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Sample records for burma

  1. Burma/Myanmar - Where Now?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps......Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps...

  2. 10 medisinplanter fra Burma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sammendrag Hensikten med denne masteroppgaven er å undersøke om tradisjonell bruk av utvalgte medisinplanter fra Burma har vitenskapelig støtte. I tillegg ble interessante studier på biologiske/farmakologiske effekter av plantene tatt med. Litteratursøket ble utført ved hjelp av databasene Medline/Ovid, Medline/Pubmed, Embase/Ovid, Chemical Abstracts/Scifinder, ISI Web of Knowledge, Biological Abstracts, Sciencedirect og Cochrane. Andre nettsider som ble brukt til å finne eventuelle sy...

  3. Internal displacement in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. PMID:11026156

  4. Dilemmas of Burma in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Jolliffe

    2011-01-01

    Until a government of Burma is able to accept the role of non-state armed groups as providers for civilian populations and affords them legitimacy within a legal framework, sustained conflict and mass displacement remain inevitable....

  5. 10 Medisinplanter fra Burma (Myanmar)

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanpanah, Rounak

    2015-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven har som formål å foreta litteratursøk over 10 utvalgte medisinplanter fra Burma (Myanmar) som professor Arnold Nordal samlet inn i perioden 1957-1961. Hensikten med denne oppgaven er å bruke systematisk litteratursøk for å samle opplysninger om tradisjonell bruk av plantene i Burma og i andre land, undersøke hvilke vitenskapelige studier som er utført på disse plantene og om tradisjonelle bruksområder har vitenskapelig støtte. Databaser som ble benyttet for å utføre litte...

  6. The Burma Issue in Sino-U.S. Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In January 2007, China and Russia vetoed a UN draft resolution on Burma with the result that the Burma issue has become yet another point of conflict between the U.S. and China. Although the Burma issue has been present for nearly 20 years, China and the U.S. have both successfully kept their differences under control. In the short term, it is unlikely that conflict will break out between China and U.S. over Burma. However, in the long term,there is still the possibility that the Burma issue could trigger a conflict between China and the U.S..

  7. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country

  8. 10 Medisinplanter fra Burma : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sammendrag Denne masteroppgaven har som formål å vurdere tilgjengelig vitenskapelig litteratur for 10 medisinplanter hentet fra et herbarium fra Burma, utarbeidet av professor Arnold Nordal i perioden 1957-1961. Det skal undersøkes om de påståtte tradisjonelle bruksområdene for de utvalgte plantene har vitenskapelig støtte, ved å sammenligne bioaktive planteforbindelser, og farmakologiske effekter med tradisjonell bruk. Andre interessante kjemiske, biologiske og toksikologiske studier er ...

  9. 31 CFR 537.204 - Prohibited new investment in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited new investment in Burma... Prohibitions § 537.204 Prohibited new investment in Burma. Except as otherwise authorized, new investment, as... Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law...

  10. Results of medical examination of refugees from Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H D; Lykke, J; Hougen, H P;

    1998-01-01

    To describe exposure to human rights violations among refugees from rural Burma; to compare exposure experienced by an ethnic Burmese minority group, the Shans, with that of the rest of the study population; and to compare exposure of those who had fled Burma recently with that of refugees who had...

  11. Esoteric Theravada Buddhism in Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Foxeus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of independence in 1948 was in many ways a watershed in Burma’s history. At this time, a variety of Buddhist movements emerged that were part not only of a ‘Burmese Buddhist revival’, in which even the government was involved, but also a general re-enchantment of Asia. In the period following World War II, projects of nation-building and further modernization were implemented in many newly independent Asian nation states. The theories of modernization adopted by the rulers had presupposed that a new, rationalized and secularized order that had set them on the path of ‘progress’ would entail a decline of religion. However, instead there was a widespread resurgence of religion, and a variety of new, eclectic religious movements emerged in Southeast Asia. In the thriving religious field of postcolonial Burma, two lay Buddhist movements associated with two different meditation techniques emerged, viz.; the insight meditation movement and the concentration meditation movement. The latter consisted of a variety of esoteric congregations combining concentration meditation with esoteric lore, and some of these were characterized by fundamentalist trends. At the same time, the supermundane form of Buddhism became increasingly influential in the entire field of religion. The aim of the present article is to discuss how this supermundane dimension has reshaped the complex religious field in Burma, with particular emphasis on the esoteric congregations; to present the Burmese form of esoteric Theravāda Buddhism, and to situate the fundamentalist trends which are present in these contexts.

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed... foreign policy of the United States by the actions and policies of the Government of Burma, invoking the... abuses or to have engaged in activities facilitating public corruption in Burma. On April 30, 2008,...

  13. 31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic development projects in Burma. 537.412 Section 537.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... economic development of resources located in Burma is prohibited by § 537.204 where the company's profits are predominantly derived from the company's economic development of resources located in Burma....

  14. 31 CFR 103.186 - Special measures against Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special measures against Burma. 103.186 Section 103.186 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Law...

  15. The role of the Tatmadaw in modern day Burma: an analysis/ Zaiton bte Johari.

    OpenAIRE

    Johari, Zaiton bte.

    2000-01-01

    The Tatmadaw (Burmese Army) has dominated Burma's politics since the Japanese and British occupation of Burma until today. Its role in Burma has received international attention, especially while other countries in Southeast Asia have seen the decline of military power, the most recent that being Indonesia. The Tatmadaw seems unshaken with all the recent development affecting the military institution in Southeast Asia. This study is significant in that it attempts to understand how the Tatmad...

  16. Constructing the Indian Immigrant to Colonial Burma, 1885-1948

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumder, Rajashree

    2013-01-01

    The Indian Ocean arena has been a zone of circulation and network for people, capital and commodities since centuries. People from the Indian subcontinent had been traveling to Burma as part of this network as court priests, merchants, pilgrims, travelers and soldiers. During the early twentieth century this figure was transformed in the official discourse and popular imagination to immigrant, or a "bird of passage" that was seen as draining the wealth of an incipient Burmese nation. My disse...

  17. 78 FR 21497 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... articles of jewelry containing jadeite or rubies mined or extracted from Burma, or any other activity... jewelry containing jadeite or rubies mined or extracted from Burma or any other activity prohibited by... classifiable under chapter heading 7103 of the HTS; and the term articles of jewelry containing jadeite...

  18. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which includes responsibility for the development or exploitation of resources located in Burma, including making or attempting to make those resources accessible or available for exploitation or economic..., or minerals in the ground in Burma; or a contract to assume control of a mining operation in...

  19. 31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. 537.413 Section 537.413 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  20. 31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma... Burma of shares of ownership, including an equity interest, in the economic development of resources... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of shares in...

  1. China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei FAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino–Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Charac-terizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Bur-ma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports.

  2. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... level of project management, such as entry into a contract with a development project's sponsor or owner... royalties, earnings or profits of, the economic development of resources located in Burma....

  3. Contested Regimes, Aid Flows, and Refugee Flows: The Case of Burma Umkämpfte Regime, Hilfsgelder und Flüchtlingsströme: Der Fall Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Banki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial literature that critiques the role that international aid plays in lending support to oppressive and contested regimes. But few investigators have asked the inverse question: what happens when aid is withdrawn? Following government oppression in 1988, international aid to Burma decreased significantly, providing a case study enabling this question to be addressed. Using Burma as an example, this article asks: if the presence of aid has been shown to support oppressive and contested regimes, what is the impact when aid is withdrawn? The article reviews critiques of development and humanitarian aid and identifies three specific regime-reinforcing phenomena. It demonstrates that these have not diminished following the overall decrease of aid to Burma. The paper then addresses the related relationship between aid flows and refugee flows, and concludes with implications of the research. Es gibt mittlerweile eine ganze Reihe von Literatur, in der die Rolle von internationaler Hilfe zur Unterstützung von Unrechtsregimen kritisch diskutiert wird. Es gibt bislang aber nur wenige Untersuchungen, in denen die Frage anders herum gestellt wird. Was passiert, wenn Hilfsgelder zurückgehalten werden? Seit der Unterdrückung im Jahr 1988 ist die internationale Hilfe an Burma/ Myanmar deutlich zurückgegangen. Dieser Artikel fragt für das Fallbeispiel Burma: Welche Wirkungen hat es, wenn Hilfsgelder zurückgehalten werden? Der Artikel beleuchtet die Debatten zur humanitären Hilfe und Entwicklung und identifiziert drei besondere Regime stützende Effekte. Der Artikel zeigt, dass diese im Fall Burma nicht eingetreten sind, als Hilfe zurückgezogen wurde. Der Artikel diskutiert außerdem die Beziehung zwischen Hilfsgeldern und Flüchtlingsströmen und versucht, Folgerungen aus der Forschung zu entwickeln.

  4. 77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma'' (77 FR 41243, July 13, 2012... exercise, and the construction and maintenance of sports facilities open to the Burmese public; (5) Non... activities, including, but not limited to, religious education and training, including the training...

  5. A Pilot Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for Refugee Youth from Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah Dorothy; Emmerling, Dane; Gavarkavich, Diane; Mershon, Claire-Helene; Linton, Kristin; Rubesin, Hillary; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Eng, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Art therapy is a promising form of therapy to address mental health concerns for refugee youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a pilot evaluation of an art therapy program for refugee adolescents from Burma currently living in the United States. Evaluation activities were based on the Centers for Disease Control and…

  6. 31 CFR 537.203 - Prohibited importation of products of Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Section 3(b) of the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 provides that the prohibition contained in... Prohibitions § 537.203 Prohibited importation of products of Burma. Except as otherwise authorized, and... President determines and notifies specified committees of Congress that to do so is in the national...

  7. Key Biodiversity Areas in the Indo-Burma Hotspot: Process, Progress and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Tordoff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs provide geographic targets for the expansion of protected area coverage, and identify sites for urgent conservation action. Identification of KBAs in the Indo-Burma Hotspot was undertaken during 2003, for a region of analysis comprising Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma, Thailand and Vietnam, plus parts of southern China. The starting point was information on 282 Important Bird Areas identified by BirdLife International and collaborators. These data were then overlaid with point locality data on globally threatened mammals, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater fish and plants, with additional KBAs identified as required. Through this process, a total of 438 KBAs were identified, covering 258,085km2 or 11.5 percent of the region of analysis. Only 58 percent of the KBAs are wholly or partly included within protected areas, suggesting that there may be a need for further expansion of protected area networks, particularly in Myanmar and Vietnam. The criteria for KBA identification are triggered by 812 species, of which 23 are believed only to occur at a single KBA globally. The KBAs have proven to be a useful conservation priority setting tool in Indo-Burma, helping to guide investments by various donors and application of environmental safeguard policies by international financial institutions. There are fewer examples of KBAs being used to guide expansion of protected area systems in Indo-Burma. In large part, this is because the period of rapid expansion of protected areas in most hotspot countries predated the KBA identification process, and political support for further significant expansion is currently limited.

  8. Sacred Spaces of Karen Refugees and Humanitarian Aid Across the Thailand-Burma Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I demonstrate that the Karen National Union (KNU was able to manipulate and politicise humanitarian aid in the Thailand-Burma borderland. I contend that in the context of the civil war in eastern Burma, Protestant Christianity provides a crucial vehicle for political mobilisation. The article shows that refugee camps in the Thai borderland become centres of proselytisation, and that Protestant evangelical and missionary networks open up passages across the Thai-Burmese border. The article thus considers a case where a homeland is constructed in the liminal space between two nations. Illegal emergency aid that doubles as missionary project reinforces the image of a helpless victim being vandalized by evil Burmese army. ----- Dieser Artikel zeigt auf, wie es der Karen National Union (KNU gelungen ist, die humanitäre Hilfe im Grenzgebiet zwischen Thailand und Burma für eigene Ziele zu manipulieren und zu politisieren. Ich argumentiere, dass das protestantische Christentum ein entscheidendes Vehikel zur politischen Mobilisierung im Kontext des Bürgerkriegs in Ost-Burma darstellt. Der Artikel zeigt, dass die Flüchtlingslager im thailändischen Grenzgebiet als Zentren der Missionierung dienen und dass die protestantisch-evangelikalen und missionarischen Netzwerke territoriale Korridore durch die thailändisch-burmesische Grenze öffnen. Wir sehen hier ein Fallbeispiel, wie eine imaginierte Nation in der Grenzerfahrung zweier Nationen konstruiert wird. Soforthilfe, die mit protestantischer Mission doppelt, verstärkt das Bild hilfloser Opfer, die von der burmesischen Armee vandalisiert werden.

  9. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Risk Factors Among Children 6–36 Months Old in Burma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Peng, Ying; Li, Jiayin; Yang, Titi; Liu, Zhaoyan; Lv, Yanli; Wang, Peiyu

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is a common nutritional problem, and it has a remarkably high prevalence rate in Southeast Asia. In this study, children from 6 to 36 months were investigated to determine (1) the prevalence of anemia and (2) risk factors associated with anemia. Convenience sampling was used to select three villages in three different regions in Burma. Hemoglobin and anthropometric indicators were measured for 872 children. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with ane...

  10. The susceptibility of Bandicota bengalensis from Rangoon, Burma to several anticoagulant rodenticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, J. E.; Htun, P. T.; Naing, H.

    1980-01-01

    The baseline susceptibility of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, from Rangoon, Burma, to five anticoagulant rodenticides was established with no-choice feeding in the laboratory. The susceptibility of lesser bandicoots to the several poisons (brodifacoum, difenacoum, diphacinone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) was such that they were offered at a 0.001% concentration. B. bengalensis was most susceptible to brodifacoum, and in descending order, difenacoum, coumatetralyl, diphacino...

  11. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action. PMID:27089734

  12. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action.

  13. “Show Us Your God”: Marilla Baker Ingalls and the Power of Religious Objects in Nineteenth-Century Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kaloyanides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the unusual evangelical work of Marilla Baker Ingalls, an American Baptist missionary to Burma from 1851–1902. By the time of her death in Burma at the age of 75, Ingalls was known as one of the most successful Baptist evangelists among Burmese Buddhists. To understand the extraordinary dynamic of Ingalls’ expanding Christian community, this essay focuses on two prominent objects at the Baptist mission: A life-sized dog statue that Ingalls kept chained at the edge of her property and a massive banyan tree covered with biblical illustrations and revered by locals as an abode of divine beings. This essay argues that these objects transformed Ingalls’ American Baptist Christianity into a kind of Burmese religion that revolved around revered objects. Through an examination of the particular shrine practices that pulled people into the Baptist mission, this essay reflects on the larger context of religious encounter, conflict, and representation in modernizing Burma.

  14. Burma/Myanmar: Challenges of a Ceasefire Accord in Karen State Burma/Myanmar: Herausforderungen eines Waffenstillstandsabkommens im Karen-Staat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Core

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Burma (Myanmar has seen some of the longest-running insurgencies in the world, which have had a devastating effect on local populations and the country as a whole. While the Karen National Union (KNU, which has fought successive Burmese governments since 1949, is in a critical phase of its life, the KNU/KNLA Peace Council (KPC is experiencing life under a ceasefire accord with the Burmese government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC. Major challenges have occurred since the ceasefire and future developments are uncertain. Like all ceasefire groups in the country, the KPC has come under immense pressure to follow the government’s “seven-step road map” to democracy, compete in the 2010 elections, and transform its troops into a border guard force under the control of the Burmese military or face disarmament. This article seeks to provide some insights into a ceasefire group, to analyse the failures and successes of the ceasefire accord, and to outline future challenges to the country. Myanmar (Burma ist bis heute Schauplatz von anhaltenden ethnischen Konflikten, welche einen erheblichen Einfluss auf lokale Bevölkerungen und das ganze Land haben. Während die Karen National Union, die seit dem Jahr 1949 gegen die burmesische Regierung kämpft, sich in einer kritischen Phase befindet, hat das KNU/KNLA Peace Council seinen eigenen Frieden mit der Militärregierung geschlossen. Seit dem Waffenstillstand haben sich erhebliche Herausforderungen aufgetan und zukünftige Entwicklungen sind ungewiss. Wie alle Waffenstillstandsgruppen im Land steht die Gruppe unter dem Druck der Regierung, dem „Sieben-Punkte-Fahrplan zur disziplinierten Demokratie“ zu folgen und damit eine politische Partei zu gründen sowie seine Truppen in eine Grenztruppe unter Kontrolle des burmesischen Militärs zu transformieren. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Einblick in eine Waffenstillstandsgruppe, analysiert die Erfolge sowie Misserfolge des

  15. Two Versions of Buddhist Karen History of the Late British Colonial Period in Burma:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Ikeda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the Karen people in Burma are in fact Buddhist, in spite of their widespread image as Christian, pro-British, anti-Burman, and separatist. In the last decade of British rule, two Buddhist interpretations of Karen history—virtually the first ethnic self-assertion by the Buddhist Karens—were published along with the first Christian version. Writing in Burmese for Burmese readers, the authors of these Buddhist versions sought to prove that the Karen were a legitimate people (lumyo comparable to the Burman and Mon in the Buddhist world, with dynastic lineages of their own kingship (min reaching back into the remote past, and a group faithful to their religious order (thathana. This linkage of ethnicity=kingship=religion was presented in order to persuade skeptical readers who believed that the Karen, lacking the tradition of Buddhist min, were too primitive to constitute an authentic lumyo of the thathana world. Analysis of these texts will shed light on the social formation of Karen identity among the Buddhists from the 1920s to the 1930s. This will also lead us to consider the historical processes whereby the quasi-ethnic idioms and logic innate to the Burmese-speaking world were transformed in the face of modern and Western notions of race and nation, and consequently the mutation of Burma into an ethnically articulated society.

  16. Women of Burma Speak Out: Workshops to Deconstruct Gender-Based Violence and Build Systems of Peace and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.; Khuankaew, Ouyporn

    2004-01-01

    Refugee and internally displaced women of Burma examined structural and institutional violence against women within their communities within workshop formats. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and gender justice. The authors describe their methodology, based…

  17. English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

  18. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  19. Geochemical loading of suspended sediment carried by large monsoonal rivers in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. A.; Tipper, E.; Bird, M. I.; Oo, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Irrawaddy and Salween rivers of Burma drain the most rapidly exhuming region in the Himalayas, the eastern syntaxis zone. These monsoonal rivers have catchment areas of 0.413 x 106 km2 and 0.272 x 106 km2, respectively, and approximately 95% of the Irrawaddy catchment lies within Burma, while the catchment of the Salween flows through China, Thailand and Burma. They are long rivers (~2000 and ~2800 km) which have steep and narrow bedrock gorges along much of their length, and different amounts of floodplain in their lower reaches. These rivers have been less studied than other large Asian systems because of political instability in Burma and restricted access. Based on available historical data, and field work in 2005-2008, Robinson et al. (2007) estimated that the Irrawaddy is likely to be the 3rd largest river globally in terms of sediment load and when the Irrawaddy and Salween estimated fluxes are combined, they together contribute 4.6 Mt/yr of particulate organic carbon (POC) and an additional 1.1Mt/yr of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the ocean. When estimated yields of total organic carbon are calculated, the Irrawaddy-Salween system ranks alongside the Amazon as one of the largest yields of organic carbon, and is higher than the yield for the Ganges-Brahmaptura (Bird et al., 2008). Here we present preliminary geochemical data for water and sediment from the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers, and demonstrate the variability in elemental concentrations of water between the rivers and the summer and winter monsoon seasons, and differences in suspended sediment geochemistry as a function of water depth. The variability and magnitude of weathering products carried by such significant systems need to be quantified in order to understand their contribution to global element cycling (Tipper et al., 2006) and sedimentary depocentres. Our data highlight that further study of the geochemistry of such large rivers will significantly improve our understanding of the

  20. The Whole Story of Britain's Policies on Burma during the Pacific War%太平洋战争期间英国对缅甸政策出台始末

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何跃

    2005-01-01

    In the early period of the Pacific War, the British colonists in the Far East Asia were driven out of Burma. In order to return to Burma after the war, the British government was unwilling to express its attitude toward Burmese future. Although studies and plans had been done on Burmese development after the war within the British Conservative Party, yet they were all denied by Churchill, who later had to work out an explicit policy towards Burma after the counter attack against the Japanese fascists began. Britain worked out a white book, which reflected its dilemma. On the one hand, its government was unwilling to retreat from Burma and on the other, it could not find a better way to control Burma. So this paper argues that the above reasons are the essential cause for Burma to seek independence from the British Commonwealth.

  1. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action. PMID:27089733

  2. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  3. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change. PMID:25530498

  4. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change.

  5. Causes of blindness in rural Myanmar (Burma: Mount Popa Taung-Kalat Blindness Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Y Nemet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet1, Pinhas Nemet2, Geoff Cohn3, Gina Sutton, Gerald Sutton4, Richard Rawson41Department of Ophthalmology, Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; 3Departments of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: This study is a review of the major causes of visual impairment (VI and severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL in Mount Popa Taung-Kalat, a rural region in Myanmar (Burma.Methods: A review of our clinical records of consecutive patients attending clinics was conducted. Participants of all ages (n = 650 of the population of Mount Popa Taung-Kalat and villages in its vicinity underwent ophthalmic interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained Australian ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses. This evaluation included anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, intraocular pressure recording, and direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. VI and SVI/BL were defined by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Six hundred fifty subjects were screened, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 20.6 years (range, 1–99. One hundred five patients (16.2% were children (ages 1–18. Five hundred thirty-one eyes of the total 1,300 eyes (39.5% had VI/SVI/BL, and 40 eyes of the children (38.1% (average age 15.3 ± 13.3 had VI/SVI/BL. The leading causes of VI/SVI/BL were cataract with 288 cases (54.2%, glaucoma with 84 cases (15.8%, and corneal pathology with 78 cases (14.7%. Of all the VI/SVI/BL cases, 8.4% were preventable, 81.9% were treatable, and total of 90.5% were avoidable.Conclusions: In the current study, cataracts were the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, and most of the ophthalmic pathology causing blindness is avoidable. These results highlight the lack of basic ophthalmologist eye care and optician resources in rural regions in Myanmar

  6. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  7. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world’s largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10–20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased—particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately

  8. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  9. The susceptibility of Bandicota bengalensis from Rangoon, Burma to several anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J E; Htun, P T; Naing, H

    1980-02-01

    The baseline susceptibility of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, from Rangoon, Burma, to five anticoagulant rodenticides was established with no-choice feeding in the laboratory. The susceptibility of lesser bandicoots to the several poisons (brodifacoum, difenacoum, diphacinone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) was such that they were offered at a 0.001% concentration. B. bengalensis was most susceptible to brodifacoum, and in descending order, difenacoum, coumatetralyl, diphacinone and warfarin. In comparison with Rattus norvegicus on warfarin at 0.005%, B. bengalensis proved more susceptible. Feeding tests at 0.005% concentration indicated that a 1-day feeding on brodifacoum and difenacoum would result in complete mortality, whereas coumatetralyl and warfarin would require 4 days feeding to a 100% kill. Brodifacoum and difenacoum are recommended at 0.002-0.005% bait concentrations and coumatetralyl at 0.005--0.01% concentrations for the control of B. bengalensis in the field in Rangoon. The use of any anticoagulant material in rat control should be alternated with acute toxicants to retard the possible development of anticoagulant resistance. PMID:6444311

  10. Paysages de l’hybridité en Birmanie Landscapes of Hybridity in Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Robinne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Du fait de la dimension composite, hétérogène, de tout paysage social, une nécessaire cohérence d’ensemble se dessine. À la croisée de populations d’origines diverses produisant une diversité sociale et linguistique aussi complexe qu’instable, la région de Nyaung-Shwé dans l’État Shan de Birmanie est fondamentalement structurée par l’évolution concomitante de la cérémonie processionnelle de cinq images de Bouddha et par le cycle économique de « cinq jours un marché ». L’articulation de ces deux sphères économiques et religieuses non seulement contribue à organiser les déplacements des biens et des personnes de part et d’autre du lac Inlé ; elle génère également une suprématie politique du paysage social au profit de ceux qui contrôlent – au moins symboliquement – leur évolution. Cet exemple pourrait être étendu à d’autres paysages sociaux où le bouddhisme opère comme fédérateur commun (comme dans la région de Thibaw, on le verra, où le christianisme pluriel est indissociable des revendications ethniques, et finalement partout où j’ai été conduit à faire des enquêtes de terrain en Birmanie, dans des régions reculées comme en milieu urbain. Dans tous les cas, la problématique consistant à mettre de côté, au moins dans un premier temps, l’habituel surdéterminant ethnique – voire même interethnique –, c’est-à-dire à centrer l’analyse sur les carrefours transethniques plutôt que sur les frontières culturelles et territoriales, une telle problématique contribuerait à démontrer la dynamique inclusive de tout paysage social et l’intérêt à prendre l’hybridité pour objet d’étude.Despite the composite dimensions of any social landscape, a necesserary social coherence has to be produced. At the crossroad of peoples of multiple origins producing a complex and unstable social and linguistic diversity, the Nyaung Shwe township in the Shan State of Burma

  11. Assessment of multifaceted environmental issues and model development of an Indo-Burma hotspot region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present article provides a multifaceted critical research review on environmental issues intimately related with the socio-economy of North East India (NE), a part of Indo-Burma hotspot. Further, the article addresses the issue of sustainable development of NE India through diverse ecological practices inextricably linked with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). The biodiversity of NE India comprises endemic floral diversity, particularly medicinal plants of importance to pharmaceutical industry, and unique faunal diversity. Nevertheless, it is very unfortunate that this great land of biodiversity is least explored taxonomically as well as biotechnologically, probably due to geographical and political constraints. Different anthropogenic and socio-economic factors have perturbed the pristine ecology of this region, leading to environmental degradation. Also, the practice of unregulated shifting cultivation (jhooming), bamboo flowering, biological invasions and anthropogenic perturbations to biodiversity exacerbate the gloomy situation. Instead of a plethora of policies, the TEK of NE people may be integrated with modern scientific knowledge in order to conserve the environment which is the strong pillar for socio-economic sector here. The aforesaid approach can be practiced in NE India through the broad implementation and extension of agroforestry practices. Further, case studies on Apatanis, ethnomedicinal plants use by indigenous tribal groups and sacred forests are particularly relevant in the context of conservation of environmental health in totality while addressing the socioeconomic impact as well. In context with the prevailing scenarios in this region, we developed an eco-sustainable model for natural resource management through agroforestry practices in order to uplift the social as well as environmental framework.

  12. Characterization of the Burma Road Rubble Pit at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) is located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The BRRP unit consists of two unlined earthen pits dug into surficial soil and filled with various waste materials. It was used from 1973--1983 for the disposal of dry inert rubble such as metal, concrete, lumber, poles, light fixtures, and glass. No record of the disposal of hazardous substances at the BRRP has been found. In 1983, the BRRP was closed by covering it with soil. In September 1988, a Ground Penetrating Radar survey detected three disturbed areas of soil near the BRRP, and a detailed and combined RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation was conducted from November 1993 to February 1994 to determine whether hazardous substances were present in the subsurface, to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination, and to evaluate the risks posed to the SRS facility due to activities conducted at the BRRP site. Metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides and one pesticide (Aldrin) were detected in soil and groundwater samples collected from seventeen BRRP locations. A baseline risk assessment (BRA) was performed quantitatively to evaluate whether chemical and radionuclide concentrations detected in soil and groundwater at the BRRP posed an unacceptable threat to human health and the environment. The exposure scenarios identifiable for the BRRP were for environmental researchers, future residential and occupational land use. The total site noncancer hazard indices were below unity, and cancer risk levels were below 1.0E-06 for the existing and future case environmental researcher scenario. The future case residential and occupational scenarios showed total hazard and risk levels which exceeded US EPA criterion values relative to groundwater scenarios. For the most part, the total carcinogenic risks were within the 1.0E-04 to 1.0E-06 risk range. Only the future adult residential scenario was associated with risks exceeding 1.0E-04

  13. Snakes, Ladders, and Information about Sexually Transmitted Infections: Evaluation of a Peer Educator Training on the Thailand-Burma Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, Jillian; Hkum, Jessica; Hsue, Saw Nanda; Walsh, Meredith; Foster, Angel M

    2016-03-31

    The longstanding conflict and civil strife in Burma has had significant consequences on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of ethnic minority groups, including adolescents. The Adolescent Reproductive Health Zone in Chiang Mai, Thailand promotes adolescent SRH rights and access to services by having peer educators travel to their hometowns in Burma and lead intensive youth-focused trainings on a variety of topics and issues. In order to evaluate the impact of an intensive three-day workshop dedicated to improving knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among peer educators through didactic, experiential, and skill-building exercises, we administered a pre-, post-, and longitudinal assessment. All 13 participants completed both the pre-test and post-test; 11 of 13 participants (85%) completed the longitudinal evaluation administered three months after the training. Our results indicate that both individual and aggregate STI knowledge increased from baseline and that this knowledge was retained. Moreover, the training increased participants' confidence in their outreach abilities, informed changes in the curricular modules, and led to the implementation of new teaching and learning techniques, especially the incorporation of games and activities. Our findings showcase a successful initiative and suggest similar adolescent peer health educator programs could be undertaken in this protracted crisis and conflict setting.

  14. Earthquakes and slip rate of the southern Sagaing fault: insights from an offset ancient fort wall, lower Burma (Myanmar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Aung, Thura; Min, Soe; Khaing, Saw Ngwe; Tun, Soe Thura

    2011-04-01

    Field investigations of an ancient fortress wall in southern Myanmar reveal an offset of ˜6 m across the Sagaing fault, the major right-lateral fault between the Sunda and Burma plates. The fault slip rate implied by offset of this 16th-century fortress is between 11 and 18 cm yr-1. A palaeoseismological excavation within the fortress reveals at least two major fault ruptures since its construction. The slip rate we obtained is comparable to geodetic and geological estimates farther north, but is only 50 per cent of the spreading rate (38 mm yr-1) at the Andaman Sea spreading centre. This disparity suggests that other structures may be accommodating deformation within the Burma Plate. We propose two fault-slip scenarios to explain the earthquake-rupture history of the southern Sagaing fault. Using both small offset features along the fault trace and historical records, we speculate that the southern Sagaing fault exhibits a uniform-fault-slip behaviour and that one section of the fault could generate a M7+ earthquake within the next few decades.

  15. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-05-07 to 2007-06-14 (NCEI Accession 0155654)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155654 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  16. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1117 in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal and others from 2011-12-15 to 2012-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0138170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138170 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1117 in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  17. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Low

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in

  18. Notes on Reading Rare Books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma%滇缅抗战稀见文献知见录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许新民

    2015-01-01

    中国远征军出动对日作战的中缅印战场,既是抗日战争正面战场的重要组成部分,又是世界反法西斯战争亚洲-太平洋战场即东方战线主战场之一。滇缅抗战胜利对世界反法西斯战争取得全面胜利作出了举世瞩目的贡献,是世界反法西斯战争重大战果。中国远征军是滇缅抗战的主力军。笔者就所知所见的稀见滇缅抗战文献单行本逐一概说,共计介绍中美盟国中英文文献十二种和中译日方文献两种,以丰富世界反法西斯战争史和中国抗战史研究史料。%The Chinese Expeditionary Army (CEA) was dispatched from China inland to the west of Yunnan province, Burma, and India for fighting against the Japanese invaders during the Second World War. Not only the battle field which CEA had once experienced and bled was an important component of the frontier battlefields during the period of Anti-Japanese War in China, but also it was one of the oriental main battle fields, the Asia-Pacific, in the International Anti-Fascist War. The victory of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma had made a remarkable contribution towards the finally overall success of the International Anti-Fascism War. CEA was the main force of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which had achieved splendid results on the battle field in West Yunnan and North Burma. The essay is written down to introduce the rare books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which is made of twelve volumes written in Chinese or English, and other two volumes in Japanese. Surely it is worthy of studying for the history of the International Anti-Fascism War and the Anti-Japanese War in China.

  19. A redescription of the monotypic felt scale insect genus Pedroniopsis Green (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Eriococcidae) from India and Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Here we redescribe the felt scale genus Pedroniopsis Green and its type species Pedroniopsis beesoni Green for the first time since it was described 90 years ago. We consider that the genus belongs to the family Eriococcidae as presently understood but realise that the family may not be monophyletic. The species was collected in crevices and pits on the bark of Shorea robusta (Dipterocarpaceae) from Odisha State, India, which is its only known locality in India. We also record the species from Burma (Myanmar) for the first time living in galls on Dipterocarpus tuberculatus (Dipterocarpaceae) and, therefore, the species may have a wider distribution but has not been observed because of its cryptic habit. The adult females of the genus and species have some unusual features such as truncate-conical marginal and dorsal setae that are mostly bifid at the tip. We suggest that the genus may be similar in some respects to the genus Sangicoccus Reyne known from farther east in southern Asia.

  20. Investigation on the biotrophic interaction of Ustilago esculenta on Zizania latifolia found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0.05). Examination of various parts of infected plants using culture methods, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction revealed that Ustilago esculenta colonized Zizania latifolia in a non-systemic manner. Spores and fragmented hyphae of U. esculenta were present in the rhizome of infected plant throughout the year, but shoot interiors were without any fungal structures from April until September. The smut region of infected plants in early September to December were heavily sporulated with fragmented hyphae, while the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. Hyphae and spores were also absent in the internodes and membranes aboveground up to smut region of infected plants but were present in the old rhizomes. PMID:27334294

  1. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  2. 中缅边境蚊虫调查研究%A survey for mosquito at the border between China and Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓龙; 孙肖红; 曹晓梅; 李亚平; 和志宏; 房健慧; 王静

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查中缅边境3个口岸蚊虫种群数量及构成.方法 灯诱法.结果 在中缅边境3个采样点共采集19种蚊虫,其中三带喙库蚊是优势种群,致倦库蚊、棕头库蚊和中华按蚊数量较多.结论 中缅边境蚊种丰富,优势度较高的三带喙库蚊为流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)的媒介,联合开展中缅边境蚊虫和蚊传疾病的监测是双方共同控制传染病传入传出的关键.%Objective To investigate mosquitoes species at the border between China and Burma. Methods Lamp trapping was conducted. Results 19 species of mosquito were collected in three ports. Culex tritaeniorhyn-chus was predominant species. Conclusion Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the vector of Japanese encephalitis, so survey for mosquito and mosquito-bome disease is required at the sino-Burma border.

  3. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on Ramree Island, the western coast of Myanmar (Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuang-Chou; Thura Tun, Soe

    2014-05-01

    Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Offshore western Myanmar, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust. Wide-spread marine terraces with numerous uplifted corals are evident for the active deformation along the coast of western Myanmar. The 1762 Arakan earthquake, the last major seismic event along this plate boundary belt, has been proposed to result from slip on upper-plate splay faults, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Some previous studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years from the ages of the marine terraces, but the seismic activity of upper-plate splay faults remains unclear. From the ages of multiple steps of uplifted coral microatolls, we have identified several previous earthquake events that are likely produced by the upper-plate splay faults. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, western Myanmar, we found three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations on the wave-cut platform. U-Th ages of the corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. A lower group of corals suggests that there was at least one event after the 1762 earthquake, probably in 1848 according to Myanmar's recorded history. This event has not been reported previously elsewhere, thus it may represent a minor, local event that occurred entirely on a splay fault. Geomorphic evidence for such a local structure is also present near the central western Ramree coast. Detailed topographic survey revealed that the uplifted marine terrace gets higher oceanward. This deformation pattern is likely produced by an east-dipping reverse fault not too far offshore the coastline there. Since most previous studies focused on megathrust earthquakes, the

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-21 (NODC Accession 0115589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115589 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-23 (NODC Accession 0115009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115009 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of...

  6. Information Extraction and Interpretation Analysis of Mineral Potential Targets Based on ETM+ Data and GIS technology: A Case Study of Copper and Gold Mineralization in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralization-alteration and structure information extraction plays important roles in mineral resource prospecting and assessment using remote sensing data and the Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Choosing copper and gold mines in Burma as example, the authors adopt band ratio, threshold segmentation and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the hydroxyl alteration information using ETM+ remote sensing images. Digital elevation model (DEM) (30m spatial resolution) and ETM+ data was used to extract linear and circular faults that are associated with copper and gold mineralization. Combining geological data and the above information, the weights of evidence method and the C-A fractal model was used to integrate and identify the ore-forming favourable zones in this area. Research results show that the high grade potential targets are located with the known copper and gold deposits, and the integrated information can be used to the next exploration for the mineral resource decision-making

  7. Impact of community-based maternal health workers on coverage of essential maternal health interventions among internally displaced communities in eastern Burma: the MOM project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to essential maternal and reproductive health care is poor throughout Burma, but is particularly lacking among internally displaced communities in the eastern border regions. In such settings, innovative strategies for accessing vulnerable populations and delivering basic public health interventions are urgently needed. METHODS: Four ethnic health organizations from the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions collaborated on a pilot project between 2005 and 2008 to examine the feasibility of an innovative three-tiered network of community-based providers for delivery of maternal health interventions in the complex emergency setting of eastern Burma. Two-stage cluster-sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y conducted before and after program implementation enabled evaluation of changes in coverage of essential antenatal care interventions, attendance at birth by those trained to manage complications, postnatal care, and family planning services. RESULTS: Among 2,889 and 2,442 women of reproductive age in 2006 and 2008, respectively, population characteristics (age, marital status, ethnic distribution, literacy were similar. Compared to baseline, women whose most recent pregnancy occurred during the implementation period were substantially more likely to receive antenatal care (71.8% versus 39.3%, prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-2.04] and specific interventions such as urine testing (42.4% versus 15.7%, PRR = 2.69 [95% CI 2.69-3.54], malaria screening (55.9% versus 21.9%, PRR = 2.88 [95% CI 2.15-3.85], and deworming (58.2% versus 4.1%, PRR = 14.18 [95% CI 10.76-18.71]. Postnatal care visits within 7 d doubled. Use of modern methods to avoid pregnancy increased from 23.9% to 45.0% (PRR = 1.88 [95% CI 1.63-2.17], and unmet need for contraception was reduced from 61.7% to 40.5%, a relative reduction of 35% (95% CI 28%-40%. Attendance at birth by those trained to

  8. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahn Mahn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. Methods A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. Results One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Conclusions Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during

  9. Phylogeny and taxonomical investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hot spot region with special reference to Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Th; Devi, S Indira; Sharma, K Chandradev; Kennedy, K

    2015-01-01

    Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice.

  10. An Analysis of the Conflicts between Burman and Karen during Japanese Occupation in Burma%缅甸日据时期“缅克冲突”探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵梅

    2015-01-01

    During Japanese occupation in Burma,there are many complicated reasons which caused the conflicts between Burman and Karen,including a history full of conflicts between Burman and Karen,the British policy‘Divide and Rule',and Japanese adding fuel to the fire based on their interest. In addition,the two nations took different resolutions when facing conflicts,which also resulted in widely divergent consequences. Karen people usu-ally took violent confrontation and peaceful talking;however,the leaders of Burma were too random and not patient enough to deal with conflicts,which sowed the seeds of the Karen Rebellion in the early years of Burma.%缅甸日据时期,缅族、克伦族发生多次冲突,其原因除缅族、克伦族历史传统因素外,还有历史上英国“分而治之”政策留下的“后遗症”,以及日本侵略者出于自身利益的推波助澜。两族在冲突解决上也截然不一。克伦族对冲突采取“暴力对抗”与“和平谈判”两种不同的解决方式,分别导致了大相径庭的结果。缅族领导对冲突处理不够细致、深入,为建国初期克伦族叛乱埋下了伏笔。

  11. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of subaerial lava flows of Barren Island volcano and the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc, Burma Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Pande, Kanchan; Bhutani, Rajneesh

    2015-06-01

    Little was known about the nature and origin of the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc in spite of the fact that it formed part of the highly active Indonesian volcanic arc system, one of the important continental crust forming regions in Southeast Asia. This arc, formed as a result of subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Microplate (a sliver of the Eurasian Plate), contains only one active subaerial magmatic center, Barren Island volcano, whose evolutional timeline had remained uncertain. In this work, we present results of the first successful attempt to date crustal xenoliths and their host lava flows from the island, by incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar method, in an attempt to understand the evolutionary histories of the volcano and its basement. Based on concordant plateau and isochron ages, we establish that the oldest subaerial lava flows of the volcano are 1.58 ± 0.04 (2σ) Ma, and some of the plagioclase xenocrysts have been derived from crustal rocks of 106 ± 3 (2σ) Ma. Mineralogy (anorthite + Cr-rich diopside + minor olivine) and isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr 7.0) of xenoliths not only indicate their derivation from a lower (oceanic) crustal olivine gabbro but also suggest a genetic relationship between the arc crust and the ophiolitic basement of the Andaman accretionary prism. We speculate that the basements of the forearc and volcanic arc of the Andaman subduction zone belong to a single continuous unit that was once attached to the western margin of the Eurasian Plate.

  12. Adapting to social and political transitions - the influence of history on health policy formation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Annear, Peter; Ahmed, Shakil; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2014-04-01

    The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action.

  13. Geological, petrogical and geochemical characteristics of granitoid rocks in Burma: with special reference to the associated WSn mineralization and their tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin

    The granitoid rocks in Burma extend over a distance of 1450 km from Putao, Kachin State in the north, through Mogok, Kyaukse, Yamethin and Pyinmana in the Mandalay Division, to Tavoy and Mergui areas, Tenasserim Division, in the south. The Burmese granitoids can be subdivided into three N-S trending, major belts viz. western granitoid belt, central graniotoid belt and eastern granitoid belt. The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene western belt granitoids are characterized by high-level intrusions associated with porphyry Cu(Au) related, younger volcanics; these plutonic and volcanic rocks are thought to have been emplaced as a magmatic-volcanic arc (inner magmatic-volcanic arc) above an east-dipping, but westwardly migrating, subduction zone related to the prolonged plate convergence which occurred during Upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The central granitoid belt is characterized by mesozonal, Mostly Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene plutons associated with abundant pegmalites and aplites, numerous vein-type W-Sn deposits and rare co-magmatic volcanics. The country rocks are structurally deformed, metamorphic rocks of greenschist to upper amphibolite facies ranging in age as early as Upper Precambrian to Upper Paleozoic and locally of fossiliferous, metaclastic rocks (Mid Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous). Available K/Ar radiometric data indicate significant and possibly widespread thermal disturbances in the central granitoid belt during the Tertiary (mostly Miocence). In this study, the distribution, lithological, textural and structural characteristics of the central belt granitoids are reviewed, and their mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical features are presented. A brief description of W-Sn ore veins associated with these granitoid plutons is also reported. Present geological, petrological and geochemical evidences demonstrate that the W-Sn related, central belt granitoids are mostly granodiorite and granite which are commonly transformed into granitoid gneisses

  14. Mosquito Communities in Boarder Areas between China and Burma%云南中缅边境蚊科昆虫群落的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 郑重; 董言德; 赵彤言

    2011-01-01

    The mosquito populations were investigated by trap lamps and larva collection in GaoLi village and virgin forests around the village in boarder areas between China and Burma. The results showed that a total of 3305 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 13 species were collected from the populated area, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Armigeres, among these mosquitoes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. sinensis were the dominant species; While in the virgin forests, a total of 200 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 21 species were sampled, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Toxorhynchites and Uanotaenia, Ae. albopictus and Cx. mimeticus were the dominant species. The population structure was imbalanced at populated areas, and the diversity index of mosquito communities is lower at forests than that is residential area, which might attribute to environmental changes.%为调查和了解云南省瑞丽市中缅边境蚊虫多样性状况,应用灯诱法和采集幼虫法对瑞丽市中缅边境上高丽村和周边方圆4 km原始森林内的蚊虫的优势种组成、蚊虫群落结构的集中性指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数进行分析.结果显示,在居民区共采获蚊虫3 305只,共5属13种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属Aedes、库蚊属Culex、按蚊属Anopheles、曼蚊属Mansonia和阿蚊属Armigeres.其中优势种蚊虫为三带喙库蚊和中华按蚊.在非居民区共采或蚊虫200只,共5属21种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属、库蚊属、按蚊属、巨蚊属Toxorhynchites和蓝带蚊属Uanotaenia.其中优势种蚊虫为白纹伊蚊、拟态库蚊.由于自然环境的破坏,居民区优势集中度过高,群落结构不均匀,非居民区多样性较差,群落内物种的均匀度也偏低.

