomers was 14 nM. These results suggest that the A2'N mutation of the RDL GABA receptor subunit confers fipronil resistance in L. striatellus as well as S. furcifera. PMID:21510217

  4. Development and consumption capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae fed with Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae under three temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane T. Cardoso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae are pests on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. In order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. Ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars, maintained at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% RH, and observed daily. The egg incubation period was nine days at 20ºC and four days at 25ºC. The mean larval development period for C. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC. The pupal stage last 23.2 at 20ºC and 11.1 days at 25ºC. Unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15ºC are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. The mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. The average aphid consumption of each C. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. About 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. Although the development was faster and viability higher at 25ºC than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15ºC because the larval period was much longer. Therefore, the larvae of C. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of Cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of Southern Brazil during some periods o the year.

  5. Preference black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae, to genotypes of cowpea = Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae, a genótipos de feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being attacked by various insects, among these, the black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preference of black aphid, to different cowpea genotypes. Two experiments were conducted in cages (3.0 x 1.6 x 2.0 m, with free choice and no-choice, a randomized block and completely randomized design, respectively, with four replications. The experimental unit consisted of one plant per plastic pot. The followed 15 cowpea genotypes were evaluated in the study: BRS Guariba, Pretinho Precoce 1, Apiaú, Sempre Verde, Cara-preta, BRS Mazagão, BRS Cauamé, BR 17 Gurguéia, Iracema, BRS Aracê, BRS Itaim, BRS Xiquexique, BRS Marataoã, BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Juruá. In the free-choice test, a potted plant infested with aphids was placed in the center of the cage with 15 pots of each genotype randomly distributed in a circle. After 24, 48 and 96 h were counted the number of adults and nymphs per plant. In the no-choice test, five females adult were placed in plants trapped in cages attached to the plants, being counted after 96 h, the number of live and dead females, and the number of nymphs. Cowpea genotypes BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba e BRS Aracê showed feeding non-preference resistance and negatively interfere with the nymph’s production per female of A. craccivora. The genotypes Apiaú, BR 17 Gurguéia e BRS Mazagão are succeptible to A. craccivora. = O feijão-caupi está amplamente distribuído nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo, sendo atacado por diversos insetos, dentre esses, o pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a preferência de pulgão-preto a genótipos de feijão-caupi a partir de testes com e sem chance de escolha. Foram realizados experimentos em gaiolas (3,0 x 1,6 x 2,0 m, com e sem chance de escolha, utilizando delineamento

  6. Changes in nuclear phenotypes following cold shock in Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister)

    OpenAIRE

    Simone L Garcia; Maria Luiza S Mello; Garcia, Nancy L.; Vera Lúcia CC Rodrigues

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of 5th instar male nymphs of the blood-sucking insect Panstrongylus megistus were studied immediately after a short (1 h) cold shock at 0ºC, and 10 and 30 days later. The objective was to compare the responses to a cold shock with those known to occur after hyperthermia in order to provide insight into the cellular effect of cold in this species. Nuclei which usually exhibited a conspicuous Y chromosome chromocenter were the most fr...

  7. Changes in nuclear phenotypes following cold shock in Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone L Garcia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of 5th instar male nymphs of the blood-sucking insect Panstrongylus megistus were studied immediately after a short (1 h cold shock at 0ºC, and 10 and 30 days later. The objective was to compare the responses to a cold shock with those known to occur after hyperthermia in order to provide insight into the cellular effect of cold in this species. Nuclei which usually exhibited a conspicuous Y chromosome chromocenter were the most frequent phenotype in control and treated specimens. Phenotypes in which the heterochromatin was unravelled, or in which there was nuclear fusion or cell death were more abundant in the shocked specimens. Most of the changes detected have also been found in heat-shocked nymphs, except for nuclear fusion which generates giant nuclei and which appeared to be less effective or necessary than that elicited after heat shock. Since other studies showed that a short cold shock does not affect the survival of more than 14% of 5th instar nymphs of P. megistus with domestic habit and can induce tolerance to a prolonged cold shock, heat shock proteins proteins are probably the best candidates for effective protection of the cells and the insects from drastic damage caused by low temperature shocks.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Paysandisia archon (Burmeister)

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

    2014-01-01

    The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Paysandisia archon for the European Union territory. P. archon is a well-defined pest species attacking many palm species. It is currently present in several southern European Member States (Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Slovenia and Spain). Malta and Portugal are considered to be very important areas for further spread of the pest. The pest is listed in Annex IIAII of Council Directive 2000/29/EC and special requirements ...

  9. Analysis of the genetic diversity in Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae by RAPD markers Análise da diversidade genética de Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae por meio de marcadores RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lopes-da-Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of host-races within aphids may constitute an obstacle to pest management by means of plant resistance. There are examples of host-races within cereals aphids, but their occurrence in Rose Grain Aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849, has not been reported yet. In this work, RAPD markers were used to assess effects of the hosts and geographic distance on the genetic diversity of M. dirhodum lineages. Twenty-three clones were collected on oats and wheat in twelve localitites of southern Brazil. From twenty-seven primers tested, only four primers showed polymorphisms. Fourteen different genotypes were revealed by cluster analysis. Five genotypes were collected only on wheat; seven only on oats and two were collected in both hosts. Genetic and geographical distances among all clonal lineages were not correlated. Analysis of molecular variance showed that some molecular markers are not randomly distributed among clonal lineages collected on oats and on wheat. These results suggest the existence of host-races within M. dirhodum, which should be further investigated using a combination of ecological and genetic data.A emergência de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos pode constituir um obstáculo ao manejo de pragas por meio de plantas resistentes. Existem exemplos de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos de cereais, embora a ocorrência de raça hospedeiro-especialista no pulgão-verde-pálido-do-trigo Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849 (Hemiptera, Aphididae não tenha sido relatada ainda. Marcadores RAPD foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos da distância geográfica e do hospedeiro sobre a diversidade genética de linhas clonais de M. dirhodum. Vinte e três clones foram coletados em aveia e trigo em doze localidades do sul do Brasil. De vinte e sete iniciadores usados para a análise, apenas quatro iniciadores mostraram polimorfismos. A análise de agrupamento por similaridade genética revelou haver quatorze

  10. Avaliação de substratos de oviposição para Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae Evaluation of oviposition substrates for Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia M. Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliação de substratos de oviposição para Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae. Fêmeas do predador O. insidiosus usam tecidos de plantas para colocação de seus ovos, o que caracteriza a oviposição endofítica. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar diferentes substratos de oviposição para este predador. O estudo foi conduzido em sala climatizada a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Os substratos de oviposição utilizados foram brotos de feijão (Phaselus vulgaris L., brotos de soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], brotos de batata (Solanum tuberosum L., vagem de feijão (Phaselus vulgaris L. e inflorescências de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Foram avaliados os números médio diário e total de ovos por um período de 15 dias, o número de adultos vivos em cada recipiente e a viabilidade na produção dos adultos. Todos os substratos testados foram aceitos pelas fêmeas. Entretanto, foi observado um número significativamente maior de ovos de O. insidiosus em brotos de feijão (4,3 ovos por dia e brotos de soja (3,9 ovos por dia, comparado aos demais substratos avaliados. As menores (pFemales of O. insidiosus deposit their eggs in the plant tissue. This study aimed to evaluate oviposition substrates for this predator. The study was conducted in an air-conditioned room at 25 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12 h photophase. The oviposition substrates used consisted of bean sprouts (Phaseolus vulgaris L., soybean sprouts [Glycine max (L. Merr.], potato sprouts (Solanum tuberosum L., bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris L., and farmer's friend inflorescences (Bidens pilosa L.. Evaluations included the daily mean and total numbers of eggs per female during a 15-day period, the number of live adults in each container, and adult production viability. All substrates tested were accepted by the females. However, a significantly higher number of O. insidiosus eggs was found on bean sprouts (4.3 eggs per day and soybean sprouts (3

  11. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

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    Jailson F. B. Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV, a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus.

  12. An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae

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    Karla N. Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei is one the greatest threats to eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The effects of rainfall to reduce the abundance of lerp of Glycaspis brimblecombei on experimentally infested seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were assessed. The number of lerps on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of every leaf of 60 seedlings was recorded, before and after submission to the following treatments: "artificial rain", "leaf wetting" and control. A drastic reduction in lerp abundance per plant was observed after the treatments "leaf wetting" and artificial rain (F = 53.630; p Teste experimental da chuva como agente de controle de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei é uma das maiores ameaças das plantações de eucalipto do Brasil. Foram avaliados os efeitos da água na redução da abundância de conchas desse inseto em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis infestadas experimentalmente. Foi quantificado o número de conchas nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de todas as folhas de 60 mudas, antes e após a aplicação dos seguintes tratamentos: "chuva artificial", "molhamento das folhas" e controle. Foi observada uma drástica redução na abundância de conchas nos tratamentos "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" (F = 53,630; p < 0,001, o que não ocorreu para o tratamento controle ao longo do experimento (F = 1,450; p = 0,232. Ao final do experimento, a abundância de conchas foi significativamente menor no tratamento "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" do que no tratamento controle. Dessa forma, dois dias de chuva mostraram ser eficientes para diminuir mais que 50% da população de conchas, com quase 100% de eficiência após 5 dias de experimento. Nossos resultados

  13. Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae, a parasite of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae on the Oregon coast