  15. 缅北地区华裔青少年中华民族认同的现状分析%Analysis on the National Identity of Chinese Teenagers in North Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国强

    2012-01-01

    缅北地区是中华文化圈、东南亚文化圈、南亚文化圈交流交融多元文化并存的立体文化生态区,生活于此的华裔青少年一代对中华民族的认知、评价、情感和行为成分上的认同感究竟有多高。经抽样调查研究发现,缅北地区华裔青少年普遍认为中华民族是一个伟大的民族,为中华民族的传统历史感到骄傲,对中国人有一种亲切感,觉得自己的将来与中华民族的将来休戚相关。相关部门应利用这一有效时机积极增进缅北地区华裔青少年中华民族认同感,并制定积极的侨务政策,大力推进该地区的侨务工作,以加强我国边疆稳定与和谐发展。%North Burma is in an area of a stereo ecological culture within the intersection of Chinese culture circle,Southeastern culture circle,and the Southern culture circle.How much do the Chinese teenagers know the legend,history,typical custom of Chinese in this area? How about the identity for the cognition,evaluation,emotion,and behavior of Chinese nationality? The investigation found that the Chinese teenagers in North Burma take Chinese as a great nation,and get proud of the traditional history of China,considering that their futures have close relation to Chinese nation.The institutions concerned should grasp the effective time to enhance the Chinese national identity of the teenagers in North Burma,making active policy for the oversea Chinese affairs,carrying the oversea Chinese affairs forward,which help to strengthen the stability and harmonious border development of China.

  16. A Case for Plane-Strain during the Development of the Indo-Burma Fold-Thrust Belt in Tripura and Mizoram, Northeast India (23-24°N; 91-93°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Indo-Burma fold-thrust belt (FTB) in northeast India and Myanmar records shortening of a forearc prism resulting from ongoing collision of the Burma microplate and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. A >5 km thick succession of deep water, deltaic and tidal as well as fluvial deposits that span the Oligocene to present were deformed to form a ~400 km wide FTB between 91.5-96°E longitude. India-Eurasia convergence across the Indo-Burma region trends northeast and is highly oblique to the northerly structural trend of the FTB. According to geodetic data, 21 mm/yr of dextral shear and 18 mm/yr of approximately east-west shortening must be accommodated within the FTB between the active thrust front in Bangladesh (90.5°E) and the Sagaing Fault in Myanmar (96°E). This paper presents new surface geologic data collected along a ~250 km transect that crosses 15 anticline-syncline pairs between the cities of Argatala (~91.2°E) and Champhai (93.3°E), the part of FTB exposing syn-Himalayan sediment, to determine the degree of noncoaxial shear that is accommodated internally within the belt. Results indicate that the majority of the folds are upright or asymmetric horizontal folds that are either concentric or have a narrow hinge (chevron folds) and form open—closed interlimb angles which generally tighten from the foreland toward the hinterland. A cylindrical best fit describes the data well and shows dominantly east-west shortening with a horizontal north-trending regional fold axis (005/01 ± 2°). Shortening was partly accommodated by flexural slip. Flexural slip-lineations (n=32) are subperpendicular to the regional fold axis. In some locations the limbs of folds are breached by thrust faults that dip either east or west and strike north. Incremental strain axes calculated from the flexural-slip surfaces and thrust faults (n=61) indicate horizontal west-trending shortening (279/03 ± 8°) and vertical extension that is kinematically compatible with folding. Altogether

  17. Lights of Democracy, Authority and Liberty-On the History of News Legal System in Burma over the Past 160 Years%开明、威权与自由之光--160年缅甸新闻法制史管窥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展江; 黄晶晶

    2013-01-01

    缅甸曾经是亚洲享有最充分的新闻自由的国家,但是到了20世纪中期以后,随着1962年军事政变,缅甸由一个亚洲较富裕国家变成了落后国家,新闻界则经历了长达半个世纪的新闻管制。2011年,缅甸开启民主化政治改革,新闻界也随之开始了改革之路。通过梳理缅甸历史上的新闻自由、二战后军政府对新闻的管制和媒体的抗争以及正在进行的政治新闻变革举措,可以揭示出一个当代威权主义国家刚刚开始的媒体和政治转型之路。%Burma used to be a country which enjoyed the freedom of press in Asia during the 19th century.However, after the military coup in 1962, the press in Burma experienced more than half a century of news blackout, drawing back from a rich country in Asia to a backward one.In 2011, due to the launching of the political and democratic reform, the press in Burma started its reforming process.This paper aims to discuss the history of news development in Burma, including the freedom of press in the past, the news blackout after the 2nd World War by the military government and the struggle of media, and the polit-ical, news reform at the moment.In this way, an authoritative nation with news and political change on its way is to be presen-ted.

  18. Influence of Refugees in Burma Kokang Flooded into the Border Area on China%缅甸果敢难民涌入对中国边境地区的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海利; 刘静; 胡志丁; 熊理然; 李灿松; 付磊

    2015-01-01

    The conflict in Burma Kokang Broke Out, and a large number of refugees have poured into China’s Yunnan Province border area to escape the war. The Kokang refugees entered China and live in penury. But with the help of government and the public in our country, their basic need of life was guaranteed. Although people in Kokang and people in China’s border areas, language is interlinked, live in a similar way, people on both sides almost have no estrangement. But we cannot ignore the effects caused by the influx of Kokang refugees in border areas, so as to avoid the refugee problem lead to the scourge. This study analyzes the impact of the conflict on the border areas of China through field trips, questionnaires, and interviews. The result shows that an influx of refugees has damaged border areas of bilateral trade and increased security pressure, and threatened the ecological environment, but also has brought new labor and economic source for the border area. At the same time, the government has promulgated a series of effective measures for the problem of refugees. Overall, the impact of the influx of Kokang refugees in the border area of our country is in the controllable range, and did not cause the unbalance of border area society.%缅甸果敢冲突爆发,大量难民为躲避战争纷纷涌入中国云南省的边境地区。进入中国的果敢难民生活拮据,但在中国政府及民众的帮助下,基本生活得到保障。虽然果敢人民与中国边境地区的人民语言相通,生活方式相似,双方人民间隔阂较小,但大量涌入的果敢难民对边境地区造成的影响依然不可忽视,以免因难民问题酿成祸患。研究通过实地考察、问卷调查、深度访谈等方法分析此次冲突对中国边境地区造成的影响。结果表明,难民的涌入使得边境地区的双方贸易往来受损,治安压力增大,生态环境受到威胁,但也为边境地区带来了新的劳

  19. Defining ‘forced migration’ in Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley South

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Burmese people fleeing their homes do so for a combination of reasons. The root causes for leaving, however,determine which ‘category’ they belong to: ‘internally displaced persons’ (IDPs or ‘economic migrants’. There issome discussion as to whether people leaving their homes due to exhaustion of livelihoods options are IDPsaccording to the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement1 – or not. Ashley South and Andrew Bosson presenttheir views below.By analogy, this debate can be extended to Burmese people in exile. Are Burmese people outside refugee camps‘economic migrants’ or ‘self-settled refugees’? The article ‘Invisible in Thailand’ (pp31-33 sheds more light on this.

  20. An Embryonic Border: Racial Discourses and Compulsory Vaccination for Indian Immigrants at Ports in Colonial Burma, 1870-1937 Une frontière embryonnaire : discours raciaux et vaccination obligatoire des immigrants indiens dans les ports de la Birmanie coloniale, 1870-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Osada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how an administrative border emerged between historically and culturally different and geographically separate regions which nevertheless had been integrated into one state under the colonial power. As a result of three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century, Burma was colonized by the British. During the course of its colonization, the country formally became a province of India. Hence no border had existed between Burma and the rest of India until 1937 when the former was separated from the latter. This connection with India brought Burma unrestricted labour supply from India which was necessary for the growth of the economy. But at the same time, such a vast flow of people included undesirable elements like criminals, beggars and people sick of infectious diseases which caused social problems in Burma. While the government of Burma attempted to deter or exclude those undesirable elements in order to maintain social order, these attempts were frustrated by several factors. In spite of these circumstances, the local government started taking more decisive policy for examinations of immigrants after the middle of the 1910s. No border existed yet, but port cities, especially Rangoon, gradually assumed function of checking people who came from “outside” into “inside”. I would like to call this phenomenon, tentatively, the emergence of an embryonic border. As a part of this phenomenon, this paper describes a history of sanitary regulations for Indian immigrant labourers in colonial Burma, by focusing on a case of implementation of compulsory vaccination at ports. And it points out that those regulations wereCet article montre comment une frontière administrative est apparue entre deux régions historiquement et culturellement différentes et géographiquement séparées réunies toutefois en un État par un pouvoir colonial. Après trois guerres anglo-birmanes au xixe siècle, la Birmanie devint une colonie

  1. Shaping of the Yunnan-Burma Frontier by Secret Societies since the End of the 17th Century Comment les sociétés secrètes ont façonné la frontière birmano-yunnanaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianxiong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available After the 1680s, Big Vehicle Religion gradually developed on the Yunnan-Burma frontier. It was banned by the Qing government and became a sect of Chinese secret societies. The founders of this religion combined various Buddhist and Taoist elements together and claimed this to be the route to their salvation. They also trained many students to be monks. After the Sino-Burma wars these monks established a Five Buddha Districts system among the Lahu and some Wa villages in western Mekong River, until the system was destroyed by the Qing government in the 1880s. The monks became leaders of the Luohei/Lahu through millenarianism and many Han immigrants also became involved in the movements to become the Lahu or the Wa. The monks performed critical roles as social activists in Lahu cultural reconstruction. As a shaping power, their human agency was deeply integrated into secret societies and they formulated regional political centers as well as a network mechanism for the floating indigenous populations. Secret societies clearly shaped a historical framework for local politics and economic flux in the Yunnan-Burma frontier and became a cross-border mechanism for contemporary life after the border between Yunnan, Burma and Thailand was decided. However, it used to be a networking dynamic linked with silver and copper minefields, Sino-Burma wars, and anti-Qing millenarianism. Local people could also use this frontier space for their negotiations with different states before the coming of European colonialism.Après les années 1680, le bouddhisme du grand véhicule se développa sur la frontière birmano-yunnanaise. Le gouvernement des Qing l’interdit mais il devint une secte diffusée par des sociétés secrètes. Les fondateurs de cette religion combinèrent des éléments bouddhistes et taoïstes et prétendirent que c’était la voie du salut. Ils formèrent également des élèves pour en faire des moines. Après les guerres sino-birmanes, ces

  2. The Impact Analysis of Sino - Burma Border Illegal Transnational Marriage on Harmony and Stability of Yunnan Border Minority Areas -- A Case in Xu Jia village of Long Ling of Yunnan%中缅边境非法跨国婚姻对云南边境少数民族地区和谐稳定的影响分析——以云南省龙陵县徐家寨为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白志红; 李喜景

    2011-01-01

    Due to geographical conditions, traditional habits and so on, there are large numbers of illegal transnational marriage in Sino - Burma border Areas of Yunnan. Those marriages not only weaken the authority of Chinese law and give rise to security and stability problems in the border areas but also disturb the residents' self- identity with homeland especially young residents and damage the legitimate rights and interests of women and children in the border areas. There are some suggestions, such as recognize transnational marriages condi- tionally, provide the occupation skill training for the women in Burma and strengthen marriage and family guid- ance work in the border areas. All of these not only can properly solve the above problems, but also contribute to harmony and stability of Yunnan border minority area in the long - term.%由于地缘条件、民族传统习惯等因素的影响,在云南中缅边境地区形成大量非法跨国婚姻。不仅削弱了中国法律在边境地区的权威,给边境地区的安全与稳定带来隐患,而且损害妇女儿童合法权益。有条件认可中缅跨国婚姻,为缅甸女性提供职业技能培训,有助于云南边境地区的长期和谐稳定。

  3. Sacred Networks and Struggles among the Karen Baptists across the Thailand-Burma Border Réseaux sacrés et conflits parmi les Baptistes karen de part et d’autre de la frontière birmano-thaïlandaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I provide a case study of a moving border between Thailand and Burma. Emphasizing the agency of people who become refugees, the article is concerned to point out the important role of religious networks in providing humanitarian assistance, shelter and mobility to stateless Karen refugees. I argue that Christian and Buddhist literate networks- realigned in political exile, develop competing visions of a Karen “homeland.” Arguing that membership in the network is crucial for survival, the article follows the social organization and religious practices in Baptist networks. I examine how the Baptist church network in close partnership with the Karen National Union is able or not able to mobilize refugees for proselytization. Karen refugee leaders and KNU-pastors find analogies in the bible to find an explanation to the suffering of the Karen civil population in the war. The article is interested in the nexus and overlap of humanitarian ideology, Christianity and nationalism in the transitional space between Thailand and Burma. Providing case-studies of individual refugees, the article gives ethnographic sketches from the refugee camp, the countryside and humanitarian assistance to the internally displaced.Cet article est une étude de cas d’une frontière mouvante entre la Thaïlande et la Birmanie. Insistant sur l’agency (action de personnes devenues des réfugiés, l’article souligne le rôle important des réseaux religieux qui apportent une assistance humanitaire, des abris et de la mobilité à des réfugiés karen dépourvus d’État. Je soutiens que les réseaux intellectuels chrétiens et bouddhistes, recomposés dans l’exil, développent des visions concurrentes d’une « mère-patrie » karen. Soutenant que la participation au réseau est cruciale pour la survie, l’article développe plus particulièrement l’organisation sociale et les pratiques religieuses en vigueur dans les réseaux baptistes. J

  4. Burma – paving the road to a modern banking system

    OpenAIRE

    True, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This Asia Focus report provides a historical background of Burmese banking crises, analyzes recent and upcoming regulatory reforms, and evaluates hurdles to the development of a modern banking system.

  5. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  6. Death and injury caused by land mines in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Petersen, H D; Lykke, J;

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight Burmese refugees in Thailand were interviewed. One hundred and five of those interviewed had knowledge of a total of 313 persons who had been exposed to land mine explosions. Twenty-three of the interviewed were land mine survivors. They were all male, aged between ei...

  7. 77 FR 62596 - Allowing New Investment in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Allowing... government leading important reform efforts. Further reforms would advance longstanding U.S. national... concerned about the protection of human rights, corruption, and the role of the military in the...

  8. 78 FR 6399 - Easing the Ban on Imports From Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... authority delegated by the Secretary of State, that it is in the national interests of the United States to waive the prohibitions described in section 3(a) of the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 (Pub... limitations set forth therein. This step is in the national interest of the United States because it...

  9. The Politics of Refugees in and outside Burma/Myanmar Flüchtlingspolitik innerhalb und außerhalb Burmas/Myanmars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bünte

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Editorial of Vol. 28, No. 2 (2009 of the Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. Editorial zu Heft 2, Jahrgang 28 (2009 der Zeitschrift "Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs".

  10. Final RFI/RI Report Burma Road Rubble Pit (231-4F). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Savannah River Site is located in Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties, in South Carolina. Certain activities at the SRS require operating or post closure permits issued in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  11. Final RFI/RI Report Burma Road Rubble Pit (231-4F). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site is located in Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties, in South Carolina. Certain activities at the SRS require operating or post closure permits issued in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  12. 77 FR 41243 - Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ..., joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup, or other organization; and (c) the term ``United States....S.C. 1702(b)(2)) by, to, or for the benefit of any person whose property and interests in property... provision of funds, goods, or services by, to, or for the benefit of any person whose property and...

  13. Burma in Diaspora: A Preliminary Research Note on the Politics of Burmese Diasporic Communities in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Egreteau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research note focuses on the far-flung Burmese overseas communities, situating them into the wider diaspora literature. Drawing on extant scholarship on refugees, migrants and exiled dissidents of Burmese origin, it presents an original cartography of Burmese diasporic groups dispersed throughout Asia. It explores their migration patterns and tentatively maps out their transnational networks. It seeks to comparatively examine the relationships these polymorphous exiled groups have developed with the homeland. Two research questions have been identified and need further exploration in the context of the post-junta opening that has been observed since 2011: First, what comprises the contribution of the Burmese diaspora to political change and homeland democratization? This has been widely debated over the years. Despite a dynamic transnational activism, there is still little evidence that overseas Burmese have influenced recent domestic political developments. Second and subsequently, how can the Burmese diaspora effectively generate social and economic change back home: by “remitting” or by “returning”? This note argues that Burmese migrant social and financial remittances might prove a more viable instrument to foster development and democratization inside Myanmar in the short term than a mere homecoming of exiles and skilled migrants. This is a preliminary analysis that hopes to encourage further research on Burmese diasporic politics and their potential leverage as “agents of change”.

  14. Russell's viper venom levels in serum of snake bite victims in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin Ohn Lwin; Aye Aye Myint; Tun, P e; Theingie Nwe; Min Naing

    1984-01-01

    Serum levels of venom antigen were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 38 Russel's viper bite victims before and after administration of 40 ml of monovalent liquid antivenom. Initial serum levels ranged from one with less than 10.0 ng to 290 ng/ml and in one case a level of 75 ng/ml was detected 27 hours after the bite. Serum venom levels after liquid monospecific antivenom therapy indicated that venom clearance was similar in each case to the natural clearance of venom in the absence of antivenom therapy. In one case a venom level of 11.5 ng/ml was detected 66 hours after liquid antivenom therapy whereas in two fatal cases, serum venom levels of 95 ng/ml and 185 ng/ml were detected after the same interval. Failure of complete neutralization of venom is probably the result of loss of potency of antivenom during improper storage. The amount of venom excreted in the urine was not related to initial serum levels. PMID:6464103

  15. Offset ancient city wall yields plausible slip rate for the Sagaing fault, Burma (Myanmar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Aung, T.; Min, S.; Lin, K.; Tun, S.; Sieh, K.; Myint, U.

    2008-12-01

    The Sagaing fault offers great potential for paleoseismology study, because it traverses a region with a long history and high rates of sedimentation. Buddhist documents from ancient Pegu (Bago), in southern Myanmar, record 34 strong earthquakes in the past 2.3 millennia. The latest of these is the 1930 Pegu earthquake (M 7.3), which had high intensities along a 90 km stretch from Pegu to the southern coastline of the country. We have found evidences for surface rupture in 1930 in the stories of village elders and in offset paddy fields. These reports and offsets suggest that coseismic displacement decreased from several meters in Pegu to liquefaction without faulting near Payagyi Township, 15 km farther north. West of Payagyi, the fault trace cuts through and offsets an ancient city wall. The age of the ancient city is uncertain, but descriptions from Burmese history indicate it was built in the late 16th century, probably about 440 yrs ago. Determination of the offset of the 440-year-old city wall is possible, but not simple, in part because vertical displacements across the fault have resulted in differential sedimentation on the flanks of the wall. After accounting geomorphologically for the differential sedimentation, the offset of both the outer and inner edges of the city wall appear to have sustained a right-lateral offset of about 6 meters. This yields an approximate slip rate of 14 mm/yr, which is slightly lower than the slip rate determined by others from GPS geodesy. The number of earthquakes involved in creating the 6-meter offset is currently unknown, but paleoseismic excavations within the ancient city may well yield evidence of discrete offsets that we will be able to ascribe to specific large earthquakes in the historical record. Candidates include historical earthquakes 1582, 1644, 1768, 1830, 1888, 1913 and 1917 C.E.

  16. The environmental history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area in Myanmar (Burma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myint; Khaing Swe, Khaing; Oo, Thida; Kyaw Moe, Kyaw; Leimgruber, Peter; Allendorf, Teri; Duncan, Chris; Wemmer, Chris

    2004-09-01

    We reconstructed the history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) to understand how social and economic events, and policy changes affected the sanctuary's condition. We surveyed 25 villages surrounding CWS to evaluate past and present ecological conditions, compare the results with historical accounts and identify causal relationships. During the first half of the 20th century, the primary threat was the government's reduction of old growth forest to supply fuel wood for the British-built railway. The railroad opened the area to colonization, but the villagers' impact on timber and wildlife was low. From 1945 to 1988, villagers became the primary force of landscape degradation. The post-war windfall of firearms increased hunting pressure, and populations of large mammal started to decline. With the economic decline of the 1970s and 1980s, the community's demand for game and forest products intensified, and the large mammal fauna was reduced from eleven to four species. From 1988-2003, the forests surrounding the sanctuary were fragmented and degraded. The absence of large predators rendered the park safe for livestock, and the combined effects of grazing and removal of forest products seriously degraded habitat within CWS. Major threats to CWS during the past two decades have resulted from land use decisions in which government-planned economic enterprises caused encroachment by villagers. Stabilization and recovery of this sanctuary will require management compatible with human needs, including expanded buffer zones, better core area protection, community forestry projects, and probably relocation of villages within the park.

  17. Relict faunal testimony for sea-level fluctuations off Myanmar (Burma)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Raviprasad, G.V.; Rajagopalan, G.; Ray, D.K.; Hla, U Ko Yi

    the colonization of corals during different sea stands and thus would show different ages. PROPOSITION OF A REGIONAL SEA LEVEL CURVE So as to establish the depth to age relationship of these samples, specimens of the relict foraminiferal assemblage from seven...

  18. The Rohingyas in Myanmar (Burma and the Moros in the Philippines: A Comparative Analysis of Two Liberation Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul lslam

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the relative success of the Moros in the Philippines and the tragic failure of the Rohingyas in Myanmar raise important questions: what are the reasons behind the Moros' liberation movement being a success and the Rohingyas movement being a failure? What has led the Moros to achieve at least partial regional autonomy vis-a-vis the failure of the Rohingyas? In the light of Huntington’s theory of revolution, this paper argues that despite the fact that Myanmar and the Philippines have nearly the same percentage of Muslims, the Moros have been successful at least due to three reasons: First, the political conditions have been much more conducive in the Philippines compared to Myanmar for liberation movement. Secondly, the Moros' movement has been led by a strong organization under a capable leadership while the Rohingyas' movement lacks a strong organization and an able leadership. Finally, while the Moros have successfully mobilized mass support both at home and abroad, the Rohingyas have failed to internationalize their movement and, consequently, they have become "stateless" and “political refugees”.

  19. Buddhist or Muslim Rulers? Models of Kingship in Arakan (Western Burma) in the Fourteenth to Fifteenth Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Charney, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    I prepared this paper for submission for publication in 2000 when I was at NUS. My move to London was soon forthcoming and I had moved on to other research topics. I may yet submit this in he future if I return to this subject matter.

  20. Improving Outcomes for Refugee Children: A Case Study on the Impact of Montessori Education along the Thai-Burma Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Tierney; Boulmier, Prairie; Zhu, Wenyi; Hancock, Paul; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There are 25 million displaced children worldwide, and those receiving schooling are often educated in overcrowded classrooms. Montessori is a child-centred educational method that provides an alternative model to traditional educational approaches. In this model, students are able to direct their own learning and develop at their own pace,…

  1. Health and Human Rights in Chin State, Western Burma: A Population-Based Assessment Using Multistaged Household Cluster Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background More than 60 years after the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, thousands of people around the world are still deprived of their basic human rights—life, liberty, and security of person. In many countries, people live in fear of arbitrary arrest and detention, torture, forced labor, religious and ethnic persecution, forced displacement, and murder. In addition, ongoing conflicts and despotic governments deprive them of the ability to grow suffic...

  2. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

    OpenAIRE

    Jianxiong Ma

    2013-01-01

    The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers....

  3. 缅甸封建社会的"蔓荼罗"行政结构%Mandala Administration of Feudal Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏贵华

    2001-01-01

    @@ 缅甸是一个多民族国家.从公元1044至1885年是缅甸的封建社会时期,经历了蒲甘王朝、实阶王朝、邦牙王朝、阿瓦王朝、东吁王朝、贡榜王朝等几个封建王朝的更迭,逐渐形成了与其历史发展相适应的独特的行政结构.

  4. High prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with thalassemia and patients with liver diseases in Myanmar (Burma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, S; Taketa, K; Ishikawa, T; Koji, T; Swe, T; Win, N; Win, K M; Mra, R; Myint, T T

    2000-06-01

    We conducted Myanmar-Japan cooperation studies on hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus markers in patients with thalassemias and those with liver diseases. Among the 102 patients with liver diseases, 92% had a history of hepatitis B virus infection (antibody to hepatitis B core antigen positive), 35% were hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 39% were positive for anti-HCV. Among 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 46% had hepatitis B surface antigen, 21.4% had antibody to hepatitis C virus, and 7% were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and anti hepatitis C virus. The history of HCV infection among blood recipients at the Haematology Department of the Yangon General Hospital and at the Yangon Children's Hospital was found to be 55.5% and 46.7%, respectively, which is comparable to the history of hepatitis B infection (66.7% and 46.7%, respectively). This preliminary survey also encountered 2 cases positive for anti-HCV among 34 voluntary blood donors. This survey is the first one to report that hepatitis C is at the epidemic stage in Myanmar. As there is no effective treatment for hepatitis C in this country, a screening program for blood used in transfusion should be started immediately.

  5. High prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with thalassemia and patients with liver diseases in Myanmar (Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada S

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted Myanmar-Japan cooperation studies on hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus markers in patients with thalassemias and those with liver diseases. Among the 102 patients with liver diseases, 92% had a history of hepatitis B virus infection (antibody to hepatitis B core antigen positive, 35% were hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 39% were positive for anti-HCV. Among 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 46% had hepatitis B surface antigen, 21.4% had antibody to hepatitis C virus, and 7% were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and anti hepatitis C virus. The history of HCV infection among blood recipients at the Haematology Department of the Yangon General Hospital and at the Yangon Children's Hospital was found to be 55.5% and 46.7%, respectively, which is comparable to the history of hepatitis B infection (66.7% and 46.7%, respectively. This preliminary survey also encountered 2 cases positive for anti-HCV among 34 voluntary blood donors. This survey is the first one to report that hepatitis C is at the epidemic stage in Myanmar. As there is no effective treatment for hepatitis C in this country, a screening program for blood used in transfusion should be started immediately.

  6. Convergences conceptuelles en Birmanie : la transition du xixe siècle Conceptual Convergences in Burma : the 19th Century Period of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Candier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les conceptions politiques birmanes ont évolué au fil des siècles, échafaudées sur des interprétations renouvelées d’emprunts conceptuels à l’étranger, afin de rester en phase avec une réalité sociopolitique changeante. Le contact avec l’Occident a été à l’origine de l’une des « greffes » conceptuelles des plus prolifiques. Entre 1820 et 1880, les rois birmans ont subi deux défaites contre les Anglais et ont dû céder plusieurs provinces avant l’annexion définitive de leur pays en 1886. Pendant cette période, les élites politiques et religieuses de la cour birmane ont été confrontées à la pénétration progressive des idées et des valeurs du vainqueur. L’analyse historique et linguistique d’ouvrages contemporains de l’époque révèle l’évolution de leurs représentations sociopolitiques. La pensée politique moderne a nettement influencé les lettrés à partir des années 1830. Ils ont dès lors commencé de rationaliser et d’adapter les concepts, qu’ils soient locaux ou empruntés au pāli, à une représentation du monde en transformation. Ces convergences conceptuelles n’ont véritablement donné corps à un nouveau système de pensée que dans les années 1870. L’idée de roi universel a été délaissée, alors que l’accent a été mis sur l’aspect social de la norme de conduite royale. La conception moderne de la réforme, portant les notions d’amélioration et de progrès, a fait son apparition dans les projets de loi. Les valeurs occidentales de classification raciale, de définition territoriale, de communauté de langue et de culture ont été adoptées. Mais ces emprunts n’ont pas fondamentalement altéré la conception birmane traditionnelle de l’humanité, sous-tendue par les lois du kamma, de l’impermanence et de l’interdépendance entre l’ordre social et cosmique.Burmese political conceptions have varied through centuries, borrowing and adapting certain foreign concepts according to the changing sociopolitical context. In this sense, the contact with the Western political thinking was very productive. Between 1820 and 1880, the Burmese kings lost two wars against the British and had to give away several territories before the final annexation of their country in 1886. During this period, the Burmese political and religious elites were confronted to the progressive penetration of British ideas and values. A historical and linguistic investigation of significant texts shows the gradual changes of their sociopolitical representations. Modern political thinking had a strong influence on the Burmese literati from the 1830’ onwards. They gradually rationalized and adapted concepts, whether local or borrowed from the pāli, to a changing conception of the world. These conceptual convergences gave shape to a new way of thinking in the 1870’. The idea of universal king was neglected, when the literati emphasized the social interpretation of the laws of kinship conduct. The modern conception of the reform, conveying the notion of progress, was used to draft new laws. Western notions of racial classification, territorial definition, linguistic and cultural communities, were adopted. But these borrowings did not dramatically alter the Burmese traditional conception of humanity, based on the laws of kamma and impermanence, and the interdependence between the social and the cosmic order as well.

  7. Social Networking and the School Adjustment of Karen Refugee Youth from Burma: Determining the Effects of Ethnic Identity, Bonding Social Capital, and Facebook Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 alone, over 56,000 refugees were admitted to the United States and a third of these individuals were under the age of 18 (Martin & Yankay, 2012). Researchers have found that the social capital developed through close and confiding relationships is instrumental in the academic outcomes of refugee youth (Kia-Keating & Ellis, 2007;…

  8. 迟到的非殖民化与缅甸对英联邦的突破%Delayed Decolonization and Burma Walking out of the British Commonwealth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明周

    2008-01-01

    战后初期,艾德礼政府在缅甸政策上并没有大的创新,仍然沿用了战时内阁的政策.缅甸总督史密斯由于在缅甸推行与昂山敌对的政策使得缅甸的局势恶化.艾德礼政府逐渐改变了缅甸政策并任命兰斯为新的总督.兰斯支持缅甸民族主义者的政治要求.在经过了一番迟疑后,英国政府最终同意了兰斯的建议.但是由于英国政府的迟疑不决,缅甸的局势恶化,缅甸民族主义者与英国的关系也更为疏远.这一政治局势与缅甸在英帝国战略上的次要性使得缅甸最终在英联邦外独立.

  9. Differential diagnosis of hepatitis and space occupying lesion of the liver by radioisotope techniques on cases commonly seen in Rangoon General Hospital, Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of undertaking was, to promote in-vitro measuring techniques as well as in-vivo measurements of organs using imaging techniques. Se-75 and In-113 have equal ability to prove the presence of abscesses or cysts. For the detection of tumors their usefulness is doubtful

  10. Arakan and Bengal : the rise and decline of the Mrauk U kingdom (Burma) from the fifteenth to the seventeeth century AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galen, Stephan Egbert Arie van

    2008-01-01

    The Arakanese kingdom (Rakhine state in modern Myanmar) grew from the fifteenth century AD from a small agrarian state with its nucleus in the hart of the Kaladan valley to a significant local power by the early seventeenth century. Arakan asserted its influence across the northern shores of the Bay

  11. 31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Junction, Myeik, Burma; 48 Quarter 2, Zay Tan Lay Yat, Kyaing Tong, Burma; Doing business as AIR BAGAN AIR...; Pathein Hotel, Kanthonesint, Petheing-Monywa Road, Burma; Doing business as AIR BAGAN. AIR CESS (a.k.a..., Victor Manuel, C. Antonio Navarro S/N, Col. Centro, La Paz, Baja California Sur 23000, Mexico; c/o...

  12. THE EOCENE-PLIOCENE PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA FROM RAMREE ISLAND, BURMA%缅甸英雄岛始新世-上新世浮游有孔虫及其古环境意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷倩萍; 吴馨; 万晓樵

    2009-01-01

    英雄岛位于印度洋缅甸西海岸,前人在该区所做的工作较少,生物地层研究程度较低.围绕该区石油勘探的进行,作者分析了RM19-3-1井的29件钻井岩屑样品,根据所含浮游有孔虫识别出7次有孔虫生物事件.考虑到研究区处于低纬度地区,故采用Bolli和Saunders(1985)的分带标准建立了7个浮游有孔虫化石带:P12-P17带;P18/19-P21/N2带;P22/N3带,N4-N7带;N8-N10带;N11-N14带和N15-N20?带,其延限时代为始新世-上新世.根据所含有孔虫动物群的演替规律,可将研究区的沉积环境变化由下而上划分为6个阶段,总体具有大陆架-陆坡的沉积环境特征.

  13. A review of the studies on pteropods from the northern Indian Ocean A review of the studies on pteropods of the northern Indian Ocean region with a report on the pteropods of Irrawaddy continental shelf off Myanmar (Burma)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Riedel, F.; Janssen, A.W.; Hla, U Ko Yi

    ratios in surficial sediments off the coast of Kerala. Thus they validated the earlier proposition 17 . Past sea level indicators While Chen 11 proposed that abundance of Creseis acicula indicated very low sea levels, high frequencies...

  14. 76 FR 14725 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Open Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... emphasize strengthening local community infrastructure and capacity, especially in the area of technology... Asia and Pacific (EAP): Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines,...

  15. Shan beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Beato, Felix, fl 1850-1891, photographer

    2003-01-01

    184 x 246 mm. Showing a Shan girl standing in front of a raised house constructed of woven palm fronds. Her dress proclaims her a woman of the British Tai (Shan) States. The dress is described in J.G. Scott's 'Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States' (Rangoon: Printed by the Superintendent, Government printing, Burma, 1900). 'The dress is not open at the front as it is with the Burma girl, nor is it tucked up between the legs as it is with the Siamese. It is, however, fastened in th...

  16. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS BARBEY using BT and XBT casts in the Indian ocean and other seas from 07 January 1989 to 31 January 1989 (NODC Accession 8900034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS BARBEY in the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Burma Sea, and Malacca of...

  17. Gmelina and modern forestry in the Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Cultivation of Gmelina arborea, a hardwood native to Burma and India, in plantations at the Jari project in Brazil is described. A huge, integrated forestry complex is being built around cultivation of this species along with pine.

  18. Temperature and salinity profile data collected from XBT, CTD, MBT and Bottle casts from multiple platforms by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India, in the Bay of Bengal from August 28, 1976 to January 07, 2009 (NODC Accession 0055418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from Bottle, MBT, XBT, and CTD casts from the Andaman and Burma Seas, Bay of Bengal, Malacca Straits, and the Indian Ocean. Data were...

  19. Mekong sub-region committed to ending trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Thatun

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In October 2004 six countries - Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar/Burma, Thailand and Vietnam – joined hands in the battle against human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS.

  20. SwissProt search result: AK099711 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available methionine-6-N', N'-adenosyl(rRNA) dimethyltransferase) (16S rRNA dimethylase) (High level kasugamycin resistance protein ksgA) (Kasugamycin dimethyltransferase) KSGA_BURMA 5e-22 ...

  1. A Study on the Harmonious and Confl icting Relation between Pluricentric Languages: Taking the Case Study of Sino-Burma Jinghpo Language as an Example%论跨境语言的和谐与冲突 ——以中缅景颇语个案为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴庆厦

    2016-01-01

    跨境语言的和谐和冲突是跨境语言客观存在的自然规律,所在国的语文方针政策若能符合跨境语言的实际特点和演变规律,就能促进和谐因素的发展,并能化解或减少矛盾,互补互利.国境线两侧的跨境语言,既要受本国语文方针政策的制约,服从主权国家的总利益,又要有利于跨境语言的和谐互补.跨境语言是一种资源,处理得好,有利于两侧民族的和谐发展和稳定安全;处理不好,对民族发展、国家安全会产生负面影响.

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR, MAURICE EWING and others in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1983-10-10 to 1998-10-20 (NODC Accession 0115689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115689 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR, MAURICE EWING, METEOR, NATHANIEL B. PALMER and THOMAS G....

  3. 迎合西南地缘特征的山地文化生成逻辑--以滇缅边境地区的德昂族为例%The Construction Logic of Mountain Culture Catering to Geographical Features of Southwest China-A Case Study of De’ang Nationality in the Cross-border Area of Burma and Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷家荣; 蒲跃

    2014-01-01

    The object system shaping culture includes two double factors of natural ecological environment and social historical environment affected by both the objective and subjective elements,which impact on human culture system together.De ’ang culture is deeply affected by the southwest physical environment and the local social and historical process,and even it is the specific performance of the spirit system shaped by the southwest object system.During the course of culture shaping based on ethnic groups’history migration and ethnic memory,De’ang people had to give up some traditional culture to comply with local physical field,because of the frequent encountering of local ethnic groups and objective geography environment.On the surface, they constructed their cultures based on ethnic boundary.In fact,they often shaped some cultural “pedigree”to adapt to local objective system.During the course of culture construction,De’ang people created their cultures with more geographical features and ethnic characteristics,so as to continue and create their cultures more adeptly.%塑造文化的物体系双重包容自然生态环境及其由客观和主观因素共同作用的社会历史环境,这两个基础要素共同决定人类文化体系。德昂族文化的发生发展深受西南客观物理环境及地方社会历史进程影响,德昂族文化根本就是西南边疆特有“物体系”共同形塑的精神体系的具体化存在。德昂族基于族群的历史迁徙和族群记忆基础上生产族文化过程中,经常会不同程度地遭遇地方大民族和客观地域环境障碍,逼迫人们牺牲性地放弃曾经的文化要素而调适性地依从地方物理区场。表层上,德昂族基于族群自我边界塑造自己的文化系谱,但其本质却是在不断地磨合不能有效吻合于地方物体系的文化菱角。也就是在这种文化打磨的过程中,德昂族创造出了充分浓郁有西南地缘特征和极具民族特色的文化结构,从而以更加“适应”的生活姿态延续和新创生多彩的族文化。

  4. A Survey on Minor Languages Learning Situation of Colleges in Sino-Burma Border Areas--With Applied Burmese of Lincang Teachers' College as a Case%中缅边境地区高校小语种学习现状调查研究--以临沧师范高等专科学校应用缅甸语专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 龙宇

    2013-01-01

    With the implementation of the"bridgehead"strategy, minor languages learning flourishes. How to develop minor languages teaching work with the advantages of ground source in the border areas is a question worthy of consideration. This paper investigates the learning situation by questionnaires based on the major of applied Burmese of Lincang Teachers' College, and then provides the necessary reference for meeting the social needs on minor languages and improving teaching quality.%  随着“桥头堡”政策的实施,小语种学习蓬勃发展,如何结合地源优势在边境地区更好地开展小语种教学是一个值得思考的问题,本文以临沧师范高等专科学校应用缅甸语专业为例,以问卷调查的形式调查其学习现状,为小语种专业能更好地适应社会需求,提高教学质量提供必要参考。

  5. Between the alien and the native——The interborder religions intercultural communication between the Dai people at DaLuo town of XiShuangBanNa in China and the Shan people in Burma%在异域与本土之间——中国西双版纳打洛镇傣族与缅甸掸族的跨境宗教文化交往

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚锐

    2006-01-01

    本文以云南西双版纳打洛镇傣族与缅甸北部掸族的跨境宗教交往为切入点,分析由这一交往结构所引发的跨境民族在经济、文化方面的相互联系,以及在此基础上产生的文化认同和文化互动,以此来判断打洛边境傣族在社会转型时期的文化价值取向.

  6. Of baby ducklings and clay pots: method and metaphor in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian

    2013-11-01

    In this article, I report on my decision to undertake a process of elicitation, development, and examination of metaphors for experiences of HIV prevention work in Burma/Myanmar. I cover the theoretical basis to that decision, my rationale for using metaphor elicitation as method when researching the rhetoric and practice of HIV prevention in Burma/Myanmar, the process I used, and some of the resultant metaphors. I also demonstrate that this process resulted in the opening up of a space for talking about HIV prevention that avoided recourse to standard prevention rhetoric, thereby enabling a new and deeper understanding of the gap between this rhetoric and people's actual practice or experience.

  7. Drug trafficking in and out of the Golden Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    The Golden Triangle is the name given to the area of mainland Southeast Asia where most of the world's illicit opium has originated since the early 1950s and until 1990, before Afghanistan's opium production surpassed that of Burma. It is located in the highlands of the fan-shaped relief of the Indochinese peninsula, where the international borders of Burma, Laos, and Thailand, run. However, if opium poppy cultivation has taken place in the border region shared by the three countries ever sin...

  8. On a collection of birds from the Khwae Noi Valley, Western Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.; Kooiman, J.G.

    1951-01-01

    The present paper deals with a collection brought together by J. G. Kooiman in 1946. After the defeat of Japan, some Dutch biologists, who during the war had worked as prisoners of war on the notorious Burma railroad, biologically explored the Khwae Noi valley. Kooiman joined this party as an ornith

  9. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537....311 New investment. (a) The term new investment means any of the following activities if such activity... located in Burma, without regard to the form of the participation. (b) The term new investment shall...

  10. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    -enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community...

  11. Voice and Valence-Altering Operations in Falam Chin: A Role and Reference Grammar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyzes voice and valence-altering operations in Falam Chin, a Tibeto-Burman language of Burma. The data is explained within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which supplies several key concepts particularly useful for generalizing the behavior of the Falam Chin operations. The first is RRG's…

  12. The world heroin market : Can supply be cut?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paoli, L.; Greenfield, V.A.; Reuter, P.

    2009-01-01

    This book proceeds in three parts. The first part sets out basic facts. It reviews the historical development of the world opiate market. The second part explores market conditions in Afghanistan, Burma, India, Columbia and Tajikistan in greater detail. The fourth appendix (D) provides information o

  13. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  14. Agency as the Acquisition of Capital: The Role of One-on-One Tutoring and Mentoring in Changing a Refugee Student's Educational Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenden, Iris E.

    2011-01-01

    Current research into the experiences of refugee students in mainstream secondary schools in Australia indicates that for these students, schools are places of social and academic isolation and failure. This article introduces one such student, Lian, who came to Australia as a refugee from Burma, and whom the author tutored and mentored…

  15. 22 CFR 126.1 - Prohibited exports and sales to certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applies to countries with respect to which the United States maintains an arms embargo (e.g., Burma, China... type enumerated on the United States Munitions List (22 CFR part 121), irrespective of origin, are... countries. 126.1 Section 126.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.213-70 - Offeror Representations and Certifications-Other Than Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan... entitled “Buy American Act-Supplies.” (2) Foreign End Products: Line Item No. and Country of Origin (3) The...—Israeli Trade Act: NAFTA Country or Israeli End Products: Line Item No. and Country of Origin (iii)...

  17. Under attack: a way of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eubank

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Much of what is happening in the conflict zones ofeastern Burma is difficult to capture with photos, videoand reports. It is a slow and insidious strangulation of thepopulation rather than an all-out effort to crush them.

  18. The existence of an aestuarine fishfauna in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardenberg, J.D.F.

    1949-01-01

    Before the outbreak of the war with Japan the author had the intention to publish an extensive account on the occurrence of an aestuarine fishfauna in and in front of the large aestuarines and river-mouths so often found in India, Burma, Malaya, Thailand and Indo China and in the Greater Sunda Islan

  19. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma, in the Federal Register at 74 FR 40463 on August 11, 2009... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. In addition, the waiver request must address any... prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule...

  20. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  1. White Hmong Dialogues. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, David; Vang, Lopao

    This document presents the scripts of 20 brief dialogues presented as lessons which were developed for an intensive beginning class in the White Hmong dialect. Hmong is spoken by several million people in China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Burma, and by Hmong living in such countries as Australia, France, French Guiana, and the United States.…

  2. 77 FR 70209 - Designation of Seven Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13448 or Executive Order 13464 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of Seven Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13448 or...), 168 Thiri Yatanar Shopping Complex, Zabu Thiri Township, Nay Pyi Taw, Burma; 73/75 Sule Pagoda...

  3. General Secondary School Curriculum in the Asian Region. Bulletin of the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia, Volume III, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

    The UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia conducted a survey to determine the trends in secondary school curriculum in Asia, including Afghanistan, Burma, Cambodia, Ceylon, China (Twaiwan), India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet-Nam. The information…

  4. "I Want to Do Things with Languages": A Male Karenni Refugee's Reconstructing Multilingual Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Chatwara Suwannamai

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses how a male Karenni refugee in the United States has constructed multilingual capital along the way of his multiple movements across national borders. As a member of an ethnic minority group in three different countries (Burma, Thailand, and the United States), he has invested in learning multiple languages throughout the…

  5. 77 FR 59747 - Repeal of the Final Rule Imposing Special Measures and Withdrawal of the Findings of Primary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... finding that the jurisdiction of Burma is of primary money laundering concern (68 FR 66298). Further... regulations. See 75 FR 65806 (October 26, 2010) (Transfer and Reorganization of Bank Secrecy Act Regulations.... 5318A(b)(1)-(5). For a complete discussion of the range of possible countermeasures, see 68 FR...

  6. Estimates of run off, evaporation and precipitation for the Bay of Bengal on seasonal basis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Mean seasonal river discharge rates (R) of the major rivers along the east coast of India, Bangla Desh and Burma; evaporation rates (E) computed for 5 degrees lat-long. Squares from data on heat loss and mean yearly precipitation (P) values at 5...

  7. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... include, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and... include five panel sessions on topics ranging from nuclear infrastructure to waste management and fuel..., or one of the countries. Participants will be able to take advantage of U.S. Embassy rates for...

  8. A rights-based approach for risk reduction in the Thai-Burmese border region

    OpenAIRE

    Kotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper/presentation reflects on the developing approaches to Disaster Risk Reduction via a case study of the Thai-Burma border region, and concludes that governance is essntial, coupled with both transparancy and cultural awareness and sensitivity. Rights are conceived of as BOTH collective/ communal and individual, and this cannot be traded off against each other, but will create conflicts.

  9. Minfong Ho: Politics in Prose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Joy L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author interviews Minfong Ho, an award-winning Thai writer of children's and young adult novels. Ho was born in Burma to Chinese parents in 1951, raised in Singapore and Thailand, educated in Bangkok, Taiwan, and at Cornell University in New York. Ho's first novel, "Sing to the Dawn," won first prize from the Council of…

  10. 76 FR 59495 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal... or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia... precursor chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan, where they are used to process heroin....

  11. Expeditions and other exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1963-01-01

    The Kwae Noi River basin, WNW of Bangkok, close by the forested Bilauk Taung range along the frontier with Burma, has again attracted the attention of botanists. In 1926, Kerr collected c. 558 numbers; in 1946, Kostermans, Bloembergen & Den Hoed over 1200. From 1 November 1961 to 24 February 1962, a

  12. Academic Adjustment Issues in a Malaysian Research University: The Case of Cambodian, Laotian, Burmese, and Vietnamese Postgraduate Students' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Rany; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Bin Jamil, Hazri; Souriyavongsa, Thongma; Quyen, Le To Do

    2013-01-01

    The Malaysian government aims to help the bottom billion countries, which are its neighbouring countries in the South East Asian region, for their human capital development through providing university postgraduate scholarship projects. Those countries include Cambodia, Laos PDR, Burma or Myanmar, and Vietnam (CLMV), which are favourite countries…

  13. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanvanichkij Voravit

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  14. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  15. 基于行为主体的缅甸排华思潮产生及其原因解析%An Analysis on the Formation and Cause of Anti-China Sentiment in Myanmar based on Actant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灿松; 葛岳静; 马纳; 胡志丁

    2015-01-01

    After the Myitsone event in 2011, anti-Chinese sentiment in Burma has been soaring. This sentiment, along with the advancement of the democratic reform in Burma, has become one important trigger point of changes in Bur-ma-China relationship and changes in China’s foreign policy. This paper com-bines theories of emotions of different social classes of Burma and different behaviors and utilizes theories of constructivism of geopolitics of emotion and foreign relations to construct an analytical frame of anti-Chinese senti-ment in Burma on both macro and micro level. Then the thesis explores the main rationales behind the anti-Chinese sentiment in terms of long-cultivated‘shame culture’ in Burma, political change in Burma after the democratic re-form, long-term cultivated cultural psyche, anti-Chinese memorization of civilians in Burma, the prevailing nationalism, the misunderstanding towards China supporting military government, industrial structure of companies in-vested in Burma, Chinese failing to fit into the local culture, the neglect of local classes, wrong inducement by local NGOs, over-exposure by local media and exaggerated influence of Chinese companies by local media. The paper pro-vides policy suggestions from the perspectives of improvement in foreign poli-cy, behavioral change by Chinese companies and Chinese people in Burma, how to strengthen relations with NGOs in Burma and how to properly guide local media.%2011年密松水电站事件之后,缅甸排华思潮不断攀升。这一思潮伴随着缅甸民主改革的进程不断发展,成为影响中缅关系转折和思考中国外交政策转变的重要触发点,文章结合缅甸各阶层的情感和不同行为体行为、利用情感地缘政治和国际关系的建构主义理论,从缅甸排华思潮产生的国内国际地缘政治格局出发,从宏微观两个层面构建缅甸排华思潮产生的分析框架。利用框架从缅甸殖民时期以来形成的“羞辱”

  16. Seismotectonics in Northeast India: a stress analysis of focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes and its kinematic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Jacques; Baruah, Saurabh

    2009-07-01

    In Northeast India, three major plates interact along two convergent boundaries: the Himalayas and the Indo-Burma Ranges, which meet at the Assam Syntaxis. To clarify this tectonic interaction and the underlying dynamics, we determine the regional seismotectonic stress from the stress inversion of 285 double couple focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes with an average magnitude of 5. We then compare the reconstructed stress regimes with the available information about geodetically determined relative displacements. North-south compression, in a direction consistent with India-Eurasia convergence, prevails in the whole area from the Eastern Himalayas to the Bengal Basin, through the Shillong-Mikir Massif and the Upper Assam Valley. E-W extension in Tibet is related to this N-S India-Eurasia convergence. Not only does the major N-S compression affect the outer segments of the Indo-Burma Ranges, it also extends into the descending slab of Indian lithosphere below these ranges, although stresses at depth are controlled by bending of the slab beneath the Burmese arc. The existence of widespread N-S compression in the Bengal Basin, far away from the Himalayan front, is compatible with the previously proposed convergence between a Shillong-Mikir-Assam Valley block and the Indian craton. E-W compression inside this block supports the hypothesis of a component of eastward extrusion. Stress inversion of focal mechanism solutions in the Indo-Burma Ranges reveals a complex stress pattern. The Burmese arc and its underlying lithosphere experience nearly arc-perpendicular extension with ESE-WNW trends in the northernmost, NE-trending segment and ENE-WSW trends in the main N-S arc segment. Such extensional stress, documented from many arcs, is likely a response to pull from and bending of the subducting plate. At the same time, the Indo-Burma Ranges are under compression as a result of oblique convergence between the Sunda and Indian plates. The maximum compressive stress

  17. [Strongyloidiasis in former prisoners of war and internees in Southeast Asia during World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, G P; de Geus, A

    1990-12-29

    A survey was performed to estimate the prevalence of chronic strongyloidiasis among 145 Dutch ex-prisoners of war who had been working on the Burma-Thailand railway in 1943-1945, and 56 ex-internees in civil camps in the former Dutch East Indies. No infections were found in the latter group while in the Burma group 26 men (17.9%) had S. stercoralis larvae in their stools. Many of them suffered from larva currens, an urticarial skin disorder, cured by treatment. Examination of fresh stool specimens with the Baermann concentration technique gave better results than faecal cultures and microscopy of duodenal aspirate. Mean IgE level and eosinophil count were significantly higher in infected persons but the ranges are too wide to use these tests in diagnosing individual cases. PMID:2270128

  18. The Burmese medic: an international physician assistant analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Donald M; Pedersen, Kathy J; Santitamrongpan, Verapan

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been recent democratic reforms in Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), for nearly 60 years there has been a consistent history of human rights violations as part of a civil war waged by the Myanmar military, known as the Tatmadaw. Approximately 3,500 villages have been destroyed by the Tatmadaw during the half-century of civil war. Oppression against minority groups, including the Karen, Karenni, Kachin, Mon, Shan, Chin, and Muslims has adversely affected the health outcomes of these vulnerable populations. Since the mid 1990s, medics have been providing care for the ethnic minorities who were displaced from their homes by the civil war and who live in the jungles of eastern Burma as well as in the refugee camps and towns in the border areas of Thailand. This article will look at how these medics are providing care similar to that provided by physician assistants in the United States.

  19. The United States and Myanmar: From Antagonists to Security Partners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haacke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview both of the considerable makeover that relations between the United States and Myanmar have undergone since Naypyidaw ushered in a programme of wide-ranging reforms, and of the main policy areas in relation to which Washington remains keen to induce further change. The article also aims to explain why, notwithstanding the significant improvement in bilateral relations and the Obama administration’s interest in also pursuing military engagement, progress in this field has remained rather limited. Focusing on the politics of US policymaking on Burma, the article argues that while the Obama administration was able to take the initiative on recalibrating US Burma policy, congressional resistance in particular, amid wider concerns shared by non-governmental organisations, has so far constrained the administration vis-à-vis US–Myanmar military-to-military relations.

  20. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  1. Tissue banking and clinical research on radiation and ethylene oxide sterilization of tissue grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research works carried out in Rangoon, Burma under the Agency supported project RC4420/RB have dealt with an elucidation of the radiation interaction(s) with the species of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, collagens, connective tissues present in the cleaned and freeze-dried non-viable tissue grafts. Radiation as a cool process furthermore effectively helps to destroy the microbial bioburden as the undesirable contaminants which may associate the tissue grafts. Radiation also concomitantly helps to suppress the tissue-specific immunogenicity. All these attributes of radiation induced effects have proved successful towards the development of a sterilization process. A series of non-viable tissue grafts, such as bone, nerve, fascia, dura, cartilage, chorion-amnion (as dressings in burn wounds) and tympanic membrane have been successfully attempted in Burma and many more possibilities seem to still remain unexplored. Radiation sterilization modality has proved as a blessing for the promotion of clinical surgical applications of tissue allografts in the corrective/reconstructive surgery on the disability cases due to diseases which accompany tissue losses. The investigator in Burma has reported on the case histories where freeze dried radiation sterilized tissue allografts have been successfully used in the osteogenic inductions (bone grafts); midear tympanoplasty; partial recovery of nerve sensation throught nerve allografts; rapid healing of high degree burn wounds through the use of amnion dressings. Besides, there have been a widespread surgical use of radiation sterilized dura and fascia as allografts. A national tissue banking facility has been established in Burma surrounding the processing and clinical utilization of tissue allografts which has involved over ten hospital centres throughout the country. Radiation induced effects on the biomolecules of clinical significance in the tissue grafts have been researched to help gain insight into a better

  2. Measles among U.S.-bound refugees from Malaysia--California, Maryland, North Carolina, and Wisconsin, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    On August 26, 2011, California public health officials notified CDC of a suspected measles case in an unvaccinated male refugee aged 15 years from Burma (the index patient), who had lived in an urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which is experiencing ongoing measles outbreaks. Currently, approximately 92,000 such refugees are living in urban communities in Malaysia. Resettlement programs in the United States and other countries are ongoing. The health and vaccination status of urban refugees are largely unknown. PMID:21937975

  3. Financing Japan’s World War II Occupation of Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg Huff; Shinobu Majima

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes how Japan financed its World War II occupation of Southeast Asia, the transfer of resources to Japan, and the monetary and inflation consequences of Japanese policies. In Malaya, Burma, Indonesia and the Philippines, the issue of military scrip to pay for resources and occupying armies greatly increased money supply. Despite high inflation ,hyperinflation hardly occurred because of a sustained transactions demand for money, because of Japan’s strong enforcement of monetary...

  4. Financing Japan's World War II Occupation of Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg Huff

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes how Japan financed its World War II occupation of Southeast Asia, the transfer of resources to Japan, and the monetary and inflation consequences of Japanese policies. In Malaya, Burma, Indonesia and the Philippines, the issue of military scrip to pay for resources and occupying armies greatly increased money supply. Despite high inflation, hyperinflation hardly occurred because of a sustained transactions demand for money, because of Japan’s strong enforcement of moneta...

  5. Elephants for Mr. Lincoln: American Civil War-Era Diplomacy in Southeast Asia, William Strobridge & Anita Hibler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Baer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This curious book, which begins with events in the 1810s, emphasizes Burma and Siam but undervalues other parts of Southeast Asia. The title refers to the offer by the king of Siam to send elephants to the United States to help President Lincoln win the Civil War. The book rightly discusses commerce, diplomats, and military actions in Southeast Asia. Missionaries are, for unclear reasons, also given prominence; in fact, much of the authors’ information comes from Protestant missionary sources...

  6. The fate of nationalism in the new states: Southeast Asia in comparative historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sidel, John

    2012-01-01

    In two landmark essays published in 1973, the eminent anthropologist Clifford Geertz offered an early assessment of what he termed "The Fate of Nationalism in the New States," referring to the newly independent nation-states of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. 1 Ranging with characteristic ease and flair across Burma, India, Indonesia, Lebanon, Malaysia, Morocco, and Nigeria, Geertz argued that an "Integrative Revolution" was under way, but one complicated and compromised by the inherent te...

  7. Health Perceptions and Practices of Burmese Refugee Families: A Participatory Mixed Method Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kercood, Suneeta; Morita-Mullaney, Trish

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare providers in the United States often view the lifestyle choices made by refugees from Burma through the lenses of America’s norms for healthy living. Although healthcare providers often recognize the role that language plays in the refugees’ ability to communicate their healthcare needs, they often ignore the role of culture. This lack of understanding of cultural difference contributes to the marginalization of refugees in the healthcare system. Using a transformative mixed method...

  8. Wang Junyi's Deep Complex for Jade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinYuan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese people have apprecriated jade since remote antiquity, Jade represents the lofty spirit of humanity and carries Chinese people's expectation for happy life. In ancient times when tools were primitive, carving a beautiful jade required extraordinary talent and perseverance. Chinese emperors and poets wore beautiful jade wares as symbols for gentlemen. After emerald was introduced from Burma to China, its brilliant colors and crystal-clear quality fit for Chinese people's taste far beauty and has created a new fashion.

  9. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Patra; Shivesh Jha; P. Narasimha Murthy

    2009-01-01

    Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are ma...

  10. Report on metric study tour to Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laner, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The modernized metric system, known universally as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI under the French name) was renamed in 1960 by the world body on standards. A map shows 98 percent of the world using or moving toward adoption of SI units. Only the countries of Burma, Liberia, Brunei, and Southern Yemen are nonmetric. The author describes a two-week session in Pretoria and Johannesburg on metrication, followed by additional meetings on metrication in Rhodesia. (MCW)

  11. Review - Naga Identitites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Fiskesjö

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michael Oppitz, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen, and Marion Wettstein (eds. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. This rich volume, with 464 pages packed with information on many aspects of the history and culture of the Naga peoples of Northeast India and Burma, and with a wealth of fascinating illustrations, was simultaneously published in German as Naga-Identitäten: Zeitenwende einer Lokalkultur im Nordosten Indiens. This English version was translated by a team of dedicated editors and proofreaders, resulting in a remarkably rich and well-produced book of great value to everyone concerned with the peoples of Asia's highlands. The Nagas, a large grouping of distinct Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples whose ancient lands have become a part of Northeast India and northern Burma, occupy a key place in the history of Asian highlands peoples. This book explores the last several centuries of their history, up to the present day. It deploys a host of different perspectives to examine how the Nagas have survived and dealt with the three major 'shock-waves' that have affected them over the last 150 years: the onslaught of British colonial rule over their areas, as extended from British-occupied India and Burma; the spread of Christianity by foreign missionaries; and the struggle for autonomy against the Indian state, which sent tens of thousands of ...

  12. Rise and fall of Kantu: A historical study of an ancient Tibeto-Burmese speaking group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ping

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of Chinese records and previous academic achievements in and outside China,the author makes a deeper study on the history of Kantu.As an ancient Tibeto-Burmese speaking group,Kantu was likely to have developed from the Qiongdu(Kontu)of Xinan yi(ancient ethnic groups in southwestern China).During the 12th-13th centuries,the Kantu group resided in an extensive area expanding from the border area between present Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of China to Burma.In the late 13th century,the Yuan troops occupied the area of Kantu.Since then,there have been no more record about Kantu in Chinese annals,and they were likely merged into the groups of"Luoluo"(Lolo).In Burma,most of the Kantu people had been merged into the local peoples,with only a few remaining in remote mountain forests of northern Burma and still keeping their own name and customs.Thus,these people ale lust the living sources for our studies on ancient Kantu.

  13. Burmese Attitude toward Chinese: Portrayal of the Chinese in Contemporary Cultural and Media Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that since at least the mid 1980s, there has been an observable negative attitude among the people of Burma against the Chinese. Such sentiment is not just transient public opinion, but an attitude. The author measures it by studying contemporary cultural and media works as found in legally published expressions, so as to exclude any material rejected by the regime’s censors. The causes of such sentiment are various: massive Chinese migration and purchases of real estate (especially in Upper Burma, Chinese money that is inflating the cost of everything, and cultural “intrusion.” The sentiment extends to the military, as well: the article examines a dozen memoirs of former military generals and finds that Burma’s generals do not trust the Chinese, a legacy of China’s interference in Burma’s civil war until the 1980s. The public outcry over the Myitsone dam issue, however, was the most significant expression of such sentiment since 1969, when anti-Chinese riots broke out in Burma. The relaxation of media restrictions under the new government has allowed this expression to gather steam and spread throughout the country, especially in private weekly journals that are becoming more outspoken and daring in pushing the boundaries of the state’s restrictions.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics and biogeography of Musaceae reveal a correlation between the diversification of the banana family and the geological and climatic history of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Vandelook, Filip; De Langhe, Edmond; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik; Vandenhouwe, Ines; Swennen, Rony

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Southeast Asia, which harbors most of the Musaceae biodiversity, is one of the most species-rich regions in the world. Its high degree of endemism is shaped by the region's tectonic and climatic history, with large differences between northern Indo-Burma and the Malayan Archipelago. Here, we aim to find a link between the diversification and biogeography of Musaceae and geological history of the Southeast Asian subcontinent. The Musaceae family (including five Ensete, 45 Musa and one Musella species) was dated using a large phylogenetic framework encompassing 163 species from all Zingiberales families. Evolutionary patterns within Musaceae were inferred using ancestral area reconstruction and diversification rate analyses. All three Musaceae genera - Ensete, Musa and Musella - originated in northern Indo-Burma during the early Eocene. Musa species dispersed from 'northwest to southeast' into Southeast Asia with only few back-dispersals towards northern Indo-Burma. Musaceae colonization events of the Malayan Archipelago subcontinent are clearly linked to the geological and climatic history of the region. Musa species were only able to colonize the region east of Wallace's line after the availability of emergent land from the late Miocene onwards.

  15. Structure and Kinematics of the Indo-Burmese Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Burma subduction trench and the associated Indo Burmese wedge mark the present eastern boundary of the Indian plate in the northern Bengal area. The initiation, duration and history of the Bengal crust subduction beneath Burma is still debated. The aim of this paper is to provide a structural and kinematic analysis of the Indo- Burmese wedge in order to better constraints the Bengal crust subduction history beneath Burma. On the basis of field observations, seismic reflection data interpretation and well logs data we present a structural analysis of the Outer Indo-Burmese Wedge. We also constrain the onset of this Outer Wedge to be younger than 2Ma, implying a recent and fast westward growth (~10cm/yr) since Late Pliocene in close relationship with the onset of the Shillong plateau. Restoration process of a synthetic cross section through the Outer Wedge allowed us to estimate the amount of EW shortening accommodated in the Outer Wedge to be 5.1mm/yr since 2Ma. These results combined with previous available GPS data from central Myanmar suggest strain partitioning at wedge scale. The core of the wedge is affected by shear deformation and acts as a buttress for a frontal wedge that accommodates a more compressive strain component. Finally we propose that the main characteristic of the Indo-Burmese wedge growth mechanism is the progressive incorporation of the most internal part of the wedge, formerly affected by transpressive thin-skinned tectonics, to the buttress where they are subsequently affected by shear deformation. The crustal structure boarding the newly formed buttress seems to be guided by the subducting crust fabrics. We are in favour of a very recent (Late Miocene) onset of the present Indian crust subduction beneath Burma coeval with the global plate kinematics reorganisation related to the Indian/Australian plate spliting. This subduction postdates the Indo Burmese range onset that must have started in early Miocene. This range first began to

  16. FATTY ACIDS PATTERN OF OLIVE OIL UNDER ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasab Al-Rawashdeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming is considered as a mitigation strategy to face adverse effect of climate change and Consumers’ increasing their need for safe and quality food has motivated this research study. The olive oil of the Roman olive trees (Landrace Olea Europea belong to the Oleaceae family growing under organic farming (in the transition period conditions in Jordan Ajlun area was extracted by traditional method; warming water to the about 60°C and grounded the seeds make as paste then pour in the warmed water then take the oil layer floated at the surface. The oil was analyzed for fatty acids pattern and compared with Romans trees olive oil grown at Burma Agriculture Station which has organic Certificate according to the Japanese Agriculture Standard (JAS since 2007. The separation patterns of fatty acids were done by Gas Chromatography (GC. Results showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid (up to 67.49%, linoleic acid (13.31% and linolenic acid (0.74% in the oil of Romans trees growing in Ajlun area, while the organic olive oil from the Romans olive trees growing at Burma Station showed 68.88% of oleic acid, 11.73% of linoleic acid and 0.67% of Linolenic acid. The analysis also showed that the palmatic saturated fatty acid was 12.54% at Burma Station compared to 11.82% in Ajlun area. The medicinal value of unsaturated fatty acids play great role for reducing cholesterol rate that was found in high level of Romans olive trees (landrace.

  17. 2003年东南亚政治发展回顾%A Review of the Political Development in Southeast Asia in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锡镇

    2004-01-01

    The latest political development in Southeast Asia can be characterized by the following four aspects, which are 1. Campaigns were under way for the general elections in Indonesia and the Philippines. 2. Cambodia and Malaysia were undertaking the change of governments and power transition. 3. Latest developments were made in anti - terrorist campaigns in the area, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. 4. There occurred domestic military conflicts and violence, namely the military conflict in Indonesia, the military coup d'état in the Philippines and the blood event of May 30 in Burma.

  18. Temporal-spatial distribution and tectonic implications of the batholiths in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, western Yunnan: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Lan, Jiang-Bo; Luo, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Long; Shi, Yu-Ruo; Xie, Lie-Wen

    2012-07-01

    Considerable progress has recently been made regarding temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism in the Lhasa Terrane. However the eastward and southeastward correlation of these Tibetan magmatic suites in western Yunnan and Burma remains poorly constrained. This paper reports zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions of granites in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, west Yunnan. It reveals three episodes of plutonism, and more importantly a southwestward magmatic migration. The Gaoligong batholiths in the northeast were mainly emplaced during early Cretaceous (126-121 Ma) and comprised predominantly S-type granites with negative zircon ɛHf values (ɛHf = -2˜-12). The Tengliang granites, situated southwest of the Gaoligong belt, were emplaced in late Cretaceous (68-76 Ma) and also displayed a strong peraluminous affinity and negative ɛHf (-5˜-14), indicating a provenance from a Proterozoic sedimentary source with little mantle contribution. The youngest phase of magmatism (52-66 Ma) occurred in Yingjiang, southwestmost of the study area. It is composed of S-type granites (ɛHf = -2˜-12) in east Yingjiang and I-type granites (ɛHf = -4˜+6) in west Yingjiang, near the China-Burma border. The late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic plutons in the Tengliang and Yingjiang area are thus considered as the northern continuation of the late Cretaceous magmatic arc (west), which comprises I-type granites and andesitic rocks, and of the belt of predominant S-type granites (east) in Burma, Thailand and Malaysia. Such a chemical polarity of the dual I-type and S-type granites is strongly reminiscent of the northern American Cordillera, indicating a Cordilleran-style continental margin during the late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic. While the magmatic arc was related to eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethys beneath the Asian continent, the S-type granites represented the melting products of thickened crust in the hinterland, in response to subduction-induced decrease in

  19. 中、越、老、泰等国壮泰族群的饮食文化%Diet Culture of Zhuang and Dai Ethnic Group in China, Vietnam, Laos and Thai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏贵

    2012-01-01

    壮泰族群包括中、越、老、泰、缅、印6个国家的27个同根同源民族,从中国迁徙到不同的国家后,既有不同的文化,也保持了他们原来的共生文化。%Zhuang and Dai ethnic group includes 27 homologous nationalities in 6 countries: China, Vietnam, Laos, Thai, Burma and India, where they remain their own symbiotic cultures and obtain new different cultures when migrant to different countries. This thesis studies 3 kinds of unique food in diet culture.

  20. Community Coping Strategies in Response to Hardship and Human Rights Abuses Among Burmese Refugees and Migrants at the Thai-Burmese Border: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shawn; Asgary, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 10 focus groups (n = 49) with community members and key informant interviews (n = 28) to explore hardships and community coping strategies for sequelae of abuse among Burmese refugees/migrants in Thailand. Transcripts were coded and analyzed for major themes. In Burma, they universally experienced human rights violations and economic hardship. Hardships continued in Thailand through exploitation and threat of deportation. Coping was achieved through both personal and community-based mechanisms including self-reflection, sharing experiences, spirituality, and serving their community. Western psychosocial counseling, although available, was used infrequently. Effective psychosocial support often originates from the community and should be supported by international organizations. PMID:26882410

  1. Alternative Education or Teaching Radicalism? New Literature on Islamic Education in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Warnk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article focuses on three recent publications on Islamic education in Southeast Asia. While two are monographs on South Thailand and Myanmar/ Burma, one is a collection of essays on Indonesia, Malaysia, South Thailand, Cambodia, and the Southern Philippines. All works highlight local, regional and international educational networks, as well as their connections to the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East. Based chiefly on first-hand fieldwork, the works deliver an up-to-date and detailed picture of current discussions and developments regarding Islamic education in Southeast Asia.

  2. 10 planter fra sørøst-asiatisk folkemedisin : En studie over farmakologisk effekt, terapeutisk potensiale og fytokjemi sett ut fra tradisjonelle indikasjoner

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Denne oppgaven føyer seg inn i rekken av andre oppgaver fra Farmasøytisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo, som har dreid seg om å finne informasjon om farmakologisk effekt og fytokjemiske bestanddeler i for oss mye ukjente planter fra et plantearkiv stammende fra et feltarbeid i Burma, årene 1957-1963 (Nordal, 1963). Oppgaven har søkt å innhente informasjon om etnomedisinsk bruk, fytokjemi og biologisk aktivitet for 10 medisinplanter fra Nordal-databasen . De 10 artene fra like mange slekter ...

  3. Some medical aspects of Long Range Penetration. Regimental Medical Officer, 4th Battalion, The Border Regiment (September 1944).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, H W

    1986-06-01

    Editor's note: The following notes were intended as a help to platoon commanders operating with LRP troops and were the result of observations made on six months LRP training and fifteen weeks operations with a column of 23rd British Infantry Brigade in the Naga Hills. The operations, particularly from the point of view of treatment and evacuation of casualties, differed from those of the Brigades who were operating inside Burma itself owing to the nature of the terrain, but the basic problems, particularly from the platoon commander's point of view, were the same. The author's views may still be of interest today after more than 40 years.

  4. Between two civilisations

    OpenAIRE

    Tinti, Paola

    1998-01-01

    Buddhism is believed to have all but died out in India following the thirteenth century Muslim invasion. However, in Bengal groups of non-Bengali people have continued to practice Therāvada Buddhism, which they are said to have imported from nearby Burma, or which they were converted to from other forms of Buddhism after migrating to Bengal. Their practices were "reformed" in 1856 by Burmese monks. An analysis of the historical material reveals a tendency by non-Buddhist Be...

  5. Mobile computing in the humanitarian assistance setting: an introduction and some first steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanikio, Joel D; Kemmer, Teresa M; Bovill, Maria; Geisler, Karen

    2002-04-01

    We developed a Palm operating system-based handheld computer system for admin istering nutrition questionnaires and used it to gather nutritional information among the Burmese refugees in the Mae La refugee camp on the Thai-Burma border Our experience demonstrated that such technology can be easily adapted for such an austere setting and used to great advantage. Further, the technology showed tremendous potential to reduce both time required and errors commonly encountered when field staff collect information in the humanitarian setting. We also identified several areas needing further development. PMID:11993568

  6. Activation Analysis. Proceedings of an Informal Study Group Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its programme to promote the exchange of information relating to nuclear science and technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened in Bangkok, Thailand, from 6-8 July 1970, an informal meeting to discuss the topic of Activation Analysis. The meeting was attended by participants drawn from the following countries: Australia, Burma, Ceylon, Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Prance, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United States of America and Vietnam. The proceedings consist of the contributions presented at the meeting with minor editorial changes

  7. Micronutrient deficiencies in early childhood can lower a country's GDP: The Myanmar example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Zaw

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is a developing country in South East Asia. While Myanmar is among the 20 countries where 80% of the world's malnourished children live, its military consumes the majority of the national budget. Children who are malnourished between conception and age two are at high risk for impaired physical and mental development, which adversely affects the country's productivity and growth. Myanmar is facing three major micronutrient deficiencies which are iodine, iron and vitamin A deficiencies. The three micronutrient deficiencies can cost about 2.4% of the country's GDP. Children are the future of Myanmar and persistent micronutrient deficiencies will hamper its economic growth and lower its GDP.

  8. Nutritional Problems and Intervention Strategies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area. it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. India has a total population of 1,198,003,000, a gr...

  9. Geopolitical Considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    India is contiguous with Southeast Asia, holding borderlines of more than 2000 kilometers with Burma. India's Andaman-Nicobar Islands situate near the outlet of the Malacca Strait, with their southmost point only 128 kilometers from Indonesia's Sumatra. Given its dominant status and power in South Asia, and its special geographic location neighboring Southeast Asia, India is the only power in South Asia that can interact geopolitically with Southeast Asia in the present and foreseeable future. In fact, its geopolitical connection with the latter has long come into existence.

  10. Ganado Cebú: Origen y Adaptación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez G. Luis Jair

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available El ganado Cebú está habilitado extraordinariamente para producción bajo condiciones tropicales de altas temperaturas ambientales, alta humedad, condiciones adversas de pastoreo, parasitismo; en forma tal que resulta insustituible como base genética para cualquier programa de producción de carne bovina en el medio tropical. Existen varias teorías sobre el origen del cebú, hay un considerable cuerpo de evidencias que lo señalan como nativo del área India-Pakistán-Burma-Malaya.

  11. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, C.; Bishop, C.; Hawkins, O.; Grealey, E.; Cox, C.; Thomas, D.; Trimel, S.

    2009-07-01

    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  12. Yuan Longping-An Outstanding Technical Talent in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Acad. Yuan Longping, Director General of China National Hybrid Rice R & D Center and Honourable President of HAAS, is internationally recognized as the father of hybrid rice. He not only developed three lines for hybrid seed production but also developed the seed production technology. Hybrid rice is now planted on 15 million hectares or so in China, almost 50%of the country's total rice land. It has contributed greatly to the rice production increase in China. Hybrid rice technology is being adopted in other countries such as India , Vietnam,Philippines and Burma.

  13. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  14. Timber Entrepreneur, Cukong Kayu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We live in a world populated not just by individuals but by figures, those larger-than-life people who in some way express and challenge our conventional understandings of social types. This innovative and collaborative work takes up the wide range of figures that populate the social and cultural...... that is at once highly particular and general. They include the Muslim Television Preacher in Indonesia, Miss Beer Lao, the Rural DJ in Thailand, the Korean Soap Opera Junkie in Burma, the Filipino Seaman, and the Photo Retoucher in Vietnam. Figures of Southeast Asian Modernity brings together the fieldwork...

  15. Community Coping Strategies in Response to Hardship and Human Rights Abuses Among Burmese Refugees and Migrants at the Thai-Burmese Border: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shawn; Asgary, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 10 focus groups (n = 49) with community members and key informant interviews (n = 28) to explore hardships and community coping strategies for sequelae of abuse among Burmese refugees/migrants in Thailand. Transcripts were coded and analyzed for major themes. In Burma, they universally experienced human rights violations and economic hardship. Hardships continued in Thailand through exploitation and threat of deportation. Coping was achieved through both personal and community-based mechanisms including self-reflection, sharing experiences, spirituality, and serving their community. Western psychosocial counseling, although available, was used infrequently. Effective psychosocial support often originates from the community and should be supported by international organizations.

  16. Maritime heritage in and around Chilika lake, Orissa: Geological evidences for its decline

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.

    Books International, New Delhi, 1999, pp. 162 ? 171. 9. Behera, K. S., Trade and patterns of commerce in Orissa ( AD 700 ? 1200). Utkal Hist. Res. J. , 1991, 2 , 1 ? 15. 10. Pascoe, E. H., A Manual of the Geology of India and Burma , Ge o... COMMUNICATIONS CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 88, NO. 7, 10 APRIL 2005 1175 *For correspondence. (e - mail: sila@darya.nio.org) 11. Mishra, D. C., Gupta, S. B., Rao, M. B. S. V., Venkatarayudu, M. and Laksman, G., Godavari basin ? A geophysical study. J...

  17. Science Diplomacy in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neureiter, Norman P.

    2011-04-01

    For us at AAAS science diplomacy means the use of scientific cooperation as an active instrument of a foreign policy of engagement-particularly with countries where overall political relations are strained. Historic precedents are noted with Japan, the Soviet Union, and China. Recent experiences of our AAAS Center for Science Diplomacy are described-with Iran, Syria, Cuba, Burma (Myanmar), and North Korea. In this presentation I will explore cases and the key contributing factors that determine where it makes a difference, and where it is truly constructive.

  18. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  19. 浅析缅甸华人的公民资格问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏伟

    2012-01-01

    随着全球化的迅速发展,特别是移民的增加,民族国家的边界日益受到挑战。东道主国家在考虑外来移民归化入籍的诉求时,并不总是做出接纳或拒绝的二元选择。一些国家赋予外来移民公民资格,但只给予其"半公民资格"或"差别公民资格"。华人、印度人等外来移民虽然被缅甸政府接纳归化入籍,但并不被给予"完全的成员资格"。缅甸公民法规定,华人是缅甸的"二等或三等"公民,其在政治权利、公民社会权利和公民权利等方面均处于不平等的地位。作为外来移民,华人享有的"差异公民资格"不仅是对华人个人或群体的不公平,更阻碍了缅甸民族国家的建构和公民国家认同的形成。%Along with the rapid development of globalization,especially the increase of immigrants,the national borders are facing gradual challenges.When immigrants apply for naturalization,the host countries can offer a choice alternative to "yes" or "no".Some countries practice in this direction is to grant the immigrant applicants citizenship but with so-called "semi-qualification" or "differentiated citizenship" like Chinese and Indians in Burma who are not granted a "complete citizenship".They are classified as the second or third rank of Burma citizens stipulated by the Burma Citizenship Law.Chinese is the second or third rank citizens who are deprived of the equal rights such as political rights,citizen ’ s rights and social rights in the country.The hat of the "differentiated citizenship" that Chinese is wearing not just symbolizes the inequality to individuals and to the group;it also impedes the state-building process and the formation of a national identification in Burma country.

  20. 'I am a Child with Education and Knowledge': Karen Migrant and Refugee Children's Daily life Experiences in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Engan, Laila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis is based on a field work conducted in Thailand with migrant and refugee children from Burma belonging to the ethnic minority of the Karen people. One urban school for migrant children and one rural refugee camp school served as research sites. The study explores the daily life experiences of children aged 8 – 13, with main focus on their school life. Various methods such as observation, essay writing, drawing and photography were used in order to search for the children’s o...

  1. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

    2005-01-01

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of M w = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html), it is the second largest...... earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004...

  2. Effect of Finger Joint on Flexural Strength of Teak Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharatesh A. Danawade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flexural properties of rectangular Burma teak wood beam without finger joint and with finger joint. Finger joints enable full utilization of wood. Finger jointing technique is also used to eliminate wood defects which weaken the strength of wood. This paper considers finger joint as defined defect and its effect on the flexural strength is determined. Teakwood is hard and heavy, seasons rapidly and has good durability. The specimens were studied under three point bending test. Both edge wise and flat wise tests were carried out. It is observed that Burma teakwood beam without finger joint is stronger than beams with finger joints. Because of finger jointing the flexural strength reduces. It can be concluded that the strength loss can improved upon by selecting suitable geometry of finger joint and a suitable adhesive. It is recognized that further studies are necessary on jointing techniques of wood and type of adhesive so as to equal the flexural strength properties of clear teak wood beams.

  3. Surface latent heat flux anomalies prior to the Indonesia Mw9.0 earthquake of 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The temporal and spatial variations of surface latent heat flux (SLHF) before and after the Mw9.0 earthquake that occurred on the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia on 26 December 2004 are summarized. It is found that before the earthquake significant SLHF anomalies occurred at the epicentral area and its vicinity. The largest SLHF anomaly occurred on the subduction zone in the middle part of Burma micro-plate, where the middle part of the rupture zone is located and the aftershocks are concentrated. The developments of the anomaly involved growing of the anomaly from small to large and spreading of the anomaly from disordered to concentrated. The anomaly began to occur on the east extensional boundary of the Burma micro-plate and its adjacent oceanic basin, and then propagated to the west compressive boundary, where the subduction zone exists. Finally, the anomaly disappeared after the main shock. The seismic source is considered to be a dissipation system. The increase of stress prior to an earthquake may enhance the exchange of energy and material between the seismic source system and the outer system, resulting in the increase of the rate of energy exchange between sea surface and atmosphere, which is believed to be the main reason of the generation of SLHF anomaly.

  4. The Effect of Water Shortage on Water Quality of Different Resources in Jerash Governorate/Jordan, Based On New Water Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eham Al-Ajlouni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The individual average of water share In Jerash governorate is only 71 litres per day and that is the lowest allotment in Jordan. The aim of the study is to assess water quality of different resources in Jerash governorate, based on demographic, chemical and biological changes within a period of 11 years. Cluster survey method was applied and samples of drinking water were taken from different resources. Water of municipality and bottled groundwater resources were of acceptable quality; groundwater of tanker trucks and wells were also acceptable except that of high level of nitrate; spring water and harvested rainwater were potentially not safe and susceptible for biological contamination. At level of sub-districts, based on a new developed water quality index, it was chemically found that water in Mastaba sub-district was more complying with standards than Jerash and Burma sub-districts, but in biological respect both Jerash and Burma sub-districts were more compliance with the standards than Mastaba sub-district. In general, drinking water in Jerash governorate was chemically found of medium quality, and biologically of good quality.

  5. Insights into Himalayan biogeography from geckos: a molecular phylogeny of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ishan; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Karanth, K Praveen

    2014-11-01

    The India-Asia collision profoundly influenced the climate, topography and biodiversity of Asia, causing the formation of the biodiverse Himalayas. The species-rich gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus is an ideal clade for exploring the biological impacts of the India-Asia collision, as previous phylogenetic hypotheses suggest basal divergences occurred within the Himalayas and Indo-Burma during the Eocene. To this end, we sampled for Cyrtodactylus across Indian areas of the Himalayas and Indo-Burma Hotspots and used three genes to reconstruct relationships and estimate divergence times. Basal divergences in Cyrtodactylus, Hemidactylus and the Palaearctic naked-toed geckos were simultaneous with or just preceded the start of the India-Asia collision. Diversification within Cyrtodactylus tracks the India-Asia collision and subsequent geological events. A number of geographically concordant clades are resolved within Indo-Burmese Cyrtodactylus. Our study reveals 17 divergent lineages that may represent undescribed species, underscoring the previously undocumented diversity of the region. The importance of rocky habitats for Cyrtodactylus indicates the Indo-Gangetic flood plains and the Garo-Rajmahal Gap are likely to have been important historical barriers for this group.

  6. AcEST: DK952006 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3|A8EMN3_BURPS Transporter, major facilitator family OS=... 33 7.1 tr|A5XW63|A5XW63_BURMA Major facilitator ...r hom... 33 5.4 tr|Q63IF0|Q63IF0_BURPS Putative transporter protein OS=Burkholde... 33 7.1 tr|Q62DQ2|Q62DQ2_BURMA Maj...or facilitator family transporter OS=B... 33 7.1 tr|Q3JJ70|Q3JJ70_BURP1 Maj...or facilitator family transporter OS=B... 33 7.1 tr|A3P987|A3P987_BURP0 Transporter, major facilitator fa...mily OS=... 33 7.1 tr|A3NNQ5|A3NNQ5_BURP6 Major facilitator family transporter OS=B... 33 7.1 tr|A3MBI6|A3MBI6_BURM7 Maj

  7. Detrital Mineral Record of the Central Myanmar Basin and implications for the evolution of the eastern Himalayan margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, C. A.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Barfod, D. N.; Carter, A.; Parrish, R. R.; Horstwood, M. S.; Thein, M.; Win Oo, N.

    2014-12-01

    Single grain detrital thermochronology (40Ar/39Ar white mica, zircon fission track and Lu-Hf analysis) of Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Central Myanmar Basin permits the identification of tectonothermal events in the source areas, and an understanding of how exhumation histories and changing provenance are related to the palaeogeography of the West Burma block during India-Asia collision. Robinson et al. (2014) used detrital zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis to show that Eocene and Oligocene sedimentary rocks were primarily sourced from the Gangdese magmatic arc that lies exclusively within the southern Lhasa terrane, and that the Yarlung Tsangpo and Irrawaddy River were connected at this time. Detrital thermochronology reveal these Paleogene deposits contain broadly distributed, mainly pre-Himalayan 40Ar/39Ar white mica cooling ages, reflecting the contribution from multiple source areas with a cooling history that is similar to the Lhasa terrane. A distinct change in provenance to a single, sustained source area during deposition of the Miocene units is recorded by a white mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling age peak of 37 Ma and a lesser peak of 17 - 21 Ma that is also observed in detrital zircon fission track age data. These two age peaks, 37 Ma and 17 - 21 Ma, likely reflect an initial period of crustal thickening, metamorphism and exhumation in the southern Mogok Metamorphic Belt, and a later phase of exhumation associated with deformation in the eastern syntaxis and the onset of extension in Myanmar and other parts of SE Asia. The latter events are also associated with the disconnection of the Yarlung Tsangpo from the Irrawaddy River around 18 Ma (Robinson et al., 2014). The combined dataset provides constraints on the position and movement of the West Burma block from the Late Eocene to Early Miocene, supports an Oligocene (~37 Ma) age for the timing of India-West Burma-Sibumasu coupling, and an Early Miocene age for extension

  8. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  9. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration.

  10. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  11. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  12. Remembrance of Dutch War Dead in Southeast Asia, 1942-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridus Steijlen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the war experience in Southeast Asia in the Netherlands was not easy. The Indisch community, those who had to leave the Netherlands East Indies after decolonization, did not feel that their war experience was accepted. Following the story of one man, a former POW, this article shows how unorthodox ways of protesting were used to command respect and acknowledgement. The arena for these actions was not only the Indisch monument in the Netherlands, but also the War cemetery in Thailand. The former Dutch POW ended up in a dispute with the Australian caretaker of that cemetery over the specific location of a camp. Both men, however, were motivated by the same urge to find the exact locations of camps along the Burma railway. The story of this POW shows how important official recognition is on a personal level.