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    Poinar George O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is rare to find terrestrial nematode lineages parasitizing arthropods inhabiting the intertidal or littoral zone of the oceans. During an ecological study along the Oregon dunes, an allantonematid nematode (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae was discovered parasitizing the intertidal shore bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae. This shore bug is adapted to an intertidal environment and can survive short periods of submergence during high tides. The present study describes the nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development, ecology and evolution. Methods Adults and last instar nymphs of S. laticollis (Hemiptera: Saldidae were collected from the high intertidal zone among clumps of Juncus L. (Juncaceae plants at Waldport, Oregon on October 3, 2011. The bugs were dissected in 1% saline solution and the nematodes killed in 1% Ringers solution and immediately fixed in 5% formalin (at 20°C. Third stage juveniles removed from infected hosts were maintained in 1% saline solution until they matured to the adult stage, molted and mated. Results Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae is described from last instar nymphs and adults of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis on the Oregon coast. The new genus can be distinguished from other genera in the Allantonematidae by a stylet lacking basal knobs in both sexes, an excretory pore located behind the nerve ring, ribbed spicules, a gubernaculum, the absence of a bursa and the elongate-tubular shape of the ovoviviparous parasitic females. Studies of the organogenesis of Halophilanema showed development to third stage juveniles in the uterus of parasitic females. Maturation to the free-living adults and mating occurred in the environment. The incidence of infection of S. laticollis ranged from 0% to 85% depending on the microhabitat in the intertidal zone. Conclusions Based on the habitat and morphological characters, it is proposed

  14. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  15. Biologia de Imaturos e Adultos de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Alimentados com Lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), criadas em Diferentes Genótipos de Maracujazeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Angelini; Arlindo Boiça Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Resumo. Estudou-se o efeito da alimentação com lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), criadas em diferentes genótipos de maracujazeiro: Passiflora edulis Sims., Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. (Seleção de Jaboticabal), P. edulis f. flavicarpa (cv. Sul Brasil) e P. edulis f. flavicarpa (cv. Maguary FB-100), Passiflora alata Dryand, Passiflora serrato-digitata Linn. e Passiflora foetida Linn. sobre imaturos e adultos de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera...

  16. Determinación de la capacidad de transmisión de fitoplasmas en dos morfoespecies de la familia Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorryncha) de Bogotá D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Perilla Henao, Laura Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Los fitoplasmas son bacterias fitopatógenas que carecen de pared celular, especializadas en la colonización intracelular del floema de plantas, son transmitidos por insectos vectores del suborden Auchenorryncha (Hemiptera) y están entre los seres vivos con menor tamaño. Los fitoplasmas forman un grupo monofilético en la clase Mollicutes que causan alteraciones morfológicas y fisiológicas en plantas ornamentales, hortícolas, maderables, frutales y cultivos en todo el mundo. No existen métodos...

  17. Caracterización in silico de las proteínas del choque térmico Hsp70 y Hsp90 deBemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) y su posible actividad adaptativa

    OpenAIRE

    Eneida Torres Cabra; Javier Hernández-Fernández

    2014-01-01

    La mosca blanca, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) es una de las plagas más destructivas e invasivas en el mundo, ataca una gran cantidad de cultivos. Se adapta fácilmente a plantas hospederas y a nuevas regiones geográficas, lo que sugiere el desarrollo de mecanismos de control a daños producidos por factores estresantes. Las proteínas Hsp se expresanen los organismos como mecanismo de defensa, actúan como chaperonas en el correcto ensamblaje de las proteínas. En este estudio se realiz...

  18. Implicaciones de Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) en la mejora del control biológico de Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en el cultivo de pimiento en invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Robles, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    [ESP] La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) es una plaga clave en pimiento para cuyo control se han empleado tradicionalmente agentes de control químico, dejando otras técnicas como el control biológico en un segundo plano. Sin embargo, la disminución en los últimos años del número de agentes de control químico que pueden ser empleados frente a esta y otras plagas ha despertado el interés por otras medidas de control, en especial por el control biológico. Para el c...

  19. Traps and trap placement may affect location of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and increase injury to tomato fruits in home gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Chris; Martinson, Holly M; Raupp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of field crops, fruit orchards, commercial vegetables, ornamental plants, and home vegetable gardens. Pheromone-baited traps designed to attract, trap, and kill H. halys are marketed for use in home gardens to reduce damage to plants. To test this assertion, we conducted the following experiment: One group of 15 gardeners placed stink bug traps at the end of a row of tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), in their vegetable garden and another group of 14 placed no traps in their garden and served as controls. Gardeners with traps were no more or less likely to have H. halys on tomato plants than those without traps, but the abundance of H. halys on tomato fruits was marginally greater in gardens with traps. However, tomato fruits grown in gardens with traps sustained significantly more injury than tomato fruits grown in gardens without traps. Furthermore, tomato fruits on plants near the trap housed more H. halys than tomato fruits on plants at the end of a row away from the trap. Traps may be useful in identifying gardens where H. halys is likely to be found and ones in which stink bug injury to tomatoes is likely. We found no evidence that stink bug traps protected tomatoes from H. halys, and it appears that the addition of traps to gardens may increase injury to tomato fruits. PMID:24517877

  20. Eficiência da Armadilha “R. Bianco” para Captura do Percevejo Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, na Cultura do Milho

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    Marliton Barreto

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. Maize is the cereal with the highest consumption in both industrialized as fresh nowadays. It is the grain with higher volume production, Brazil is the third largest producer, need special attention focused on the monitoring and control of invaders who risk their productivity. Among the pests that can affect the productivity highlight the insects (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, more specifically the bedbugs corn (Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, which has been an important pest for corn crops. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homemade traps R. Bianco in control of this insect. The experiments were conducted in Sitio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, in the municipality of Sinop, MT. Traps were divided into 10 open and 10 closed which were evaluated with and without baits by 20 days. The design was completely randomized (DIC in a 2x2x2 factorial with eight treatments and five repetitions. Traps without baits showed greater efficiency, with an average higher in catching the bugs regarding the traps with bait. The trap closed as compared with the open, demonstrated greater efficacy in retaining the insect. The effect of edge was little representative in this experiment. Therefore, the presence of bait did not influence the insect attraction and treatments submitted to the bait without test showed higher quantities and more efficient insect capture. Leading us to believe the attraction effect of salt by bedbug and the location of each trap had little influence in the capture of insects.

  1. Two new species of Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with taxonomic notes on some congeneric taxa.

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    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Aguirre, María B; Aquino, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from Argentina, A. cachamai Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Córdoba, Salta and Tucumán Provinces) and A. quilmes Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Salta and Tucumán). Both new species are parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Anagyrus cachamai is a parasitoid of H. pungens Granara de Willink on Alternanthera paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. (Amaranthaceae), and also of a Hypogeococcus sp. on Cleistocactus baumannii and Hypogeococcus sp. on C. smaragdiflorus (Cactaceae). Anagyrus quilmes is a parasitoid of H. pungens on A. paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. Other biological traits of the new species are also reported. These parasitoids may be of importance as potential candidate biological control agents against a Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and identified as H. pungens, but possibly not belonging to that species. This mealybug threatens the native cacti in some Caribbean islands and Florida, USA, and is devastating the native columnar cacti in Puerto Rico. Illustrations and taxonomic notes on the type specimens of some other, little known described species of Anagyrus from Argentina and Chile are provided, and a key to females of the 14 species of Anagyrus known from Argentina is given. Anagyrus nigriceps (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized under A. bellator (De Santis). Lectotypes are designated for Paranusia bifasciata Brèthes, Philoponectroma pectinatum Brèthes, and Protanagyrus aciculatus Blanchard.  PMID:25283404

  2. Tempo de busca e de manuseio de larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Alexander M. Auad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and handling time of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae fed on Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The objective of this research was to determine the searching and handling times of three larval instars of C. externa fed on U. ambrosiae at densities of 30, 40 and 50 per vial, with the feeding of the larvae at the preceding instars being U. ambrosiae nymphs or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 eggs. The larvae were maintained at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14-h photophase. A completely randomized design in a 6 x 3 factorial scheme with 12 replicates was adopted. The shortest searching time was found for the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, and this parameter was variable depending on the feeding given to the larvae previously. The handling time was similar for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The longest searching time was found at an aphid density of 30, as compared to densities of 40 and 50 prey, with which there were no significant differences. Prey density did not have any influence on handling time.

  3. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  4. Stone Lakes virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a variant of Fort Morgan virus isolated from swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) west of the Continental Divide.

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    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K

    2009-09-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV) was the first record of this viral group west of the Continental Divide. STLV replicated well in Vero and other vertebrate cell cultures but failed to replicate in C6/36 cells or infect Culex tarsalis Coquillett mosquitoes. STLV failed to produce elevated viremias in adult chickens or house sparrows and was weakly immunogenic. In addition, STLV was not isolated from cliff swallow nestlings nor was antibody detected in adults collected at mist nets. We suggest that STL and related swallow bug viruses may be primarily infections of cimicids that are maintained and amplified either by vertical or nonviremic transmission and that cliff swallows may primarily be important as a bloodmeal source for the bugs rather than as an amplification host for the viruses. PMID:19769055

  5. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (control of D. citri poses negligible environmental risk. PMID:24665694

  6. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Triozoida limbata ENDERLEIN (HEMIPTERA: TRIOZIDAE E DE Scymnus spp. (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE EM POMAR DE GOIABA (Psidium guajava L.

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    Rogério Teixeira Duarte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the contribution of the natural biological control of the coccinellid predator Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae on Triozoida limbata Enderlein (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Triozidae, the aim of this research was to study the populational fluctuation of these arthropods in semi-organic orchard of guava and correlate the populational density of this pest with meteorological elements. We used yellow stick traps for monitoring adult of T. limbata and Scymnus spp., spaced approximately 30 m from each other at a height of 1.5 m above the ground, inside random plants. These traps were maintained in the field for 15 days and replaced by new traps, without interruption, totaling 23 samples. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficients (r to correlate the populational density of T. limbata with populational fluctuation of Scymnus spp., and meteorological elements. We also made histograms with information about the populational fluctuation of the specimens sampled and temperature (°C and precipitation (mm values. The highest densities of adults of T. limbata occurred almost between spring and summer seasons. The populational density of Scymnus spp. was positively correlated with populational density of T. limbata. There was no correlation between the populational fluctuation of T. limbata with meteorological elements.

  7. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

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    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

  8. Functional Response of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Effects of Vermicompost and Host Plant Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghinia, L; Hassanpour, M; Razmjou, J; Hosseini, M; Chamani, E

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between natural enemies and herbivores may be affected by application of fertilizers and different cultivars. We investigated the functional response of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae to the nymphs of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on two commonly grown cucumber cultivars in Iran (Khasib and Karim) treated with different vermicompost/soil ratios (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70%). Based on logistic regression analysis, A. aphidimyza revealed a type II functional response to the aphid in all treatments. Attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza larvae on different vermicompost/soil ratios ranged from 0.076 to 0.140 h(-1) and 0.969 to 1.164 h on Khasib and from 0.092 to 0.123 h(-1) and 0.905 to 1.229 h on Karim, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the density of the melon aphid on both cultivars amended with vermicompost/soil ratios resulted in increased prey consumption by the predator. Density of trichomes increased when plants received higher concentrations of vermicompost. So, trichomes may be responsible for different attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza on both cultivars. PMID:26563403

  9. Variation in social and sexual behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae): the role of toxic and non-toxic food.

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    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Dougherty, Liam R; Smith, Lynsey A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding variation in social behaviour both within and among species continues to be a challenge. Evolutionary or ecological theory typically predicts the optimal behaviour for an animal under a given set of circumstances, yet the real world presents much greater variation in behaviour than predicted. This variation is apparent in many social and sexual interactions, including mate choice, and has led to a renewed focus on individual variation in behaviour. Here we explore within and among species variation in social behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bug (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera). These species are Müllerian mimics, with characteristic warning colouration advertising their chemical toxicity. We examine the role of diet in generating variation in two key behaviours: social aggregation of nymphs and mate choice. We test how behaviour varies with exposure to either milkweed (a source of defensive compounds) or sunflower (that provides no defence). We show that although the four species vary in their food preferences, and diet influences their life-history (as highlighted by body size), social aggregation and mate choice is relatively unaffected by diet. We discuss our findings in terms of the evolution of aposematism, the importance of automimicry, and the role of diet in generating behavioural variation. PMID:23796773

  10. Building-Up of a DNA Barcode Library for True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Germany Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616

  11. Atração e desenvolvimento de Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabr. (Hemiptera: Coreidae em cultivares de abóbora e moranga

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    Baldin Edson Luiz Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são seriamente prejudicadas pelo ataque de insetos, sendo que os danos ocorrem desde a germinação até a colheita e podem ser observados em todas as partes da planta. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abóbora (Cucurbita moschata e a moranga (C. maxima, as formas jovens e adultas do percevejo Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabr. (Hemiptera: Coreidae merecem destaque por sugarem a seiva das folhas, ramos e frutos novos, nos quais causam necroses, reduzindo a produção. Visando comparar a atratividade de plântulas de cultivares de abóbora e moranga a adultos deste percevejo e os efeitos desses materiais sobre a biologia de ninfas dessa espécie, realizaram-se ensaios sob condições de laboratório. Em teste de atratividade, o cultivar de abóbora BRA015113 destacou-se como o menos atrativo em relação ao cultivar de moranga Exposição, enquanto que o cultivar de abóbora BRA003531 foi o mais atrativo. Todos os cultivares provocaram 100% de mortalidade das ninfas, indicando a presença de componentes antibióticos, adversos ao desenvolvimento de L. gonagra.

  12. Additions to the fauna of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea and coccoids (Hemiptera: Coccoidea from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, with illustrations and diagnosis

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    A. Gupta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated account with diagnostic details of the reared and collected species of insect parasitoids along with scale insects and mealybugs from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is presented. Twenty eight species of insect pests and parasitoids under two major orders Hemiptera and Hymenoptera are documented, of which 16 species are reported for the first time from these islands specifically from South and Middle Andamans. The parasitic wasps reared and collected belong to six families-Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Chalcididae, Eucharitidae, Aphelinidae, and Pteromalidae, including 16 species under 12 genera. The majority of the species are primary or secondary parasitoids attacking many insect groups. The scale insects and mealybugs documented belong to four families-Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Diaspididae, and Cerococcidae, including 12 species under 11 genera. Information on the species distribution, host association, and brief taxonomical description of each species along with illustrations is provided for easy identification. Illustrations include habitus photographs of 16 species of parasitic wasps and 12 species of scales and mealybugs.

  13. Dinâmica Populacional de Mosca-Branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em Feijoeiro

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    Anderson Silva

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors on the population dynamics of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn., (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in three sowing seasons on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The assays were set up from June 2010 to April 2012 and conducted in the Departamento de Fitossanidade at FCAV/UNESP – Campus of Jaboticabal, SP. The studies of the population dynamics of B. tabaci biotype B were performed weekly through infestation assessments of eggs, nymphs and adults of the whitefly on 18 samplings, six for each sowing season: “winter”, “water” and “dry”, in addition to the influence of the abiotic factors weekly temperature and relative humidity (minimum, average and maximum and accumulated rainfall. These variables were correlated to the total number of eggs, nymphs and adults of the whitefly through Pearson’s linear correlation analysis. Among the obtained results, the population peaks of B. tabaci biotype B occurred at the “water” season, followed by “winter” and “dry” seasons, and the abiotic factors temperature and relative humidity influenced negatively the population dynamics of the whitefly.

  14. [Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the state of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustolin, Teresinha A; Lopes, João R S; Querino, Ranyse B; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Zanol, Kety; Azevedo Filho, Wilson S; Mendes, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management. PMID:20098931

  15. Zoophytophagy in predatory Hemiptera

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    Jorge Braz Torres

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Predaceous hemipteran feeding on different trophic levels have raised questions about their ecology and role in biological control. Therefore, specific adaptations allowing them to simultaneously use plants and animals as sources for their nutritional requirements are important. Enzymatic variability in predatory hemipterans has been suggested as the basic adaptation for convergent or divergent to omnivory. Thus, the salivary enzymatic complexes of predatory hemipterans have been furnished a partial understanding of the mechanisms permitting switching between plant and animal food sources. In this study, a discriminatory analysis was performed to attribute trophic habits to each insect investigated based on the presence and absence of salivary enzyme combinations. Although peptidase is found in all tested predatory hemipterans' salivary glands, it is not a distinguishing enzyme because it has been found in phytophagous species as well. However, the presence of peptidase and amylase activity in hemipteran salivary glands is considered to be an explanation for these insects' ability to switch their diet, predators feeding on plants (amylase and herbivores taking prey (peptidase.Percevejos predadores alimentando em diferentes níveis tróficos tem despertado o interesse para o entendimento da ecologia e papéis exercido no controle biológico por esses predadores. Os parâmetros que governam o comportamento alimentar onívoro desses predadores tem sido auxiliado pelos estudos sobre enzimas de glândula salivares. A variabilidade de enzimas em percevejos predadores tem sido sugerido como adaptação básica para a convergência ou divergência para a onivoria. Assim, enzimas salivares de percevejos predadores tem fornecido entendimento, ao menos parcial, da alternância de alimentação entre plantas e animais. Neste estudo, foi utilizado a presença de enzimas como variáveis canônicas para atribuir a cada espécie estudada predominância do comportamento alimentar baseado na combinação das enzimas salivares secretadas. A enzima pectinase tem sido específica para espécies fitófagas, portanto, sendo considerada variável de separação e, fosfolipase e tripisina como indicadoras de adaptações para predação, enquanto amilase e peptidase como indicativo para onivoria pois são encontradas tanto em espécies fitófagas e predadoras. Assim, sendo essas usadas como explicação para adaptação em percevejos predadores alimentarem de plantas (amilase e percevejos fitófagos alimentarem de presas (peptidase.

  16. Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil Preferência de alimentação e oviposição de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae por Eucalyptus spp. e outras Myrtaceae

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    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil. The Australian psyllid, Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, was first detected in Brazil in 1994, where it was found on drought-affected shoots of Eucalyptus grandis in a plantation located in the northern part of Paraná State. The oviposition and feeding preferences of this psyllid were examined on 19 Eucalyptus species, one Eucalyptus hybrid (Cambiju, three Corymbia species and four native Myrtaceae species (Hexaclames edulis, Marlieria edulis, Plinia trunciflora, and Psydium sp. under greenhouse conditions. The largest populations of C. spatulata were found on E. robusta and E. pellita, while sizeable infestations were also found on E. urophylla, E. grandis, and the Cambiju hybrid. The plants with the greatest symptoms of damage were E. grandis and E. resinifera. Eucalyptus cinerea, E. benthamii, E. pilularis, and E. dunnii were not infested and E. cloeziana was minimally infested. Among the Corymbia species, the number of eggs of C. spatulata was very low on C. citriodora and C. torelliana. No eggs and nymphs of C. spatulata were found on native Brazilian Myrtaceae. The number of eggs on plants was highly correlated with the subsequent levels of nymphs, suggesting that egg counts can be used as a viable monitoring tool to assist with the integrated management of this pest.Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, originária da Austrália, foi detectada no Brasil em 1994. Sua ocorrência foi inicialmente observada em E. grandis no Norte do Paraná associada à seca dos ponteiros. Com o objetivo de verificar a preferência deste psilídeo para postura e alimentação foram analisadas, em casa de vegetação, um híbrido e dezenove espécies do gênero Eucalyptus, três do gênero Corymbia e cinco mirtáceas nativas (Hexaclames edulis, Marlieria edulis, Plinia