  13. VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (LINN. NASH: A PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vetiveria zizanioides is belonging to Poaceae family. It is well known plant from south India and widely distributed in India, Burma, Ceylon, and spread from Southwest Asia to tropical Africa. Vetiveria zizanioides is commonly known as khas - khas, khus, vetiver, Vala in different languages. Root of Vetiveria zizanioides have been suggested in the Indian system of medicine for a number of diseases. These includes as decoction in high fever, inflammation and sexual disorder, as paste in diarrhea, chronic dysentery and in Ayurvedic preparations and as juice in anthelmentic. This plant was screened pharmacologically for antibacterial, antifungal, anticataleptic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, Rheumatism, anti oxidant and anti arthritic activity. This will be creating helpfulness towards this medicinal plant and for preparation of different Ayurvedic formulation with more therapeutic and economic consideration in treatment of various diseases.

  14. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving. PMID:23531562

  15. PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DDT RESISTANCE IN ANOPHELES CULICIFACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Zaini

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in southeastern part of Iran, India, West Pakistan and Ceylon. In 1959 the LC50 % DDT in the Panchmahal district of Gujarat state (India had increased. DDT resistant population of A. culicifacies has been reported from West Pakistan, Burma and Iran. After application of DDT in 1959, the density of A. culicifacies decreased sharply. The susceptibility test carried out in 1963 showed that the LC50 was 0.5%.After DDT spraying, followed by Dieldrin, for about 10 years the density of A. culicifacies was so negligible that it was not possible to perform susceptibility tests. By April and May of 1973 the density of A.culicifacies in Saidabad, Khairabad and Hit in Baluchesten province, Southeast of Iran, increased to about 500 per shelter. The susceptibility tests carried out showed that A. culicfacies is resistant to DDT and susceptible to Dieldrin and Malathion.

  16. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G

    2010-09-01

    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul).

  17. History of Mosquito Releases for Control and Potential of New Molecular Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten different field trials, of varying sizes, have been carried out with sterile mosquitoes, the majority being in the 1970's. The major trials were in India, Burma and El Salvador. The major biological problems encountered were the failure of the sterile males to mate with the wild females and density dependent larval survival. There were also several problems associated with the technology, e.g. failures in mass rearing, inappropriate release technologies and immigration into the treatment area. New transgenic developments may offer some improvements but the above constraints will still need to be solved. Systems to genetically sterilize insects in the field are being evaluated in mosquitoes and have been shown to be successful in Drosophila. The genetic constructs used in Drosophila may well function in Anopheles.

  18. A microcosm investigation of fe (iron) removal using macrophytes of ramsar lake: A phytoremediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mayanglambam Muni; Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The present study deals with the microcosm study of Fe (Iron) phytoremediation using Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia cucullata species collected from the Loktak Lake, a Ramsar Site which exists in north-eastern India (an Indo-Burma hotspot region). Efficiency of these four macrophytes was compared using different Fe concentrations of 1 mg L(-1), 3 mg L(-1) and 5 mg L(-1) for 4 days, 8 days and 12 days, respectively. E. crassipes was the most efficient macrophyte whereas L. minor was the least efficient. E. crassipes removed the highest percentage of Fe, i.e. 89% from 1 mg L(-1), 81.3% from 3 mg L(-1) and 73.2% from 5 mg L(-1) in 12-day experiment. PMID:27258126

  19. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  20. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO(trademark) exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages

  1. The Global Youth Service Team: students applying science and technology in remote, developing region of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Doug

    2012-03-01

    Eh Kalu, director of the Karen Department of Health and Welfare along the border region between Thailand and Burma said, ``It is very difficult to attend to a medical emergency at night when all you have are candles for light.'' The Global Youth Service Team (GYST) provides high school and college students with the opportunity to apply science that they have learned in the performance of international humanitarian service. Volunteers with the GYST build solar powered electrical systems, ultraviolet water purifiers, provide training and education to people who are most in need due to energy poverty, lack access to resources, natural disasters or human rights violations. GYST volunteers train with photovoltaic materials and equipment to become solar energy technicians. They then travel to remote communities in developing countries where we are able to catalyze improvements in education and health care, promote sustainable energy initiatives and help communities develop the capacity to use their own resources by which to create opportunity.

  2. Terpenoid composition and botanical affinity of Cretaceous resins from India and Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay (India); Kumar, Kishor [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Uttarakhand (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungzentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere; Greenwood, Paul F. [John De Laeter Mass Spectrometry and WA Biogeochemistry Centres (M090), University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    Fossil resins from the Cretaceous sediments of Meghalaya, India and Kachin, Myanmar (Burma) were analysed using Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to help elucidate their botanical source. The major pyrolysis products and methyl-esterified thermochemolysis products of both the resins were abietane and labdane type diterpenoids with minor amount of sesquiterpenoids. The thermochemolysis products also included methyl-16,17-dinor callitrisate, methyl-16,17-dinor dehydroabietate and methyl-8-pimaren-18-oate - the latter two from just the Myanmarese resin. The exclusive presence of both labdane and abietane diterpenoids and the lack of phenolic terpenoids may suggest that the studied Cretaceous resins were derived from Pinaceae (pine family) conifers. (author)

  3. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G

    2010-09-01

    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul). PMID:20924414

  4. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration. PMID:27180523

  5. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar, we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations.

  6. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecific variation in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wei, Fuwen; Goossens, Benoît; Feng, Zuojian; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Bruford, Michael W; Funk, Stephan M

    2005-07-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species and its present distribution is restricted to isolated mountain ranges in western China (Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet provinces) and the Himalayan Mountains chain of Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Burma. To examine the evolutionary history across its current range, and to assess the genetic divergence among current subspecies and population structure among different geographic locations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the control region (CR) and cytochrome (cyt) b gene for 41 individuals in Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet of China, and Burma. 25 CR haplotypes (10 for cyt b) were identified from 11 geographic locations. Only three haplotypes were shared among sample localities, including one among current subspecies. Nine haplotypes were shared with the study of Su et al. [Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 (2001) 1070]. CR haplotype diversity was high (0.95+/-0.02) and nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes was relatively low (0.018+/-0.009). Phylogenetic confirmed trees show a shallow pattern with very little structure or statistical robustness. The application of two coalescent-based tests for population growth allowed us to interpret this phylogeny as the result of a recent population expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and nested clade analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure in both data sets. The lack of significant differentiation between subspecies does not indicate the presence of evolutionary significant units. We suggest that the present population structure has resulted from habitat fragmentation and expansion from glacial refugia. Due to its habitat requirements it is likely that the red panda has undergone bottlenecks and population expansions several times in the recent past. The present population may exhibit a pattern reminiscent of a relatively recent population expansion. PMID:15904858

  7. Enhancing Floodplain Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin Using Vegetation and Water Cycle Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Spruce, J.; Wilson, R.; Strauch, K.; Doyle, T.; Srinivan, R.; Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River Basin shared by China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, is considered the lifeblood of Southeast Asia. The Mekong Basin is subject to large hydrological fluctuations on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. The basin remains prone to severe annual floods that continue to cause widespread damage and endanger food security and the livelihood of the millions who dwell in the region. Also the placement of newly planned dams primarily for hydropower in the Lower Mekong Basin may cause damaging social, agriculture and fisheries impacts to the region where we may now likely be at a critical 'tipping point'. The primary goal of this project is to apply NASA and USGS products, tools, and information for improved flood and water management in the Lower Mekong River Basin to help characterize, understand, and predict future changes on the basin. Specifically, we are providing and helping transfer to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the member countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam, and Burma the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using remotely sensed surface, ground water, and root zone soil moisture along with improved Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps. In order to estimate the flood potential and constrain the SWAT Available Water Capacity model parameter over the region, we are assimilated GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage observations into the Catchment Land Surface Model. In addition, a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) as been developed to work in concert with the output of the SWAT model parameterized for the Mekong Basin as an adjunct tool of the MRC Decision Support Framework. The project requires a close coordination of the development and assessment of the enhanced MRC SWAT with the guidance of MRC resource managers and technical advisors. This presentation will evaluate the skill of the enhanced SWAT model using qualitative (i.e., MODIS change detection) and quantitative (e.g., streamflow) metrics over one

  8. RICE IN COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL SOUTHEAST ASIA: A FOOD REGIME ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Pradadimara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the ways in which rice, as a global commodity, has been produced and sold in various regions in Southeast Asia from the colonial era to the present days. This paper employs a food regime analysis first introduced by Harriet Friedmann (1982 and later developed together with Philip McMichael (1989 to look at the global political economy of rice. In this paper, it will be shown how various colonial and post colonial states in Southeast Asia (including Thailand who was never formally colonized through their policies have practically divided the region where Burma (now Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam in the mainland have become major rice producer and exporter, while Indonesia, Malaya (now Malaysia, and the Philippines in the archipelagic Southeast Asia have become major rice importers although at the same time producers and exporters of other agro-commodities (coffee, sugar, rubber.Keywords: rice history, food regime, Southeast Asia Artikel ini menelusuri cara di mana padi sebagai komoditas dunia diproduksi dan dijual di beberapa daerah di Asia Tenggara mulai zaman kolonial sampai sekarang. Artikel ini menggunakan analisis “food regime” yang pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Harrier Friedman (1982 dan kemudian dikembangkan bersama oleh Philip (1989 untuk mengetahui politik ekonomi global dari padi. Dalam artikel ini, akan dilihat mengenai bagaimana negara kolonial dan pasca-kolonial yanb berbeda di Asia Tenggara (termasuk Thailand yang tidak pernah dijajah sebelumnya melalui kebiakannya, yang hampir membagi wilayahnya, di mana Burma (Myanmar, Thailand, dan Vietnam telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir utama terbesar, sedangkan Indonesia dan Malaya (Malaysia dan Filipina di Asia Tenggara telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir komoditas pertanian lain (kopi, gula, karet dalam waktu yang bersamaan.Kata kunci: sejarah beras, food regime, Asia Tenggara. 

  9. Japan’s Development Ambitions for Myanmar: The Problem of “Economics before Politics”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Seekins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the country’s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the “militarization” of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962–1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmar’s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmar’s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmar’s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmar’s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.

  10. Break-up of the Greater Indo-Australian Continent and accretion of blocks framing South and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, S. K.

    1998-09-01

    The Tibetan and 'Sibumasu' continental blocks rifted apart from the northern margin of Gondwanan Indo-Australia during the Permo-Carboniferous whereas, the IndoBurma-Andamans (IBA), Sikuleh, Lolotoi micro-continents did so during the Late Jurassic. This continental margin experienced glacial or cool conditions during the Permo-Carboniferous. The Tibetan and Sibumasu blocks drifted northward during mid-late Permian initiating opening of the Neo-Tethys. The arm of the Palaeo-Tethys located to the north of these blocks closed as these blocks were accreted to the South China and Indochina blocks which had separated from the same Gondwanan margin during early Palaeozoic. All these blocks were amalgamated to form the Cathaysialand. The Sibumasu block was accreted to the Indochina block, and the Tibetan Changtang block to Eurasia during the late Permian-mid Triassic. Contemporaneously Mesozoic Neo-Tethys expanded between the Indian, Lhasa and Changtang blocks. The Indian and Australian continents separated during the Cretaceous leading to the opening up of the Indian Ocean and closing of the Tethyan ocean. The Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan sutures in Tibet, Yunnan, Myanmar, Laos-Thailand and Vietnam reveal the complex opening and closing history of the Tethys. IBA rotated clockwise from its earlier E-W orientation, because of dextral transcurrent fault movements which ensured faster northward movement of the Indian plate relative to Australia during late Cretaceous-early Eocene. Contemporaneous to India-Tibet terminal collision during early-mid Eocene there was thloeiitic-alkalic foreland volcanism (Abor and equivalents) at the leading edge of the Indian continent. Sustained post-collisional movement of the Indian plate, caused southward propagation of the Himalayan crystalline and frontal foreland thrust sheets. It also produced E-W trending folds and thrusts even in distal Central Indian Ocean areas as well as a clockwise rotation of the amalgamated SE Asian Cathaysian

  11. Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (19752005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Tieszen, L.L.; Singh, A.; Gillette, S.; Kelmelis, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to estimate the present extent of tsunami-affected mangrove forests and determine the rates and causes of deforestation from 1975 to 2005. Location: Our study region covers the tsunami-affected coastal areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka in Asia. Methods: We interpreted time-series Landsat data using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of plus-or-minus half a pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. Each image was normalized for solar irradiance by converting digital number values to the top-of-the atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and data bases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. We used a post-classification change detection approach. Results: were validated with the help of local experts and/or high-resolution commercial satellite data. Results The region lost 12% of its mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of c. 1,670,000 ha. Rates and causes of deforestation varied both spatially and temporally. Annual deforestation was highest in Burma (c. 1%) and lowest in Sri Lanka (0.1%). In contrast, mangrove forests in India and Bangladesh remained unchanged or gained a small percentage. Net deforestation peaked at 137,000 ha during 1990-2000, increasing from 97,000 ha during 1975-90, and declining to 14,000 ha during 2000-05. The major causes of deforestation were agricultural expansion (81%), aquaculture (12%) and urban development (2%). Main conclusions: We assessed and monitored mangrove forests in the tsunami-affected region of Asia using the historical archive of Landsat data. We also measured the rates of change and determined possible causes. The results of our study can be used to better understand the role of mangrove forests in saving lives and property from natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, and to identify

  12. Gondwanaland origin, dispersion, and accretion of East and Southeast Asian continental terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, I.

    1994-10-01

    East and Southeast Asia is a complex assembly of allochthonous continental terranes, island arcs, accretionary complexes and small ocean basins. The boundaries between continental terranes are marked by major fault zones or by sutures recognized by the presence of ophiolites, mélanges and accretionary complexes. Stratigraphical, sedimentological, paleobiogeographical and paleomagnetic data suggest that all of the East and Southeast Asian continental terranes were derived directly or indirectly from the Iran-Himalaya-Australia margin of Gondwanaland. The evolution of the terranes is one of rifting from Gondwanaland, northwards drift and amalgamation/accretion to form present day East Asia. Three continental silvers were rifted from the northeast margin of Gondwanaland in the Silurian-Early Devonian (North China, South China, Indochina/East Malaya, Qamdo-Simao and Tarim terranes), Early-Middle Permian (Sibumasu, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes) and Late Jurassic (West Burma terrane, Woyla terranes). The northwards drift of these terranes was effected by the opening and closing of three successive Tethys oceans, the Paleo-Tethys, Meso-Tethys and Ceno-Tethys. Terrane assembly took place between the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, but the precise timings of amalgamation and accretion are still contentious. Amalgamation of South China and Indochina/East Malaya occurred during the Early Carboniferous along the Song Ma Suture to form "Cathaysialand". Cathaysialand, together with North China, formed a large continental region within the Paleotethys during the Late Carboniferous and Permian. Paleomagnetic data indicate that this continental region was in equatorial to low northern paleolatitudes which is consistent with the tropical Cathaysian flora developed on these terranes. The Tarim terrane (together with the Kunlun, Qaidam and Ala Shan terranes) accreted to Kazakhstan/Siberia in the Permian. This was followed by the suturing of Sibumasu and Qiangtang to Cathaysialand in the

  13. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  14. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    Asia. Our results also show that the active Tengchong volcano in SW China is related to the deep subduction of the Burma microplate down to the mantle transition zone and a BMW above the Burma slab. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305. D. Zhao et al. (2009) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 197-206.

  15. Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: Balance of Subsidence, Sea level and Sedimentation in a Tectonically-Active Delta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Reitz, M. D.; Paola, C.; Nooner, S. L.; DeWolf, S.; Ferguson, E. K.; Gale, J.; Hossain, S.; Howe, M.; Kim, W.; McHugh, C. M.; Mondal, D. R.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Sincavage, R.; Williams, L. A.; Wilson, C.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bangladesh is vulnerable to a host of short and long-term natural hazards - widespread seasonal flooding, river erosion and channel avulsions, permanent land loss from sea level rise, natural groundwater arsenic, recurrent cyclones, landslides and huge earthquakes. These hazards derive from active fluvial processes related to the growth of the delta and the tectonics at the India-Burma-Tibet plate junctions. The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers drain 3/4 of the Himalayas and carry ~1 GT/y of sediment, 6-8% of the total world flux. In Bangladesh, these two great rivers combine with the Meghna River to form the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD). The seasonality of the rivers' water and sediment discharge is a major influence causing widespread flooding during the summer monsoon. The mass of the water is so great that it causes 5-6 cm of seasonal elastic deformation of the delta discerned by our GPS data. Over the longer-term, the rivers are also dynamic. Two centuries ago, the Brahmaputra River avulsed westward up to 100 km and has since captured other rivers. The primary mouth of the Ganges has shifted 100s of km eastward from the Hooghly River over the last 400y, finally joining the Brahmaputra in the 19th century. These avulsions are influenced by the tectonics of the delta. On the east side of Bangladesh, the >16 km thick GBMD is being overridden by the Burma Arc where the attempted subduction of such a thick sediment pile has created a huge accretionary prism. The foldbelt is up to 250-km wide and its front is buried beneath the delta. The main Himalayan thrust front is 130 wells are illuminating the Holocene shifts of the Brahmaputra River and subsidence patterns. Very high resolution MCS seismics on the rivers shows deformation by subsidence and compaction. Resistivity is further mapping surfaces warped by the anticlinal folds. GPS geodesy is quantifying the rates of overthrusting and differential subsidence across the delta. Optical fiber strain meters

  16. Asia needs political commitment to fight AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Delegates from China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam to a Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) workshop in Bangkok urged their governments to give priority to the prevention of HIV and AIDS. There are already approximately 3 million people infected with HIV in Asia. Their numbers should increase by 1-2 million by the year 2000. However, devoid of any prevention measures, 2-5 million more people could instead become infected over the same period. Thailand, where many people have adopted condom use and the patronage of brothels and prostitutes has declined, was noted as a success story at the workshop in preventing the further spread of HIV. The level of risky sexual behavior in Thailand has declined to such an extent that HIV case projections made in 1991 for the year 2000 have been revised to a lower number. An estimated more than 100,000 people are infected with HIV in Indonesia, a country in which the epidemic may grow to 2.5 million cases by 2000 unless successful prevention programs are implemented. PMID:12347936

  17. Deforestation and fragmentation of natural forests in the upper Changhua watershed, Hainan, China: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Jian-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The Changhua watershed is a center of endemism for plants and birds and the cradle of Hainan's main rivers. However, this area has experienced recent and ongoing deforestation and habitat fragmentation. To quantify habitat loss and fragmentation of natural forests, as well as the land-cover changes in the Changhua watershed, we analyzed Landsat images obtained in 1988, 1995, and 2005. Land-cover dynamics analysis showed that natural forests increased in area (97,909 to 104,023 ha) from 1988 to 1995 but decreased rapidly to 76,306 ha over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily throughout the study period while pulp plantations rapidly expanded after 1995. Similar patterns of land cover change were observed in protected areas, indicating a lack of enforcement. Natural forests conversion to rubber and pulp plantations has a general negative effect on biodiversity, primarily through habitat fragmentation. The fragmentation analysis showed that natural forests area was reduced and patch number increased, while patch size and connectivity decreased. These land-cover changes threatened local biodiversity, especially island endemic species. Both natural forests losses and fragmentation should be stopped by strict enforcement to prevent further damage. Preserving the remaining natural forests and enforcing the status of protected areas should be a management priority to maximize the watershed's biodiversity conservation value.

  18. 'Excuse me, do any of you ladies speak English?' Perspectives of refugee women living in South Australia: barriers to accessing primary health care and achieving the Quality Use of Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alice; Gilbert, Andrew; Rao, Deepa; Kerr, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Reforms to the Australian health system aim to ensure that services are accessible, clinically and culturally appropriate, timely and affordable. During the reform consultation process there were urgent calls from stakeholders to specifically consider the health needs of the thousands of refugees who settle here each year, but little is known about what is needed from the refugee perspective. Access to health services is a basic requirement of achieving the quality use of medicines, as outlined in Australia's National Medicines Policy. This study aimed to identify the barriers to accessing primary health care services and explore medicine-related issues as experienced by refugee women in South Australia. Thirty-six women participated in focus groups with accredited and community interpreters and participants were from Sudan, Burundi, Congo, Burma, Afghanistan and Bhutan who spoke English (as a second language), Chin, Matu, Dari and Nepali. The main barrier to accessing primary health care and understanding GPs and pharmacists was not being able to speak or comprehend English. Interpreter services were used inconsistently or not at all. To implement the health reforms and achieve the quality use of medicines, refugees, support organisations, GPs, pharmacists and their staff require education, training and support.

  19. Making Governance "Good": The Production of Scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Governance of the Salween River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lamb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments (EIAs are generally considered an important component of formal decision-making processes about development, serving to ensure that a project′s environmental impacts are considered in decisions about whether and how it will proceed. Scale is an important part of the narrative built into the assessment. Building on a rich literature at the intersection of human geography and political ecology, I focus on the way that scale is remade through the environmental impact assessment process for the Hatgyi hydroelectric dam proposed on the Salween River. Proposed near the stretch of the river that makes up the Thai-Burma border, the scales of governance for this cross-border project challenge assumed definitions of ′local′ impacts for ′national′ decision-making. By illustrating how scale-making is accomplished through producing and mobilising ecological knowledge, I illustrate how the scale of the local and the nation are at stake in these projects.

  20. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. PMID:27006220

  1. Ethnic Minority Women Interaction with Environment in Southwest Frontier Region:Based on the Research Lushui and Fugong Counties in the Northwest of Yunnan%西南边疆少数民族妇女与环境互动研究--基于滇西北泸水、福贡两县的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智环

    2015-01-01

    基于社会转型时期的现实情境,通过考察中缅边境以傈僳族为主体的少数民族妇女与环境的互动过程,以及她们面对气候变化及其灾害的具体应对状况,进而认为妇女与环境的互动过程必须放在具体的经济和社会发展的语境中阐释,环境治理中应为少数民族妇女提供发挥能动性的平台,而她们在边疆地区生态安全的建设过程中也具有重要作用。%In this article, the author describes how ethnic minority women interact with the environment in the north -ern section of the China-Burma border , and how they respond to the climate change and natural disasters in the concrete sit -uation.The conclusion is that the interactive process of women and environment should be explained in the context of spe -cific economic and social development , and a platform should be provided for them , which women will play dynamic roles , and have an important effect in the construction of ecological security in border areas .

  2. Lineage extinction and replacement in dengue type 1 virus populations are due to stochastic events rather than to natural selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1996 and 1998, two clades (B and C; genotype I) of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) appeared in Myanmar (Burma) that were new to that location. Between 1998 and 2000, a third clade (A; genotype III) of DENV-1, which had been circulating at that locality for at least 25 years, became extinct. These changes preceded the largest outbreak of dengue recorded in Myanmar, in 2001, in which more than 95% of viruses recovered from patients were DENV-1, but where the incidence of severe disease was much less than in previous years. Phylogenetic analyses of viral genomes indicated that the two new clades of DENV-1 did not arise from the, now extinct, clade A viruses nor was the extinction of this clade due to differences in the fitness of the viral populations. Since the extinction occurred during an inter-epidemic period, we suggest that it was due to a stochastic event attributable to the low rate of virus transmission in this interval

  3. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in five US-bound refugee populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle; Lee, Deborah; Thieme, Martha; Schmid, D. Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) susceptibility in US-bound refugee populations, although published data suggest that VZV seroprevalence in these refugee populations may be lower than US populations. We describe VZV seroprevalence in 5 U.S.-bound refugee groups: (1) Bhutanese in Nepal, (2) Burmese on the Thailand-Burma (Myanmar) border, (3) Burmese in Malaysia, (4) Iraqi in Jordan, and (5) Somali in Kenya. Methods Sera were tested for presence of VZV IgG antibodies among adults aged 18–45 years. Results Overall VZV seroprevalence was 97% across all refugee groups. VZV seroprevalence was also high across all age groups, with seroprevalence ranging from 92–100% for 18–26 year-olds depending on refugee group and 93–100% for 27–45 year-olds. Discussion VZV seroprevalence was unexpectedly high in these 5 US-bound refugee groups, though may not reflect seroprevalence in other refugee groups. Additional studies are needed to better understand VZV seroprevalence in refugee populations over time and by region. PMID:24271111

  4. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities. PMID:22647743

  5. [Changes in the legislation regulating the legal status of artificial abortion in the world in the past 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, D

    1981-01-01

    Current status of abortion legislation in different countries is reviewed. During the period from 1967-1977, a total of 43 countries introduced certain changes in their legislation. Of these 43 countries, 40 liberalized abortion procedures and 3 countries limited the rights of abortion seekers. Liberalization of abortion legislation in France and Italy was associated with women's rights movement and adoption of Human Rights Declaration. Austria, France, East Germany, West Germany, Italy, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark have the most liberal abortion policy, while Rumania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria have the most restricted legislation. Liberalization of abortion does not necessarily mean availability on demand. High cost in private clinics and hospitals prevents many women from seeking a legal abortion. In Asia, Singapore, China, and India permit abortions, while in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Burma abortions are banned. In Northern and Latin America, abortions are legalized in the US and Cuba; liberalization of abortion legislation is recorded in Guatemala, El Salvador, Uruguay, Chile, and Colombia. In spite of a general liberalization of legislation, abortion policies are still affected by religious and political groups. Ban on legal abortion increases the frequency of criminal abortion, which in turn leads to increase in maternal mortality. PMID:7030096

  6. On Being a Marxist Muslim: Reading Hasan Raid's Autobiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Ali-Fauzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In his recently published book, Clive Christie argues that Socialism, Marxism and Communism played a crucial role as weapons for Southeast Asian leaders in their fight against colonialism and as frameworks for them to run the newly independent nations. He also realizes that other ideologies such as those based on religion, which were older in terms of their coming into the region than the above-mentioned Western-originated ideologies, especially Islam in the Malay world and Confucianism and Buddhism in the Indo-China and Burma, also played a similarly important role. However, he provides only a dim analysis of the extremely intricate relationship between these types of ideology, especially between Marxism and Islam in the thought of leaders of movements such as the Islamic Union (Sarekat Islam or SI in the then Dutch East Indies. Most probably for reasons of space, he makes only a slight, insignificant reference to SI.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v9i1.675

  7. Nuclear microscopy of rubies: Trace elements and inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipowicz, T.; Tay, T. S.; Orlic, I.; Tang, S. M.; Watt, F.

    1995-09-01

    The concentrations of trace elements (e.g. Ti, V, Cr, Fe and Cu) in ornamental rubies have been linked to the country of origin for natural stones [1,2]. These broad-beam PIXE results show relatively large variations between stones from one country, which might indicate that they stem from different geological environments in a country, or that there are inclusions or surface contaminations present in individual stones. PIXE elemental maps were used to find contamination and inclusion free regions on rubies from Mong Hsu, Burma, and from Thailand. Trace element concentrations were determined in these surface areas. The results indicate that the Fe-concentrations in Mong Hsu rubies have previously been overestimated due to the presence of surface contaminations. Cu is consistently present at a few hundred ppm level in these stones and not observed in any of the four Thai rubies, while it was observed sporadically in broad-beam measurements. The depth profiling capabilities of the proton microprobe were employed for the analysis of liquid and mineral inclusions in rubies, and some preliminary results are reported.

  8. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits.

  9. Transnational pipelines: Chances and risks of the energy co-operation in East Asian; Transnationale Pipelines: Chancen und Grenzen der Energiekooperation in Ostasien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, D. [Cologne Business School, Koeln (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The dispute of the energy security in the countries China, Japan and Korea is not only determined by the rivalry on energy resources, but also by the factors access, transport, distribution and price of energy resources. These factors determine the desire for an international co-operation and development of strategic relations. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the question whether trans-national pipelines are a chance or risk in the co-operation in East Asia. The main topics of this contribution are: (a) Increasing energy demand in East Asia: Imperative for a supra-national energy co-operation?; (b) Russian projects of gas pipeline toward East Asia: many options, few attempts of co-operation; (c) The trans-siberian oil pipeline project: Japan and China in competition with the Russian supply of crude oil; (d) Central Asia, Iran, India and Burma: China's plans for the construction of an own trans-national pipeline shows initial achievements. All pipeline projects described in this contribution show that there does not exist a real energy-political co-operation between the governments of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea on the one side and Central Asia on the other side regarding to the supply of fossil energy sources via trans-national pipelines from Russia. Concrete agreements with respect to co-operation between these governments with the common construction and operation of such pipelines do not exist in the near future.

  10. Preliminary Studies on Physiological and Biochemical Pre-selection Indexes for Dwarfism in Mango Germplasm%芒果矮化种质的生理生化预选指标研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国弟; 周俊岸; 赵英; 张宇; 陈永森; 李日旺; 莫永龙

    2013-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical characteristics were researched with standard series germplasm of‘India 901 seddlingtree’,‘India 901’,‘Guire No.276’,‘Ai mang’,‘Burma No.3’,‘Sanlin No.1’,‘Sensation’,‘Yellow ivory.’The two dwarfing pre-selection indexes of reducing sugar content and peroxidase activity of leaf were screened.%以‘印度芒901号实生’、‘印度芒901号’、‘桂热芒276号’、‘矮芒’、‘缅甸芒3号’、‘杉林1号芒’、‘圣心芒’、‘黄象牙芒’等为标准系列种质,研究叶片还原性糖含量、叶片游离氨基酸含量、叶片过氧化物酶活性等3个生理生化指标,从中筛选出叶片还原性糖含量、叶片过氧化物酶活性2个芒果矮化预选指标。

  11. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in five US-bound refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle; Lee, Deborah; Thieme, Martha; Schmid, D Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) susceptibility in US-bound refugee populations, although published data suggest that VZV seroprevalence in these refugee populations may be lower than US populations. We describe VZV seroprevalence in five US-bound refugee groups: (1) Bhutanese in Nepal, (2) Burmese on the Thailand-Burma (Myanmar) border, (3) Burmese in Malaysia, (4) Iraqi in Jordan, and (5) Somali in Kenya. Sera were tested for presence of VZV IgG antibodies among adults aged 18-45 years. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 97% across all refugee groups. VZV seroprevalence was also high across all age groups, with seroprevalence ranging from 92-100% for 18-26 year-olds depending on refugee group and 93-100% for 27-45 year-olds. VZV seroprevalence was unexpectedly high in these five US-bound refugee groups, though may not reflect seroprevalence in other refugee groups. Additional studies are needed to better understand VZV seroprevalence in refugee populations over time and by region. PMID:24271111

  12. Phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activity of Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb Ali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMOJI ALLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb. Ali. also called as Paracalyx scariosus and cylista scariosa is a woody twiners belongs to the family Fabaceae is one of the important medicinal plant distributed in Central Provinces, West and South India, and Upper Burma. It is woody twiners with tomentose branches and stems finely downy. Leaves are 3-foliate with rhachis prolonged 6-13mm. between the insertion of the leaflets and stipels of the terminal one. The objective of this study is to explore the phytochemistry and the antioxidant potential of various extracts of Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb. Ali which is considered traditionally as an important medicinal plant. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done to find out the presence of various bioactive compounds and TLC was performed to identify the no of flavonoids present. In vitro antioxidant analysis of methanol, acetone, benzene extracts and ethyl acetate , aqueous fractions of methanol extract was carried out by DPPH assay and Nitric oxide assay. It is observed from the phytochemical study, carbohydrates, proteins, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids are present in all the three extracts and Ethyl acetate fraction, benzene extract were separated in to 5 spots identified by bluish black colour confirming the presence of 5 types of flavonoids and the Acetone extract was not separated. Besides the extracts and fractions also possess strong antioxidant activity

  13. Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han,Khin Ei

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available "Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma. The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females. High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store iron, was higher than the normal range (10-200 ng/ml in 49 patients. On the other hand, serum iron of 39 sera samples fell within the normal range (50-150 micrograms/dl. Four were less than 50 micrograms/dl and eight were more than 150 micrograms/dl. Almost all the patients' sera of normal or higher serum iron level contained "free" iron. Thus, almost all the sera from thalassemic patients from Myanmar contain bleomycin-detectable iron, even when serum iron is within the normal range. In developing countries where undernutrition is prevalent (serum albumin in these patients was 3.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, P < 0.0001 vs. control value of 4.0 - 4.8 g/dl, normal serum iron does not preclude the presence of free iron in the serum.

  14. Seismic Hazard Analysis of Aizawl, India with a Focus on Water System Fragilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, G. M.; Tran, A. J.; Dreger, D. S.; Rodgers, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    GeoHazards International (GHI) has partnered with the University of California, Berkeley in a joint Civil Engineering and Earth Science summer internship program to investigate geologic hazards. This year the focus was on Aizawl, the capital of India's Mizoram state, situated on a ridge in the Burma Ranges. Nearby sources have the potential for large (M > 7) earthquakes that would be devastating to the approximately 300,000 people living in the city. Earthquake induced landslides also threaten the population as well as the city's lifelines. Fieldwork conducted in June 2015 identified hazards to vital water system components. The focus of this abstract is a review of the seismic hazards that affect Aizawl, with special attention paid to water system locations. To motivate action to reduce risk, GHI created an earthquake scenario describing effects of a M7 right-lateral strike-slip intraplate earthquake occurring 30 km below the city. We extended this analysis by exploring additional mapped faults as well as hypothetical blind reverse faults in terms of PGA, PGV, and PSA. Ground motions with hanging wall and directivity effects were also examined. Several attenuation relationships were used in order to assess the uncertainty in the ground motion parameters. Results were used to determine the likely seismic performance of water system components, and will be applied in future PSHA studies.

  15. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Dowarah; H P Deka Boruah; J Gogoi; N Pathak; N Saikia; A K Handique

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB)or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern.In the present investigation,an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries,Assam,India,which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot.A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals.Planting of herbs, shrubs,cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years.A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration:herbs,including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass)cover plants,including Mimosa strigillosa M. striata and M. pigra; shrubs,including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha)and Cassia streata (cassia);and tree species,including Gmelina arborea (gomari)and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo).Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  16. Genetic relationship of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wu; Bruce A. McPheron; Jia-Jiao Wu; Zhi-Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    The melon fruit fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),has been the subject of worldwide quarantine and management efforts due to its widespread agricultural impact and potential for rapid range expansion.From its presumed native distribution in India,this species has spread throughout the hot-humid regions of the world.We provide information that reveals population structure,invasion history and population connectivity from 23 locations covering nine countries based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.Forty-two polymorphic sites were described among 38 haplotypes.The most common haplotype,H1,was observed in 73% of the samples distributed among all populations.Highest genetic diversity was seen within populations,and no isolation-by-distance was detected.The western regions (Nepal,Bangladesh,Thailand,Burma and China-west) showed higher haplotype diversity than eastern regions (Chins-east).China-Yunnan showed highest levels of genetic diversity in China.Haplotype diversity decreased with longitude from west to east.Together,these analyses suggest that B.cucurbitae has expanded from west to east within a limited geographic scale and recently invaded China through Yunnan Province.

  17. Predicting Tropical Cyclogenesis with a Global Mesoscale Model: Hierarchical Multiscale Interactions During the Formation of Tropical Cyclone Nargis(2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B.-W.; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, W. K.; Atlas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Very severe cyclonic storm Nargis devastated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, caused tremendous damage and numerous fatalities, and became one of the 10 deadliest tropical cyclones (TCs) of all time. To increase the warning time in order to save lives and reduce economic damage, it is important to extend the lead time in the prediction of TCs like Nargis. As recent advances in high-resolution global models and supercomputing technology have shown the potential for improving TC track and intensity forecasts, the ability of a global mesoscale model to predict TC genesis in the Indian Ocean is examined in this study with the aim of improving simulations of TC climate. High-resolution global simulations with real data show that the initial formation and intensity variations of TC Nargis can be realistically predicted up to 5 days in advance. Preliminary analysis suggests that improved representations of the following environmental conditions and their hierarchical multiscale interactions were the key to achieving this lead time: (1) a westerly wind burst and equatorial trough, (2) an enhanced monsoon circulation with a zero wind shear line, (3) good upper-level outflow with anti-cyclonic wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, and (4) low-level moisture convergence.

  18. Footprints, Imprints: Seeing Environmentalist and Buddhist Marie Byles as an Eastern Australian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Jane Cadzow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the Australian author, traveller, conservationist and Buddhist Marie Byles (1900-1979 as “eastern” and Australian at once. It investigates the influence of Buddhist spirituality and travel on her approach to the environment and explores some possibilities arising from looking at her work as part of a broader transnational humanitarian and intellectual identification, moving beyond ethnicity based boundaries. Thinking about eastern Australian identities can encourage consideration of Australia in Asia, Australia as Asian, connections across seas, and links and differences within Australia. The paper explores Marie Byles as an eastern Australian by considering her travel in Sydney and the region (in Australia, China, Vietnam, India and Burma from the 1930s to the 1960s, the design and use of her home as a hub for early Buddhist meetings, her publication of texts discussing Eastern philosophy, and her environmental activism. Throughout the discussion Byles’s understanding of power relations, derived from an entwining of feminist and socialist ideas, a pacifist and Buddhist/spiritualist revaluation of environments emerges. From these influences she provided challenges to her fellow walkers, environmentalists, and society at large to rethink relationships with nature and each other, insights that have yet to be adequately explored and recognised.

  19. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowarah, J.; Boruah, H.P.D.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A.K. [CSIR, Jorhat (India). North East Institute of Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  20. Assessment of haemolytic, cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities of an underutilized fruit, Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Dey, Priyankar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kr; Sarker, Dilip De; Sen, Arnab

    2016-02-01

    Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. is an underutilized juicy fruit bearing plant found in sub-Himalayan area, South China, Indo-Burma region, etc. The fruit is considered to be nutritive, and in this study, we evaluated its antioxidant, haemolytic and cytotoxic properties. The juice was examined for the quenching activity of hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, total antioxidant activity (TAA), erythrocyte membrane stabilizing activity (EMSA) along with quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents and also tested for its potential activity as iron chelator, inhibitor of lipid peroxidation and total reducing power. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also performed to correlate antioxidant capacities with the phenolic and flavonoid content. Haemolytic activity on murine erythrocyte and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cytotoxic test was performed on murine splenocytes, thymocytes, hepatocytes and peritoneal exudates macrophage to examine the cytotoxic effect of its juice. The result exhibited its potent free radical scavenging activity. In case of TAA, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), EMSA and lipid peroxidation, the fruit juice was found to have significant (P cytotoxic test confirms that the juice does not contain any cytotoxic effect and the fruit is safe for consumption. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra analysis exhibited high possibility of presence of flavonoid compounds in the juice.

  1. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  2. A morphological review of subspecies of the Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Testudines, Geomydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The turtle Cuora amboinensis has an extensive distribution covering most of southern mainland Asia, Indonesia, and extending to the Philippine Islands. Unlike many species, C. amboinensis occurs on both sides of Wallace's Line separating Asian and Australian flora and fauna. Four subspecies are currently recognized; Cuora a. kamaroma (southern continental Asia, Java and the northern Philippines [introduced]), C. a. lineata (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China), C. a. couro (Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, and adjacent smaller Indonesian islands); and C. a. amboinensis (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines). Five pattern and 33 morphological characters were examined for variation in 691 individuals from throughout the species' range. Our analyses suggest that only two presently recognized subspecies are valid: amboinensis andkamaroma. Neither couro nor lineata are supported by our analysis. We recommend that C. a. couroshould be synonymized with the species C. amboinensis and C. a. lineata with the subspecies C. a. kamaroma.

  3. Charles Bachman Moore (1920-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, William; Krehbiel, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Charles B. Moore passed away 2 March 2010 at the age of 89, following a long and varied scientific career in meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. He will be remembered best for his substantial contributions in the field of atmospheric electricity and for the students and faculty he guided as chairman of Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and professor of physics at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. He possessed a unique sense of humor and an excellent memory that served as a reservoir of scientific and historical knowledge. Like many of his generation, Charlie's career was profoundly influenced by the Second World War. Following Pearl Harbor, he interrupted his undergraduate studies in chemical engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology to enlist in the Army Air Corps, where he became the chief weather equipment officer in the 10th Weather Squadron, setting up and operating remote meteorological stations behind enemy lines in the China-Burma-India theater. He served with distinction alongside Athelstan Spilhaus Sr., who had been one of Charlie's instructors in the Army meteorology program.

  4. Researching nature's venoms and poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2009-09-01

    Our environment hosts a vast diversity of venomous and poisonous animals and plants. Clinical toxinology is devoted to understanding, preventing and treating their effects in humans and domestic animals. In Sri Lanka, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana, Sinhala 'kaneru'), a widespread and accessible ornamental shrub, is a popular means of self-harm. Its toxic glycosides resemble those of foxglove, against which therapeutic antibodies have been raised. A randomised placebo-controlled trial proved that this treatment effectively reversed kaneru cardiotoxicity. There are strong scientific grounds for the use of activated charcoal, but encouraging results with multiple-dose activated charcoal were not confirmed by a recent more powerful study. Venom of Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) in Burma (Myanmar) produces lethal effects in human victims. The case of a 17-year-old rice farmer is described with pathophysiological interpretations. During the first 9 days of hospital admission he suffered episodes of shock, coagulopathy, bleeding, acute renal failure, local tissue necrosis, generally increased capillary permeability and acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia with evidence of acute pituitary/adrenal insufficiency. Antivenom rapidly restored haemostatic function but failed to correct other effects of venom toxins incurred during the 3h before he could be treated.

  5. Orchid conservation in the biodiversity hotspot of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T; Fan, XuLi; Yu, DongLi; Yang, HongPei; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    Xishuangbanna is on the northern margins of tropical Asia in southwestern China and has the largest area of tropical forest remaining in the country. It is in the Indo-Burma hotspot and contains 16% of China's vascular flora in medicinal or ornamental value) was significantly related to endangerment. Expansion of rubber tree plantations was less of a threat to orchids than to other taxa because only 75 orchid species (17.6%) occurred below the 1000-m-elevation ceiling for rubber cultivation, and most of these (46) occurred in nature reserves. However, climate change is projected to lift this ceiling to around 1300 m by 2050, and the limited area at higher elevations reduces the potential for upslope range expansion. The Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is committed to achieving zero plant extinctions in Xishuangbanna, and orchids are a high priority. Appropriate in and ex situ conservation strategies, including new protected areas and seed banking, have been developed for every threatened orchid species and are being implemented. PMID:26372504

  6. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chie Ikeya, Refiguring women, colonialism, and modernity in Burma (Henk Schulte Nordholt Thomas J. Conners, Mason C. Hoadley, Frank Dhont, Kevin Ko (eds, Pancasila’s contemporary appeal: Relegitimizing Indonesia’s founding ethos (R.E. Elson I Nyoman Darma Putra, A literary mirror: Balinese reflections on modernity and identity in the twentieth century (Dick van der Meij Margaret Jolly. Serge Tcherkézoff and Darrell Tryon (eds, Oceanic encounters: Exchange, desire, violence (H.J.M. Claessen Rudolf Mrázek, A certain age: Colonial Jakarta through the memories of its intellectuals (Lutgard Mutsaers Jan Ovesen and Ing-Britt Trankell, Cambodians and their doctors: A medical anthropology of colonial and post-colonial Cambodia (Vivek Neelakantan Daromir Rudnyckyj, Spiritual economies: Islam, globalization and the afterlife of development (Gabrial Facal Claudine Salmon, Sastra Indonesia awal: Kontribusi orang Tionghoa (Melani Budianta Renate Sternagel, Der Humboldt von Java: Leben und Werk des Naturforschers Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn 1809-1864 (Andreas Weber Wynn Wilcox (ed., Vietnam and the West: New approaches (Hans Hägerdal Zheng Yangwen and Charles J.H Macdonald (eds, Personal names in Asia: History, culture and identity (Rosemary Gianno

  7. First identification of novel NDM carbapenemase, NDM-7, in Escherichia coli in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Cuzon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NDM-1 carbapenemase has been identified in 2008 in Enterobacteriaceae. Since then, several reports have emphasized its rapid dissemination throughout the world. The spread of NDM carbapenemases involve several bla NDM gene variants associated with various plasmids among several Gram negative species. METHODOLOGY: A multidrug-resistant E. coli isolate recovered from urine of a patient who had travelled to Burma has been characterized genetically and biochemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: E. coli COU was resistant to all antibiotics tested except amikacin, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and chloramphenicol. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance traits identified a metallo-ß-lactamase, a novel NDM variant, NDM-7. It differs from NDM-4 by a single amino acid substitution sharing an identical extended spectrum profile towards carbapenems. The bla NDM-7 gene was located on an untypeable conjugative plasmid and associated with a close genetic background similar to those described among the bla NDM-1 genes. The isolate also harbours bla CTXM-15 and bla OXA-1 genes and belonged to ST167. SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights that spread of NDM producers correspond to spread of multiple bla NDM genes and clones and therefore will be difficult to control.