  17. Characterization of a Recombinant Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A Putative Target for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Taíse Fernanda da Silva; Schneider, Vanessa Karine; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Alves, Marcio Fernando Madureira; Belasque-Júnior, Jose; Rosa, José César; Hunter, Wayne Brian; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Soares-Costa, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Huanglonbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with HLB. The control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. Among the control strategies for HLB disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the disease vector, Diaphorina citri. The insect Diaphorina citri belongs to the order Hemiptera, which frequently have cysteine peptidases in the gut. The importance of this class of enzymes led us to search for enzymes in the D. citri transcriptome for the establishment of alternatives strategies for HLB control. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a cathepsin B-like cysteine peptidase from D. citri (DCcathB). DCcathB was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, presenting a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed the fluorogenic substrate Z-F-R-AMC (Km = 23.5 μM) and the selective substrate for cathepsin B, Z-R-R-AMC (Km = 6.13 μM). The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors E64 (IC50 = 0.014 μM) and CaneCPI-4 (Ki = 0.05 nM) and by the selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 (IC50 = 0.095 nM). RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the DCcathB in nymph and adult was approximately 9-fold greater than in egg. Moreover, the expression of this enzyme in the gut was 175-fold and 3333-fold higher than in the remaining tissues and in the head, respectively, suggesting that DCcathB can be a target for HLB control. PMID:26717484

  18. Effect of UV-Blocking Plastic Films on Take-Off and Host Plant Finding Ability of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M P; Dos Santos, F L; Felippe, M R; Moreno, A; Fereres, A

    2015-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a major pest of citrus worldwide due to its ability to transmit the bacteria associated with huanglongbing. Vision, behavior, and performance of insect pests can be manipulated by using ultraviolet (UV)-blocking materials. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate how UV-blocking plastic films may affect the take-off and host plant finding ability of D. citri. To assess the effect of a UV-deficient environment on take-off, adult psyllids were released from a vial inside a screenhouse covered by a UV-blocking or standard (control) film and the number of insects remaining on each vial under each treatment was counted at different time intervals. Moreover, to assess the ability of D. citri to find citrus plants under a UV-deficient environment, two independent no-choice host plant finding assays with different plant arrangements were conducted. In each treatment, the number of psyllids per plant at different time intervals was counted. Both D. citri take-off and host plant finding ability was clearly disrupted under a UV-deficient environment. The number of psyllids remaining in the vials was significantly higher under UV-blocking than standard film in all periods recorded. Furthermore, psyllids were present in significantly higher number on citrus plants under standard film than under UV-blocking film in all of the periods assessed and experiments conducted. Our results showed that UV-blocking materials could become a valuable strategy for integrated management of D. citri and huanglongbing in citrus grown in enclosed environments. PMID:26470126

  19. Cardamom Bushy Dwarf Virus Infection in Large Cardamom Alters Plant Selection Preference, Life Stages, and Fecundity of Aphid Vector, Micromyzus kalimpongensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Das, Amrita; Vijayanandraj, S; Mandal, Bikash

    2016-02-01

    Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV) causes foorkey disease of large cardamom (Ammomum subulatum Roxburgh) in the eastern sub-Himalayan mountains. Although the aphid Micromyzus kalimpongensis Basu (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is known as a vector of CBDV, its behavior in dissemination of CBDV has not been investigated. In the present study, M. kalimpongensis was observed to colonize in higher number on CBDV-infected large cardamom plants compared with the healthy plants in the several plantations in Sikkim and Darjeeling hills. The affinity of M. kalimpongensis to the diseased large cardamom plants was further confirmed in a contained field experiment with intact plant as well as in a laboratory bioassay with the plant extract, where significantly higher number of aphids settled on the diseased plants or extracts compared with the healthy counterparts. Aphids grown on CBDV-infected large cardamom plants had shortened nymphal period and increased longevity and fecundity compared with those grown on the healthy plants. In the contained field experiment, M. kalimpongensis migrated to the CBDV-infected plants, colonized there, acquired CBDV, and once the diseased plants withered, migrated to healthy plants, which eventually became diseased. Our results suggest a general pattern of spread of CBDV by M. kalimpongensis where CBDV-infected plants attract or arrest and stimulate emergence and migration of viruliferous aphids that otherwise are sedentary in the underground plant parts of large cardamom. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the influence of a plant virus from the family Nanoviridae in altering behavior of its insect vector that favors its dissemination. PMID:26518036

  20. The Effects of Some Botanical Insecticides and Pymetrozine on Life Table Parameters of Silver Leaf Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Reihaneh Barati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the effects of extracts of two medicinalplant species: Allium sativum (Linn and Calotropis procera (Aiton, and a formulation containingazadirachtin on life table parameters of silver leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci biotypeB (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, grown on greenhouse tomato plants. Theeffects were compared to that of pymetrozine, a synthetic insecticide. Bioassays were carriedout in a greenhouse under controlled conditions of 27 ± 2°C, R.H. of 55 ± 5% and 16:8h (L:D photo period.All treatments significantly affected the survivorship and fertility of SLW female adults,reducing the net reproduction rate, mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase ofthis insect.The net reproductive rate [R0] values for the populations treated with garlic extract,milkweed extract, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, control for extracts (ethanol + distilled waterand control for pesticides (distilled water were 23.58, 19.32, 10.78, 8.23, 49.66, 57.55; theintrinsic rate of increases [rm] were 0.134, 0.139, 0.110, 0.090, 0.177, 0.178; the mean generationtimes [T] were 23.49, 21.23, 21.66, 23.50, 22.06, 22.69; the doubling times [DT] were 5.14,4.95, 6.27, 7.56, 3.91, 3.87, and the finite rates of increase [λ] were 1.144, 1.149, 1.116, 1.094, 1.193,1.195, respectively. Azadirachtin had the highest effect on the life table parameters of SLW.Our findings indicated that, although herbal extracts were not effective as much asthe chemical insecticides, they can be effective in pest control. Therefore, they are suitablechoices for replacing chemical insecticides and for alternative use with azadirachtin inSLW IPM program.

  1. Préférences alimentaires de Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae vis-à-vis de quelques clones de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Amang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding Preferences of Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae to some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones. The selection of cocoa clones, resistant to Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. was done in the laboratory according to the standardized method of indoor microtests based on the study of mirid feeding preferences. Fourteen cocoa clones were involved. The Sca6 clone was the control. An index (i which expresses the ratio of the number of stings on the clone to that obtained on the control was calculated for each cultivar. Which has enabled to quantify the levels of attractiveness of cocoa clones to S. singularis and to classify these clones in three groups: less attractive clones (i< 1, non different (i= 1 and more attractive (i> 1. The results obtained showed that the mean numbers of feeding stings on the control (tr ranged from 5.49 to 5.62 (5.49≤ tr≤ 5.62 and that obtained on the other clones (tc from 5.29 to 6.18 (5.29≤ tc ≤ 6.18. The Na33 clone had the highest stings mean number (6.18 and IFC 100 the lowest one (5.29. The High Amazonian clone Na33 was the most attractive and the clones ICS100, IFC100, (exotic trinitario, Sca12 (catongo and Na32 (High Amazonian were less attractive. On the other hand the clones IFC1363, IFC1362, IFC1374 (catongo, UPA337, T60/887, ICS1 and IMC60 (High Amazonians and ICS95 (exotic trinitario were non different. The reactivity seemed not depending on the origin of the clone. Save the High Amazonian clone Na33 which was the most attractive there were among non different and less attractive clones as well exotic trinitario, catongo as High Amazonians.

  2. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae.

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    Tariq Mustafa

    Full Text Available The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc (Hemiptera: Triozidae, is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used electrical penetration graph (EPG technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of Lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (Central, Western, Northwestern. All haplotypes exhibited the full suite of stylet behaviors identified in previous studies with this psyllid, including intercellular penetration and secretion of the stylet pathway, xylem ingestion, and phloem activities, the latter comprising salivation and ingestion. The three haplotypes exhibited similar frequency and duration of probing behaviors, with the exception of salivation into phloem, which was of higher duration by psyllids of the Western haplotype. We manipulated how long psyllids were allowed access to potato ("inoculation access period", or IAP to examine the relationship between phloem activities and Lso transmission. Between 25 and 30% of psyllids reached and salivated into phloem at an IAP of 1 hr, increasing to almost 80% of psyllids as IAP was increased to 24 h. Probability of Lso-transmission was lower across all IAP levels than probability of phloem salivation, indicating that a percentage of infected psyllids which salivated into the phloem failed to transmit Lso. Logistic regression showed that probability of transmission increased as a function of time spent salivating into the phloem; transmission occurred as quickly as 5 min following onset of salivation. A small percentage of infected psyllids showed extremely long salivation events but nonetheless failed to transmit Lso, for unknown reasons. Information from these studies increases our understanding of Lso transmission by potato psyllid, and demonstrates the value of EPG technology in

  3. Fecundidade e longevidade de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas e cultivares comerciais de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev

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    Soglia Maria C. de M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity and longevity of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae at different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. The aphid A. gossypii is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fecundity and longevity of A. gossypii under different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark Splendid Reagan with different trichomes densities (11.3; 16.6 and 21.6 trichome/mm² of the leaf, respectively The trials were carried out in climatic chambers, at four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ±1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase 10h. The reproductive period significantly decreased with increase of temperature in the three cultivars. In Yellow Snowdon cultivar average duration of the reproductive period was 14.3 days at 25 °C. The maximum fecundity was obtained at the temperature of 25 ºC with 3,1; 2,8 and 3,6 nymphs/female/day in the Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark S. Reagan cultivars, respectively. The total fecundity was reduced by extreme temperatures (15 and 30 °C, and was obtained at 25 °C with 35,9 nymphs/female. Females maintained in Yellow Snowdon cultivar significantly showed superiority (30,7 nymphs/female in total fecundity in relation to White Reagan (22,1 nymphs/female and Dark S. Reagan (22,9 nymphs/female. The Yellow Snowdon cultivar (with a lower trichome density had a significant influence in daily and total capacity of nymphs production, showing a higher fecundity of A. gossypii females. The aphid's longevity was affected by cultivars and temperature, and this longevity decreased whit increase of temperature. The results showed that there was an interaction between the temperature and host plant on reproductive parameters of A. gossypii.