  8. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Charles R P

    2016-02-01

    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said. PMID:26913881

  9. Tricks of the Trade: Debt and Imposed Sovereignty in Southernmost Kham in the Nineteenth to Twentieth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Gros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Southernmost Kham, which borders Burma and Yunnan Province, remained at the juncture of several mutually competing political centers until the first half of the twentieth century. On the fringes of Tibetan, Naxi, and Chinese expansion and increasing political control, several Tibeto-Burman­–speaking groups such as the Drung and Nung gradually became integrated into their neighbors’ polities. Their political dependency often arose from trading with and accepting loans from commercial agents and from the intermediaries of local rulers, Naxi and Tibetans alike. This article addresses this practice of providing credit, which was developed at the expense of impoverished groups who were often obliged to accept the terms of the transaction. The author particularly emphasizes the connections between this system of debt dependency, the relationship between creditors and debtors that has to be considered in terms of exchange and reciprocity, and the question of political legitimacy. Within this broader context of regional interethnic relations, the article provides a detailed analysis of the concrete terms of the political relationship that existed between Drung communities and Tibetan chiefs of Tsawarong, which contributes to an understanding of the workings of this relationship and its economic, territorial, and even ritual components.

  10. China steps up battle against AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, R

    1996-04-27

    China's southwest province of Yunnan, which trades with Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, has the worst HIV infection rate and AIDS rate in China. About 2000 of China's 2500 officially recognized AIDS cases are from Yunnan province. Transmission is augmented by the high rates of heroin addiction and drug trafficking and prostitution. Trade links with the drug producing countries of Southeast Asia reinforce drug sales and use. The province announced plans for investing about $58 million in a "disease prevention belt" along the border with Vietnam, Laos, and Burma. The aim is to reduce the prevalence of AIDS and childhood infectious diseases. The system will include 6 frontier posts, 8 border prefectures, and 26 border countries. The "China Daily" reported that methods of transmission were from sharing dirty needles, transfers between mother and child, and through sexual contact. Since smugglers operate clandestinely in the mountainous border regions, it is unclear how effective control will be. This approach is based on the traditional view that AIDS is a foreigners disease that must be kept out. A more modern approach would accept that it is domestic issue that can be dealt with through education and greater public awareness. HIV testing of visiting foreigners or Chinese returning from abroad is still practiced. The European Union is contributing to the funding of 2 national and 25 provincial training centers on the control of HIV, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:8616402

  11. Suspected explosives detection methods and practice within large area of seabed in harbor channel dredging engineering%航道疏浚中大面积海底疑似爆炸物的探测方法与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海军; 祝绪阳

    2015-01-01

    对于海底泥沙掩埋的未爆炸弹的探测仍是一个世界难题。文章依托中缅原油管道项目航道疏浚工程实例,通过磁法探测与多波速测量和侧扫声呐相结合的探测方式,对海底疑似爆炸物的位置和磁异常量进行了精确勘测,为后续清除作业提供了重要依据。%The detection of unexploded explosives buried in seabed sediment is still a worldwide problem. Taking the harbor channel dredging engineering of China-Burma oil pipeline dredging project as an example, through the detection method which combined with the magnetic detection, multiple wave velocity measurement, and side scan sonar, we accurately prospected the location and magnetic anomaly of the seabed suspected explosives, which provides important basis for the subsequent clearance operations.

  12. Interview: Robert Anderson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Anderson

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Interviewer’s note: while a visiting fellow at Cambridge University in2004-2005, and working towards a study of the biographical originsof Political Systems of Highland Burma, I spoke with a number ofpeople about their memories of Edmund Leach. This led to anapproach to Frederick Barth, asking his agreement to allow me tovideo a conversation with him, to be part of the series onanthropological ancestors coordinated by Alan Macfarlane atCambridge. Using an inexpensive direct flight to Oslo from an airportnear Cambridge, I finally mounted the tram which winds up the sideof the mountains overlooking Oslo, and, on a brilliant sunny morning,entered the house he has lived in since 1961. Professor Barth, thenaged 77, had just returned from examining a dissertation at theUniversity of Bergen. The trees and gardens around it resembled ourown in Vancouver, and the tram continued higher toward the famousHolmenkollen ski jump. The house is decorated with carpets andobjects collected by Professor Barth, skilfully combined with beautifuland useful Norwegian things. We sat in a room which overlooks asheer drop 300 meters to a lake below, all within the boundary of the city. Afterwards he courteously carried me down to the city in his car, on his errand, showing that he was as much a skier as a driver.We had, therefore, conversations which do not appear in this transcript here. I record my gratitude to him for his generosity of spirit toward an absolute outsider.

  13. The Praxis of Social Enterprise and Human Security: An Applied Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm David Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of social enterprise within development NGO work might lead one to suspect it has been irredeemably corrupted by neo-liberal capitalism. However, using the tools of capitalism is not the same as subscribing to the values of capitalism. This paper is situated at the intersection of five fields: human security, international development, social enterprise, social franchising, and left-wing anti-capitalist thought. It examines the relevance of social en­terprise to human security and to development, the relationship between social enterprise and the anti-capitalist values of the left, and it then focuses on social franchising—a subset of social enterprise that highlights the importance of cooperation—suggesting that it may be a useful methodology for NGOs carrying out educational work in parts of the developing world. It syn­thesises and extends ideas that I have presented elsewhere [1-3], it draws on ethnographic fieldwork on the Thai-Burma border, and it puts forward an agenda for further applied research that is rooted in a sociological analysis of civil society and contributes to the human security paradigm.

  14. Indochina becoming prime target for foreign investment in E and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Indochina is emerging as a prime target for investment in oil and gas exploration and development. The Southeast Asian subcontinent offers sharp contrasts: the booming, market oriented economy of Thailand with its friendly climate for foreign investment, compared with the flagging socialist economies of Myanmar (formerly Burma), Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam. The contrast extends to the Thai energy sector as well. Aggressive development of Thailand's gas reserves with foreign assistance and capital underpins the buoyant Thai economy and has helped it reduce its dependence on imports to 40% of total energy demand. That contrast may also give impetus to a window of opportunity for oil and gas companies to participate in little tested or rank exploration plays elsewhere in the region. Except for Thailand, the region has seen little exploration and almost none by private companies since the early 1970s. The other countries are just beginning to emerge from years of international isolation caused by war or civil strife, and some are seeking foreign private investment in oil and natural gas for the first time in more than a decade. The need for hard currency capital is keen. Accordingly, industry officials point to nations such as Cambodia offering among the most attractive terms for oil and gas investment in the world

  15. Construction Traffic Organizational of Yingwen Highway “7.10”Damage Treatment by Changing Road to Bridge%映汶高速“7.10”灾损处治路改桥施工交通组织

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2015-01-01

    Firstly summarized and analyzed traffic organization modes and construction types and its implementation steps ,the advantages and disadvantages and the use scopes ;Secondly the design method of highway traffic organization are discussed ;Finally based on Yingwen highway damage treatment of road to bridge engineering ,highway in hit Burma road to bridge construction organization and the traffic organization design and implementation ;Results showed its good economic and social benefits ,and meantime it provided a theoretical basis and engineering for landslide damage treatment of highway rebuilding and reinforcement repair .%汇总、分析各种交通组织方式和施工作业类型及其实施步骤,阐述其优缺点和使用范围;对高速公路交通组织设计方法进行论述;最后依托映汶高速灾损处治路改桥工程,对映汶高速公路路改桥施工组织和交通组织进行设计与实施。结果表明其经济和社会效益良好,为泥石流灾损处治高速公路改建和加固修复提供理论及工程依据。

  16. Are We Them? Textual and Literary Representations of the Chinese in Twentieth-Century Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thak Chaloemtiarana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available King Vajiravudh famously published an essay titled Jews of the Orient in 1914 demonizing the Chinese in Siam as ingrates and parasites. The local Chinese became the “Other Within” in the Thai nation that the king was trying to establish. Whether his reaction to the local Chinese was fueled by ire over the recent strike by the Chinese which paralyzed Bangkok, or a reflection of his English education and exposure to European anti-Semitism, is not the focus of my concern. My interest for this exercise is to study how the Chinese in Siam/Thailand are portrayed in Thai language texts, that is, prose fiction and non-fiction produced in the twentieth century (I will not include related areas such as movies, television drama, music, and cartoons. This study does not involve an exhaustive review of all texts but will focus on a few well-known and popular ones. I would like to know whether King Vajiravudh’s portrayal of the Chinese is reflected in subsequent literary production or muted by other realities that existed in Thai society, and how the production of texts on the local Chinese changed over time. More importantly, I am very curious to know how this issue is played out in neighboring countries, especially the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, countries where the “assimilation” of the Chinese into the majority culture happens in varying degrees.

  17. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar (Burma constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharis flava with 2n = 20, Sagittaria trifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae, and Potamogeton distinctus × P. nodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae; the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  18. New politics, an opportunity for maternal health advancement in eastern myanmar: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyer, Adam B; Ali, Mohammed; Loyer, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Myanmar (formerly Burma) is a southeast Asian country, with a long history of military dictatorship, human rights violations, and poor health indicators. The health situation is particularly dire among pregnant women in the ethnic minorities of the eastern provinces (Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen and Karenni regions). This integrative review investigates the current status of maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar in the context of armed conflict between various separatist groups and the military regime. The review examines the underlying factors contributing to high maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar and assesses gaps in the existing research, suggesting areas for further research and policy response. Uncovered were a number of underlying factors uniquely contributing to maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar. These could be grouped into the following analytical themes: ongoing conflict, health system deficits, and political and socioeconomic influences. Abortion was interestingly not identified as an important contributor to maternal mortality. Recent political liberalization may provide space to act upon identified roles and opportunities for the Myanmar Government, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a manner that positively impacts on maternal healthcare in the eastern regions of Myanmar. This review makes a number of recommendations to this effect.

  19. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Myanmar (Burma) constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharisflava with 2n = 20, Sagittariatrifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae), and Potamogetondistinctus × Potamogetonnodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae); the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  20. RHIPIDOLESTES FASCIA SPEC.NOV AND RHIPIDOLESTES LII SPEC.NOV, TWO NEW DRAGONFLIES FROM CUIZHOU,CHINA (ZYGOPTERA: MEGAPODAGRIONIDAE)%中国扇山(虫,忽)属两新种记述(蜻蜓目:山(虫,忽)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文豹

    2003-01-01

    记述贵州省扇山(虫,忽)属2新种,模式标本保存在浙江自然博物馆昆虫标本室.褐带扇山(虫,忽)Rhipidolestes fascia sp.nov图1-7.正模♂,贵州省赤水沙椤自然保护区.18-Ⅴ-2000;配模♀,副模10♂,8♀,采地与采期同正模.李氏扇山(虫,忽)Rhipidolestes lii sp.nov图1-7正模♂,贵州省习水国家级自然保护区,8-Ⅵ-2000;副模2♂,采地与采期同正模.%Rhipidolestes fascia sp. nov (holotype ♂, Ghishui, Guizhou, 18- Ⅴ -2000) and specimens are deposited in the Zhejiang Museum of History, Ha Hangzhou,China.Rhipidolestes is a small genus, extending from Burma,through southern China and Taiawan to Japan, 16 known species, 11 of which are known from China. (Wilson, 2000). Two new species from west-south China are described in this paper.

  1. NATURAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF SW MYANMAR - A CONTRIBUTION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS TO THE DETECTION OF AREAS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMI / CYCLONE FLOODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar, formerly Burma, is vulnerable to several natural hazards, such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis and landslides. The present study focuses on geomorphologic and geologic investigations of the south-western region of the country, based on satellite data (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-SRTM, MODIS and LANDSAT. The main objective is to detect areas vulnerable to inundation by tsunami waves and cyclone surges. Since the region is also vulnerable to earthquake hazards, it is also important to identify seismotectonic patterns, the location of major active faults, and local site conditions that may enhance ground motions and earthquake intensities. As illustrated by this study, linear, topographic features related to subsurface tectonic features become clearly visible on SRTM-derived morphometric maps and on LANDSAT imagery. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and SRTM data helps identify areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by tsunamis and storm surges. Additionally, land elevation maps help identify sites greater than 10 m in elevation height, that would be suitable for the building of protective tsunami/cyclone shelters.

  2. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dapeng Zhao; Lucy Liu

    2010-01-01

    We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate).The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions.

  3. The identification of sites of biodiversity conservation significance: progress with the application of a global standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Foster

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As a global community, we have a responsibility to ensure the long-term future of our natural heritage. As part of this, it is incumbent upon us to do all that we can to reverse the current trend of biodiversity loss, using all available tools at our disposal. One effective mean is safeguarding of those sites that are highest global priority for the conservation of biodiversity, whether through formal protected areas, community managed reserves, multiple-use areas, or other means. This special issue of the Journal of Threatened Taxa examines the application of the Key Biodiversity Area (KBA approach to identifying such sites. Given the global mandate expressed through policy instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, the KBA approach can help countries meet obligations in an efficient and transparent manner. KBA methodology follows the well-established general principles of vulnerability and irreplaceability, and while it aims to be a globally standardized approach, it recognizes the fundamental need for the process to be led at local and national levels. In this series of papers the application of the KBA approach is explored in seven countries or regions: the Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Japan, Macedonia, Mediterranean Algeria, the Philippines and the Upper Guinea region of West Africa. This introductory article synthesizes some of the common main findings and provides a comparison of key summary statistics.

  4. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna

    2011-01-01

    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  5. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Charles R P

    2016-02-01

    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said.

  6. Survey in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1959 an IAEA mission visited Burma, Ceylon, Indonesia and Thailand. In each of the four countries, the mission held detailed discussions with scientists and officials, collected information and exchanged ideas. Besides general discussion, consultations were held in small working groups on specific topics and problems. The members of the mission also visited atomic energy centres, other scientific and technical organizations, educational institutions as well as sites of actual or possible projects. The reports of the mission contain, a general description of the atomic energy programmes of the four countries, covering both current and planned activities, the mission's comments and recommendations and lists of specific requests for Agency assistance made by these countries after discussions with the mission. Atomic energy work in Burma is primarily the responsibility of the Union of Burma Atomic Energy Centre (UBAEC). Set up in 1955, the Centre is a part of the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). The programme of UBAEC includes a broad training scheme, the setting up of a Nuclear Radiation Laboratory by 1960-61, a study of the possibilities of installing a research reactor by 1962-63 and the possible erection of other reactors at a later date. The mission discussed with the Burmese authorities their tentative plans for atomic energy legislation and the advice given might help in the early establishment of an independent atomic energy commission. Ceylon too is embarking on several atomic energy activities and long-range plans are being developed. The emphasis, it is expected, will be mainly on education, raw material prospecting, isotopes and nuclear power development. A Committee on Atomic Energy was created in 1958 by Ceylon's National Planning Council, and the Committee is now working towards the early formation of a central atomic energy authority. The IAEA mission advised the officials of the Committee on the framing of such legislation as

  7. Exploration Status and Major Controlling Factors of Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Continental Margin Basins of the Bengal Bay%孟加拉湾地区大陆边缘盆地勘探概况与油气富集主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光辉; 李林涛

    2012-01-01

    The Bengal Bay lies in the east of India continent, west of Burma-Andaman-Sumatra area, and south of the Bangladesh. There are two different kinds of continental margins: passive and active continental margin. Many hydrocarbons bearing basins lie in the continental margins of the Bengal Bay, Based on the structure characteristics and plate position, we divided the basins into three types: passive continental margin basin (Mahanadi, Cauvery, and the K-G basins) , active continental margin basin (Rakhine, central Burma, Moattama, Andaman, and the north Sumatra basins) and remnant ocean basin (Bengal Basin). According to the distribution of the volcanic arcs, we further divided the active continental basin into trench, fore-arc and back-arc related basin. Through petroleum exploration analysis of the continental margin basins of the Bengal Bay, we come into the conclusion that the type of hydrocarbon source rocks and abundance of organic matters determined the nature of fluids and abundance of resources. Large river-delta system determined the distribution of big hydrocarbon field. Finally type, property and intensity of tectonic activities (especially of the late stage) determined the potential of exploration zones.%孟加拉湾位于印度大陆以东、缅甸—安达曼—苏门答腊以西、孟加拉国南部海上地区,该区存在主动和被动两种不同类型的大陆边缘,并发育众多大陆边缘含油气盆地.根据板块位置和构造特征将其划分为三大类,分别是:被动大陆边缘盆地(马哈纳迪、K-G和高韦里盆地);主动大陆边缘盆地(若开、缅甸中央、马达班、安达曼和北苏门答腊盆地);残留洋盆地(孟加拉盆地).根据火山岛弧带分布情况进一步将主动大陆边缘盆地划分为:①海沟型——若开盆地;②弧前型——缅甸中央盆地;③弧后型——马达班、安达曼和北苏门答腊盆地.对这些盆地油气勘探情况的统计与分析表明,该区大

  8. 两种源多油辣木苗期生长量比较%Comparison of Mass Growth during Seedling Stage between Two Provenances of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静; 吴疆种; 郑益兴; 张燕平

    2013-01-01

    通过对云南省元江县红河流域干热河谷地区相同立地条件下的印度和缅甸两种源多油辣木苗期生长量的连续观测,比较实生苗株高、地径、枝下高、冠幅、开花数和结实量等指标,研究多油辣木苗期生长规律的变化.结果表明,从播种到1年生期间两种源多油辣木的株高、地径、枝下高和开花数在种源间无显著差异,各个时期的生长速率略微不同.两种源多油辣木的冠幅和结实量有较大的差别,印度种源1年生实生苗的冠幅东西向、南北向分别比缅甸种源高12.5%、16.9%,结实量是缅甸种源的5倍,t检验结果显示,两种源多油辣木的冠幅和结实量差异显著(P<0.05).%Seedling mass growth from two provenances (India and Myanmar) of Moringa oleifera Lam.under the same site and culturing condition was observated.Seedlings were planted in Yuanjiang county,Yunnan province,which was basically in dry-hot valley of Red River basin.By comparing the plant height,ground diameter,under branch height,crown breadth,the number of flowers and fruit yield,the results showed that:From sowing to annual period,there were no significant differences in plant height,ground diameter,under branch height and flowering numbers between two provenances.For the two provenances,growth rate of each period was slightly different,but between provenances,crown breadth and fruit yield were significantly different.After plantation for a year,for the crown breadth of south to north direction and east to west direction,India provenance produced 12.5 % and 16.9 % respectively more than Burma provenance.For fruit yield,India provenance produced four times more than Burma provenance.Variance analysis showed that a significant difference (P < 0.05) was between the two provenances of crown breadth and fruit yield.

  9. 关于南海夏季风建立的大尺度特征及其机制的讨论%Large Scale Features of SCS Summer Monsoon Onset and Its Possible Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金海; 徐海明; 周兵; 王黎娟

    2000-01-01

    The high quality dataset from the SCS (South China Sea) Monsoon Experiment and 40-year NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data are used to investigate the large scale features and abrupt change in meteorological elements during the onset of the SCS summer monsoon. It is found that the SCS summer monsoon establishment is characterized by the South Asian High migrating swiftly from the eastern side of Philippines to the northern part of Indo-China Peninsula and the enhancement of the Indian-Burma trough and equatorial westerly over the Indian Ocean associated with the equatorial westerly expanding towards northeastward, and followed by the mid-low latitude interaction and continuous retreat eastward of the western Pacific subtropical high. Further study shows that the meridional temperature difference and the zonal wind vertical shear over the Asian lower latitudes also experience abrupt change during the onset of the SCS summer monsoon. Numerical results reveal that the Indian Peninsula acts as a critical role for the enhancement of the Indian-Burma trough with a cyclonic difference circulation excited to the east side of the peninsula through ground sensible heating in such a way that the SCS summer monsoon occurs prior to the Indian summer monsoon.%使用1998年南海季风试验期间高质量资料和NCEP/NCAR 40年再分析资料分析了南海季风建立前后的大尺度环流特征和要素的突变及爆发过程。发现南亚高压迅速地从菲律宾以东移到中南半岛北部,印缅槽加强,赤道印度洋西风加强并向东向北迅速扩展和传播,以及相伴随的中低纬相互作用和西太平洋副高连续东撤是南海夏季风建立的大尺度特征,与此同时,亚洲低纬地区的南北温差和纬向风切变也发生相应的突变。数值实验结果指出,印度半岛地形的陆面加热作用在其东侧激发的气旋性环流对于印缅槽的加强有重要作用,并进而有利于南海夏季风先于印度夏季风爆发。

  10. Dynamics of the Seismogenic Layer for Deforming Zones in Central and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    at over 2500 GPS locations. Preliminary models defined with fault friction values of μ = 0.025 for the Burma region, μ = 0.10 - 0.25 for the Tibetan Plateau region, and μ > 0.6 for the megathrust system as well as for north central and far east Asia achieve optimal fit to Quaternary deformation indicators. Successful models indicate that deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions within Burma and parts of the Tibetan Plateau. The dynamic stress and strain rate tensor fields and the dynamic velocity field each are acutely sensitive to the intrinsic mechanical properties of the faults, the density of available fault fabric, and perhaps to contributions from horizontal basal tractions. We test our models of the seismogenic layer, which do not account for contributions from basal tractions, to the effect of deeper lithospheric loads. Initial results indicate that such loads are generally smaller than the stresses associated with our models of the seismogenic layer. Stresses associated from deeper sources together with stresses from the seismogenic layer yield dynamical model output that may enhance the fit to deformation indicators.

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Melaka and Enyan anak Usen, Iban art; Sexual selection and severed heads: weaving, sculpture, tattooing and other arts of the Iban of Borneo (Viktor T. King John Roosa; Pretext for mass murder; The September 30th Movement and Suharto’s coup d’état in Indonesia (Gerry van Klinken Vladimir Braginsky; The heritage of traditional Malay literature; A historical survey of genres, writings and literary views (Dick van der Meij Joel Robbins, Holly Wardlow (eds; The making of global and local modernities in Melanesia; Humiliation, transformation and the nature of cultural change (Toon van Meijl Kwee Hui Kian; The political economy of Java’s northeast coast c. 1740-1800; Elite synergy (Luc Nagtegaal Charles A. Coppel (ed.; Violent conflicts in Indonesia; Analysis, representation, resolution (Gerben Nooteboom Tom Therik; Wehali: the female land; Traditions of a Timorese ritual centre (Dianne van Oosterhout Patricio N. Abinales, Donna J. Amoroso; State and society in the Philippines (Portia L. Reyes Han ten Brummelhuis; King of the waters; Homan van der Heide and the origin of modern irrigation in Siam (Jeroen Rikkerink Hotze Lont; Juggling money; Financial self-help organizations and social security in Yogyakarta (Dirk Steinwand Henk Maier; We are playing relatives; A survey of Malay writing (Maya Sutedja-Liem Hjorleifur Jonsson; Mien relations; Mountain people and state control in Thailand (Nicholas Tapp Lee Hock Guan (ed.; Civil society in Southeast Asia (Bryan S. Turner Jan Mrázek; Phenomenology of a puppet theatre; Contemplations on the art of Javanese wayang kulit (Sarah Weiss Janet Steele; Wars within; The story of Tempo, an independent magazine in Soeharto’s Indonesia (Robert Wessing REVIEW ESSAY Sean Turnell; Burma today Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Robert Taylor, Tin Maung Maung Than (eds; Myanmar; Beyond politics to societal imperatives Monique Skidmore (ed.; Burma at the turn of the 21st century Mya Than; Myanmar in ASEAN

  12. 冷战后印缅关系好转的主要动因%The Improving Relations between India and Myanmar after the Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建山

    2014-01-01

    The world political situation changed dramatically during 1990s. Both India and Myanmar adjusted the foreign policy for the sake of their own interests. On the premise of India's active friendly, Indo-Burma relations ap-peared to ease, and obtained a rapid development in 21st Century. Why the relationship between Indian and Burma becomes better after the Cold War is discussed in this paper. From the Indian perspective, first of all, India has implemented the “Look East” policy, took efforts to strengthen exchanges with Southeast Asian countries, and ex-panded its influence in Southeast Asia since the 1990s. India has actively improved the relations with Myanmar for this purpose. Secondly, in order to balance China's growing influence in Myanmar, India must also strengthen rela-tions with Myanmar in many ways. Thirdly, facing the separation of northeastern India, the Indian government and the government of Myanmar have to cooperate in the military and security area. Fourthly, It was possible to obtain the right to use the rich oil and gas resources in Myanmar only through enhancing the relationship between India and Myanmar. And fifthly, the great potential of bilateral trade between India and Myanmar helped to improve the rela-tionship. From the aspect of Myanmar, the promotion of friendly relations with India is closely related to its geo-graphical location, the “balance” foreign policy and the level of economic development.%20世纪90年代,世界政治格局发生巨变,印度和缅甸为了自身利益都调整了外交政策,在印度主动友好的前提下印缅关系出现缓和,并在21世纪得到迅速发展。本文主要从印度和缅甸两个方面来探讨冷战后印缅关系出现好转的动因。从印度方面来看,首先,印度自20世纪90年代推行“向东看”政策,努力加强与东南亚国家的交流,扩大印度在东南亚地区的影响,为此目的,印度积极存进与缅甸关系的好转;其

  13. Analysis of Basic Features of the Onset of the Asian Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a relatively systematic climatological research on the onset of the Asian tropical summer monsoon (ATSM) was carried out. Based on a unified index of the ATSM onset, the advance of the whole ATSM was newly made and then the view that the ATSM firstly breaks out over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and the middle and southern Indo-China Peninsula was further documented, which was in the 26th pentad (about May 10), then over the South China Sea (SCS) in the 28th pentad. It seems that the ATSM onset over the two regions belongs to the different stages of the same monsoon system. Then, the onset mechanism of ATSM was further investigated by the comprehensive analysis on the land-sea thermodynamic contrast, intraseasonal oscillation, and so on, and the several key factors which influence the ATSM onset were put forward. Based on these results, a possible climatological schematic map that the ATSM firstly breaks out over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean, the Indo-China Peninsula, and the SCS was also presented, namely seasonal evolution of the atmospheric circulation was the background of the monsoon onset; the enhancement and northward advance of the convections, the sensible heating and latent heating over the Indo-China Peninsula and its neighboring areas, the dramatic deepening of the India-Burma trough, and the westerly warm advection over the eastern Tibetan Plateau were the major driving forces of the summer monsoon onset, which made the meridional gradient of the temperature firstly reverse over this region and ascending motion develop. Then the tropical monsoon and precipitation rapidly developed and enhanced. The phase-lock of the 30-60-day and 10-20-day low frequency oscillations originated from different sources was another triggering factor for the summer monsoon onset. It was just the common effect of these factors that induced the ATSM earliest onset over this region.

  14. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer′s Oleander. "Jaundice curative tree" in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827. Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.

  15. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. "Jaundice curative tree" in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.

  16. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2015-08-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  17. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Newton

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75, Cambodia (48, Lao PDR (115, Myanmar (Burma (137 and the Thai/Myanmar border (16, were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9% on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to approximately 50 mg per genuine tablet. Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy'. Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. CONCLUSIONS: An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal

  18. A present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of earthquake centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution, P-wave first motion focal mechanism solution and deep hole breakouts, a present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region is compiled. The origi-nal stress data are smoothed for every 200 km ′ 200 km area by taking the average of all stress indicators within each sub-region. The stress map shows the spatial distribution of the orientation of principal stress axes and the stress regimes. An earthquake focal mechanism map for the eastern Asia is also given. The maps of orientation of principal stress axes show that, apart from the strong influence of the collision between the Indian Ocean plate and Eurasian plate, the present-day tectonic stress in eastern Asia is significantly affected by the back-arc extension of the subduction zones. The joint effect of the continental collision at the Himalaya arc and back-arc extension in the Burma arc region may be responsible for the remarkable rotation of the principal stress orientations in southeastern part of the Tibet plateau. The joint action of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate at Taiwan Island and the back-arc extension of the Ryukyu arc affect the stress field in eastern part of China. There are no strong earthquakes in the present day in the vast back-arc region of the Java trench subduction zone. The back-arc extension there may create a condition favorable to the southward flow of the lithosphere material in southeastern Asia. In the inner part of the Tibet plateau region, roughly demarcated by the Kunlun mountain, the northern and northeastern part is a broad intracontinental compressive zone, while the southern and southwestern part is generally in a normal-faulting stress state.

  19. The Social Capital in Traditional Culture by the Ethnic Minority Community --Taking Pulang Village in Yunnan as an Example%少数民族社区传统文化中的社会资本——以云南勐海布朗山乡为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧

    2011-01-01

    The traditional culture of an ethnic minority community owns important ingredients of social capital such as rules, trust, social network and ethics. These social capital elements play important roles in adjusting internal relationship, enhancing cohesion and maintaining stability of a minority society. At present, few studies have been conducted on the inner connections between the traditional culture in minority community and the social capital. As a case study, the social capital ingredients contained in the traditional culture of the Pulang people, who are living in Burma- bordering villages in Yunnan China, were reported, based on an analysis of their living environment and customs. and development of the social capital That apart, some problems are proposed related to the further construction in Pulang villages.%少数民族社区传统文化中蕴含着规范、信任、社会关系网络以及伦理道德等社会资本的重要内容,对调适民族内部关系,增强民族凝聚力,维护民族稳定具有重要意义。针对目前有关少数民族社区传统文化与社会资本的研究欠缺状况,以地处中缅边境的云南布朗山乡为例,通过分析他们的生活环境和习俗,阐释了该民族传统文化中的社会资本要素,提出了进一步培育和发展布朗山乡社会资本需要注意的问题,对构建和谐社会具有重要的现实意义。

  20. The Life History of the Protandrous Tropical Shad Tenualosa macrura (Alosinae: Clupeidae): Fishery Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Brewer, D. T.; Milton, D. A.; Merta, Gede Sedana; Efizon, D.; Fry, G.; van der Velde, T.

    1999-11-01

    Tenualosa macrura is a tropical shad that was previously found throughout the estuaries and coastal waters of Sumatra and Borneo where it formed the basis of flourishing fisheries. The only viable fishery today has contracted to the Riau Province of Sumatra, Indonesia. To provide information for conservation and fisheries management, a two-year study of the biology, ecology and life history characteristics of T. macrura was conducted. The evidence from sizes of sexes, sex ratios and histology is that T. macrura is a protandrous hermaphrodite. It changes from male to female mainly between 14 and 20 cm SL (standard length) (six months to one year in age), after the male has spawned. Almost all fish in their second year are females; the species does not appear to live beyond two years. There is a regular movement of spawning males and females between the Strait of Malacca (salinity 28-30) and the spawning grounds in the sheltered straits (salinity 20-28) of Riau Province on each new and full moon. Their occurrence in the inshore straits leads to heavy fishing during these moon phases. The main nursery areas are the shallow coastal waters of the Strait of Malacca. The decline in catches of T. macrura has probably been as a result of fishers intensively targeting aggregations of spawning females. Furthermore, most are caught before spawning. It is postulated that the protandrous habit of this species, and its likewise endangered congener of Sarawak, T. toli, renders them more vulnerable to overfishing than is the gonochoristic and more widespread T. ilisha that is heavily fished from Burma through the Indian sub-continent to Kuwait.

  1. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Vision Defects among Muslim Males and Females of Manipur, India

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    Ahsana Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Color blindness is a common X-linked genetic disorder. However, most of color blinds remain undetected due to absence of proper screening. Our study was to determine the prevalence of red-green color vision defects among Manipuri Muslim males and females. The study could help in decreasing birth of children with this disorder as Muslims commonly perform consanguineous marriage among themselves.Methods: Unrelated individuals of both sexes (Male-1352, Female-1302 belonging to six different populations were randomly selected and screened for red-green color vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates test from the area of Imphal East and Imphal west districts of Manipur, which is a small hilly state, situated in the north eastern extreme corner of India sharing an international boundary with Myanmar (Burma.Results: About 8.73% of males and 1.69% of females were found to be color blind. Among six different populations studied the males of Meitei population shows the highest frequency i.e. 14.93% while Naga population shows the least frequency of 3.75%. Among females, Meitei population again shows the highest frequency of 2.5% and least frequency is shown by Mughal and Naga populations 0.00% as not a single female color blind was found.Conclusion: Present study shows higher prevalence rate of color blindness as compared to other reported rates of India. Deuteranomaly cases occur in higher percentage than other types of color blindness. The higher prevalence rate observed in Muslims may be due to the hidden effect of consanguineous marriages.

  2. The Study on the Sound Change in Laomian Language under the Influence of Language Contact%语言接触下老缅语语音变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张益家; 潘水凡

    2015-01-01

    Belonging to a cross-border ethnic group, the Laomian people are distributed along the boundaries of China, Thailand, Burma and Laos. In China, Laomian Village in Zhutang, Lancang County, and Laopin village in Mengzhe, Menghai County are the two main habitations. A few researches based on the language contact of transnational languages are found. The study on the sound change in Laomian Language comes the first. This paper focuses on this language by collecting data of sound change and analyzing itsreasons to providesome useful suggestions for it's language development.%老缅人作为一个跨境族群,分布在中国、泰国、缅甸、老挝四国的边界区域.中国境内主要以澜沧拉祜族自治县竹塘乡的老缅大寨和勐海县勐遮乡的老品寨为主要聚居地.跨境民族语言的语言接触研究成果相对较少,而以在语言接触下老缅语的语音变化作为研究对象尚属首次.本文以老缅大寨为调查点,通过对老缅语语音系统和语言接触中老缅语语音变化的归纳,分析其变化的原因,并尝试为其语言的发展提供可参性意见.

  3. The Hani Ethnic Identityand Social Stabilityin Border Areas%哈尼族民族认同与边疆社会稳定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙庆华

    2015-01-01

    Hani lives across the border is an international ancient nationality, distributed in the China and Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, laos. In the ethnic identity, the border on both sides of the Hani ethnic origin in history, historical and cultural background, ethnic origin, language, religion, culture, customs and other aspects are closely related, maintains the national culture identity. Ethnic identity is an important part of cultural soft power, has the special function of shaping the common psychological, is the only way which must be passed of multicultural relationship coordination, integration of ethnic cultural resources, has the vital significance to the social stability in border areas.%哈尼族是跨境而居的一个国际性古老民族,分布在中国及东南亚的越南、泰国、缅甸、老挝。在民族认同方面,国境两边的哈尼族在民族历史渊源、历史文化背景、族源、语言、宗教信仰、文化习俗等方面有着极为密切的联系,保持着本民族文化的认同。民族认同作为文化软实力的重要组成部分,有塑造共同心理的特殊功能,是协调多元文化关系、整合民族文化资源的必经之路,对边疆社会稳定具有重要的意义。

  4. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  5. Simulation of the Indian and East-Asian summer monsoon in the ECMWF model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperber, K.R.; Potter, G.L.; Boyle, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hameed, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Inst. for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres

    1993-11-01

    The ability of the ECMWF model (Cycle 33) to simulate the Indian and East Asian summer monsoon is evaluated at four different horizontal resolutions: T21, T42, T63, and T106. Generally, with respect to the large scale features of the circulation, the largest differences among the simulations occur at T42 relative to T21. However, on regional scales, important differences among the high frequency temporal variabilitY serve as a further critical test of the model`s ability to simulate the monsoon. More generally, the results indicate the importance of evaluating high frequency time scales as a component of the climate system. T106 best captures both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Indian and East Asian Monsoon, while T42 fails to correctly simulate the sequence and development of synoptic scale milestones that characterize the monsoon flow. In particular, T106 is superior at simulating the development and migration of the monsoon trough over the Bay of Bengal. In the T42 simulation, the development of the monsoon occurs one month earlier than typically observed. At this time the trough is incorrectly located adjacent to the east coast of India which results in an underestimate of precipitation over the Burma/Thailand region. This early establishment of the monsoon trough affects the evolution of the East-Asian monsoon and yields excessive preseason rainfall over the Mei-yu region. EOF analysis of precipitation over China indicates that T106 best simulates the Mei-yu mode of variability associated with an oscillation of the rainband that gives rise to periods of enhanced rainfall over the Yangize River Valley. The coarse resolution of T21 precludes simulation of the aforementioned regional scale monsoon flows.

  6. Burmese Refugee Transnationalism: What Is the Effect? Die Auswirkungen der transnationalen Verbindungen von birmanischen Flüchtlingen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Brees

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Burmese refugees in Thailand maintain economic, social and political links with their country of origin, but these transnational activities are influenced by the politics and level of development of the country of origin and the host country. Through transnational activities, refugees can have a positive impact on the home country by contributing to peace-building and development or they can enhance conflict, as the discussion on community engagement and political transnationalism will illustrate. Clearly, the increased capacity and networks of the Burmese diaspora have bestowed it with a large (future potential to influence peace-building, development and conflict. Therefore, it is argued here that the various civil, political and military groups in exile should be included in the peace-building process initiated by international actors, next to stakeholders inside the country. Birmanische Flüchtlinge in Thailand haben ökonomische, soziale und politische Verbindungen zu ihrem Herkunftsland. Diese transnationalen Aktivitäten sind von der Politik und Entwicklungsstufe ihres Ursprungs- und ihres Gastlandes abhängig. Mit Hilfe transnationaler Aktivitäten können Flüchtlinge eine positive Wirkung auf ihr Heimatland haben, indem sie zur Friedenserhaltung und Entwicklung beitragen. Sie können jedoch auch den Konflikt weiter verschärfen, wie die Diskussion über Gemeinschaftsengagement und politischen Transnationalismus zeigt. Die wachsenden Fähigkeiten und Netzwerke der burmesischen Diaspora haben sie mit einem großen zukünftigen Potenzial ausgestattet, Friedensinitiativen, Entwicklungen und Konflikte zu beeinflussen. Der Artikel behauptet deshalb, dass die unterschiedlichen zivilen, politischen und militärischen Gruppen im Exil in einen Friedensprozess eingeschlossen werden sollen, der von internationalen Akteuren und nationalen Stakeholders im Land angestoßen werden sollte. Schlüsselwörter: Burma/ Myanmar, Flüchtlinge, Diaspora

  7. Teleseismic shear-wave splitting in SE Tibet: Insight into complex crust and upper-mantle deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu; Xu, Mingjie; Ding, Zhifeng; Wu, Yan; Wang, Pan; Mi, Ning; Yu, Dayong; Li, Hua

    2015-12-01

    We measured shear-wave splitting of teleseismic XKS phases (i.e., SKS, SKKS and PKS) recorded by more than 300 temporary ChinArray stations in Yunnan of SE Tibet. The first-order pattern of XKS splitting measurements shows that the fast polarization directions (φ) change (at ∼26-27°N) from dominant N-S in the north to E-W in the south. While splitting observations around the eastern Himalayan syntax well reflect anisotropy in the lithosphere under left-lateral shear deformation, the dominant E-W φ to the south of ∼26°N is consistent with the maximum extension in the crust and suggest vertically coherent pure-shear deformation throughout the lithosphere in Yunnan. However, the thin lithosphere (<80 km) could account for only part (<0.7 s) of the observed splitting delay times (δt, 0.9-1.5 s). Anisotropy in the asthenosphere is necessary to explain the NW-SE and nearly E-W φ in these regions. The NE-SW φ can be explained by the counter flow caused by the subduction and subsequent retreat of the Burma slab. The E-W φ is consistent with anisotropy due to the absolute plate motion in SE Tibet and the eastward asthenospheric flow from Tibet to eastern China accompanying the tectonic evolution of the plateau. Our results provide new information on different deformation fields in different layers under SE Tibet, which improves our understanding on the complex geodynamics related to the tectonic uplift and southeastward expansion of Tibetan material under the plateau.

  8. The Remains of the National Heroes Protected by the Promised Land The Loyal Spirits Remembered by the Righteous History---A Comment on the Battle Achievement of Yunnan Armies in the Anti-Japanese War%“青山有幸埋忠骨,碧血丹心照汗青”--简评抗日战争中云南军队的抗战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲

    2015-01-01

    During the Anti‐Japanese War ,Yunnan troops such as the 60th Army ,the 58th Army ,the New 3rd Ar‐my ,and the Old 3rd Army with the main force from Yunnan ,fought against Japanese army in the anti‐Japanese battle‐fronts as East China ,Central China and North China .In the Burma battlefield ,the soldiers and civilians in west Yunnan resisted the Japanese enemy in enemy’s rear area ,greatly supporting the counterattack against the enemy .All above have composed a magnificent and brilliant chapter in Chinese history of the struggle against foreign aggression ,full of remarka‐ble national heroism and patriotism ,and made tremendous contributions to the Chinese people’s Anti‐Japanese war for national liberation .%抗日战争时期,滇军第60军、第58军、新3军及以滇军为主力的老3军等部队,驰骋在华东、华中及华北抗日前线打击日军,滇缅战场中滇西军民在敌后战场抗击敌人和在滇西反攻战中的鼎力支持,谱写了一曲曲气壮山河、仰不愧天的民族英雄主义精神和爱国主义诗篇,在中华民族抵抗外来侵略斗争史上谱写了辉煌的篇章,为中国人民抗日民族解放战争作出了突出的贡献。

  9. Distributive pattern of malignant invasive species,Eupatorium adenophorum in Yunnan%恶性外来入侵植物紫茎泽兰在云南的分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正清; 周冠华; 权文婷

    2009-01-01

    云南省是我国紫茎泽兰入侵最早和危害最严重的地区,紫茎泽兰已对该地区的生物多样性与生态环境造成严重的危害.基于2008年该省16个州市的调查统计数据,分析了恶性外来入侵植物紫茎泽兰在云南发生的空间分布格局与不同生境条件下的发生面积及危害情况,为今后紫茎泽兰的科学防治提供参考.%Invasive species can alter the biological diversity, composition, structure, and function of terrestrial ecosystems. Yunnan Province is the earliest and most serious area on the exotic plant invasion. Eupatorium adenopho-rum, native to Mexico and Costa Rica of Central America, is a worldwide noxious invasive species. It occurs throughout many terrestrial areas of the world and is especially rampant in Southeast Asia, Hawaii, New Zealand, Austria and the Pacific islands. Since its invasion to China from the boundaries of Vietnam and Burma, the spread speed has been faster than anticipated. Presently, Eupatorium adenophorum can be found in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Tibet, Guangxi, Chongqing, Taiwan and Hubei etc. provinces(autonomous regions,municipality). It spread from south to north and from west to east in southwest of China, which is considered as a threat to local e-conomy and biodiversity. The distribution pattern of this invasive plant in Yunnan Province has been mapped based on geographic information system, which can help to understand the mechanisms of its invasion and spread.

  10. Economic feasibility of a new method to estimate mortality in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard Roberts

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mortality data provide essential evidence on the health status of populations in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings and to guide and assess relief operations. Retrospective surveys are commonly used to collect mortality data in such populations, but require substantial resources and have important methodological limitations. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative method for rapidly quantifying mortality (the informant method. The study objective was to assess the economic feasibility of the informant method. METHODS: The informant method captures deaths through an exhaustive search for all deaths occurring in a population over a defined and recent recall period, using key community informants and next-of-kin of decedents. Between July and October 2008, we implemented and evaluated the informant method in: Kabul, Afghanistan; Mae La camp for Karen refugees, Thai-Burma border; Chiradzulu District, Malawi; and Lugufu and Mtabila refugee camps, Tanzania. We documented the time and cost inputs for the informant method in each site, and compared these with projections for hypothetical retrospective mortality surveys implemented in the same site with a 6 month recall period and with a 30 day recall period. FINDINGS: The informant method was estimated to require an average of 29% less time inputs and 33% less monetary inputs across all four study sites when compared with retrospective surveys with a 6 month recall period, and 88% less time inputs and 86% less monetary inputs when compared with retrospective surveys with a 1 month recall period. Verbal autopsy questionnaires were feasible and efficient, constituting only 4% of total person-time for the informant method's implementation in Chiradzulu District. CONCLUSIONS: The informant method requires fewer resources and incurs less respondent burden. The method's generally impressive feasibility and the near real-time mortality data it provides warrant further work to

  11. Multi-phase Uplift of the Indo-Burman Ranges and Western Thrust Belt of Minbu Sub-basin (West Myanmar): Constraints from Apatite Fission Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Qiu, H.; Mei, L.

    2015-12-01

    The forearc regions in active continental margins are important keys to analysis geodynamic processes such as oceanic crust oblique subduction, mechanism of subduction zone, and sediments recycling. The West Myanmar, interpreted as forearc silver, is the archetype example of such forearc regions subordinate to Sunda arc-trench system, and is widely debated when and how its forearc regions formed. A total of twenty-two samples were obtained from the Indo-Burman Ranges and western thrust belt of Minbu Sub-basin along Taungup-Prome Road in Southwestern Myanmar (Figure 1), and five sandstone samples of them were performed at Apatite to Zircon, Inc. Three samples (M3, M5, and M11) collected from Eocene flysch and metamorphic core at the Indo-Burman Ranges revealed apatite fission track (AFT) ages ranging from 19 to 9 Ma and 6.5 to 2 Ma. Two samples (M20 and M21) acquired from the western thrust belt of Minbu Sub-basin yielded AFT ages ranging from 28 to 13.5 Ma and 7.5 to 3.5 Ma. Time-temperature models based on AFT data suggest four major Cenozoic cooling episodes, Late Oligocene, Early to Middle Miocene, Late Miocene, and Pliocene to Pleistocene. The first to third episode, models suggest the metamorphic core of the Indo-Burman Ranges has experienced multi-phase rapidly uplifted during the early construction of the forearc regions. The latest episode, on which this study focused, indicated a fast westward growth of the Palaeogene accretionary wedge and a eastward propagation deformation of folding and thrusting of the western thrust belt of Minbu Sub-basin. We argued that above multi-phase uplifted and deformation of the forearc regions were results of India/West Burma plate's faster oblique convergence and faster sedimentation along the India/Eurasia suture zone.

  12. Detrital apatite (U-Th)/He constraints on the exhumational histories of the Arunachal Pradesh Himalaya and the Shillong Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staisch, L. M.; Clark, M. K.; Niemi, N. A.; Avdeev, B.

    2010-12-01

    Erosion in the Himalaya is driven largely by a strongly coupled system of extreme climatic conditions and active tectonic processes. Spatial and temporal variations in erosion rates along strike are presumably controlled by differences in local climate, seismicity, deformation rates, and lithology. Quantifying the contribution of each of these parameters to the erosional budget of the Himalaya, however, is a nontrivial problem. The easternmost portion of the Himalayan arc offers a natural laboratory to explore the role of climatic influence on erosion rates. Deformation and uplift of the Shillong Plateau since ~8 Ma has created an orographic barrier ~400 km long that shields the eastern Himalaya, in Arunachal Pradesh, India, from a significant proportion of the precipitation carried by the South Asian Monsoon. Long-term exhumation rates derived from the Himalaya west and east of this orographic barrier have been shown to differ by a factor of ~2, a difference ascribed to reduced climatic forcing of erosion in the lee of the Shillong Plateau. Here we present apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology data from modern detrital samples collected from northeast India. Between 18-20 single grain ages from each catchment were analyzed in order to calculate erosion rates on a 106 yr timescale. Recently developed Bayesian techniques for the inverse modeling of detrital data were used to derive time-temperature histories for each sample. Recent erosion rates modeled for a single south-facing catchment on the Shillong Plateau are modest, ~0.25 km Myr-1, and show a clear increase in exhumation rates at ~8 Ma from rates of indicate that the easternmost Himalaya, as a whole, experienced a significant increase in exhumation rate in the late Miocene, although the absolute rates are lower than observed throughout the Bhutanese and Nepalese Himalaya. The temporal correlation of this increase suggests a regional cause, possibly reflecting changes in the stress field across the India-Eurasia-Burma

  13. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  14. On Southwest China Cross-Border Economic Cooperation%西南边疆跨境经济合作区建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏飞

    2013-01-01

      with the development of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area of the fully completed, Guangxi, Yunnan two provinces using the geographical advantages, and actively promote the construction of Burma, Laos, and Vietnam cross-border economic cooperation zone, as a new sub-regional economic cooperation mode, due to the sovereignty transference problem, need to give vigorous support from the national level. The local government should be with neighboring governments jointly do a good job in industry layout planning, and constantly improve the infrastructure cooperation zone, to attract enterprises, fostering the advantage industry clusters, promoting the economic development of border areas.%  随着中国—东盟自由贸易区的全面建成,广西、云南两省区利用地缘优势,推动与越南、缅甸、老挝合作的跨境经济合作区建设,成效显著。其中涉及的主权相互让渡问题,需要国家层面给予大力扶持。地方政府要与邻国政府共同做好产业布局规划,不断完善合作区的基础设施,吸引企业入驻,培育优势产业集群,推动边疆地区的经济发展。

  15. Die Rohingyas: Konstruktion, De-Konstruktion und Re-Konstruktion einer ethnisch-religiösen Identität [The Rohingyas in Myanmar: Construction, De-construction and Re-construction of an Ethnic Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Bernd Zöllner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Rohingyas, die im Staat Rakhine (Arakan im Westen des heutigen Myanmar leben, bilden eine große geschlossene muslimische Bevölkerungsgruppe an der Grenze zu Bangladesh. In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten gab es mehrere Fluchtbewegungen über die Grenze und Aktionen der Rückführung. Bei alledem ist der Status der Rohingyas umstritten. Die Organisationen, die ihre Interessen vertreten, sehen sie als indigene Bewohner des Landes, die sich auf eine mehr als 1000jährige Geschichte berufen können. Von Seiten buddhistischer Arakanesen und der Zentralregierung Myanmars werden sie als Ausländer angesehen und behandelt. Das Papier untersucht die historische Genese der Konstruktion einer ethnischen Nationalität der Rohingyas vis à vis der buddhistischen Bevölkerung in Arakan und Gesamtbirma sowie die Bestreitung dieses Anspruchs und gibt dabei einen Überblick über die muslimische Einflüsse auf die Geschichte und Kultur des über Jahrhunderte unabhängigen Königreichs Arakan.The Rohingyas living in the state of Rakhine (Arakan in western Myanmar form a great en bloc community Muslim community on the border to Bangladesh. In the past decades, great numbers of people fled the country and were repatriated later. The status of the Rohingyas is a controversial issue. The organisations representing their interest consider them as indigenous people of Myanmar looking back at a history of 1000 years in Arakan. Buddhist Arakanese as well as the central government of Myanmar, however, regard and treat them as foreigners. The paper examines the historical genesis of the construction of a national Rohingya identity vis-à-vis the Buddhist population of Rakhine and the whole of Burma/Myanmar as well as its contradiction. In addition, an overview on the Muslim influences on history and culture of the kingdom of Arakan will be given.

  16. Screening and Identification of Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzhuo Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kratom is a tree planted in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma and elsewhere in the region. A long history of usage and abuse of kratom has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the wide availability of kratom on the Internet and in the streets has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of misuse. With the increasing popularity of kratom, efficient protocols are needed to detect kratom use. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of kratom compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in human urine has been developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The chromatographic system employed a 2.6-μm 100 mm × 2.1 mm phenyl-hexyl analytical column and gradient elution with a 0.4-mL/min flow rate of water and acetonitrile as mobile phases. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used as the detector for data acquisition. The analyst was the quantification software. The established method demonstrated linearity of >0.99 for both analytes, and low detection limits were obtained down to 0.002581 ng/mL for mitragynine and 0.06910 ng/mL for 7-hydroxymitragynine. The validated method has been utilized for clinical analysis of urine for the purpose of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine detection.

  17. THE ENGLISH EDUCATION IN MYANMAR AND ITS INSPIRATION TO THE ENGLISH EDUCATION IN CHINA%缅甸英语教育及对我国英语教育的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳

    2015-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the countries in the English Extended Circle and Myanmar English is a variant of English in the world with big differences from standard English and is an essential tool used by Burmese to ex-press their local culture to the outside world. Its history dates back to British colonial rule in Burma. With the development of democratization process in Myanmar and the deepening of international cooperation,English education is highly valued and various kinds of English education goes hand in hand,which is an important in-spiration to the English education in China. While English proficiency is improved and the Chinese culture is carried forward by using English,the imperialist influence of the English language should be avoided.%缅甸属于英语扩展圈国家,缅甸英语是世界英语变体的一种,与标准英语差异较大,是缅甸人对外表达本土文化的必要工具,其历史追溯至英国对缅甸的殖民统治。随着民主化进程的发展和国际合作的加强,英语教育受到缅甸国内高度重视,各类英语教育齐头并进。这对于我国的英语教育有重要启示,在提高英语应用能力、利用英语弘扬中国文化的同时,还应尽量避免英语语言帝国主义的影响。

  18. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2016-04-01

    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  19. Pushing the Limits: The Pattern and Dynamics of Rubber Monoculture Expansion in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

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    Huafang Chen

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing car industry in China has led to an equally rapid expansion of monoculture rubber in many regions of South East Asia. Xishuangbanna, the second largest rubber planting area in China, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, supplies about 37% of the domestic natural rubber production. There, high income possibilities from rubber drive a dramatic expansion of monoculture plantations which poses a threat to natural forests. For the first time we mapped rubber plantations in and outside protected areas and their net present value for the years 1988, 2002 (Landsat, 30 m resolution and 2010 (RapidEye, 5 m resolution. The purpose of our study was to better understand the pattern and dynamics of the expansion of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna, as well as its economic prospects and conservation impacts. We found that 1 the area of rubber plantations was 4.5% of the total area of Xishuangbanna in 1988, 9.9% in 2002, and 22.2% in 2010; 2 rubber monoculture expanded to higher elevations and onto steeper slopes between 1988 and 2010; 3 the proportion of rubber plantations with medium economic potential dropped from 57% between 1988 and 2002 to 47% in 2010, while the proportion of plantations with lower economic potential had increased from 30% to 40%; and 4 nearly 10% of the total area of nature reserves within Xishuangbanna has been converted to rubber monoculture by 2010. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the rapid expansion of rubber plantations into higher elevations, steeper terrain, and into nature reserves (where most of the remaining forests of Xishuangbanna are located poses a serious threat to biodiversity and environmental services while not producing the expected economic returns. Therefore, it is essential that local governments develop long-term land use strategies for balancing economic benefits with environmental sustainability, as well as for assisting farmers with the selection of land suitable

  20. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  1. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.

    2014-11-01

    Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Time-series regression was applied to MODIS fire products at variable spatial scales in GIS. Significance of change in fire frequency at each grid level was tested using t statistic. Spatial clustering of higher or lower fire incidences across study area was determined using Getis-OrdGi statistic. Maximum fire incidences were encountered in moist mixed deciduous forests (46%) followed by secondary moist bamboo brakes (30%). In most parts of the study area fire incidences peaked during March while in warmer parts (e.g. Mon district dominated by indigenous people) fire activity starts as early as during November and peaks in January. Regression trend analysis captured noticeable areas with statistically significant positive (e.g. Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon, Tuensang and Kiphire districts) and negative (e.g. Kohima and north-western part of Mokokchung district) inter-annual fire frequency trends based on area-based aggregation of fire occurrences at different grid sizes. Localization of spatial clusters of high fire incidences was observed in Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon,Tuensang and Kiphire districts.

  2. Fungi in Thailand: a case study of the efficacy of an ITS barcode for automatically identifying species within the Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon genera.

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    Nuttika Suwannasai

    Full Text Available Thailand, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, has many endemic animals and plants. Some of its fungal species are difficult to recognize and separate, complicating assessments of biodiversity. We assessed species diversity within the fungal genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, which produce biologically active and potentially therapeutic compounds, by applying classical taxonomic methods to 552 teleomorphs collected from across Thailand. Using probability of correct identification (PCI, we also assessed the efficacy of automated species identification with a fungal barcode marker, ITS, in the model system of Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon. The 552 teleomorphs yielded 137 ITS sequences; in addition, we examined 128 GenBank ITS sequences, to assess biases in evaluating a DNA barcode with GenBank data. The use of multiple sequence alignment in a barcode database like BOLD raises some concerns about non-protein barcode markers like ITS, so we also compared species identification using different alignment methods. Our results suggest the following. (1 Multiple sequence alignment of ITS sequences is competitive with pairwise alignment when identifying species, so BOLD should be able to preserve its present bioinformatics workflow for species identification for ITS, and possibly therefore with at least some other non-protein barcode markers. (2 Automated species identification is insensitive to a specific choice of evolutionary distance, contributing to resolution of a current debate in DNA barcoding. (3 Statistical methods are available to address, at least partially, the possibility of expert misidentification of species. Phylogenetic trees discovered a cryptic species and strongly supported monophyletic clades for many Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon species, suggesting that ITS can contribute usefully to a barcode for these fungi. The PCIs here, derived solely from ITS, suggest that a fungal barcode will require secondary markers in

  3. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  4. Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root

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    Kavita Gahlot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS R.Br. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES. The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o. did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl

  5. Between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision: fertility, people and earthquakes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gale, J.; McHugh, C. M.; Ferguson, E. K.; Mondal, D. R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    A foreland (Ganges) and a suture (Brahmaputra) river, which both drain the Himalaya, have coalesced to form Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the world's largest. The GBD progrades along the continental margin, coupled with an advancing subduction to collision transition, deforming the delta as it grows. A better understanding of this time-transgressive system is urgent now that humans are increasing their forcing of the system and exposure to environmental hazards. Among these, earthquake risk is rapidly growing as people move from rural settings into expanding cities, creating unprecedented exposure. The megathrust 1950 M8.7 earthquake in Assam occurred during the monsoon and released 10x the annual sediment load, causing progradation at the coast and a pulse of river widening that propagated downstream. The 1762 M8.8(?) along the Arakan coast extended into the shelf of the delta where coastal tsunami deposits have been identified recently. These events bracket a segment with no credible historic megathrust earthquakes, but could affect far more people. Geodetic and geologic data along this 300 km boundary facing the GBD show oblique contraction. The subaerial accretionary prism (Burma Ranges) is up to 250 km wide with a blind thrust front that reaches ½ way across the delta. The GPS convergence rate of 14 mm/y is consistent with large displacements and long interseismic times, which can account for lack of historic ruptures, but also the potential for catastrophic events. Active folds and shallow thrust earthquakes point to an additional threat from upper-plate seismicity. Much of the current seismicity is in the lower-plate and reaches as far west as Dhaka; it may pose an immediate threat. The folds, and the uplift and subsidence patterns also influence the courses of the rivers. North of the delta, the Shillong plateau is a huge basement cored anticline bounded by the north-dipping Dauki thrust fault. 7 mm/y of N-S shortening and 5 km of structural relief here

  6. Chemical weathering and arsenic enrichment in aquifer of Brahmaputra River Basin, India, adjoining Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Swati; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Mahanta, Chandan; Choudhury, Runti

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) enrichment in the shallow aquifers of Brahmaputra river basin (BRB), mostly located in the Indian state of Assam, has not been known for a long time. So far, very limited number of studies has been done to understand the geological and geochemical processes controlling groundwater chemistry and evolution in the BRB. The present study interprets the groundwater solute chemistry, hydrogeochemical evolution, As enrichment and aquifer characterization in BRB with special reference to two geologically distinct regions in upper Assam, India. These regions consist of the northern (N) region (located along the Eastern Himalayas) and southern (S) region (near Indo-Burma Range) of the Brahmaputra basin which shows distinct tectonic settings and sediments provinces in the Himalayas orogenic belt. Shallow alluvial aquifers of the northern part are mainly composed of grey/brown sand (fine, medium and course) and light grey clay however aquifers of southern part mainly composed of black/dark grey clay and fine grey sands. Aquifers of S-region are severely contaminated with dissolved As (maximum 0.45 mg/L) in comparison to the northern aquifers (maximum: 0.18 mg/L). However, both areas have similar reducing, postoxic environments with high concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), and saturation index calculations suggest that As is liberated primarily by reductive dissolution of metal oxides. Major mineralogical compositions of the aquifer sediments analysed by FESEM/EDX, XRD and thin section which indicate the major presence of Fe-oxide and oxyhydroxides, mica (muscovite and biotite), feldspar, pyroxene, abundance of quartz and some clay minerals whereas clay highly present in sediments of S-aquifers. The major-ion composition shows that groundwater composition is mainly Ca2+-HCO3‑ and Ca2+-Na+-HCO3 in N-region while S-region part is dominated by Na+-Ca2+-HCO3‑ hydrochemical facies. Molar ratios and thermodynamic calculations show that groundwater

  7. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

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    Arjun Patra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12, 23(24-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β--sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds

  8. EFFECTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF WOODY SPECIES OF THE NOKREK BIOSPHERE RESERVE OF MEGHALAYA,NORTHEAST INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aims Our study was conducted in the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve (NBR) in the Garo hills districts of Meghalaya, Northeast India. Our aim was to assess the effects of human activities on plant diversity,population structure and regeneration.Methods We selected a representative 1.2 hm2 stand in both the core and buffer zones of NBR. Structure and composition were determined by randomly sampling square quadrats, population structure was assessed by determining age structure, and regeneration was assessed by measuring densities of seedling, sapling and adult trees.Important findings More woody species were recorded from the core zone than the buffer zone (87 vs. 81 species), and there were a large number of tropical, temperate, and Sino-Himalayan, Burma-Malaysian and Malayan elements, primitive families and primitive genera. The trees were distributed in three distinct strata,canopy, subcanopy and sapling. Subcanopy and sapling layers had the highest species richness (81% -88% ). Lauraceae and Euphorbiaceae were the dominant families in terms of the number of species, and a large number of families were represented by single species. Most woody species (57 % - 79 % ) were contagiously distributed and had low frequency ( < 20% ). Although stand density was high in the buffer zone, its basal area was low compared to the stand in the core zone. Low similarity and high β-diversity indicate marked differences in species composition of the stands. Shannon diversity index was high in both the stands, while Simpson dominance index was low. The diameter-class distribution for dominant species revealed that the most had a large number of young individuals in their populations. Preponderance of tree seedlings, followed by a steep decline in population density of saplings and adult trees, indicated that the seedling to sapling stage was the most critical in the life cycle of the tree populations. Most species (42 % - 48 % ) had no regeneration,25 % - 35 % had

  9. Theravada Buddhist Education and National Identity of Dai People in Ruili City%小乘佛教教育与瑞丽傣族的民族认同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈乾芳

    2012-01-01

    The society, whether the daily life and ethics standard , or the life rituals and festivals , have been entrusted with rich religious content after Buddhists introduced Theravada Buddhism to Dai people of Ruili city. The common religious belief has raised the strong ownership of emotion and the cohesive force, and become the symbols of identity and difference of local Dai people, which has not only Played an important roll in cultural spread and reconstruction, but also strengthened national identity during traditional society. With the all-inclusive opening up of city, abundant material life made local Dai people abandon their religious belief gradually, which resulted in phenomenon with empty temple or immigration monks from Burma. Therefore, we should acquire cultural compensation of right system in accordance with their own national and religious characteristics, and seek cultural continuation and expansion of Dai people in Ruili city guided by the Communist party's religious policy.%小乘佛教与瑞丽傣族社会契合后,无论是生产生活和伦理规范,还是人生礼仪和节日庆典,均被赋予了丰富的宗教内容。共同的宗教信仰培养了当地傣族浓厚的情感归属和凝聚力,成为对内认同和对外区分的民族符号,不仅对民族文化的传承和重构起到重要作用,还增强了传统社会时期瑞丽傣族的民族认同。随着瑞丽全方位的开放,对现世求得福祉和物质生活的吸引使当地傣族的宗教观念日趋淡薄,有寺无僧和缅僧入境现象甚为严重。因此,应在党的宗教政策引导下,根据宗教和民族自身的特点,在健全的taCIT获得Y.A~b偿,以寻求瑞丽傣族民族文化在时间上的延续和空间上的拓展。

  10. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma

  11. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukta; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the "Strike- Hard" campaign in China or the "war on drugs" in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam's response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves.The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting "universal access" goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners.The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher political

  12. STONEWORK OF THE ALTAI POPULATION AT THE 2nd CENTURY B.C. – THE 5 th CENTURY AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. SOENOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we generalize the results of our study of stonework in Altai at the Hun-Sarmat period, based on the researches of the archaeological sources. It is noted that this craft is represented in the region only by products of stone cutting manufacture, which are basically tools and adornments, among which the most common ones are spindles, grinding bars or whetstones, beads and pendants from various types of stones. Findings of other stone products (incenseburner, stone graters, and plaques are rare. A set of technological operations and tools was quite diverse: to make stone adornments the Altai ancient masters used such operations as cutting, grinding, drilling, and polishing. As a result of the study, we conclude that tools and part of adornments were made of local rocks: rock crystal, calcite, fine-grained white marble, microcrystalgreen slates. Types of stone, from which were made the rest of the found adornments (carnelian, sard, sapphirine, amber, jade etc. were imported. Studies of geological formations in Altai did not show deposits of carnelian, sarder and sapphirine. Deposits of carnelian (serdolik are widespread throughout the world: they are known in the Trans-Baikal region, Yakutia, the Far East, the Crimea, India and Central America. Sard is usually found along with carnelian. In Russia, significant reserves of sard have been found only in the Trans-Baikal region. Sapphirine is a rare variety of chalcedony, its deposits have been found only in India. Natural amber has not been found in Altai; its nearest deposit is located in Burma and the Baltic-Dnepr amber-bearing area. Jade is a widespread decorative stone. The deposits of jade are known in Yakutia, Tuva, China and many other areas, but it was not mined in Altai. Adornments from these types of stones appeared in Altai rather as finished products, than raw materials. The place of their production is to be identified.

  13. The Mekong Fish Network: expanding the capacity of the people and institutions of the Mekong River Basin to share information and conduct standardized fisheries monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, Harmony C.; Ainsley, Shaara M.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Beeman, John W.; Hewitt, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River is one of the most biologically diverse rivers in the world, and it supports the most productive freshwater fisheries in the world. Millions of people in the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMB) countries of the Union of Myanmar (Burma), Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Kingdom of Thailand, the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam rely on the fisheries of the basin to provide a source of protein. The Mekong Fish Network Workshop was convened in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 2012 to discuss the potential for coordinating fisheries monitoring among nations and the utility of establishing standard methods for short- and long-term monitoring and data sharing throughout the LMB. The concept for this network developed out of a frequently cited need for fisheries researchers in the LMB to share their knowledge with other scientists and decisionmakers. A fish monitoring network could be a valuable forum for researchers to exchange ideas, store data, or access general information regarding fisheries studies in the LMB region. At the workshop, representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, and universities, as well as participating foreign technical experts, cited a great need for more international cooperation and technical support among them. Given the limited staff and resources of many institutions in the LMB, the success of the proposed network would depend on whether it could offer tools that would provide benefits to network participants. A potential tool discussed at the workshop was a user-friendly, Web-accessible portal and database that could help streamline data entry and storage at the institutional level, as well as facilitate communication and data sharing among institutions. The workshop provided a consensus to establish pilot standardized data collection and database efforts that will be further reviewed by the workshop participants. Overall, workshop participants agreed that this is the type of

  14. Decadal Anomalies of Winter Precipitation over Southern China in Association with El Niño and La Niña

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yuan; LI Chongyin; YANG Song

    2014-01-01

    Using multiple datasets, this paper analyzes the characteristics of winter precipitation over southern China and its association with warm and cold phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation during 1948-2011. The study proves that El Niño is an important external forcing factor resulting in above-normal winter precipitation in southern China. The study also reveals that the impact of La Niña on the winter precipitation in southern China has a decadal variability. During the winter of La Ni˜na before 1980, the East Asian winter monsoon is stronger than normal with a deeper trough over East Asia, and the western Pacifi c subtropical high weakens with its high ridge retreating more eastward. Therefore, anomalous northerly winds dominate over southern China, leading to a cold and dry winter. During La Ni˜na winter after 1980, however, the East Asian trough is weaker than normal, unfavorable for the southward invasion of the winter monsoon. The India-Burma trough is intensifi ed, and the anomalous low-level cyclone excited by La Ni˜na is located to the west of the Philippines. Therefore, anomalous easterly winds prevail over southern China, which increases moisture fl ux from the tropical oceans to southern China. Meanwhile, La Ni˜na after 1980 may lead to an enhanced and more northward subtropical westerly jet over East Asia in winter. Since southern China is rightly located on the right side of the jet entrance region, anomalous ascending motion dominates there through the secondary vertical circulation, favoring more winter precipitation in southern China. Therefore, a cold and wet winter, sometimes with snowy and icy weathers, would occur in southern China during La Niña winter after 1980. Further analyses indicate that the change in the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomaly during the La Ni˜na mature phase, as well as the decadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, would be the important reasons for the decadal

  15. Population change and some aspects of socio-economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Some of the major dimensions of the interrelationship of population dynamics and socioeconomic development are examined in the context of Asia and the Pacific. Most of the countries in the region are developing, and population growth is viewed more as an obstacle to development rather than as a stimulant to economic progress. There are at least 10 countries in the region whose per capita income is less than US$300, namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 1979 these countries had an estimated combined population of 1,867,103,000 or about 77% of the population of the region. Per capita gross national product (GNP) masks the real economic condition of the people as it fails to show the actual distribution of income and wealth. In most nonsocialist countries there is maldistribution of income and wealth. The International Labor Organization (ILO) report points out that during 1963-73 in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, the richest 20% of households receive about half the income. In contrast, the poorest 40% receive between 12-18% of total income. In short, there could be economic development but not social development, such as equitable distribution of wealth and income. Studies have shown that equitable income distribution exerts a far greater influence on fertility than the GNP. In many countries of the region poverty is reality. The World Bank estimates that half of the people in absolute poverty live in South Asia, mainly India and Bangladesh. It is most unfortunate that among the very poor, poverty is frequently regarded as the cause rather than the effect of high fertility. Among the very poor, mortality, particularly infant mortality, tends to be high. China is among the countries which have recognized that rapid population growth is not beneficial to the accelerated speed of capital accumulation. It has been observed that in most countries as the GNP per

  16. Croissance économique des pays émergents et géographie mondiale des pierres précieuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Canavesio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution mondiale des activités extractives est de plus en plus dépendante de la demande des pays émergents. Les conséquences de la croissance de ces pays sur les exploitations de pierres précieuses sont complexes car le marché des gemmes a de nombreuses particularités. La demande est étroitement liée aux matrices socioculturelles de chaque pays. Par ailleurs, l’enrichissement des populations a également un impact sur la production de pierres telles que les saphirs ou les rubis. En effet, ces gemmes sont principalement extraites dans des exploitations informelles et cette activité est de moins en moins attractive pour une population dont le niveau de vie s’élève peu à peu. Dans les vastes gisements sri lankais et birmans, l’épuisement de la ressource est une autre menace. Finalement, si la croissance du marché du diamant est assurée par le Canada, la Russie et l’Australie, pour les autres gemmes, l’Afrique de l’Est est devenue le nouvel « Eldorado ». Dans ces pays, les contextes géologiques, économiques, politiques et sociaux sont très favorables au développement des exploitations artisanales de gemmes.Extraction activities evolution is more and more dependent on the increase of demand in the emerging countries. The consequences of this growth on the gemstone mining activities are complex. The gemstone market is very special and the demand depends on the historic and cultural situation of every country. Moreover, for precious stones like rubby and sapphire, the supply coming from this emerging country is also affected by the social and economic changes. As the small scale mining is widely held in this activity, people that are becoming richer are less interested in that kind of job. In Sri Lanka and Burma, the depletion of many deposits is an other challenge. Finally, if new diamonds deposits of Canada, Russia and Australia are supplying the growth of the diamond market, Est Africa looks like the new

  17. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  18. From support to embargo:An analysis of Britain’s positions on France returning to Indochina%从支持到禁运:对法国重返印度支那进程中英国立场的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳小勇

    2015-01-01

    Within the period of the World War II and the postwar, the British government maintained its influence on southeastern Asia through diplomatic ways when the tendency of power declination, decolonization and the Cold War became apparently interwoven. In the process of France returning to Indochina, the Churchill Coalition government and Attlee Government gave supports to France at diplomatic and military levels. However, after the outbreak of Indochina war, Attlee government took arms embargo measures to France as a response to antiwar public opinions that arose in India and Burma. The adjustment of positions from support to embargo reflected different perspectives and positions between French government and British government on the issue of Asian nationalism after the war, and also expressed part of diplomatic efforts that Attlee Government took to sustain the Commonwealth internal unity, and to maintain its influence on the southeastern Asia regional affairs in the shrinkage of Britain’s postwar plight.%二战及战后一段时期内,在英国式渐衰落、非殖民化和冷战态势相互交织的情况下,英国政府通过外交手段不懈地致力于维持对东南亚地区局势的影响与控制。在法国重返越南的进程中,丘吉尔联合政府与艾德礼政府从外交与军事两个层面给予法国不懈的支持;印度支那战争爆发后,艾德礼政府转而顺应印缅舆论,对法国采取有条件的武器禁运政策。从支持到禁运立场的调整,既反映了英国政府在战后地区民族主义问题上与法国相迥异的视角与立场,同时也是英国战后总体战略收缩困境下,艾德礼政府为维持英联邦内部的团结、保有在东南亚地区事务中话语权而开展的外交努力的一部分。

  19. Evidence for the 1762 Tsunamigenic Earthquake in an Extremely Sedimented Segment of the Sunda Subduction/Collision Boundary, SE Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C. M.; Mansfield, V.; Mondal, D. R.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Mustaque, S.; Ahkter, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    After the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami, attention focussed on the segment of the Sunda subduction system along the heavily populated region of the Bay of Bengal. Here the Indian plate is converging obliquely with the Burma arc at GPS rates of 14mm/yr. The extremely thick sediments (~20km) of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) are accreted into a very wide thrust-fold belt. Despite some likely aseismic deformation, the great 1762 earthquake proves the seismogenic potential of this boundary. Evidence is mounting that the earthquake ruptured 700km of the boundary from the Bengal Fan to the GBD shelf along Myanmar and Bangladesh. Recent U-Th ages and GPS measurements in Saint Martin Island, an anticline in the outer part of the accretion belt on the shelf, showed that corals died and were uplifted 2.5m coseismically during the 1762 earthquake. Historic accounts and modelling predicted a 1762 tsunami, but geologic evidence for it was not previously reported. We found in both Saint Martin and ~20km north on the Teknaf coast strong evidence for tsunami emplacement. In Saint Martin we discovered a shelly sand layer that extends ~4km in the center of the island. The layer contains shallow water foraminifers, coral fragments and molluscs. Twenty C-14 ages from the shell layer range 1440-1753 cal yrs AD and average 1600 cal yrs AD. We also studied a shell layer that extends for 16,500 m2 on top of a terrace that is now 2m above present sea level and pre-1762 earthquake elevation. Ten C14 ages obtained from the shell bed range 1689-1875 cal yrs AD and average 1753 cal yrs AD. This bed is 1.2m thick and composed of molluscs and foraminifers of intertidal and subtidal origin currently found in shelf depths of 0-100 m. The layer is composed of cobble to mud size sediment and although chaotic, we identified at least three pulses of coarse sediment within an overall fining-upwards unit. The studied 1762 shoreline uplift is likely to partly include coseiesmic

  20. Neotectonics of the Surma Basin, Bangladesh from GPS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, M. A. U.

    2015-12-01

    The Surma Basin is a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active basin lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma Basin is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal Basin. The Surma basin is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma basin mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma Basin are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of India. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma Basin being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the

  1. Effect of Coal-Bearing Formation on Gas Accumulation%含煤建造在气藏形成中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.H.德米特里耶夫斯基; И.Е.巴拉纽克(著); 任俞(译); 罗建玲(译)

    2012-01-01

    从岩石圈地球动力学特点出发,研究了岩石圈俯冲带含煤建造的生成及其经后期改造生成天然气的机理。例举了北美阿帕拉契亚山前边缘坳陷、落基山逆掩断裂带,西欧诸含煤盆地,东南亚(印尼、缅甸、泰国等)山前坳陷带含煤建造与天然气成藏的关系。详细分析了俄罗斯地台维柳伊一上扬斯克山前坳陷内含煤建造与烃类生成、运移、聚集的关系,并对该区烃类分布进行了预测。指出,丰富的有机质,较短期内快速增高的温压条件,区域地震的活动性是造成岩石圈板块俯冲带内油气生成的主要因素。%In view of features of lithosphere geodynamics, the origin of coal-bearing formation in the lithosphere subduction zone and the mechanism of its coal-derived gas after later reformation are studied. The relations between the coal-bearing formations and the gas accumu- lations in North America Appalachia piedmont edge depression, the Rocky mountain overthrust fault zone, Western Europe coal-bearing ba- sins, Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, etc.) piedmont depression belts are listed. The relationship between the coal-bearing for- mations and the hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in Viliusk-Virhuoyangski piedmont depression of Russian platform is analyzed in detail, including the predictions of hydrocarbons distribution in this area. It is pointed out that the abundant organic matter, rap- idly increasing temperature and pressure conditions and regional seismic activity are the major factors of the hydrocarbons generation in the lithosphere plate subduction zones.

  2. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    Burma block also has a strong lithosphere. To the west of the Indochina Block, there is a significant nearly NS-trending weak zone (Te post-collisional magmatism of the Indochina and the Sibumasu blocks. The result shows that the northern Australia is of very high strength with Te > 70 km. The ongoing subduction systems, such as the Sumatra and Java subduction systems show moderate to high Te values. The results also show that the negative gravity anomaly caused by slender thick sediment could affect the Te results derived from Spectral method, and should be corrected during data preparation.

  3. Late Jurassic-Cenozoic reconstructions of the Indonesian region and the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The heterogeneous Sundaland region was assembled by closure of Tethyan oceans and addition of continental fragments. Its Mesozoic and Cenozoic history is illustrated by a new plate tectonic reconstruction. A continental block (Luconia-Dangerous Grounds) rifted from east Asia was added to eastern Sundaland north of Borneo in the Cretaceous. Continental blocks that originated in western Australia from the Late Jurassic are now in Borneo, Java and Sulawesi. West Burma was not rifted from western Australia in the Jurassic. The Banda (SW Borneo) and Argo (East Java-West Sulawesi) blocks separated from western Australia and collided with the SE Asian margin between 110 and 90 Ma, and at 90 Ma the Woyla intra-oceanic arc collided with the Sumatra margin. Subduction beneath Sundaland terminated at this time. A marked change in deep mantle structure at about 110°E reflects different subduction histories north of India and Australia since 90 Ma. India and Australia were separated by a transform boundary that was leaky from 90 to 75 Ma and slightly convergent from 75 to 55 Ma. From 80 Ma, India moved rapidly north with north-directed subduction within Tethys and at the Asian margin. It collided with an intra-oceanic arc at about 55 Ma, west of Sumatra, and continued north to collide with Asia in the Eocene. Between 90 and 45 Ma Australia remained close to Antarctica and there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra and Java. During this interval Sundaland was largely surrounded by inactive margins with some strike-slip deformation and extension, except for subduction beneath Sumba-West Sulawesi between 63 and 50 Ma. At 45 Ma Australia began to move north; subduction resumed beneath Indonesia and has continued to the present. There was never an active or recently active ridge subducted in the Late Cretaceous or Cenozoic beneath Sumatra and Java. The slab subducted between Sumatra and east Indonesia in the Cenozoic was Cretaceous or older, except at the very western end

  4. The Transference of Gender-based Norms in the Law Reform Process: A Reflection on my Work in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-Vonne Hutchinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, I spent a year as a Rule of Law specialist in Thailand with the International Rescue Committee (IRC, as part of a fellowship program for human rights lawyers. I was assigned the task of facilitating the development of a comprehensive legal code for the refugee camps along the border between Thailand and /Burma. As part of my work, I also sought to increase gender-based protection under the law through the incorporation of Thai and international human rights norms. This paper is a reflection on the processes that occurred during my time at IRC. The reform project approached the transference of contentious international norms for protection of women and girls in two ways: a through the inclusive design of the law reform process and b the establishment of a prohibition on rules that clearly violated international or national law. By forming a representative drafting committee and placing an emphasis on community consultation as a precursor to code finalisation, refugee perspectives, particularly female perspectives, were given scope to inform interpretations of national and international legal standards. By requiring international and national legal compliance and placing an emphasis on explanation and clarification of international and national standards in discussions, the project supported downward transference of international norms to a specific community context. We hoped that, as a product of these two normative flows, the resulting legal code would be a sustainable mechanism for gender-based protection and redress in cases of sexual and gender-based violence. During negotiations, it became evident that the inclusive design of the law reform process had a more positive impact on the success of norms transference than the actual substance of the norm. The norms that were most readily accepted were those introduced by law reform committee members themselves. Local norm translators played a pivotal role in the norms diffusion process

  5. Feature Detection Systems Enhance Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1963, during the ninth orbit of the Faith 7 capsule, astronaut Gordon Cooper skipped his nap and took some photos of the Earth below using a Hasselblad camera. The sole flier on the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, Cooper took 24 photos - never-before-seen images including the Tibetan plateau, the crinkled heights of the Himalayas, and the jagged coast of Burma. From his lofty perch over 100 miles above the Earth, Cooper noted villages, roads, rivers, and even, on occasion, individual houses. In 1965, encouraged by the effectiveness of NASA s orbital photography experiments during the Mercury and subsequent Gemini manned space flight missions, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) director William Pecora put forward a plan for a remote sensing satellite program that would collect information about the planet never before attainable. By 1972, NASA had built and launched Landsat 1, the first in a series of Landsat sensors that have combined to provide the longest continuous collection of space-based Earth imagery. The archived Landsat data - 37 years worth and counting - has provided a vast library of information allowing not only the extensive mapping of Earth s surface but also the study of its environmental changes, from receding glaciers and tropical deforestation to urban growth and crop harvests. Developed and launched by NASA with data collection operated at various times by the Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT, a private sector partnership that became Space Imaging Corporation in 1996), and USGS, Landsat sensors have recorded flooding from Hurricane Katrina, the building boom in Dubai, and the extinction of the Aral Sea, offering scientists invaluable insights into the natural and manmade changes that shape the world. Of the seven Landsat sensors launched since 1972, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 are still operational. Though both are in use well beyond their intended lifespans, the mid

  6. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    within the border of Jinjiang City, and counties in Putian City, in Longxi City, and in Xiamen Prefecture. Guangdong immigrants came from cities, places in the Pearl River Delta area and the Tan River Valley, counties in Xingmei hakka area, and Hainan Island. 90% of immigrants settled in southeast Asia (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Burma, Vietnam, Kampuchea, and Laos), and 8% came to North America and Latin America. Most were men, young, not well educated, and unemployed. PMID:12319210

  7. Review on the Trace of China’s Border Trade and its New Features under the 13th Five-Year Plan%我国边境贸易的历史回顾与“十三五”发展的新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青

    2015-01-01

    Border trade is the essential part of China’s international trade,the way of the development of border region,the support of openness of western area,and the component of opening economic system as well. Although China’s border trade has followed a complicated course since the establishment of PRC,it has been increasingly important and open. Border trade is not only a matter of foreign trade and economic cooperation,but also an important regional economic issue. In particular,along with the construction of interconnected infrastructure system of China and neighboring countries,and the development of silk road economic belt,Bangladesh,China,India and Burma economic corridor,China’s border trade will enter upon a new stage.%边境贸易是我国对外贸易的重要组成部分,边境贸易发展是沿边地区兴边富民的重要途径,是西部地区扩大开放的重要依托,是我国构建开放型经济新体制的重要内容。新中国成立后,我国边境贸易的发展经历了曲折的过程,总的趋向是开放度日益提高、重要性日益增强。边境贸易不仅是对外经贸合作的问题,更是区域经济发展的重要问题,特别是随着我国与邻国互联互通基础设施的建设和丝绸之路经济带、孟中印缅经济走廊的建设等,边境贸易和边境地区的发展将进入一个新阶段。

  8. 历史的记忆与悲壮的叙述——论中国远征军的文学书写%Historical Memory and Solemn and Stirring Narrative——the Literary Writing on Chinese Expeditionary Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李直飞

    2012-01-01

    It has important significance to review the literary writing on Chinese Expeditionary Army for seeking a new breakthrough in writing in the coming of 70th anniversary Chinese Expeditionary Army into the Burma to against Japan.The literary writing on Chinese Expeditionary Army started very early as war broke out.It went into depth from field reports,on-the-spot literary works to MuDan's Forest Charm—Offering Hu Gentle on Bone.Writers' historical reduction and individual narrative made this period of history won the new literary significance when restarting the writing in the 1980s.Chinese Expeditionary Army as a thick literature writing resources has huge mining space in breadth and depth.%在中国远征军入缅作战70周年到来之际,梳理对中国远征军的文学书写以寻求新的写作突破,无疑具有重要意义。对中国远征军的文学书写伴随着远征军入缅作战就开始了,从最早出现的各种战地报道、纪实性文学作品到穆旦《森林之魅——祭胡康河上的白骨》的出现,中国远征军的文学书写在不断地走向深入。这一书写过程在20世纪80年代重新开启之后,作家们在历史还原和个体叙事两个维度之间深入展开,使这一段历史获得了新的文学意义。中国远征军作为一份厚实的文学书写资源,无论是在广度和深度上,都还有着巨大的挖掘空间。

  9. Linking geological evidence from the Eurasian suture zones to a regional Indian Ocean plate tectonic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, A.; Aitchison, J.; Müller, R.; Whittaker, J.

    2012-12-01

    (near Burma) causing anticlockwise rotation/retreat of the margin until collision between the main portion of Greater India and central Eurasian margin took place ~36 Ma. This relatively young collision between India and Eurasia is supported by subduction-related magmatism, which continued into the Late Eocene. The Upper Eocene Pengqu Formation also suggests that marine conditions prevailed south of the suture zone until that time, while the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene Gangrinboche conglomerates mark the initial mixing and deposition of both Eurasian and Indian-sourced sediments.

  10. 23个广西本地芒果品种的ISSR分析%Genetic Analysis of 23 Mango Cultivar Collection in Guangxi Province Revealed by ISSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新华; 李杨瑞; 郭永泽; 唐志鹏; 李容柏

    2005-01-01

    本研究对23个分别来自广西本地品种或广西选育的品种进行了SSR分析,并用15个芒果栽培品种印度(4个品种)、美国(3个品种)、缅甸(3个品种)、泰国(2个品种)及菲律宾、巴基斯坦和斯里兰卡(各1个品种)和2个芒果近源种冬芒(1个)和扁桃(1个)作为参照.从42个ISSR引物中筛选出9个多态性好的引物构建DNA指纹图谱来鉴别芒果的基因型.根据这9个引物获得的电泳图谱结果表明,本研究中所有供试品种能互相区分开来并表现出丰富的遗传多样性,说明ISSR是一种鉴定芒果品种(系)非常有效的方法.用74条多态性条带聚类分析作图发现所有供试的广西品种与秋芒、马切苏芒、象牙芒和爱文芒归为一个大类,而且广西本地芒果品种之间的亲缘关系较近.%Twenty-three mango cultivars (Mangifera indica Linn) collecting in Guangxi province were examined by ISSR markers and two species relatives M. himalis J.Y. Liang and M. persiciformis Wu & Ming, other 15mango cultivars from India (4), USA (3), Burma (3), Thailand (2), Philippines (1), Pakistan (1) and Sir Lanka (1)used as references. Of the 42 primers screened, 9 primers gave reproducible, polymorphic DNA amplification patterns, and were selected to construct a DNA fingerprinting map to distinguish the genotypes of mango. According to the banding patternsobtained with 9 selected primers, all cultivars tested in this study were distinguished from each other and showed ample genetic diversity, indicating that ISSR-PCR was an effective method for cultivar identification of mangoes. Based on 74 selected bands, all Guangxi mango cultivars tested were clustered into a big group with Neelum, Macheso, Aroemwnis, and Irwin by UPGMA analysis, indicating that Guangxi mango cultivars had a close relationship each other.