  4. Ecological relationships between non-cultivated plants and insect predators in agroecosystems: the case of Dittrichia viscosa (Asteraceae) and Macrolophus melanotoma (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikis, Dionyssios; Favas, Charalampos; Lykouressis, Dionyssios; Fantinou, Argyro

    2007-05-01

    Species of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are thought to be effective predators in reducing the numbers of several pests in vegetable crops. These predators are omnivorous as in addition to prey they also utilize plant sap for growth and development. Populations of these predators build in non-crop host plants and provide inoculum that augments natural control of insect pests in adjacent crops. However, to enhance their effectiveness in crops requires knowledge of their trophic relationships with host plants. In this study, the ecological relationships between the predator Macrolophus melanotoma (Costa) ( = M. caliginosus Wagner) and its most important natural host plant Dittrichia viscosa L. (W. Greuter) (Asteraceae) were investigated in the laboratory and in field studies. A 2-year field study of M. melanotoma populations on D. viscosa was made using the percentage of plants infested by C. inulae as a measure of aphid prey abundance. The field studies revealed that M. melanotoma populations were present throughout the year on D. viscosa reaching highest numbers in June and July despite very low levels of aphid infested plants. Laboratory life table studies were used to compare the survival and reproduction of the predator on D. viscosa leaves alone and leaves plus aphid prey ( Capitophorus inulae (Passerini)). Predators reared on D. viscosa leaves plus aphid prey had an average developmental time of 16.73 days, fecundity was 69.55 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0614/day. When fed only leaves, the developmental time was 21.13 days, fecundity was 10.80 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0229/day. The results of the two studies suggest an important role for D. viscosa in conserving and augmenting M. melanotoma in agro ecosystems, and in the development of natural control augmentation strategies in vegetable crops.

  5. Characterization of a Recombinant Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae: A Putative Target for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

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    Taíse Fernanda da Silva Ferrara

    Full Text Available Huanglonbing (HLB is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with HLB. The control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. Among the control strategies for HLB disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the disease vector, Diaphorina citri. The insect Diaphorina citri belongs to the order Hemiptera, which frequently have cysteine peptidases in the gut. The importance of this class of enzymes led us to search for enzymes in the D. citri transcriptome for the establishment of alternatives strategies for HLB control. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a cathepsin B-like cysteine peptidase from D. citri (DCcathB. DCcathB was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, presenting a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed the fluorogenic substrate Z-F-R-AMC (Km = 23.5 μM and the selective substrate for cathepsin B, Z-R-R-AMC (Km = 6.13 μM. The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors E64 (IC50 = 0.014 μM and CaneCPI-4 (Ki = 0.05 nM and by the selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 (IC50 = 0.095 nM. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the DCcathB in nymph and adult was approximately 9-fold greater than in egg. Moreover, the expression of this enzyme in the gut was 175-fold and 3333-fold higher than in the remaining tissues and in the head, respectively, suggesting that DCcathB can be a target for HLB control.

  6. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on the honeydew and waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae.

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    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening, the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting, or drop when feeding on the lower side of citrus leaves. Furthermore, honeydew excretions of both nymphs and adult females are covered with a thin layer of whitish waxy material ultrastructurally composed of a convoluted network of long fine filaments or ribbons. This material is extruded from intricate arrays of wax pores in the circumanal ring (around the anus that is found in nymphs and females but not in males of ACP or other psyllid species. Infrared microscopy and mass spectroscopy revealed that, in addition to various sugars, honeydew excretions of ACP nymphs and females are covered with a thin layer of wax similar in profile to ester waxes.

  7. No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae

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    Gabriela Vieira Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae. Biological traits of the stink bug Euschistus heros and its main biological control agent Telenomus podisi were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC; 60 ± 10% RH; and 14/10 h photoperiod by placing first instar nymphs into Petri dishes with pods originating from two soybean isolines (Bt-soybean MON 87701 × MON 89788, which expresses the Cry1Ac protein, and its near non-Bt isoline A5547 where they remained until the adult stage. Due to gregarious behavior exhibited by first instar nymphs, they were individualized only when at the second instar. Adults were separated by sex and weighed, and pronotum width of each individual was subsequently measured. They were placed into plastic boxes containing soybean grains of the same soybean isoline as food source. Egg viability and female fecundity were assessed in adult individuals. Adult females of T. podisi (up to 24h old were placed with eggs of E. heros from mothers reared on both soybean isolines. Nymphal development time, insect weight, pronotum width, sex ratio, female fecundity, and egg viability (% emergence of Euschistus heros did not differ between treatments. Eggto-adult development time, female longevity, sex ratio, and percentage of parasitized eggs were not impacted by the Bt-soybean (expressing Cry1Ac protein. Results indicate that the Bt-soybean, MON 87701 × MON 89788, has no direct significant impact on the two studied species.

  8. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency. PMID:24665686

  9. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  10. Development, Survival, and Fecundity of Amblypelta lutescens lutescens (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on Distinct Phenological Stages of Different Fruit-Crop Host Plants.

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    Lindsay, K R; Furlong, M J

    2016-08-01

    The banana-spotting bug, Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is native to Australia and a major polyphagous pest of many tropical and subtropical horticultural crops in the east and north of the country. Different plant structures (flowers, vegetative flush, and different sized fruit) of avocado, lime, and papaya crops and green bean pods (a known suitable host) were evaluated for their suitability as hosts for A. l. lutescens Neonate to imago survivorship, the time taken to complete neonate to imago development, preovipositional period, and fecundity were assessed for each crop. Of all the different phenological stages of the plants investigated, A. l. lutescens could complete development to imago on vegetative flush of papaya and lime, papaya flowers, and green bean pods but on no other structures tested. There was higher survivorship to the second instar when neonates fed on green bean pods or flowers or vegetative flush of avocado, lime, or papaya crops than when neonates fed on small, medium, or large fruit of these crops. Insects that developed to the imago on green bean pods were significantly heavier than insects that developed on papaya flowers or papaya vegetative flush. The mean preoviposition period was shorter, and adult females more fecund, if they completed immature development and then fed as adults on papaya vegetative flush or green beans rather than papaya flowers. The data indicate that avocado is not a suitable host for A. l. lutescens, suggesting that adult populations that cause significant pest damage to the fruit of this crop originate elsewhere. PMID:27346632

  11. Relationship between external stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) boll-feeding symptoms and internal boll damage with respect to cotton lint gin-out and fiber quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinka, Eric L; Herbert, Ames; Malone, Sean; Van Duyn, John W; Roberts, Phillip; Bradley, J R; Bacheler, Jack S

    2010-12-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., bolls from 17 field locations in northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, having 20% or greater internal boll damage, were studied to determine the relationship between external feeding symptoms and internal damage caused by stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding. In 2006 and 2007, two cohorts of 100 bolls each were sampled at all field locations. The first cohort was removed as bolls reached approximately quarter size in diameter (2.4 cm). External and internal symptoms of stink bug feeding were assessed and tabulated. Concurrent to when the first cohort was collected, a second cohort of quarter-size-diameter bolls was identified, tagged, examined in situ for external feeding symptoms (sunken lesions), and harvested at the black seed coat stage. Harvested bolls were assessed for internal damage and locks were categorized (undamaged, minor damage, or major damage), dried, and ginned. Lint samples from each damage category were submitted for high volume instrument and advanced fiber information system quality analyses. Significant, moderately strong Pearson correlation coefficients existed between number of external stink bug feeding lesions and internal damage. Pearson correlation of total external lesions with total internal damage was stronger than any correlation among the other single components compared. Predictability plots indicated a rapid increase in relationship strength when relating external stink bug lesions to internal damage as the number of external lesions increased. Approximately 90% predictability of internal damage was achieved with four (2006) or six (2007) external lesions per boll. Gin-turnout and fiber quality decreased with increasing intensity of internal stink bug damage. PMID:21309249

  12. MEDICIÓN INDIRECTA DE LA TASA DE CONSUMO DE ADULTOS E INMADUROS DE Trialeurodes vaporariorum (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE SOBRE FRÍJOL

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    Luisa Fernanda SUÁREZ GONZALES

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La biología y ecología de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyroridae, se encuentra ampliamente documentada. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no hay reportes acerca de la tasa de consumo de alimento por este fitófago, un parámetro necesario para modelos de simulación. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación fue la medición indirecta del consumo de alimento por el adulto e instares inmaduros de T. vaporariorum basado en metodologías encontradas en la literatura científica. La estimación de la tasa de consumo de alimento por adultos se realizó bajo condiciones de laboratorio, utilizando como unidad experimental una planta de fríjol de dos semanas de edad. El experimento consistió de dos tratamientos: (T1 plantas libres de cualquier fitófago y (T2 plantas sometidas a infestaciones con T. vaporariorum, cada tratamiento con 20 repeticiones y una réplica en el tiempo de todo el experimento. Se registró el peso fresco diariamente en ambos tratamientos. Para el caso de los inmaduros, la unidad experimental consistió en una hoja cotiledónea de fríjol, infestada con una población determinada de inmaduros de cada instar de mosca blanca teniendo así cinco tratamientos (Instar I, II, III, IV y Control cada uno con 17 repeticiones. Se registró diariamente el peso fresco de las hojas. Se obtuvo un consumo promedio de alimento por el adulto de 0,277 ± 0,0042 mg.dia-1. Para los dos primeros instares ninfales se estimó una tasa de consumo de 0,052 mg.dia-1, en el tercer instar de 0,14 mg.dia-1, y para el cuarto instar de 0,19 mg.dia-1. Un adulto de mosca blanca puede consumir en un día seis veces su peso y un inmaduro ocho veces, gracias a su rápido metabolismo y la constante excreción de mielecilla. Indirect Measurement of the Rate of Consumption of Adult and Immature of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae On Common BeanThe biology and ecology of the greenhouse

  13. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  14. A new Stenolemus from the Philippines (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Emesinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    1975-01-01

    During investigations of fig-wasps in the Philippines in 1964, Dr. J. T. Wiebes collected a new species of bug, a small reduviid belonging to the genus Stenolemus Signoret: its description is presented here. For comparison, the type specimen of Stenolemus crassirostris Stâl, 1870 (similarly from the

  15. Records of assassin bug species (reduviidae, heteroptera reported biting man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Hartwig

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa Acanthaspis obscura Stal, Pirates conspurcatus Distant, Rhinocoris segmentarius (Germar and Panto-feistes pnnceps Stal intlict painful bites on humans. Serious consequences can develop. This is unknown to the public in general. Adult A. obscura and P. conspurcatus are responsible for the greatest number of bites because they are positively phototropic. R, segmentarius is not attracted to light but is the most common local species. Bites happen accidentally and could largely be avoided if the bugs could be recognized. The first three species have a wide distribution. Various insects are preyed on. The R. segmentarius female can lay 358 fertile eggs in six batches over a period of 77 days without copulating once in this period. Adults are most active in mid-summer although found throughout the year. These three species are abundant in some years and scarce in others. Preventive measures include screening homes and decoy lights. Control involves spraying with carbaryl.

  16. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dierig, David A

    2011-10-01

    Lesquerella, Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, is a mustard native to the western United States and is currently being developed as a commercial source of valuable hydroxy fatty acids that can be used in a number of industrial applications, including biolubricants, biofuel additives, motor oils, resins, waxes, nylons, plastics, corrosion inhibitors, cosmetics, and coatings. The plant is cultivated as a winter-spring annual and in the desert southwest it harbors large populations of arthropods, several of which could be significant pests once production expands. Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common in lesquerella and are known pests of a number of agronomic and horticultural crops where they feed primarily on reproductive tissues. A 4-yr replicated plot study was undertaken to evaluate the probable impact of Lygus spp. on production of this potential new crop. Plant damage and subsequent seed yield and quality were examined relative to variable and representative densities of Lygus spp. (0.3-4.9 insects per sweep net) resulting from variable frequency and timing of insecticide applications. Increasing damage to various fruiting structures (flowers [0.9-13.9%], buds [1.2-7.1%], and seed pods [19.4-42.5%]) was significantly associated with increasing pest abundance, particularly the abundance of nymphs, in all years. This damage, however, did not consistently translate into reductions in seed yield (481-1,336 kg/ha), individual seed weight (0.5-0.7 g per 1,000 seed), or seed oil content (21.8-30.4%), and pest abundance generally explained relatively little of the variation in crop yield and quality. Negative effects on yield were not sensitive to the timing of pest damage (early versus late season) but were more pronounced during years when potential yields were lower due to weed competition and other agronomic factors. Results suggest that if the crop is established and managed in a more optimal fashion, Lygus spp. may not significantly limit yield

  17. Efeito inseticida sistêmico de nanoformulações à base de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biótipo B em tomateiro

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    Sheila Salles de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação inseticida sistêmica e o efeito residual de nanoformulações à base de derivados de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae sobre ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, espécie-praga de diversas culturas de importância econômica. Suspensões coloidais contendo nanocápsulas carregadas com produtos derivados de A. indica foram preparadas utilizando polímeros biodegradáveis como poli-ε-caprolactona (PCL e poli-β-hidroxibutirato (PHB. A matriz encapsulada era composta por uma formulação comercial contendo uma quantidade enriquecida e conhecida dos limonoides azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol (Azamax® 1,2 CE. Inicialmente foi estimada a CL50, para ninfas de B. tabaci, de soluções contendo óleo de nim, que foram aplicadas via água de irrigação (solo em tomateiro. Posteriormente, dois lotes de nanoformulações, com variação no tipo e quantidade dos polímeros e na quantidade do óleo comercial, foram testados quanto à ação sistêmica. As nanoformulações NC L5-2 (com nanocápsulas de PCL e NC L6-1 (com nanocápsulas de PHB, as mais eficazes entre as testadas, foram avaliadas quanto ao efeito residual. A CL50 estimada foi de 180,67 mg L–1 de azadiractina. Constatou-se também que a ação sistêmica de óleos e nanoformulações contendo compostos de nim dependem das condições ambientais em que são aplicados. O Azamax® não apresenta efeito deterrente sobre a oviposição, nem age sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário da mosca-branca quando aplicado via água de irrigação no solo no momento da infestação. As nanoformulações selecionadas são bioativas mesmo cerca de 30 dias após a aplicação, não diferindo do produto comercial.

  18. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  19. Ingestão de seiva do xilema de laranjeiras 'Pêra' e 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck sadias e infectadas por Xylella fastidiosa, pelas cigarrinhas vetoras Oncometopia facialis e Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Xylem sap ingestion form healthy "Pera" and "Valencia" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and infected ones by Xylella fastidiosa, Oncometopia facialis and Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Montesino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da infecção pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC, sobre a taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema de plantas cítricas por duas espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Foram utilizados pés-francos de laranjeira-doce (Citrus sinensis das variedades 'Pêra' e 'Valência', infectadas por X. fastidiosa da linhagem 9a5c, por meio de inoculação mecânica. Os insetos utilizados nos experimentos foram coletados em campo, sendo um representante da Tribo Cicadellini (Dilobopterus costalimai e um da Proconiini (Oncometopia facialis. A taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema por O. facialis foi quantificada nos ramos das plantas e a de D. costalimai nas folhas e ramos, por meio da avaliação do volume do líquido (honeydew excretado por unidade de tempo. O consumo pela cigarrinha O. facialis nas plantas doentes foi menor do que nas plantas sadias. Na variedade 'Pêra' doente, o consumo foi baixo, não permitindo a quantificação da seiva eliminada. Na 'Pêra' sadia e na 'Valência' doente e sadia, O. facialis apresentou valores expressivos de excreção, com maior alimentação no período diurno. Nas plantas sadias das duas variedades, o consumo pela cigarrinha D. costalimai foi maior do que nas plantas com CVC. Comparando-se as variedades, o consumo foi superior na variedade 'Valência', e, em relação às partes da planta, folha e ramo, a taxa de ingestão foi maior no ramo das duas variedades, apresentando consumo maior no período diurno.It was studied the effect of Xylella fastidiosa infection, causal agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, on the xylem sap ingestion rate of citrus plants by two sharpshooters species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Seedlings of sweet orange Pera and Valencia (Citrus sinensis were used and infected by X. fastidiosa, strain 9a5c, obtained by mechanical inoculation. The insects used in the experiments were collected in the field, one

  20. Locais e período de alimentação da cigarrinha vetora de Xylella fastidiosa, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, em mudas cítricas Feeding sites and food intake of Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, a sharpshooter vector of Xylella fastidiosa, on citrus plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pedreira de Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A cigarrinha Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae é um importante vetor da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da clorose variegada dos citros. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar o local preferido de alimentação e o período de maior atividade alimentar desta cigarrinha em citros, no sentido de elucidar o comportamento alimentar relacionado à transmissão da bactéria. O local de alimentação foi estudado em ensaio de escolha, no qual 30 insetos adultos foram liberados em gaiolas de observação (n = 10 contendo uma muda de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. Após 1; 15; 21; 25; 39; 45 e 49 h da liberação, contaram-se os insetos na parte superior (ramos com brotações e inferior (haste principal, até H"40 cm de altura da muda. Nos ramos da parte superior, avaliou-se a preferência entre a haste, o pecíolo e o limbo foliar. Em um segundo ensaio, 20 machos e 20 fêmeas de B. xanthophis foram confinados individualmente sobre a haste de 'seedlings' de laranja-doce para determinar os períodos de alimentação, quantificando-se a excreção de 'honeydew' (medida indireta da ingestão em períodos sucessivos de dia e noite, durante 48 h. A maioria dos indivíduos de B. xanthophis preferiu a haste dos ramos novos (62%, na parte superior da muda cítrica (91%. Nos 'seedlings', observou-se maior volume de excreção e proporção de indivíduos excretando durante a fotofase, independentemente do sexo. Portanto, em estudos de transmissão de X. fastidiosa, deve-se considerar a preferência de B. xanthophis pela haste de brotações cítricas e sua maior atividade alimentar durante a fotofase.The sharpshooter Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis. This study aimed to identify the preferred feeding sites and periods of this vector on citrus, in order to improve our understanding of the

  1. Preferencias alimentarias de Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduvíidae procedente de la meseta central de Costa Rica a finales del siglo XX BLOOD SOURCES OF Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduvidae IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU OF COSIA RICA AT THE END OF THE XX CENTURY