  11. Study on leakage laws and ventilation scheme of natural gas pipeline in Yanyingshan tunnel%岩鹰山隧道内天然气管道泄漏规律及通风方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志豪; 黄坤; 张兴龙; 吕游; 刘玉展

    2016-01-01

    The classical fluid dynamics theory and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method were combined to study the most representative Yanyingshan tunnel of the Sino-Burma Oil&Gas Pipeline .The leakage of natural gas pipeline in Yany-ingshan tunnel was simulated by using Fluent software , and combined the simulation results by Fluent with the calculation re-sults of leakage source , a calculation model on time to fill the tunnel by leaking natural gas was put forward through theoreti -cal analysis and data fitting .The time model was checked and corrected through the simulation results of gas leakage and dif -fusion in the tunnel under different boundary conditions .The efficiency of single fan ventilation scheme during the accident of gas leakage in Yanyingshan tunnel was studied by using CFD method , and the optimization scheme of tunnel ventilation was obtained , which included the optimal air supply mode , layout horizontal position , layout height and layout spacing .The sug-gestions on fan model selection and tunnel portal design were proposed according to the calculation results of ventilation scheme .%采用经典流体力学理论,以及计算流体力学(CFD)等方法相结合,对中缅油气管线上具有代表性的岩鹰山隧道进行研究.用Fluent软件对岩鹰山隧道天然气管道泄漏进行仿真模拟,利用Fluent模拟结果与泄漏源计算结果相结合,经过理论分析与数据拟合,提出泄漏天然气充满隧道的时间计算模型,通过不同边界条件下隧道内天然气泄漏扩散规律的模拟结果对时间模型进行验算并修正.利用计算流体力学(CFD)方法,研究岩鹰山隧道在发生天然气泄漏事故后,单风机通风方案的效率,得出隧道通风优化方案,方案内容包括最佳送风方式、布设水平位置、布设高度、布设间距.根据通风方案计算结果对风机型号选取、以及隧道洞门设计提出了建议.

  12. Tectonics of the Qinling (Central China): Tectonostratigraphy, geochronology, and deformation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschbacher, L.; Hacker, B.R.; Calvert, A.; Webb, L.E.; Grimmer, J.C.; McWilliams, M.O.; Ireland, T.; Dong, S.; Hu, Jiawen

    2003-01-01

    The Qinling orogen preserves a record of late mid-Proterozoic to Cenozoic tectonism in central China. High-pressure metamorphism and ophiolite emplacement (Songshugou ophiolite) assembled the Yangtze craton, including the lower Qinling unit, into Rodinia during the ???1.0 Ga Grenvillian orogeny. The lower Qinling unit then rifted from the Yangtze craton at ???0.7 Ga. Subsequent intra-oceanic arc formation at ???470-490 Ma was followed by accretion of the lower Qinling unit first to the intra-oceanic arc and then to the Sino-Korea craton. Subduction then imprinted a ???400 Ma Andean-type magmatic arc onto all units north of the northern Liuling unit. Oblique subduction created Silurian-Devonian WNW-trending, sinistral transpressive wrench zones (e.g., Lo-Nan, Shang-Dan), and Late Permian-Early Triassic subduction reactivated them in dextral transpression (Lo-Nan, Shang-Xiang, Shang-Dan) and subducted the northern edge of the Yangtze craton. Exhumation of the cratonal edge formed the Wudang metamorphic core complex during dominantly pure shear crustal extension at ???230-235 Ma. Post-collisional south-directed shortening continued through the Early Jurassic. Cretaceous reactivation of the Qinling orogen started with NW-SE sinistral transtension, coeval with large-scale Early Cretaceous crustal extension and sinistral transtension in the northern Dabie Shan; it presumably resulted from the combined effects of the Siberia-Mongolia-Sino-Korean and Lhasa-West Burma-Qiangtang-Indochina collisions and Pacific subduction. Regional dextral wrenching was active within a NE-SW extensional regime between ???60 and 100 Ma. An Early Cretaceous Andean-type continental magmatic arc, with widespread Early Cretaceous magmatism and back-arc extension, was overprinted by shortening related to the collision of Yangtze-Indochina Block with the West Philippines Block. Strike-slip and normal faults associated with Eocene half-graben basins record Paleogene NNE-SSW contraction and WNW

  13. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jänisch Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of ongoing local malaria transmission, identified though local surveillance and reported to regional WHO offices, by S-E Asian countries, forms the basis of national and international chemoprophylaxis recommendations in western countries. The study was designed to examine whether the strategy of using malaria transmission in a local population was an accurate estimate of the malaria threat faced by travellers and a correlate of malaria in returning travellers. Methods Malaria endemicity was described from distribution and intensity in the local populations of ten S-E Asian destination countries over the period 2003-2008 from regionally reported cases to WHO offices. Travel acquired malaria was collated from malaria surveillance reports from the USA and 12 European countries over the same period. The numbers of travellers visiting the destination countries was based on immigration and tourism statistics collected on entry of tourists to the destination countries. Results In the destination countries, mean malaria rates in endemic countries ranged between 0.01 in Korea to 4:1000 population per year in Lao PDR, with higher regional rates in a number of countries. Malaria cases imported into the 13 countries declined by 47% from 140 cases in 2003 to 66 in 2008. A total of 608 cases (27.3% Plasmodium falciparum (Pf were reported over the six years, the largest number acquired in Indonesia, Thailand and Korea. Four countries had an incidence > 1 case per 100,000 traveller visits; Burma (Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia and Laos (range 1 to 11.8-case per 100,000 visits. The remaining six countries rates were Conclusion The intensity of malaria transmission particularly sub-national activity did not correlate with the risk of travellers acquiring malaria in the large numbers of arriving visitors. It is proposed to use a threshold incidence of > 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis

  14. Drug abuse in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  15. The greater black krait (Bungarus niger), a newly recognized cause of neuro-myotoxic snake bite envenoming in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Abul; Ghose, Aniruddha; Ahsan, Farid; Rahman, Ridwanur; Amin, Robed; Hassan, Mahtab Uddin; Chowdhury, A Wahed; Kuch, Ulrich; Rocha, Thalita; Harris, John B; Theakston, R David G; Warrell, David A

    2010-11-01

    Prospective studies of snake bite patients in Chittagong, Bangladesh, included five cases of bites by greater black kraits (Bungarus niger), proven by examination of the snakes that had been responsible. This species was previously known only from India, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma. The index case presented with descending flaccid paralysis typical of neurotoxic envenoming by all Bungarus species, but later developed generalized rhabdomyolysis (peak serum creatine kinase concentration 29,960 units/l) with myoglobinuria and acute renal failure from which he succumbed. Among the other four patients, one died of respiratory paralysis in a peripheral hospital and three recovered after developing paralysis, requiring mechanical ventilation in one patient. One patient suffered severe generalized myalgia and odynophagia associated with a modest increase in serum creatine kinase concentration. These are the first cases of Bungarus niger envenoming to be reported from any country. Generalized rhabdomyolysis has not been previously recognized as a feature of envenoming by any terrestrial Asian elapid snake, but a review of the literature suggests that venoms of some populations of Bungarus candidus and Bungarus multicinctus in Thailand and Vietnam may also have this effect in human victims. To investigate this unexpected property of Bungarus niger venom, venom from the snake responsible for one of the human cases of neuro-myotoxic envenoming was injected into one hind limb of rats and saline into the other under buprenorphine analgesia. All animals developed paralysis of the venom-injected limb within two hours. Twenty-four hours later, the soleus muscles were compared histopathologically and cytochemically. Results indicated a predominantly pre-synaptic action (β-bungarotoxins) of Bungarus niger venom at neuromuscular junctions, causing loss of synaptophysin and the degeneration of the terminal components of the motor innervation of rat skeletal muscle. There was oedema and

  16. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  17. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of South East Asia: history of exploration, taxon richness and notes on zoogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai M. Korovchinsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of Cladocera studies in South-East Asia is reviewed, beginning from the early start of explorations in the end of the 19th century by J. Richard and T. Stingelin. In the first half of the 20th century, extensive research was carried out by V. Brehm, who investigated material collected by the Wallacea-Expedition and the Deutschen Limnologischen Sunda-Expedition. Later, in the 1970-1980s, C.H. Fernando and collaborators, besides a few other researchers, provided a new series of regional studies of the cladoceran faunas together with the systematic revisions of some taxa from tropical Asia. Then and up to present, investigations of the Cladocera have concentrated in Thailand and many species have been revised and described as new to science. In total, 298 taxa of species rank have been recorded in SE Asia but only comparatively few of them (67 taxa; 22.5% can be regarded good species, of which the valid status has been confirmed by recent studies, while others are synonyms (68; 22.8% or taxa of uncertain taxonomic status, including those which definitely represent complexes of species (163; 54.7%. Most total taxa of species level and good species are known from Thailand (155 and 54, respectively, followed by Malaysia (plus Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia in this respect (70-119 total taxa and 23-33 good species respectively. Laos, Burma (Myanmar and Brunei remain practically unexplored. Only good species were used for the zoogeographic analysis. Of them, about a quarter is known only in SE Asia but more species are distributed in tropical/subtropical/temperate Asia and Australia, others in tropics/subtropics of the eastern hemisphere (17.9% or even wider. Tropical species, constituting the primary part of the cladoceran fauna of SE Asia, can penetrate the neighboring subtropical and southern temperate zones to a different degree. Only a small fraction of species (7 or 10.5% here are of more or less northern

  18. Pn anisotropic tomography and mantle dynamics beneath China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhigang; Lei, Jianshe

    2016-08-01

    We present a new high-resolution Pn anisotropic tomographic model of the uppermost mantle beneath China inferred from 52,061 Pn arrival-time data manually picked from seismograms recorded at provincial seismic stations in China and temporary stations in Tibet and the Tienshan orogenic belt. Significant features well correlated with surface geology are revealed and provide new insights into the deep dynamics beneath China. Prominent high Pn velocities are visible under the stable cratonic blocks (e.g., the Tarim, Junngar, and Sichuan basins, and the Ordos block), whereas remarkable low Pn velocities are observed in the tectonically active areas (e.g., Pamir, the Tienshan orogenic belt, central Tibet and the Qilian fold belt). A distinct N-S trending low Pn velocity zone around 86°E is revealed under the rift running from the Himalayan block through the Lhasa block to the Qiangtang block, which indicates the hot material upwelling due to the breaking-off of the subducting Indian slab. Two N-S trending low Pn velocity belts with an approximate N-S Pn fast direction along the faults around the Chuan-Dian diamond block suggest that these faults may serve as channels of mantle flow from Tibet. The fast Pn direction changes from N-S in the north across 27°N to E-W in the south, which may reflect different types of mantle deformation. The anisotropy in the south could be caused by the asthenospheric flow resulted from the eastward subduction of the Indian plate down to the mantle transition zone beneath the Burma arc. Across the Talas-Fergana fault in the Tienshan orogenic belt, an obvious difference in velocity and anisotropy is revealed. To the west, high Pn velocities and an arc-shaped fast Pn direction are observed, implying the Indo-Asian collision, whereas to the east low Pn velocities and a range-parallel Pn fast direction are imaged, reflecting the northward underthrusting of the Tarim lithosphere and the southward underthrusting of the Kazakh lithosphere. In

  19. Introduction to Biological Characteristics of Tree Shrew%树鼩的生物学特性研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏傲蕾; 秦银鸽; 郑禹; 陈群; 运晨霞; 黄正团; 冷静

    2014-01-01

    树鼩是东南亚特有的小型哺乳动物,主要分布在热带和亚热带地区,如东南亚的印度恒河北部、缅甸和菲律宾,以及我国云南、广西和海南等地。它在生物学特征、新陈代谢、生理生化和基因组等方面与人类近似,被认为是有望代替灵长类动物的新型实验动物。它在生物医学研究中的价值日益受到研究者关注,将其作为实验动物的试验需求越来越多。论文对树鼩的生物学研究进展及现状进行综述,内容涉及其分类与系统发生、生活习性、饲养与繁殖、解剖和组织形态、生理生化及遗传等方面,并指出我国树鼩目前研究存在的一些问题,对推动我国实验动物种质资源的整理与整合研究具有积极的意义。%Tree shrews are the peculiar small mammals of the Southeast Asia,it mainly distributes in torrid zone and subtropical zone such as North of the Ganges River of India,Burma,Philippines,and Yunnan province,Guangxi District of China as well.It is similar to human beings in many aspects such as biological characteristics,biochemis-try,metabolism,physiology and biochemistry,genome,and etc.,which has been proposed as an alternative experi-mental animal to primates.Its value in biomedical research has drew attention to researchers.This article summa-rized the biology research progress and status of tree shrews,including its classification,phylogeny,living habit,rai-sing and breeding,anatomy,histomorphology,physiology,biochemistry and genetics etc.It also pointed out the present problems existing in the research of tree shrews,thus it will be of great importance of the consolidation and integration in the national laboratory animal germplasm resources.

  20. 欧美学者对东南亚苗族研究概况(上)%Summary of Researches on the Hmong Miao in Southeast Asia Done by Western Scholars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳日碧力戈; 贾鹰雷[英

    2014-01-01

    Previous anthropological research on Miao/Hmong by Chinese scholars has mainly been limited to the groups within China .However , the importance of Miao/Hmong's transnational and emigrational nature has recently drawn the attention of certain scholars to the large population of Hmong in the Southeast Asian countries :Laos, Viet-nam,Thailand and Myanmar /Burma.Although Chinese scholars have increasing opportunities to continue research in this field, there is already a large body of work related to this population , mainly the work of western anthropologists , missionaries and scholars , who have been working on this field for over a century .This article takes these works as a basis , and traces the history of western scholarship on the Hmong in Southeast Asia , from the nineteenth century to the present .Following and examining the trends of academic fields , this article provides an introduction to the history and progression of Hmong research in Southeast Asia for Chinese scholars to use as a basis for future research .%以往中国学术界主要研究国内苗族。近些年来,跨国苗族群体研究进入国内学者的视野,苗族的跨国文化和跨国分布也是国际学者关注的热点。国内学者关注包括老挝、越南、泰国和缅甸等东南亚国家的苗族群体,希望能够推动有关研究。西方学者从事东南亚苗族研究已经有一百多年的历史,来自欧美的人类学、民族学研究者和传教士留下了大量有关东南亚苗族的研究著述。文章追溯自十九世纪以来本领域研究的历史与发展,尝试对有关东南亚苗族的文献进行理论梳理,加以总结,为国内外苗族研究提供借鉴。

  1. 欧美学者对东南亚苗族研究概况(下)%Summary of Researches on the Hmong Miao in Southeast Asia Done by Western Scholars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳日碧力戈; 贾鹰雷〔英〕

    2014-01-01

    以往中国学术界主要研究国内苗族。近些年来,跨国苗族群体研究进入国内学者的视野,苗族的跨国文化和跨国分布也是国际学者关注的热点。国内学者关注包括老挝、越南、泰国和缅甸等东南亚国家的苗族群体,希望能够推动有关研究。西方学者从事东南亚苗族研究已经有一百多年的历史,来自欧美的人类学、民族学研究者和传教士留下了大量有关东南亚苗族的研究著述。文章追溯自十九世纪以来本领域研究的历史与发展,尝试对有关东南亚苗族的文献进行理论梳理,加以总结,为国内外苗族研究提供借鉴。%Previous anthropological research on Miao/Hmong by Chinese scholars has mainly been limited to the groups within China .However , the importance of Miao/Hmong's transnational and emigrational nature has recently drawn the attention of certain scholars to the large population of Hmong in the Southeast Asian countries :Laos, Viet-nam, Thailand and Myanmar/Burma.Although Chinese scholars have increasing opportunities to continue research in this field, there is already a large body of work related to this population , mainly the work of western anthropologists , missionaries and scholars , who have been working on this field for over a century .This article takes these works as a basis , and traces the history of western scholarship on the Hmong in Southeast Asia , from the nineteenth century to the present .Following and examining the trends of academic fields , this article provides an introduction to the history and progression of Hmong research in Southeast Asia for Chinese scholars to use as a basis for future research .

  2. InSAR measurements for the 2014 Mw 6.0 Jinggu, Yunnan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun; Feng, Wanpeng; Sergey, Samsonov; Mahdi, Motagh; Li, Zhenhong; Clarke, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An earthquake occurred in the southwest of Yunnan, China on 7 October 2014 at 21:49 local time, measured as Mw 6.0 by the United States Geological Survey and Mw 6.1 by the European Alert System. Strong earthquakes are common in this region because of the continental collision between the India and Eurasia plates with a relative convergence rate of 40-50 mm/yr. A detailed study of this earthquake will therefore allow better understanding of regional fault properties. For the first time, Radarsat-2 (RS2) data was employed to investigate co-seismic surface movements of this event. Two ascending RS2 images acquired on 2 October 2014 and 19 November 2014 were used to generate an interferogram, revealing line-of-sight (LOS) displacements with a maximum value of 0.13 m (towards the satellite) in the NW sector. We use PSOKINV to determine fault geometric parameters and slip distribution. First, fault parameters are determined using improved particle swarm optimization. Second, slip distribution over the fault plane is retrieved using an iterative strategy for estimating optimal dip angle and smoothing factors [Feng et al., 2013]. The comparison between the modelled LOS changes and the measured ones shows a good fit, with residuals smaller than 0.02 m. The best-fitting model suggests that the rupture occurred on a left-lateral strike-slip fault with a strike of 323°. The total released moment is equivalent to Mw 6.1 and the main slip zone is confined between depths of 2-8 km. A maximum slip of 1.1 m appears at a depth of 4.3 km, with a rupture length of about 10km. Reference: Feng, W., Z. Li, J. R. Elliott, Y. Fukushima, T. Hoey, A. Singleton, R. Cook, and Z. Xu (2013), The 2011 MW 6.8 Burma earthquake: fault constraints provided by multiple SAR techniques, Geophysical Journal International, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt254.

  3. Estimating the global clinical burden of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon I Hay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of malaria makes surveillance-based methods of estimating its disease burden problematic. Cartographic approaches have provided alternative malaria burden estimates, but there remains widespread misunderstanding about their derivation and fidelity. The aims of this study are to present a new cartographic technique and its application for deriving global clinical burden estimates of Plasmodium falciparum malaria for 2007, and to compare these estimates and their likely precision with those derived under existing surveillance-based approaches. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In seven of the 87 countries endemic for P. falciparum malaria, the health reporting infrastructure was deemed sufficiently rigorous for case reports to be used verbatim. In the remaining countries, the mapped extent of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria transmission was first determined. Estimates of the plausible incidence range of clinical cases were then calculated within the spatial limits of unstable transmission. A modelled relationship between clinical incidence and prevalence was used, together with new maps of P. falciparum malaria endemicity, to estimate incidence in areas of stable transmission, and geostatistical joint simulation was used to quantify uncertainty in these estimates at national, regional, and global scales. Combining these estimates for all areas of transmission risk resulted in 451 million (95% credible interval 349-552 million clinical cases of P. falciparum malaria in 2007. Almost all of this burden of morbidity occurred in areas of stable transmission. More than half of all estimated P. falciparum clinical cases and associated uncertainty occurred in India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, and Myanmar (Burma, where 1.405 billion people are at risk. Recent surveillance-based methods of burden estimation were then reviewed and discrepancies in national estimates explored. When these cartographically

  4. Are there any changes in burden and management of communicable diseases in areas affected by Cyclone Nargis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Pichit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the situation of communicable diseases under national surveillance in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas in Myanmar (Burma before and after the incident. Methods Monthly data during 2007, 2008 and 2009 from the routine reporting system for disease surveillance of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH were reviewed and compared with weekly reporting from the Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR system. Data from some UN agencies, NGOs and Tri-Partite Core Group (TCG periodic reviews were also extracted for comparisons with indicators from Sphere and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Results Compared to 2007 and 2009, large and atypical increases in diarrheal disease and especially dysentery cases occurred in 2008 following Cyclone Nargis. A seasonal increase in ARI reached levels higher than usual in the months of 2008 post-Nargis. The number of malaria cases post-Nargis also increased, but it was less clear if this reflected normal seasonal patterns or was specifically associated with the disaster event. There was no significant change in the occurrence of other communicable diseases in Nargis-affected areas. Except for a small decrease in mortality for diarrheal diseases and ARI in 2008 in Nargis-affected areas, population-based mortality rates for all other communicable diseases showed no significant change in 2008 in these areas, compared to 2007 and 2009. Tuberculosis control programs reached their targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates in 2007 and 2008. Vaccination coverage rates for DPT 3rd dose and measles remained at high though measles coverage still did not reach the Sphere target of 95% even by 2009. Sanitary latrine coverage in the Nargis-affected area dropped sharply to 50% in the months of 2008 following the incident but then rose to 72% in 2009. Conclusion While the incidence of diarrhea, dysentery and ARI increased post-Nargis in areas affected by the

  5. “The First Buddhist Priest on the Baltic Coast”: Karlis Tennison and the Introduction of Buddhism in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mait Talts

    2008-04-01

    did not publish his texts as separate books, although during the last period of his life, in the 1950s and early 1960s while living in Burma, he is known to have been writing his so-called Buddhist Catechism, which remained unfinished.

  6. The Hot Cities and Their Space Transfer State of ASEAN Tourism Flow to Guangxi——Empirical Research on ASEAN(Seven Countries)and 14 Major Cities of Guangxi%东盟旅桂热点城市及其空间转移态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程成

    2013-01-01

    东盟7国旅桂客流共同叠加表现为南宁、桂林、防城港、贺州、崇左吸引了较多东盟国家游客的到来,是其流向的热点城市.目前,桂林是印度尼西亚、马来西亚、菲律宾、新加坡、泰国旅桂客流的最大集聚地,占据着第一热点城市的位置.崇左是越南旅桂客流的最大集聚地,居于第二热点城市的位置;南宁是缅甸旅桂客流的最大集聚地,又是印度尼西亚、菲律宾、新加坡、泰国旅桂客流的第二大集聚地;防城港是越南旅桂客流的第二大集聚地;贺州是马来西亚旅桂客流的第二大集聚地.桂林→南宁的流动强度最大,居于首位,崇左→南宁的流动强度居于第二,南宁→防城港的流动强度居于第三,南宁→崇左的流动强度居于第四,南宁→桂林的流动强度居于第五,这5条单向旅游客流表现为强转移态.桂林→贺州的流动强度居于第六,防城港→南宁的流动强度居于第七,这2条单向旅游客流表现为较强转移态.贺州→桂林的单向流动以及桂林(←→)崇左的双向流动强度都不大,均表现为弱转移态.%The stack performance ofASEAN 7 countries (Burma,Indonesia,Malaysia,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand,Vietnam) tourism flow to Guangxi is Nanning,Guilin,Fangchenggang,Hezhou,Chongzuo attract more ASEAN tourists.At present,Guilin is the biggest gathering place of Indonesia,Malaysia,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand tourism flow to Guangxi and occupies the fust.Chongzuo is the biggest gathering place of Vietnam tourism flow to Guangxi and row in the second.It makes up this situation that is too concentrated in Guilin.Nanning is the biggest gathering place of Burma tourism flow to Guangxi and the second gathering place of Indonesia,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand tourism flow to Guangxi,and row in the third.Fangchenggang is the second gathering place of Vietnam tourism flow to Guangxi and row in the fourth.Hezhou is the second gathering

  7. Lacquer Seed Oil and the Food Culture of the Lisu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhiying; Sha Lina

    2015-01-01

    Because they practice a ritual of“climbing a mountain of swords and plunging into a sea of flames”,the Lisu are referred to as an eth-nic group who“climb up a mountain of swords and plunge into a sea of flames” by the outside world. However,if seen from their dietary characteristics, it would also be true to call them“an ethnic group who eats lacquer seed oil”. Lacquer seed oil is also referred to as “lacquer tree fat”. It is a kind of pure and natural plant oil which is always found in the Lisu’s diet. In the Lisu language,it is called as“zhiche”. For a long time, lacquer seed oil has been the primary cooking oil for the Lisu,who live next to the Langcang and Jinsha Rivers,as well as for their neighboring ethnic groups, such as the Nu,and the Dulong. Even though nowadays their communication with the outside world has in-creased,and the kinds of cooking oil have also di-versified, the Lisu who live in the “Three Parallel Rivers Area” still favor using lacquer seed oil,and it cannot be absent from their daily diet or during festival celebrations. Even those Lisu people who have migrated to Mytchina in northern Burma, where their daily production and living conditions have undergone great changes when compared with those in their ancestral land,they still have a spe-cial preference for lacquer seed oil. They regard lacquer seed oil given to them by their relatives from Nujiang as one of the best gifts. It could be said that the dietary culture developed from lacquer seed oil has become an important traditional cultur-al trait of the Lisu, and also an important cultural symbol for the Lisu. 1 . Lacquer Seed Oil and the Lisu The Lisu is a transnational ethnic group. The Lisu in China are scattered in “the three rivers”area( Nu River, Jinsha River and Langchang Riv-er) . The majority of Lisu live in Nujiang Lisu Au-tonomous Prefecture. The second largest concentra-tion of Lisu is in Weixi county of Diqing prefec-ture;As for foreign

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Bryant

    1999-04-01

    Analyse der Yupno in Papua New Guinea. Berlin: Reimer, 1993, xiii + 246 pp. - Nico Kaptein, Masykuri Abdillah, Responses of Indonesian Muslim intellectuals to the concept of democracy (1966-1993. Hamburg: Abera, 1997, iv + 304 pp. - Niels Mulder, Ivan A. Hadar, Bildung in Indonesia; Krise und kontinuitat; Das Beispiel Pesantren. Frankfurt: IKO-Verlag fur Interkulturelle Kommunikation, 1999, 207 pp. - Niels Mulder, Jim Schiller, Imagining Indonesia: Cultural politics and political culture. Athens: Ohio University, 1997, xxiii + 351 pp. [Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 97.], Barbara Martin-Schiller (eds. - J.W. Nibbering, Raymond L. Bryant, The political ecology of forestry in Burma 1824-1994. London: Hurst, 1997, xiii + 257 pp. - Hetty Nooy-Palm, Douglas W. Hollan, Contentment and suffering; Culture and experience in Toraja. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994, xiii + 276 pp., Jane C. Wellenkamp (eds. - Anton Ploeg, Bill Gammage, The sky travellers; Journeys in New Guinea, 1938-1939. Carlton South, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1998. x + 292 pp. - Anton Ploeg, Jurg Wassmann, Pacific answers to Western hegemony; Cultural practices of identity construction. Oxford: Berg, 1998, vii + 449 pp. - John Villiers, Abdul Kohar Rony, Bibliography; The Portugese in Southeast Asia: Malacca, Moluccas, East Timor. Hamburg: Abera Verlag, 1997, 138 pp. [Abera Bibliographies 1.], Ieda Siqueira Wiarda (eds. - Lourens de Vries, Ulrike Mosel, Saliba. Munchen/Newcastle: Lincom Europa, 1994, 48 pp. [Languages of the World/Materials 31.

  9. Deepwater fold and thrust belt classification, tectonics, structure and hydrocarbon prospectivity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C. K.; King, R.; Hillis, R.; Tingay, M.; Backe, G.

    2011-01-01

    and Type 2 systems is reservoir rock. High quality, continent-derived, quartz-rich sandstones are generally prevalent in Type 1 systems. More diagenetically reactive minerals derived from igneous and ophiolitic sources are commonly present in Type 2 systems, or many are simply poor in well-developed turbidite sandstone units. However, some Type 2 systems, particularly those adjacent to active orogenic belts are partially sourced by high quality continent-derived sandstones (e.g. NW Borneo, S. Caspian Sea, Columbus Basin). In some cases very high rates of deposition in accretionary prisms adjacent to orogenic belts, coupled with uplift due to collision, results in accretionary prism related fold belts that pass laterally from sub-aerial to deepwater conditions (e.g. S. Caspian Sea, Indo-Burma Ranges). The six major hydrocarbon producing regions of DWFTBs worldwide (Gulf of Mexico, Niger Delta, NW Borneo, Brazil, West Africa, S. Caspian Sea) stand out as differing from most other DWFTBs in certain fundamental ways, particularly the very large volume of sediment deposited in the basins, and/or the great thickness and extent of salt or overpressured shale sdetachments.

  10. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  11. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts

  12. Engineering Geology Characteristic of the Carbonaceous Siltstone in Mangbang Basin, West of Yunnan Province%滇西芒棒盆地芒棒组碳质粉砂岩的工程地质特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭长宝; 李海华; 陈溪华; 和勇; 歹家文; 张能

    2012-01-01

    Mangbang basin is a SN directed fault depression basin which was shaped when Gaoligong Mountains intensely upheaved at the end of Himalayan movement in Pliocene period, where carbonaceous siltstone of Mangbang group, a kind of soft half-diagenesis rock, is well distributed. The Baoshan-Tengchong high way section of Burma Road will pass through this basin. Field geology survey indicates that this kind of carbonaceous siltstone is characterized by weak diagenesis, easy disintegration and strong structural strength, which can cause the engineering geological problems of slope failure and roof fall of surrounding rock in tunnel. Laboratory test results show a high natural water content, high porosity, low expansibility and high organic content of it. Due to organic cementation, striking difference can be obtained in the engineering properties of natural rock and dry rock after immersion in water, which indicates the enhancement in water stability and reduction in swelling potential of dried rock. Based on typical project example, in-situ shearing test was conducted on the carbonaceous siltstone, and the results indicate that it has the characteristics of high shear strength and little difference between peak and residual strength, which is one of the main factors for the development of large unstable slope body and creeping landslide in this kind of rock stratum.%滇西芒棒盆地是在上新世喜山运动后期高黎贡山强烈隆升过程中形成的近SN向的断陷盆地,在盆地内发育芒棒组碳质粉砂岩等半成岩,规划建设中的中缅公路保山—腾冲高速公路段从该套地层中通过.野外调查发现:该套碳质粉砂岩具有成岩差、易崩解、结构性强等特性,容易引发边坡失稳、隧洞围岩冒顶等工程地质问题.室内试验测试表明:该类岩石具有天然含水量高、孔隙度大、低膨胀性和有机质含量高等特点.由于有机质的胶结作用,天然岩体和干燥岩块浸水后的性状

  13. Epidemiological characteristics of indigeous and imported malaria in China, 2005-2013%2005-2013年全国本地感染与境外输入疟疾流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚丽; 王煊; 张彦平

    2015-01-01

    indigenous and imported cases were farmers. The imported cases were mainly acquired from Africa and Asia. Most of Plasmodium spp. of malaria was acquired in Burma, but imported cases from African countries such as Nigeria, Angola, Ghana, and Equatorial Guinea increased year by year since 2008. Conclusion From 2005 to 2013 in China, there was a consistent increase in the number of malaria cases imported from other countries while the number of locally acquired cases sharply declined. The imported malaria has been an important infectious source. Preventive efforts should be focused on workers that return from overseas, and the surveillance and response system should be strengthened to further reduce malaria incidence in China.

  14. Development Progress of China Domestic High-deformability Line Pipe%我国抗大变形管线管的研制进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 罗超; 陈小伟; 李国鹏; 张雷; 卢胜勇

    2013-01-01

    In this article,it introduced strain based design,demand for high-deformability pipeline,the principle of material design and the development progress of China domestic high-deformability welded pipe.Adopting ferrite+bainite dual-phase structure to develop and mass produce X70 high-deformability welded pipe for China-Burma pipeline.It studied the performance requirements and the main properties change rule from steel plate to steel pipe before and after pipe manufacturing,as well as before and after aging,the developed welded pipes are with excellent properties.Based on this,it developed X80 high-deformability welded pipe used for the Third West to East Gas Pipeline Project,analyzed the problems and main difficulties occurred in development of X80 high-deformability material,that is the contradiction between hard phase increase caused by strength increase and adverse effect on uniform elongation of hard phase increase,and the process window was too narrow.Through experiments it determined the proportion demands of dual-phase structure,and utilizing effective measures to develop materials with excellent performance.All properties of thousand tons trial-manufacture steel pipes achieved the requirements of X80 high-deformability welded pipe in the Third West to East Gas Pipeline,which realized the development breakthrough in X80 thick-wall high-deformability welded pipe.%介绍了基于应变设计抗大变形管道的要求、材料设计原理以及我国抗大变形焊管研制的进展情况.采用铁素体+贝氏体双相组织思路研制开发并批量生产了中缅管线X70抗大变形焊管,对板材的组织性能要求及制管前后、时效前后的板-管主要性能变化规律进行了研究,研制的焊管具有优良的性能.在此基础上针对西气东输三线管道进行了X80抗大变形焊管的开发,分析了X80抗大变形材料研制中存在的问题及主要难点,即强度升高对双相组织中硬相比例增加的要求与硬相

  15. Research on Dynamic Stress Triggering at Chinese North-South Seismic Belt in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic stress triggering refers to the influence induced by one earthquake to the nearby and remote seismic activity, including static stress triggering and dynamic stress triggering. Scientists have studied static stress triggering for a long time and have got lots of achievement. However, the researches of dynamic stress triggering were scarce. The time we actually researched on seismic dynamic stress triggering was after the Landers earthquake in 1992, USA. Due to the superiority of dynamic stress triggering in explaining remote triggering, it has been developing rapidly in recent years. China locates between the Pacific Ocean seismic zone and the Asia-Europe seismic zone, so Chinese mainland and its periphery has more strong shocks. Although Chinese seismologists study seismic dynamic stress triggering later, it is necessary to study seismic dynamic stress triggering in China. In order to explore Chinese seismic dynamic stress triggering, we take Chinese North-South seismic belt as an example in this article. With the method of calculating seismic dynamic stress, we researched the triggered situation of some strong earthquakes in Chinese North-South seismic belt: calculate stress tensor and coulomb stress in triggered area, including M8.0 earthquake of 2000 in Sumatra triggered M5.8 earthquake of Jingtai in Gansu and M6.5 earthquake of Burma, M7.9 earthquake of 2003 in border of China, Russia and Mongolia triggered M6.1 earthquake of Minle-Shandan and M5.2 earthquake of Minxian in Gansu, M8.7 earthquake of 2004 in Sumatra triggered M5.1 earthquake of Shuangbai and M5.1 earthquake of Simao in Yunnan. The results show that the dynamic stress peak value on triggered fault produced by several strong shocks all exceeds to triggering threshold value. All in all, the earthquake activity is triggered easily in the North-South seismic belt, but the earthquakes in different area have different triggering effect in the North-South seismic belt, probably influenced by the

  16. Partial nucleotide sequencing of hepatitis E viruses detected in sera of patients with hepatitis E from 14 cities in China%从中国14个城市戊型肝炎病人血清中检测到的戊型肝炎病毒部分核苷酸序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奎; 庄辉; 朱万孚

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the genotypes of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) detected in sera of patients from different regions of China. Methods The partial genome (nt6461-6860, nt5994-6294) of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of 45 HEV strains detected from 14 cities of China was amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing.Results Forty-one of 45 strains (91%) share the same genotype with HEV Burma strain (B), with nucleotide identities higher than 98% with the representative HEV Chinese strain. Only 4 HEV strains are significantly divergent from the 3 prototype strains of HEV, with nucleotide identities of 77%-80% with HEV Burmese/Chinese strain, 74%-76% with Mexican strain and 74%-77% with the newly discovered HEV US/swine strain, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these 4 strains may represent 2 different subtypes that belong to a novel genotype of HEV, which is significantly divergent from the prototype Mexico, Burmese and US/swine strains. Conclusion Among patients with hepatitis E in China, most are infected by the Chinese prototype HEV, and only a small part by the new genotype HEV.%目的调查从中国病人血清中分离的戊型肝炎病毒(HEV)基因型。方法 应用聚合酶链反应法(PCR)和直接测序法对从中国14个城市检测到的45株HEV开放读码框架2(ORF2)的部分基因序列(nt6461-6860及nt5994-6294)进行分析。结果 45株HEV中,41株(91%)与缅甸株属同一个基因型,与中国代表株HEV核苷酸序列的同源性均在98%以上。 仅4株与3个HEV原型株差异较大,与缅甸株/中国株同源性为77%-80%,与墨西哥株的同源性为74%-76%,与新发现的美国株/猪(US/Swine)HEV的同源性为74%-77%;基因进化树分析表明,该4株HEV可能为一新基因型的2个不同亚型,它们与原型墨西哥株、缅甸株和美国株/猪HEV明显不同。结论 中国戊型肝炎患者中,多数感染中国原型株HEV,仅少数感染新基因型HEV。

  17. The paleoposition of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  18. 重庆市万州区2015年登革热与蚊虫媒介监测结果分析%Analysis of the surveillance results of dengue and mosquito vectors in Wanzhou district of Chongqing in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 郑代坤; 陈春蓉; 王军

    2016-01-01

    capture the vectors of dengue fever, the Aedes mosquito bite index was zero. Conclusion The human population flow in this area is frequent, there are many migrant workers in Burma, Guangdong, Yunnan and the other places, this is a high possibility of imported case, but a low risk of local outbreaks of dengue fever, suggesting to strengthen the monitoring to prevent epidemic.