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    OLGER CALDERÓN-ARGUEDAS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se colectaron 267 ejemplares de Triatoma dimidiata procedentes de comunidades costarricenses ubicadas en tres regiones epidemiológicamente importantes por la Enfermedad de Chagas. A partir de cada insecto, se prepararon extractos de contenido intestinal los cuales fueron utilizados para determinar la presencia de sangres de diferentes vertebrados en un sistema de doble inmunodifusión (Outcherlony. También los insectos fueron sometidos a un análisis de contenido fecal para determinar la posible infección con T. cruzi. El 67% de las muestras fue positiva por sangre de humano, lo que constituyó la fuente de alimentación más importante (p 267 kissing hugs Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduvidae were collected in peridomestic habitats located in tthree Chagas' disease epidemiological regions of the Central plateau of Costa Rica. Gut extract were prepared from each triatomine. They were assayed in an immuno double-diffusion system (Outcherlony for detecting the presence of different kind of vertebrate bloods. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was also tested by microscopical observation of fecal smear. 67.0% of the samples were positive for human blood, that was the most important food source for the insect (p < 0.05. Dog was another important host and the blood was found in 49.8% of the samples. Rat, mouse, didelphid and chicken bloods were positive in porcentajes under 15.0%. The data can not demostrate that T. dimidata has special preferences for the avian blood. However, when the data are evaluated as exhausted and excluyent categories, chicken blood represents the second in frequency (9.0%. It could means that T. dimidata can choose the chickens as host, when humans or dogs are not available. The T. cruzi infection rate was higher in insects that were positive by opposum and rodent bloods. It suggest the role that these kind of animals can play as selvatic and domestic T. cruzi reservoirs.

  2. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  3. El aparato masticador del género extinto Actenomys Burmeister, 1888 (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae: inferencias sobre su modo de vida

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    Moreira, G. J.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Actenomys is registered from Plioceno sediments of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Anatomy of skull and dentition of the genus is described, giving special emphasis to the origin and insertion points of the masticatory musculature. Actenomys is compared with the extant fossorial rodent of the genus Ctenomys, and the development of the masticatory muscles and their degree of functionality are inferred. It is concluded that Actenomys presents a less robust skull, with a masticatory musculature in agreement and incisives with great procumbency. This evidence could explain a possible adaptation of Actenomys to dig using the incisives and an adaptation to live in habitats of higher humidity than the extant forms.Se describe la anatomía cráneo-dentaria del género Actenomys, registrado en sedimentos del Plioceno de la provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina, con especial énfasis los puntos de origen e inserción de la musculatura masticatoria; se lo compara con el roedor fosorial viviente del género Ctenomys, infiriéndose el desarrollo de los músculos masticatorios y su grado de funcionalidad. Se concluye que Actenomys presenta un cráneo menos robusto, con una musculatura masticatoria acorde e incisivos procumbentes, lo que podría explicar una posible adaptación para cavar con los mismos, y que estaría adaptado a vivir en ambientes con un porcentaje de humedad mayor que las formas actuales.

  4. A taxonomy review of Oreoderus Burmeister, 1842 from China with a geometric morphometric evaluation (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Valgini)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sha; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xingke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Oreoderus are morphologically similar, and can be challenging to distinguish without dissecting the male genitalia. In this study, the Oreoderus species from China are reviewed. Three new species of Oreoderus are described: Oreoderus dasystibialis Li & Yang, sp. n., Oreoderus brevitarsus Li & Yang, sp. n. and Oreoderus oblongus Li & Yang, sp. n. A key of the male Oreoderus and a distribution map are provided. Oreoderus coomani Paulian, 1961 was found as a new...

  5. Migration hos trollsländad Hemianax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839) (Odonata, Aechnidae) iakttagen i Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A swarm of Hemianax ephippiger was observed in Eilath (Israel) on 12 March 1986. During the week before this date, no dragonflies were to be seen. In the late afternoon thousands of dragonflies were observed at the beach, 8 km SW of Eilath. They were resting on walls of buildings or flying slowly...

  6. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

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    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  7. Description of the male of Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae, a parasitoid of the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa (Hemiptera, Liviidae, with notes on its reproductive traits and hyperparasitoids

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    S.V. Triapitsyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A colony of the encyrtid wasp Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae has been established in the quarantine laboratory at the University of California, Riverside, California, USA as part of a classical biological control program against its invasive host, the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa (Hemiptera, Psylloidea, Liviidae, an important pest of olives in some parts of the world. The colony originators were reared from the same host found on abandoned, commercial olives in Catalonia, Spain; additional collections were made in Murcia. The parasitoid reproduces primarily by thelytoky; however, a few occasional males have been found in the field in Spain, but not in colonies reared under quarantine or laboratory conditions. Here, the female of P. euphyllurae is redescribed and its male is described and illustrated for the first time; the only previous mention of male P. euphyllurae was from Tunisia, reared from the same psyllid host but without any details on its morphology. A lectotype is designated for Encyrtus euphyllurae Masi. Information is given on the results of genetic matching between the two sexes of the parasitoid and also on the presence of the bacterial Wolbachia symbiont that apparently is affecting reproduction of this species, including its sex ratio in the field. Two species of hyperparasitoids have also emerged from the parasitized olive psylla nymphs from Catalonia: numerous specimens of Apocharips trapezoidea (Hartig (Hymenoptera, Figitidae and one specimen of a Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae.

  8. Espécies de cigarrinhas (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae em pomares de citros da região de Bebedouro, SP, com descrição de uma espécie nova de Acrogonia Stål

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    Rosangela Cristina Marucci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sharpshooter leafhoppers (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae in citrus groves of the area of Bebedouro, SP, with description of a new species of Acrogonia Stål. Sixteen species of Cicadellidae, subfamily Cicadellinae, were collected and identified: 11 of the tribe Cicadellini and five of the tribe Proconiini. The ten most common species, together with a new species, are characterized based on external morphology and male genitalia: Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli sp. nov.; Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg, 1879; Dilobopterus costalimai Young, 1977; Ferrariana trivittata (Signoret, 1854; Hortensia similis (Walker, 1851; Macugonalia cavifrons (Stål, 1862; M. leucomelas (Walker, 1851; Oncometopia facialis (Signoret, 1854; Plesiommata corniculata Young, 1977 and P. mollicella (Fowler, 1900. The leafhopper samples were collected in citrus groves and in adjacent habitats (woods, swamp, cultivable plain, spontaneous vegetation of the grove, coffee crop and sugarcane at the counties of Bebedouro and Monte Azul Paulista and in the district of Turvínia. The collecting methods were: insect net, yellow sticky cards, portable suction trap and Malaise trap. Identification keys were elaborated for the 16 species. There is a great diversity of Cicadellinae species in the citric groves. In the three areas sampled, it was collected a larger number of species of the tribe Cicadellini than of the tribe Proconiini. In the Bebedouro area, the vector species of Xylella fastidiosa, A. citrina sp. nov., B. xanthophis, D. costalimai and O. facialis, were collected in the citrus groves and in all adjacent habitats.

  9. Dinámica de polifenoles y estudio anatomo-histoquímico en Schinus longifolius (Lindl. Speg. (Anacardiaceae en respuesta a la infección por Calophya mammifex (Hemiptera - Calophyidae

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    Ignacio AGUDELO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los fenoles totales, taninos totales, proantocianidinas, flavonoides totales y ácidos hidroxicinámicos totales de hojas sanas y agallas de Schinus longifolius (Lindl. Speg. (Anacardiaceae infectado por Calophya mammifex (Hemiptera - Calophyidae. La agalla presenta una variación cuali-cuantitativa de los polifenoles estudiados, con una disminución de los fenoles, taninos, flavonoides y ácidos hidroxicinámicos y un aumento en el contenido de proantocianidinas, cuyo monómero se transforma en cianidina luego del clivaje ácido. Se realizó además un análisis anatómico de la agalla donde se encontraron acúmulos de esclereidas y un mayor desarrollo vascular respecto de la hoja sana y un ensayo histoquímico que mostró una expresión diferencial de metabolitos polifenólicos en sus tejidos. C. mammifex utiliza la agalla como refugio contra las condiciones climáticas adversas y predadores y provee además de alimento con menos compuestos potencialmente perjudiciales en las etapas tempranas de su desarrollo.

  10. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Dusanka Jerinic-Prodanovic; Ljiljana Protić

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocori...

  11. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea

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    Dusanka Jerinic-Prodanovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839, A. confusus Reuter, 1884, A. nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794, A. nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761, Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, O. minutus (Linnaeus, 1758 and O. niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843, Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862, D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758, D. lutescens (Schilling, 1836, Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763, Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888, Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758, Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Ps. quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Ps. flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843. The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants.

  12. Effect of bean genotypes, insecticides, and natural products on the control of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae = Efeito de genótipos de feijoeiro, inseticida e produtos naturais no controle Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    Júlio Cesar Janini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of bean genotypes, insecticides, and natural products on the control of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. The influence of bean genotypes associated with neem oil as insecticide was evaluated to control B. tabaci (Gennadius biotype B and C. phaseoli (Hood during the wet season sowing. The experimental design used was the randomized block arrangement in a 4x4x3 factorial scheme, represented by genotypes, neem oil and insecticides respectively, with three replications. The genotypes Carioca, IAC Harmonia, IAC Centauro and Pérola were used. The evaluations were done at 14 and 42 days after seedling emergence, bycounting B. tabaci biotype B eggs and nymphs and C. phaseoli nymphs in the genotypes leaf. Conclusion: The B. tabaci biotype B eggs and nymphs number were smaller in IAC Centauro and higher in IAC Harmonia. The tested genotypes were similarly infested by C. phaseoli. IAC Centauro and IAC Harmonia genotypes associated with neem oil (highlighting the full dose – 1% provided lower number of whitefly eggs and thrips nymphs. Neem oil at the full dose alsoreduced whitefly nymph number. In the tested genotypes the insecticide provided reduction in the number of whitefly eggs and nymphs as well in the thrips nymphs, with increase in therecommend dose. Avaliou-se a influência de genótipos de feijoeiro associado à aplicação de óleo de nim e inseticida no controle de B. tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B e C. phaseoli (Hood na época de semeadura “das águas”. O delineamento experimental utilizados foi o de blocos casualizados dispostos em um esquema fatorial 4 x 3 x 3, representado por variedades, óleo de nim e inseticidas, respectivamente, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se os genótipos Carioca, IAC Harmonia, IAC Centauro e Pérola. As avaliações foram realizadas dos 14 aos 42 dias após a emergência das plantas, contando-se o número de ovos e

  13. Dinâmica populacional do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae e de seu parasitóide Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae em floresta de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Population dinamics of red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae and its parasitoid, Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, in Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation

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    Pedro José Ferreira Filho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O psilídeo-de-concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei, é uma praga exótica específica de Eucalyptus, que causa desfolha, secamento de ponteiros e ramos, podendo levar as árvores à morte. O parasitóide Psyllaephagus bliteus é indicado como principal agente no controle biológico desta praga. Portanto, o monitoramento adequado de as ambas espécies por um método eficiente de amostragem facilitaria o manejo para uma futura tomada de decisão. Devido à falta de informações referentes ao seu comportamento em plantações extensivas de eucalipto no Brasil, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as populações de G. brimblecombei e de P. bliteus em florestas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, utilizando armadilhas amarelas para determinação de sua flutuação populacional e correlacionado-as com variáveis meteorológicas (temperatura e precipitação. A determinação da flutuação populacional (53 pontos amostrais foi realizada em talhão de 19ha com E. camaldulensis em Luíz Antônio, SP, em 10avaliações quinzenais, entre janeiro e junho de 2005. As populações de ambas as espécies apresentaram correlação inversamente proporcional em função da temperatura e não há correlação com a precipitação no período avaliado.Psyllids are one most widespread group of pests, causing severe damage on agricultural and forestry systems. The recently discover about occurrence of red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, in Brazil is, nowadays a serious problem in Eucalyptus forests, mainly in E. camaldulensis. The psyllid specific parasitic wasp Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the main biological control agent of this pest. Thus, the adequate monitoring of both species by efficient sampling method would facilitate a future decision making. Due to economic importance, this study aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei and P. bliteus populations in Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation, using yellow

  14. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease. PMID:27232127

  15. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates for the control of Blissus antillus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae Seleção de isolados Beauveria Bassiana e Metarhizium Anisopliae para o controle de Blissus Antillus

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    Richard Ian Samuels

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinch bugs of the genus Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae are serious pests of maize, wheat, sorghum and various grasses. This study is the first to screen isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against 4th instar and adult Blissus antillus aiming to develop a biological control program for this important pasture pest. Ten fungal isolates were initially screened and three isolates were chosen for further investigation. To determine virulence, insects were inoculated by immersion in concentrations of 5 ´ 10(8 conidia mL-1. Mortality was evaluated for 10 days. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 was the most virulent isolate to both nymphs and adults, causing 53 and 78% infection, respectively, and values for LT50 of 7.8 and 5.0 days, respectively. Germination studies were carried out to confirm viability and determine speed of germination as a pathogenicity factor. The production of conidia on the cadavers of insects infected with the three selected isolates was determined. The production of conidia on rice media was also evaluated. B. bassiana CG 24 produced the highest number of conidia on insects cadavers (14.9 ´ 10(7 conidia per insect and also on rice media (10.6 ´ 10(9 conidia per g.Percevejos do gênero Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygeidae são pragas importantes das plantações de milho, trigo e sorgo e de vários tipos de gramíneos forrageiros. Esse estudo é o primeiro a amostrar isolados de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae contra aos 4(0 instares e adultos de Blissus antillus com a finalidade de desenvolver um programa de controle biológico dessa importante praga de pastagens. Dez isolados foram inicialmente testados e três foram escolhidos para maiores investigações. Para determinar a virulência, os insetos foram inoculados por imersão em suspensões de conídios a uma concentração de 5 ´ 10(8 conídios mL-1. Mortalidade foi avaliada por 10 dias. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 foi o isolado mais virulento para as ninfas e os

  16. Differences in Stylet Sheath Occurrence and the Fibrous Ring (Sclerenchyma) between xCitroncirus Plants Relatively Resistant or Susceptible to Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Richardson, Matthew L.; Abdo, Zaid; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (UN-3881) or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459) to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing) sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem) in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker) compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881) than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459) accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector. PMID:25343712

  17. Differences in stylet sheath occurrence and the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma between xCitroncirus plants relatively resistant or susceptible to adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae.

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    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae, is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB, the world's most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp., that are relatively resistant (UN-3881 or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459 to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881 than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459 accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector.

  18. Potential of sorghum and physic nut (Jatropha curcas for management of plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera on cotton in an assisted trap-cropping strategy

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    JM Vassal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton bollworm (CBW Helicoverpa armigera andto a lesser extent plant bugs (PB (Hemiptera: Miridaeare important pests of cotton in Africa. For sustainabilityreasons, it is necessary to reduce use of chemical controlmeasures for these pests. A promising alternative tochemical control of both CBW and PB is trap cropping,assisted with botanical pesticides sprays, if needed. Wereport studies conducted from 1995–98 on sorghumattractiveness to PB and CBW, on the potential of physicnut (Jatropha curcas extracts [particularly the phorbolester (PE fraction of the oil] for sorghum protection fromPB damage, and on the insecticidal activity of Jatrophaextracts on CBW. At the ICRISAT research station(Samanko, Mali, infestation by the five main species ofPB (accounting for 96% of total was much higher onsorghum than on cotton. In the Kolokani region, CBWinfestation was negligible on the Guinea loose-panicledsorghum cultivar Bibalawili, while it was significant onboth compact-panicled PB susceptible ICSH 89002 andPB resistant Malisor 84-7. At Samanko, Jatropha oilapplication on sorghum panicles showed some effect onPB when damage level was high, better than Jatrophaand neem aqueous extracts. However, it did not competewith pyrethroid protection level. PE contact toxicity onCBW larvae was too low to determine a LC 50. Aningestion insecticidal activity of PE was found on alltested larval instars. Contact toxicity LC 50 of PE on eggswas 1.66 g ml-1. Development of larvae and reproductiveability of adults derived from new-laid eggs treated with solutions of 0.35 g ml-1 PE and above were considerablyaffected. Prospects for using sorghum and Jatrophaextracts for cotton protection against insect pests in anassisted trap-cropping strategy are discussed.

  19. Spittlebugs in the genus Sphenorhina (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) associated with weedy composite host plants (Asteraceae) that may represent unusual cases of nitrogen fixation%与特殊固氮模式草本菊科寄主植物有关的Sphenorhina属沫蝉(半翅目:沫蝉科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinton THOMPSON

    2013-01-01

    观察了沫蝉科Sphenorhina属与固氮植物有关的热带木本菊科植物Crassocephalum cerpidioides 和Chromolaena ordorata的3种沫蝉.沫蝉可能作为菊科一些固氮植物的间接指示物,该科的固氮作用尚未得到很好研究.%Three species of the spittlebug genus Sphenorhina (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) have been observed in association with Crassocephalum crepidioides and Chromolaena ordorata,weedy tropical species in the family Asteraceae that have been implicated as nitrogen-fixing plants.The spittlebugs may be serving as indirect indicators of nitrogen fixation in some species of Asteraceae,a group in which nitrogen fixation has not been well established.

  20. Caracterización in silico de las proteínas del choque térmico Hsp70 y Hsp90 deBemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae y su posible actividad adaptativa

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    Eneida Torres Cabra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La mosca blanca, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más destructivas e invasivas en el mundo, ataca una gran cantidad de cultivos. Se adapta fácilmente a plantas hospederas y a nuevas regiones geográficas, lo que sugiere el desarrollo de mecanismos de control a daños producidos por factores estresantes. Las proteínas Hsp se expresanen los organismos como mecanismo de defensa, actúan como chaperonas en el correcto ensamblaje de las proteínas. En este estudio se realizó una caracterizaciónin silico de las proteínas Hsp70 y Hsp90 de B. tabaci, secuencias obtenidas de NCBI. La determinaciónde los perfiles de hidrofobicidad, polaridad, accesibilidady flexibilidad se obtuvieron con “ProScale” de ExPASy, el perfil de antigenicidad con JaMBW. La secuencia aminoacídica se analizó con GOR IV y SOPMA y la composición de aminoácidos con ProtParam. Para analizar el peso molecular, índice deinestabilidad, índice alifático y gradiente hidropático,con GRAVY. La estructura terciaria se obtuvo con HHpred, y ESyPred3D. Para validar las estructuras 3D se utilizó Procheck, What_check y errat. Hsp70 y Hsp90 de B. tabaci presentan valores bajos de hidrofobicidady altos de polaridad, flexibilidad y accesibilidad, características que le permiten a las proteínas extender su capacidad como chaperonas. La Hsp70tiene una estructura secundaria compuesta por 41-45% alfa hélices, 30-43% coil y menos del 6% en hoja plegada y la Hsp90 por 52 y 53% hélices, 26-34% coily 6% hoja plegada. Las Hsp juegan un rol importante en los insectos debido a su tamaño y corto ciclo de vida, pues la temperatura influye en su distribución y abundancia.