  19. 2005-2013年全国本地感染与境外输入疟疾流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological characteristics of indigeous and imported malaria in China, 2005-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚丽; 王煊; 张彦平

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of malaria in China between 2005 and 2013 and to provide scientific evidence for prevention and control. Methods Data on malaria cases in China from 2005 to 2013 were collected from the national information reporting system of infectious diseases. Data were input into Microsoft Excel 2010 and then imported into SPSS 18.0 to conduct the analysis. Results Of 210 220 malaria cases reported from 2005 to 2013, a total of 187 334 were indigeous, 17 990 were imported from other countries and 4896 had unknown infection sources. The imported cases showed an increasing trend since 2006 and it has become a major challenge for malaria elimination. Indigenous cases reached a peak during July⁃October and imported cases occurred mainly between May and June. Majority of indigenous and imported cases were farmers. The imported cases were mainly acquired from Africa and Asia. Most of Plasmodium spp. of malaria was acquired in Burma, but imported cases from African countries such as Nigeria, Angola, Ghana, and Equatorial Guinea increased year by year since 2008. Conclusion From 2005 to 2013 in China, there was a consistent increase in the number of malaria cases imported from other countries while the number of locally acquired cases sharply declined. The imported malaria has been an important infectious source. Preventive efforts should be focused on workers that return from overseas, and the surveillance and response system should be strengthened to further reduce malaria incidence in China.%目的:了解2005-2013年全国疟疾流行病学特征,为制定防控策略直至消除疟疾提供依据。方法收集2005-2013年中国疾病预防控制中心传染病信息报告管理系统所报告的疟疾病例,应用Excel 2010和SPSS 18.0软件对病例相关信息进行统计学分析。结果2005-2013年全国共报告疟疾210220例,其中本地感染187334例,境外输入17990

  20. 国境口岸输入性恶性疟的现状与预防控制%Imported falciparum malaria situation and its prevention and control at frontier ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 杨秀娟; 邹明强; 刘翌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the focus of its prevention and control on Chinese imported falciparum malaria. Methods All literatures on imported falciparum malaria in the last six years were searched and analyzed. Results The imported patients mostly returned from Africa and Southeast Asia. The countries of most infection of falciparum malaria were Nigeria, Angola, Guinea and Equatorial Guinea from Africa, and Burma from Southeast Asia. Falciparum malaria was easy to misdiagnosis, the patients often died of delayed treatment. Microscopic examinations as the laboratory confirmation of diagnosis need to be combined with those new technologies such as plasmodial antigen rapid test and PCR. Those who returned from the high plasmodium falciparum transmission areas had a high falciparum malaria incidence and a high recurrence rate. Dihydroartemisinin based treatments could improve effect and prevent transmission of the disease. Conclusion Focus of prevention and control of the imported falciparum malaria should be paid on its surveillance and management, its early diagnosis and prompt treatment, and capacity building of self protection of the international travelers.%目的 了解近年来我国境外输入性恶性疟疫情,探讨现阶段恶性疟预防与控制措施.方法 查阅了2006年以来所有详细报道我国国境口岸输入性恶性疟的文献,对有关感染地区、诊疗状况等相关资料进行分析.结果 输入性恶性疟最主要的感染地为非洲和东南亚地区,其中非洲地区的尼日利亚、安哥拉、几内亚、赤道几内亚,东南亚的缅甸是我国输入性恶性疟来源最多的国家.恶性疟易引起误诊,感染者常因未得到及时有效的抗疟治疗而死亡.疟疾病人的实验室诊断率有待提高,采用疟原虫抗原快速检测法和PCR法等疟疾诊断新技术作为镜检的补充,有助于提高疟疾诊断水平.赴非洲等恶性疟高发区的归国劳务人员,恶性疟发病率高、复燃比例

  1. Shape variation in mandibles of Parascaptor leucura (Mammalia, Talpidae) based on geometric morphometrics: implication for geographic diversification%白尾鼹(鼹科:哺乳纲)下颌骨几何形态测量分析及地理分化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锴; 白明; 万韬; 李权; 王应祥; 蒋学龙

    2013-01-01

    Parascaptor is a monotypic genus distributed across Asia,including Southwestern China,Assam (India),Bengal,and Northern Burma and Laos,all of which possess extremely complex and diverse topography,climate and habitat.To test whether morphological diversification has taken place in these different environments,we examined the mandibles of 49 P.leucura specimens from 18 localities throughout the distribution area.Geometric morphometric analyses were used to examine the shape variations.The specimens were clustered into three groups—Northeastern Yunnan (group 1),Southern Hengduan Mountain (group 2),and Indian groups (group 3) —congruent with their geographic distribution.We found important distinctions Among these different groups in the horizontal ramus shape such as the length of the lower molar row,the curvature of the ventral margin and the relative depth of the horizontal ramus.Among the three groups,the specimens from Northeastern Yunnan have the shortest molar row and the thinnest and most flattened horizontal ramus.Our results imply that the three geographic groups may represent three subspecies or even full species,strongly warranting a taxonomic revision using comprehensive methods.%白尾鼹属为东洋界单型属,主要分布于中国西南山地、印度阿萨姆地区、孟加拉国、缅甸北部和老挝等地.由于白尾鼹分布区范围内地形、气候和生境十分复杂,很可能导致物种的地理分化.为此我们查看了分布区之内18个地区的49号标本的下颌骨,并基于几何形态测量的方法进行分析比较.结果显示所有的标本按照地理分布可分为3组(滇东北、横断山南段以及印度).3组标本间的形态差异主要表现在水平枝上,其中下臼齿齿列的长度、下颌骨水平枝下缘的弯曲度以及水平枝中部高度差异最为明显,而上升枝对3个地理居群的区分能力较弱.其中滇东北标本的下颌骨最为平直,下臼齿列长度最短;而横断山居

  2. Tectonic History and Mantle Structure of the Sundaland and Indonesian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.; Spakman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The heterogeneous Sundaland region was assembled by closure of Tethyan oceans and addition of continental fragments. Its Mesozoic and Cenozoic history is partly recorded in the mantle, and mantle structure from tomographic imaging can be interpreted using new plate tectonic reconstructions. Continental fragments of east Asian origin, ophiolites and deformed sediments were accreted to eastern Sundaland north of Borneo in the Cretaceous, and a wide zone from Sarawak northwards to South China probably represents subduction at the Pacific margin until about 90 Ma. Eastward rollback at this margin may have contributed to Cretaceous extension and thermal events in Indochina but it is difficult to identify a record of this subduction in the mantle. Continental blocks rifted from western Australia in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous are in Borneo, Java and Sulawesi. West Burma was not one of them; it was already part of SE Asia by the Triassic. The Banda (SW Borneo) block was added to Sundaland at c.110 Ma, and at c.90 Ma the Woyla intra-oceanic arc and Argo (East Java-West Sulawesi) block collided with the Sundaland margin causing subduction to cease. A marked change in deep mantle structure at about 110°E reflects the different subduction histories north of India and Australia since 90 Ma. India and Australia were separated by a transform boundary that was leaky from 90 to 75 Ma and slightly convergent from 75 to 55 Ma. West of this I-A transform, ENE-striking high-velocity anomalies in the lower mantle are interpreted to mark subduction zones active as India moved rapidly north from 80 Ma, with north-directed subduction of Tethys, associated with collision of India with an intra-oceanic arc at c.55 Ma, west of Sumatra, before collision with Asia in the Eocene. In contrast, east of the I-A transform little or none of the Mesozoic history can be identified in the mantle. Between 90 and 45 Ma Australia separated very slowly from Antarctica and there was no significant

  3. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    Universiteit Leiden. Leiden: Opleiding Talen en Culturen van Zuidoost-Azië en Oceanië, Universiteit Leiden, 2002, xviii + 328 pp. [Semaian 22.], Willem van der Molen (eds -Dick van der Meij, Renato Rosaldo, Cultural citizenship in island Southeast Asia; Nation and belonging in the hinterlands. Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 2003, x + 228 pp. -Lisa Migo, Sjoerd R. Jaarsma, Handle with care; Ownership and control of ethnographic materials. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2002, x + 264 pp. [ASAO monograph series 20.] -Jonathan H. Ping, Priyambudi Sulistiyanto, Thailand, Indonesia and Burma in comparative perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002, xiv + 308 pp. [The international political economy of new regionalisms series.] -Anthony L. Smith, Amitav Acharya, Constructing a security community in Southeast Asia; ASEAN and the problem of regional order. London: Routledge, 2001, xx + 234 pp. -Achmad Sunjayadi, Elsbeth Locher-Scholten ,Hof en handel; Aziatische vorsten en de VOC 1620-1720. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2004, x + 350 pp. [Verhandelingen 223.], Peter Rietbergen (eds -Gerard Termorshuizen, Marieke Bloembergen, De koloniale vertoning; Nederland en Indië op de wereldtentoonstellingen (1880-1931. Amsterdam: Wereld-bibliotheek, 2002, 463 pp.''Koloniale inspiratie; Frankrijk, Nederland, Indië en de wereldtentoonstellingen 1883-1931. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2004, 256 pp. -Jojanneke van der Toorn, Philip Taylor, Goddess on the rise; Pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004, x + 332 pp. -Holger Warnk, Azyumardi Azra, The origins of Islamic reformism in Southeast Asia; Networks of Malay-Indonesian and Middle Eastern 'ulama' in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2004, ix + 253 pp. -Robert Wessing, Gregory Forth, Beneath the volcano; Religion, cosmology and spirit classification among the Nage of eastern Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998, xi + 369 pp. [Verhandelingen 117.] -Edwin

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chris Ballard, Paula Brown, R. Michael Bourke, Tracy Harwood (eds; The sweet potato in Oceania; A reappraisal (Peter Boomgaard Caroline Hughes; The political economy of Cambodia’s transition, 1991-2001 (Han Ten Brummelhuis Richard Robison, Vedi Hadiz; Reorganising power in Indonesia; The politics of oligarchy in an age of markets (Marleen Dieleman Michael W. Charney; Southeast Asian warfare, 1300-1900 (Hans Hägerdal Daniel Perret, Amara Srisuchat, Sombun Thanasuk (eds; Études sur l´histoire du sultanat de Patani (Mary Somers Heidhues Joel Robbins; Becoming sinners; Christianity and moral torment in a Papua New Guinea society (Menno Hekker Mujiburrahman; Feeling threatened; Muslim-Christian relations in Indonesia’s New Order (Gerry van Klinken Marie-Odette Scalliet; De Collectie-Galestin in de Leidse Universiteitsbibliotheek (Dick van der Meij James Neil Sneddon; Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian (Don van Minde James Leach; Creative land; Place and procreation on the Rai coast of Papua New Guinea (Dianne van Oosterhout Stanley J. Ulijaszek (ed.; Population, reproduction and fertility in Melanesia (Dianne van Oosterhout Angela Hobart; Healing performances of Bali; Between darkness and light (Nathan Porath Leo Suryadinata (ed.; Admiral Zheng He and Southeast Asia (Roderich Ptak Ruth Barnes; Ostindonesien im 20. Jahrhundert; Auf den Spuren der Sammlung Ernst Vatter (Reimar Schefold Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een missionarisleven in brieven; Willem van Bekkum, Indië 1936-1998 (Karel Steenbrink Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een pionier op Flores; Jilis Verheijen (1908-1997, missionaris en onderzoeker (Karel Steenbrink Akitoshi Shimizu, Jan van Bremen (eds; Wartime Japanese anthropology in Asia and the Pacific (Fridus Steijlen Lilie Roosman; Phonetic experiments on the word and sentence prosody of Betawi Malay and Toba Batak (Uri Tadmor Jamie D. Saul; The Naga of Burma; Their festivals, customs

  5. 汉江流域秋汛期典型旱涝年与前期海温的关系研究%Study on the relationship between typical drought/flood years in autumn flood season in Hanjiang River basin and preceding sea surface temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖莺; 杜良敏; 任永建

    2013-01-01

    Based on pentad precipitation data from 16 meteorological observing stations in Hanjiang River Basin in the autumn flood season from September to October during 1961-2010, this paper has calculated the precipitation concentration degree (PCD) and precipitation con-centration period (PCP). Combined with time series of PCD and precipitation anomalous percentage in the autumn flood season, typical drought/flood years were determined. Meanwhile, using sea surface temperature (SST) and 500 hPa height field data from NCEP/NCAR in the same period, the relationship between these typical years and SST was discussed by composite and correlation analysis method. The results show that there are three SST key areas located in Indian Ocean, equatorial middle Pacific and North Pacific respectively. When the SST in these sea areas show anomaly, the main synoptic systems, including India-Burma trough, Baikal trough, East Siberia high and Ural Mountains high, influencing autumn rainfall in Hanjiang River Basin change accordingly, which lead to anormaly of PCD and rainfall, and then initiate drought and flood disaster in Hanjiang River Basin. Anomaly of preceding SST in the three key sea areas can be regarded as a precursor sig-nal to judge the amount of precipitation and the strength of PCD in the autumn flood season in Hanjiang River Basin to a certain extent.%  利用汉江流域16个气象观测台站1961—2010年秋汛期(9—10月)逐候降水资料,计算了降水集中度(PCD)和集中期(PCP),并建立了相应的序列,结合秋汛期降水距平百分率,确定汉江流域秋汛期典型旱涝年。同时,利用美国国家环境预测中心及国家大气研究中心(NCEP/NCAR)提供的同期海温和500 hPa高度场资料,采用合成和相关分析方法,探讨了典型旱涝年与前期海温的关系。结果表明,印度洋、赤道中太平洋、北太平洋为3个海温关键区,当这3个海区海温发生异常

  6. Collection and Storage of Tectona grandis Pollen%柚木花粉收集与贮藏研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂华; 梁坤南; 林明平; 周再知; 马华明

    2012-01-01

    Anthesis pheology, pollen collection, viability determination and storage of Tectona grandis L. f. were introduced and studied,the results showed that pollen can be collected by water culture method and bagged method, the time for pollen collection of Indian provenances and Burma provenances were 9 to 11 o-clock and 11 to 13 o-clock,respectively. The pollen viability rose first and then decreased after anthesis,it have highest viability after anthesis 1. 5 h and no longer viable after 4. 5 h. The pollen viability decreased fast after collected and put in room temperature for wind to dry, it no longer viable after collected 2 h. The viability of pollen stored in 5 ℃ and - 15 ℃ rose first and then decreased, both of the pollen lost viability at 330 day. Both pollen germination rate and pollen tube length of pollen stored in 5 X decreased fast than that of - 15 ℃, pollen storage effect of - 15 ℃ was better than 5 ℃. Pollen stored in - 15 ℃. for 240 day can be used for controlled pollination among different teak provenances or different species of Tectona.%介绍了柚木开花生物学特性,开展了柚木花粉收集、活力测定、贮藏方法及其效果的研究.结果表明:柚木花粉收集可采用水培法和套袋法;不同种源收集花粉时间不同,印度种源和缅甸种源分别为09:~11:00时和11:00~13:00时;花开放后,花粉活力是先升后降,1.5h后花粉活力最强,4.5h后花粉即失去萌发力;随着贮藏时间的延长,5℃和-15℃干燥贮藏花粉的活力逐渐下降,贮藏到330 d,5℃和- 15℃的花粉都失去萌发力;在整个过程中,5℃的花粉萌发率和花粉管长度都比-15℃下降速度快;-15℃柚木花粉的贮藏效果优于5℃;-15℃干燥贮藏240d的柚木花粉,可满足当年柚木花期不同的种源间或柚木属不同种间人工杂交授粉.

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    . Translated and annotated by Felicia Brichoux (Nicole Revel Joos van Vugt, José Eijt, Marjet Derks (eds; Tempo doeloe, tempo sekarang; Het proces van Indonesianisering in Nederlandse orden en congregaties (Karel Steenbrink Nancy Eberhardt; Imagining the course of life; Self-transformation in a Shan Buddhist community (Nicholas Tapp J.C. Smelik, C.M. Hogenstijn, W.J.M. Janssen; A.J. Duymaer van Twist; Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indi? (1851-1856 (Gerard Termorshuizen David Steinberg; Turmoil in Burma; Contested legitimacies in Myanmar (Sean Turnell Carl A. Trocki; Singapore; Wealth, power and the culture of control (Bryan S. Turner Matthew Isaac Cohen; The Komedie Stamboel; Popular theatre in colonial Indonesia, 1891-1903 (Holger Warnk Jörgen Hellman; Ritual fasting on West Java (Robert Wessing Waruno Mahdi; Malay words and Malay things; Lexical souvenirs from an exotic archipelago in German publications before 1700 (Edwin Wieringa RECENT PUBLICATIONS Russell Jones, C.D. Grijns, J.W. de Vries, M. Siegers (eds; Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay VERHANDELINGEN 249 Peter Carey: The power of prophecy. Prince Dipanagara and the end of an old order in Java, 1785-1855

  8. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  9. Geodetic Constraints From The Volcanic Arc Of The Andaman - Nicobar Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, A.; Krishnan, R.; Mayandi, S.; Sringeri, S. T.; Jade, S.

    2012-12-01

    We report first ever GPS derived surface deformation rates in the Barren and Narcondum volcanic islands east of Andaman-Nicobar archipelago which lies in the Bay of Bengal, a zone that generates frequent earthquakes, and coincides with the eastern plate boundary of India. The tectonics of this region is predominantly driven by the subduction of the Indian plate under the Burma plate. Andaman sea region hosts few volcanoes which lies on the inner arc extending between Sumatra and Myanmar with the sub-aerial expressions at Barren and Narcondum Islands. Barren Island, about 135 km ENE of Port Blair, is presently active with frequent eruptive histories whereas Narcondum is believed to be dormant. We initiated precise geodetic campaign mode measurements at Barren Island between 2007 to 2012 and one year (2011-2012) continuous measurements at Narcondum island. Preliminary results from this study forms a unique data set, being the first geodetic estimate from the volcanic arc of this subducting margin. Our analysis indicates horizontal convergence of the Barren benchmark to south-westward (SW) direction towards the Andaman accretionary fore-arc wedge where as the Narcondum benchmark recorded northeast (NE) motion. West of the Andaman fore-arc there is NE oriented subduction of the Indian plate which is moving at the rate of ~5 cm/yr. Convergence rates for the Indian plate from the Nuvel 1A model also show oblique convergence towards N23°E at 5.4 cm/yr. GPS derived inter seismic motion of Andaman islands prior to 2004 Sumatra earthquake is ~4.5 cm/yr NE. The marginal sea basin east of Barren Island at the Andaman spreading ridge has a NNW orienting opening of the sea-floor at 3.6 cm/yr. However the recent post seismic measurements of Andaman islands indicate rotation of displacement vectors from SW to NNE during 2005 to 2012. In this tectonic backdrop, the estimated rate of displacement of the volcanic islands probably represents a composite signal of tectonic as well as

  10. An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Nirod

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile population groups are at high risk for contracting HIV infection. Many factors contribute to this risk including high prevalence of risky behavior and increased risk of violence due to conflict and war. The Naf River serves as the primary border crossing point between Teknaf, Bangladesh and Mynamar [Burma] for both official and unofficial travel of people and goods. Little is known about the risk behavior of boatmen who travel back and forth between Teknaf and Myanmar. However, we hypothesize that boatmen may act as a bridging population for HIV/AIDS between the high-prevalence country of Myanmar and the low-prevalence country of Bangladesh. Methods Methods included initial rapport building with community members, mapping of boatmen communities, and in-depth qualitative interviews with key informants and members from other vulnerable groups such as spouses of boatmen, commercial female sex workers, and injecting drug users. Information from the first three stages was used to create a cross-sectional survey that was administered to 433 boatmen. Results Over 40% of the boatmen had visited Myanmar during the course of their work. 17% of these boatmen had sex with CSW while abroad. There was a significant correlation found between the number of nights spent in Myanmar and sex with commercial sex workers. In the past year, 19% of all boatmen surveyed had sex with another man. 14% of boatmen had participated in group sex, with groups ranging in size from three to fourteen people. Condom use was rare {0 to 4.7% during the last month}, irrespective of types of sex partners. Regression analysis showed that boatmen who were 25 years and older were statistically less likely to have sexual intercourse with non- marital female partners in the last year compared to the boatmen aged less than 25 years. Similarly deep-sea fishing boatmen and non-fishing boatmen were statistically less likely to have sexual intercourse with non

  11. 地缘政治经济学:次区域经济合作理论辨析%Geopolitical Economics:On the Theory of Sub-regional Economic Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世韶

    2016-01-01

    The sub-regional areas of Greater Mekong constitute a regional subsystem:China (Yunnan), Thailand and the Asian Development Bank as the core of the regional subsystem,also Cambodia,Laos, Burma ,Vietnam and the Association of South-east Asian Nations as well as Mae Committee and so on forming the peripheral parties of the subsystem,and Japan,India,USA and other countries as the parties of intervention of the sub-regional areas.Through the combination of geographic factors with the other factors like regional economic cooperation,geopolitics,safety and culture,the interpretation frame of the geopolitical economics can be built to explain the sub-regional economic cooperation:the sub-regional countries (together with local governments),driven by international organizations,utilize the local natural geographical conditions to promote the cooperation of sub-regional areas in different levels and scopes by establishing cooperative cultures,so that the relevant cooperative regulation is built,and they lead the outside powers and international organizations to approve of this regulation.Ultimately,the sub-regional economy and society will develop together.%大湄公河次区域地区构成了一个地区子系统:中国(云南)和泰国以及亚行是该地区子系统中的核心部分,柬老缅越和一定程度上的东盟、湄委会等则构成了该地区子系统的边缘部分,日、印、美等国则成为大湄公河次区域地区的介入部分。通过将地理因素和区域经济合作、地缘政治、安全与文化等因素相结合,可以建构地缘政治经济学解释框架来阐释次区域经济合作:次区域地区国家(和地方政府)在国际组织的推动下利用该地区的自然地理条件,通过建构合作文化,推动次区域地区在不同层次和不同领域开展合作,从而建构起相应的合作规范,并引导域外大国和国际组织认同该规范,最终实现次区域地区经济社会的共同发展。

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Waterson

    1993-01-01

    fashioning of Leviathan: The beginnings of British rule in Burma, edited by Gehan Wijeyewardene. Canberra: Occasional paper of the department of Anthropology, Research school of Pacific studies, The Australian National University, 1991, ii+178 p. - Joke van Reenen, Wim van Zanten, Across the boundaries: Women’s perspectives; Papers read at the symposium in honour of Els Postel-Coster. Leiden: VENA, 1991. - Reimar Schefold, Roxana Waterson, The living house; An anthropology of architecture in South-East Asia. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1990, xx + 263 pp. - Gunter Senft, Jürg Wassmann, The song to the flying fox. Translated by Dennis Q. Stephenson. Apwitihiri:L Studies in Papua New Guinea musics, 2. Cultural studies division, Boroko: The National Research Institute , 1991, xxi + 313 pp. - A. Teeuw, Thomas John Hudak, The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International studies, Monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series number 87, 1990, x + 237 pp. - A. Teeuw, George Quinn, The novel in Javanese: Aspects of its social and literary character. Leiden: KITLV press, (VKI 148, 1992, ix + 330 pp. - Gerard Termorshuizen, Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf, Persgeschiedenis van Indonesië tot 1942. Geannoteerde bibliografie. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1990, xv + 249 pp. - A. Veldhuisen-Djajasoebrata, Daniele C. Geirnaert, The AÉDTA batik collection. Paris, 1989, p. 81, diagrams and colour ill., Sold out. (Paris Avenue de Breteuil, 75007., Rens Heringa (eds.

  13. 中美“新丝绸之路”战略比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文佳; 熊理然; 刘雪娇; 荆田芬

    2015-01-01

    Through comparative analysis,we found that China and the US “New Silk Road”have a big difference in the strategic connotation and spatial layout.US strategic planning focused on investment in infrastructure and TAPI gas pipeline construction, and our focus on planning the construction of four cross -border high -speed rail construction in Kazakhstan,Turkey,China -Burma oil and gas pipelines.America’s fundamental purpose is to establish US dominance in Central Asia,consolidate the re-sults of the war in Afghanistan,through the “New Silk Road Program”and TPP stuff attack from Russia.China is to strengthen economic ties with Europe and ASEAN,to protect our country’s energy supply security,to deal with “three forces”and narrow the gap between eastern and western regions of domestic economic development.There are some obstacles in the two “New Silk Road”strategy development prospects,but the US “New Silk Road”program has obvious political overtones,the US needs to re-turn to the Asia -Pacific,difficult coordination between the countries of the region interest rarely lasts endure.China’s “One Belt One Road”along the national strategy and a “community of destiny”,is a path to economic and cultural exchanges,the de-cision of the Chinese version of the “New Silk Road”Plan will have a broader space for development.%通过比较分析,发现中美的“新丝绸之路”在战略内涵、空间布局上存在很大不同。美国的战略规划侧重投资基础设施和 TAPI 天然气管道建设,而我国侧重谋划建设四大跨境高铁,建设中哈、中土、中缅石油天然气管道。美国的根本目的是确立美国在中亚地区的主导地位,巩固阿富汗战争的成果,通过“新丝路计划”和 TPP 从东西夹击中俄。而中国是为了加强与欧洲和东盟的经济联系,保障我国的能源供给安全,应对“三股势力”并缩小国内东西部地区经济发展的差距。两国

  14. Les frontiers de Leach au prisme des migrations birmanes ou penser la société en mouvement Leach Frontiers through the Prism of Burmese Migrations, or Thinking the Society in Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Boutry

    2011-09-01

    that on the first hand, the necessary continuity between the “native” and the arrival societies mobilizes some social structures revealed by the migration. On the other, the inherent discontinuities in the socialization process of the conquered environments reveal some frontiers of various natures (ecological, of social organization, cultural, ethnic structuring the social landscape. The Burmese relationship to the kyézu’shin is emphasized here as a continuity’s structure and a powerful vector for the Irrawaddy delta’s burmization and buddhisation process. In the southernmost region of Burma, this relation is transposed to the taukè’s one and modifies itself at the contact with the Moken (nomads of austronesian origins. As a consequence, the interactions between the two populations act both as the core of a social differentiation and a vector to integrate the insular environment to the Burmese social space.

  15. Malaria surveillance in Beihai City of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during 1992-2009%1992-2009年广西壮族自治区北海市疟疾监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢平; 沈智勇; 许承宝

    2011-01-01

    vivax malaria. Those cases mainly imported from Yunnan, Hainan, Guizhou, Burma and so on where are highly epidemic areas of malaria.The patients were young adults working at those areas. Conclusion After achieving the standard of elimination of malaria, there were imported malaria cases, so appropriate measures must be taken to prevent the imported transmission of malaria.

  16. 汉江流域秋汛期典型旱涝年与前期海温的关系研究%Study on the relationship between typical drought/flood years in autumn flood season in Hanjiang River basin and preceding sea surface temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖莺; 杜良敏; 任永建

    2013-01-01

      利用汉江流域16个气象观测台站1961—2010年秋汛期(9—10月)逐候降水资料,计算了降水集中度(PCD)和集中期(PCP),并建立了相应的序列,结合秋汛期降水距平百分率,确定汉江流域秋汛期典型旱涝年。同时,利用美国国家环境预测中心及国家大气研究中心(NCEP/NCAR)提供的同期海温和500 hPa高度场资料,采用合成和相关分析方法,探讨了典型旱涝年与前期海温的关系。结果表明,印度洋、赤道中太平洋、北太平洋为3个海温关键区,当这3个海区海温发生异常时,影响汉江流域秋雨的主要系统(印缅槽、贝湖槽、东西伯利亚高压和乌拉尔山高压)也相应发生变化,从而导致PCD和降雨量异常,引发汉江流域洪涝或干旱灾害。在一定程度上,可将前期海温异常作为判断汉江流域秋汛期降水量多少及PCD强弱的前兆信号。%Based on pentad precipitation data from 16 meteorological observing stations in Hanjiang River Basin in the autumn flood season from September to October during 1961-2010, this paper has calculated the precipitation concentration degree (PCD) and precipitation con-centration period (PCP). Combined with time series of PCD and precipitation anomalous percentage in the autumn flood season, typical drought/flood years were determined. Meanwhile, using sea surface temperature (SST) and 500 hPa height field data from NCEP/NCAR in the same period, the relationship between these typical years and SST was discussed by composite and correlation analysis method. The results show that there are three SST key areas located in Indian Ocean, equatorial middle Pacific and North Pacific respectively. When the SST in these sea areas show anomaly, the main synoptic systems, including India-Burma trough, Baikal trough, East Siberia high and Ural Mountains high, influencing autumn rainfall in Hanjiang River Basin change accordingly, which lead to anormaly of PCD

  17. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km

  18. Study on Indicating Functions of the Atmospheric Circulation Indices and the Sea Surface Temperature for Annual Precipitation Forecast of Hulun Buir Region%大气环流指数和海温对呼伦贝尔地区年降水预测的指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海滨; 高涛

    2012-01-01

    文章对近50a(1961—2010年)内蒙古呼伦贝尔地区的年、汛期和冬春季降水量和降水距平百分率(R%)作了统计,发现年R%和冬春季R%呈上升趋势,汛期R%略呈下降趋势;通过对年R%与大气环流指数、海温的相关分析发现:前期副热带高压(副高)、北半球极涡、大西洋欧洲环流C型、西藏高原位势高度和印缅槽(南支槽)强度指数等均与年R%密切相关,当北半球极涡收缩、强度减弱,副高扩张、强度加强,西藏高原位势高度偏高,南支槽减弱时,有利于来年呼伦贝尔地区降水,否则,相反。此外,前一年夏季北印度洋海域和赤道东太平洋海域海温对呼伦贝尔地区来年降水有显著影响,这两块海区的海温和上述环流指数可考虑作为呼伦贝尔地区年降水的预测信号使用。%The annual, rain-season and winter-spring precipitation and precipitation anomaly in percentage (R%) of Hulun Buir City (Region) in Inner Mongolia, China during the past 50 years (from 1961 to 2010) were calculated in this study. From the result of the calculation, it has been found that the annual and winter-spring R% display a significant increase trend. In opposite, the rain-season R%, however, shows a slight decrease trend during the 50-year period. Besides, it has been found in outcomes of the correlation analyses between the R% and all atmospheric circulation indices that the precious subtropical high (SH), North Polar vortex (NPV), Atlantic and Europe pattern C (Pattern-C), geopotential high of the Tibetan Plateau (GH-TP) and the India-Burma trough (IBT, also called South branch trough) have close connections with the R%. That indicates when the NPV is small and weak, the atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic and European region exhibits the Pattern-C, the GH-TP changes to higher than normal, the IBT is weak, the SH extends to north-westward and becomes strong in the previous time

  19. Precision Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Two C-Rich Hydrated Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; Keller, L. P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Messenger, S.

    2016-01-01

    -independent fractionation. The composition of the 16O-rich reservoir is well constrained but material representing the 17O,18O-rich end-member is rare. Self-shielding models predict that cometary water, presumed to represent this reservoir, should be enriched in 17O and 18O by greater than 200 per mille. The high-carbon hydrated IDPs may be among the best materials available to search for preserved "cometary" H2O signatures. In order to better understand the origin and evolution of these particles, we have obtained 10 hydrated interplanetary dust particles for coordinated mineralogical, isotopic and organic analyses. We have previously reported the results of mineralogical and O isotopic measurements of two hydrated IDPs; here we present results of O isotopic measurements of three additional IDPs. Samples and Methods: Three interplanetary dust particles (L2079C35, L2083D46 and L2083E46) were embedded in S and partially ultramicrotomed into approximately 70 nanometer sections for analysis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The remainders of the unsliced particles were removed from S and pressed into high purity Au foil that was cleaned with HF acid and annealed at 800 degrees Centigrade. The pressed IDPs were analyzed via electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) for quantitative bulk chemical analysis. After EPMA analysis, the IDPs were subjected to precision O isotope analysis with the UCLA Cameca IMS-1270 ion probe. A 20 kiloelectronvolt, 0.5 nanoangstrom Cs+ primary beam of approximately 15 micrometers diameter was used for each measurement. Small particles of San Carlos olivine and Burma spinel were pressed into the Au foil for use as standards to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. The detection system was configured for multicollection, with 16O measured on a Faraday cup, and 17O and 18O measured on electron multipliers (EMs). Individual analyses consisted of 15 cycles of 10 seconds per cycle. Additionally, two microtome thin sections were measured for H isotopic

  20. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P. H.

    2004-09-01

    There is a new tradition in England called Apple Day which is held on some day in October. The actual day varies from place to place. For instance, in 2003, 23 October was Apple Day at Woolsthorpe Manor, the house where Isaac Newton was born and where, during the Plague, he is said to have developed the theory of gravity. (For information on future Apple Days see, for example, http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/thingstodo.) Last year in our garden we picked an apple which weighed one pound, thirteen and a half ounces (1 lb 13 1/2 oz or 29 1/2 oz). The following day we went to an Apple Day event where there were many exotic apples on display, varieties which are not sold in shops. One of the varieties there was called 'Twenty Ounce'. By now you may be wondering what all this has to do with the book being reviewed. We shall return to this later. This entertaining book is ostensibly about units, in particular about Imperial and metric units, but there are numerous informative digressions. The author reminds us that almost every country 'with the exception of the United States, North and South Yemen, Burma and Brunei' has gone metric. He points out that the United States (US) became officially metric in 1893. However, as early as 1866, the US legal definition of the metre was 39.370000 inches. He tells us that after World War II the (US) inch was rounded down (from 25.400051) to 25.4 mm. There is no mention that the Imperial (British) inch was simultaneously rounded up from 25.399956 mm to 25.4 mm. The author frequently digresses, covering such matters as the trisection of angles and Eratosthenes' graphic solution for duplicating the cube. There is an informative discussion on the length of the day: appropriately 25 December, which lasts for 24 h and 30 s, is the longest day. He shows how with cycles and epicycles one can construct an ellipse. Ptolemy did not realize the importance of the focus of the ellipse. The author discusses various topics in the development of

  1. Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015%云南省中缅边境2015年一起登革热暴发的分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓芳; 杨明东; 姜进勇; 李华昌; 朱崇革; 桂琴; 卜力群; 周红宁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region,Yunnan province,2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention.Methods Semi-nested RT-PCR was conducted to detect the capsid pre-membrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township,Gengma county,Yunnan province in July,2015.Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene.The positive PCR products were directly sequenced.Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program.Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank,including the representative strains from different countries and regions.Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software.Results Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1.Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus.A total of 13 strains with E gene (1 485 bp),including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains,were sequenced,which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities.Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities.Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype Ⅰ of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage.Conclusions This outbreak was caused by genotype Ⅰ of DENV-1,which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area.Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.%目的 对2015年云南省中缅边境一起登革热暴发查明病因,对流行的登革病毒(DENV)

  2. A basic distributional framework of global deepwater basins and hydrocarbon characteristics%全球深水盆地群分布格局与油气特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张功成; 米立军; 屈红军; 冯杨伟; 范玉海

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of global deepwater basins is characterized by a basic framework of "double vertical and horizontal" arrangements. The "double vertical" arrangements refer to two groups of deepwater basins with a submeridional distributional framework, i.e. Atlantic offshore deepwater basins and West Pacific offshore deepwater basins. The former include seven deepwater basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin, deepwater basins in the Gulf of Mexico, eleven deepwater basins along the West Africa continental margin, deepwater basins in the Mid-Norway continental margin, the North Sea Basin and so on The latter include deepwater basins in the Sea of Japan and the Gippsland Basin in the Southeast of Australia, etc. The "double horizontal" arrangements stand for two groups of deepwater basins with a sublatitudinal distributional framework, i.e. offshore deepwater basins of the Neotethys structural domain and offshore deepwater basins in the circum-North Pole area, the former include four deepwater basins in the northwest shelf of Australia, deepwater basins in the Gulf of Burma, deepwater basins in the Gulf of Arab, etc. The latter include the Barents Sea deepwater basin, the Kara Sea deepwater basin, the Laptev Sea shelf basin, etc. Deepwater basins can be formed in all phases of the Wilson cycle, such as passive continental margin, subducted margin, continent-to-continent collided margin, arc-to-continent collided margin, transform margin, and marginal rift, of which the passive continental margin is the most common phase for the formation of deepwater basins. The Atlantic offshore deepwater basins and the offshore deepwater basins of the Neotethys structural domain have been controlled by the "east-west extension" and "north-south convergency" of the Earth since Mesozoic, respectively. The oil and gas discovered in deepwater basins of the world are distributed in a framework of "one vertical and one horizontal" arrangements, namely, the oil is mainly

  3. A survey on illegal wildlife and products trade in Yunan Province and neighboring border area%云南及边境地区野生动物及其制品非法贸易调查∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹峰; 梦梦; 敬凯; 徐玲; 刘定震

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a covert survey on illegal trade of wildlife and products in 3 major cites,7 class-one border ports in Yunnan Province,China,and 2 neighboring border cities in Burma and 1 in Vietnam.We recorded a total of 46 species of animals.Nearly half(47.8%)of these species were mammals,and 41.3% were reptiles.Among those species,24 species,which accounted for 52.2% of the total species,were listed under the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Speices (CITES),and 1 9 species,which accounted for 41.3% of the total species,were listed as state key protected wild animals.The products of pangolins (Manis pentadactyla),Asian elephants (Elephas maximus ),tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.)and bears (Ursus spp.) were recorded in both domestic and foreign markets with a higher encounter frequency in foreign border cities than in Yunnan Province.In addition to animal products,trade on live animals,such as the pangolin,common water monitor (Varanus salvator )and freshwater turtles and tortoises,was also recorded.Trade on pangolins had the highest encounter frequency in the whole survey.We also found an increasing trend of trade on species of animals not included in the state key protected list.Base on the current survey,we strongly suggest the following:improve law enforcement effectiveness,strengthen capacity building,establish the market and trade monitoring system,strengthen international cooperation and increase public awareness of wildlife conservation. Once implemented these measures will help to completely stop the illegal trade of endangered species,and lead to sustainable utilization of non-protected species in Yunnan Province.%对云南省的3个主要城市、7个边境一级口岸和2个缅甸边境城市及1个越南边境城市野生动物及其制品贸易开展了实地调查.调查记录到的贸易涉及野生动物物种共46种,从种类多到少排序依次分别是兽类22种,占47.8%;爬行类19种,占41.3%;鸟类3种,占6.5%

  4. Origin and Evolution of Jute Analysed by SRAP and ISSR Methods%SRAP结合ISSR方法分析黄麻属的起源与演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶爱芬; 祁建民; 李木兰; 方平平; 林荔辉; 徐建堂

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to make clear the origin and evolution of Corchorus with two molecular methods (SRAP and ISSR). [Method] Ninety-six jute germplasms were analysed with sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) combining with inter-simple sequence related (ISSR) method. The phylogenetic trees of Corchorus were constructed by MEGA and DPS software, and the divergence time of jute germplasm was calculated. [Result] The relative wild species located at the basic position of the dendrogram, and the divergence time of which was the longest, which indicated the relative wild species originated earliest and was the ancestors of cultivated jute. Africa was the center of origin of Corchorus, while China was the second original center of Corchorus. Among all the olitorius species, the divergence time of wild and cultivated species from Africa was the longest, so Africa was the center of origin for wild and cultivated olitorius species, while the areas which border on India, Burma and China was the second center of origin for cultivated olitorius species. South China, countries of South Asia and Southeast Asia which border on China were the origin center of wild capsularis species, and South region of China was the origin center of cultivated capsularis species. Taken together, the divergence time of the cultivated capsularis species was shorter than olitorius species, indicating this biotype originated later than olitorius species. [ Conclusion ] Africa has an important position in origin of Corchorus, which was the primary origin center of wild species, wild and cultivated olitorius species. South region of China was the origin center of cultivated capsularis species. The divergence time and phylogenetic trees of Corchorus were calculated more comprehensively by SRAP markers combining with ISSR molecular markers, and the scientific conclusion on origin and evolution of Corchorus was got with above methods.%[目的]以SRAP结合ISSR分子标记

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Nancy Lee Peluso, Rich Forests, Poor people; Resource control and resistance in Java. Berkeley, etc.: University of California Press, 1992, 321 pp. - N. A. Bootsma, H.W. Brands, Bound to empire; The United States and the Philippines. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992, 356 pp. - Martin van Bruinessen, Jan Schmidt, Through the Legation Window, 1876-1926; Four essays on Dutch, Dutch-Indian and Ottoman history. Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut, 1992, 250 pp. - Freek Colombijn, Manuelle Franck, Quand la rizière recontre l ásphalte; Semis urbain et processus d úrbanisation à Java-est. Paris: École des hautes études en sciences sociales (Études insulindiennes: Archipel 10, 1993, 282 pp. Maps, tables, graphs, bibliography. - Kees Groeneboer, G.M.J.M. Koolen, Een seer bequaem middel; Onderwijs en Kerk onder de 17e eeuwse VOC. Kampen: Kok, 1993, xiii + 287 pp. - R. Hagesteijn, Janice Stargardt, The Ancient Pyu of Burma; Volume I: Early Pyu cities in a man-made landscape. Cambridge: PACSEA, Singapore: ISEAS, 1991. - Barbara Harrisson, Rolf B. Roth, Die ‘Heiligen Töpfe der Ngadju-Dayak (Zentral-Kalimantan, Indonesien; Eine Untersuchung über die rezeption von importkeramik bei einer altindonesischen Ethnie. Bonn (Mundus reihe ethnologie band 51, 1992, xv + 492 pp. - Ernst Heins, Raymond Firth, Tikopia songs; Poetic and musical art of a Polynesian people of the Solomon Islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge studies in oral and literate culture no. 20, 1990, 307 pp., Mervyn McLean (eds. - Ernst Heins, R. Anderson Sutton, Traditions of gamelan music in Java; Musical pluralism and regional identity.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge studies in ethnomusicology, 1991, 291 pp., glossary, biblio- and discography, photographs, tables, music. - H.A.J. Klooster, Jaap Vogel, De opkomst van het indocentrische geschiedbeeld; Leven en werken van B.J.O. Schrieke en J.C. van

  6. Decadal anomalies of winter precipitation over southern China in association with El Niño and La Niña%与厄尔尼诺和拉尼娜相联系的中国南方冬季降水的年代际异常特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 李崇银; 杨崧

    2014-01-01

    impact of La Ni~na on the winter precipitation in southern China has a decadal variability. During the winter of La Ni~na before 1980,the East Asian winter monsoon is stronger than normal with a deeper trough o-ver East Asia,and the western Pacific subtropical high weakens with its high ridge retreating more eastward.Therefore,a-nomalous northerly winds dominate over southern China,leading to a cold and dry winter.During La Ni~na winter after 1980, however,the East Asian trough is weaker than normal,unfavorable for the southward invasion of the winter monsoon,with the India-Burma the East trough intensified,and the anomalous low-level cyclone excited by La Ni~na located to the west of the Philippines.Therefore,anomalous easterly winds prevail over southern China,which increases moisture flux from the tropical oceans to southern China.Meanwhile,La Ni~na after 1980 may lead to an enhanced and more northward subtropical westerly jet over East Asia in winter.Since southern China is rightly located on the right side of the jet entrance region,anomalous ascend-ing motion dominates there through the secondary vertical circulation,favoring more winter precipitation in southern China. Consequently,a cold and wet winter,sometimes with snowy and icy weathers,would occur in southern China during La Ni~na winter after 1980.Further analyses indicate that the change in the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomaly dur-ing the La Ni~na mature phase,as well as the decadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation,would be the important reasons for the decadal variability of the La Ni~na impact on the atmospheric circulation in East Asia and winter precipitation over southern China after 1980.

  7. PHAMIT: A program on hiv/aids prevention among migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thongphit Pinyosinwat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand – or “PHAMIT,” which in Thai means “friendly skies”.  The program led by the Raks Thai Foundation with seven NGO partners and one government agency focuses on HIV prevention and health services for migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia in the fisheries, seafood and related industries.  The program demonstrates the complexity of working with undocumented migrant workers and the need to address barriers to the access to health services, migrant rights and policy. The trained migrant health assistants play a significant role in implementation of the program at migrant communities and their workplaces.  Migrant health volunteers distribute information, education and communication materials, as well as condoms.  To increase migrant access to health and reproductive health care, all participating partners support the Department of Health Service Supports in organizing migrant-friendly health services at government health facilities.  These activities include sexual transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing.  The services are based on the rights of migrant workers to basic services and migrants becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. Over a five year period beginning in October 2003, the program has reached 442,000 migrants and more than 20,800 entertainment workers with information about HIV and reproductive health. A total of 6,878,500 condoms has been distributed.  In addition, over 155,080 migrant workers received information on health and labor rights, including regular updates about migrant registration policy. At the same time, through PHAMIT activities, over 13,330 government officials, employers and journalists attended sensitization workshops on issues of migrants’ rights and policies.Le programme PHAMIT (Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand, qui signifie « cieux amicaux » en thaï, est

  8. Gas Strategy of China: Developing competition between national production and imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese gas market is facing four key challenges and the government is elaborating responses which will have implications for the Chinese and world energy markets: - Enabling the development of gas demand in order to fight against the issue of air pollution which is particularly strong in the big coast cities of the East and South-East of the country. This means replacing coal and oil by cleaner energy sources, including natural gas for which demand is booming. In such a young market, everything needs to be put in place: from the construction of LNG terminals to the sale and installation of gas stoves. The price of gas needs to be competitive for the market to develop. - Securing supplies: As national production is struggling to follow the rise in demand and as shale gas - of which China owns the second largest reserves in the world - is still a distant dream, this country is more and more reliant on imports. For evident energy security reasons, China diversifies its supplies at the maximum level and develops new energy partnerships. Four importing routes are favoured: LNG transported by ships, the West axis with Central Asia, the South axis with Burma and the new North-East axis with Russia. These imports, which amounted to 53 bcm in 2013, may triple by 2020. Even though China managed to negotiate a favourable price with Russia and its LNG importing price is lower than the one of Japan - thanks to its first LNG importing contracts signed in the early 2000 - imports are expensive, in particular for a country used to producing or importing coal at a very low cost. Up to now, the price at which gas is sold could not cover the import price and this system is not sustainable. - Developing national production: Despite important gas reserves - in particular for unconventional gas (shale gas, tight gas, CBM) - production in China is still not much developed in comparison with its potential and the growth opportunities are significant. Making the best of this potential

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Sutherland

    2000-10-01

    Vogel (eds. - David Henley, Robert W. Hefner, Market cultures; Society and morality in the new Asian capitalisms. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998, viii + 328 pp. - David Henley, James F. Warren, The Sulu zone; The world capitalist economy and the historical imagination. Amsterdam: VU University Press for the Centre for Asian Studies, Amsterdam (CASA, 1998, 71 pp. [Comparative Asian Studies 20.] - Huub de Jonge, Laurence Husson, La migration maduraise vers l’Est de Java; ‘Manger le vent ou gratter la terre’? Paris: L’Harmattan/Association Archipel, 1995, 414 pp. [Cahier d’Archipel 26.] - Nico Kaptein, Mark R. Woodward, Toward a new paradigm; Recent developments in Indonesian Islamic thought. Tempe: Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies, 1996, x + 380 pp. - Catharina van Klinken, Gunter Senft, Referring to space; Studies in Austronesian and Papuan languages. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, xi + 324 pp. - W. Mahdi, J.G. de Casparis, Sanskrit loan-words in Indonesian; An annotated check-list of words from Sanskrit in Indonesian and Traditional Malay. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1997, viii + 59 pp. [NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 41.] - Henk Maier, David Smyth, The canon in Southeast Asian literatures; Literatures of Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Richmond: Curzon, 2000, x + 273 pp. - Toon van Meijl, Robert J. Foster, Social reproduction and history in Melanesia; Mortuary ritual, gift exchange, and custom in the Tanga islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xxii + 288 pp. - J.A. de Moor, Douglas Kammen, A tour of duty; Changing patterns of military politics in Indonesia in the 1990’s. Ithaca, New York: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1999, 98 pp., Siddharth Chandra (eds. - Joke van Reenen, Audrey Kahin, Rebellion to integration; West Sumatra and the Indonesian

  10. On the Tectonics of the India-Asia Collision%印度-亚洲碰撞大地构造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志琴; 杨经绥; 李海兵; 嵇少丞; 张泽明; 刘焰

    2011-01-01

    The collision between India and Asia is the most spectacular tectonic event on Earth during the Cenozoic,resulting in the uplift of the Tibetan plateau and surrounding orogenic belts as well as a lot of material escaping toward the east and southeast. In this paper, the Tibetan plateau was divided into the following tectonic units: ① the central Tibetan plateau including east Kunlun, Bayanhar-Songpanganzi, Qiangtang, and north Lhasa areas; ②the Gangdese-Himalayan main subduction-collision belts consisting of Gangdese Andes-type subduction belt and the Himalayan-type collision belt; ③ surrounding transpressional orogenic belts characterized by thrusting and strike-slip faulting which include Western Kunlun-Altyn-Qilian transpressional belts in the north, Longmenshan-Jinpinshan belt in the east, Sino-Burma belt in the southeast, India-Pakistan-Afghanistan belt in the southwest; ④ lateral extrusion terrains including South Songpan, Lanping, Baoshan and Tenchong terrains bounded by largescale strike-slip faults: Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault, Ailaoshan-Red fiver fault, Lancangjiang fault, Jiali-Gaoligong fault, Nabang fault and Sagaing fault around the eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, as well as Tianshuihai, Xindukushi,Kabuer and Afghanistan extrusion terrains around the western Himalayan Syntaxis. Various constraints for the India-Asia collision tectonics have been discussed, such as: collision between a small wedge of Indian plate and the larger Asian Plate, the roles of the Eastern and Western corners of the Indian plate, the impact of normal and oblique collisions, large strike-slip faulting related to lateral extrusion, transpressional mechanism with both strikeslip faulting and thrusting kinematic features related to uplift of surrounding orogenic belts, and mantle structures beneath the Tibetan Plateau.%印度-亚洲碰撞是新生代地球上最为壮观的重大地质事件.碰撞及碰撞以来,青藏高原的广大地域发生了与碰撞前截然不同的

  11. 元明清时期中缅关系与中国西南开放的历史经验与教训%Sino-Burmese relations in the Yuan,the Ming and the Qing dynasties and the historical experience and lessons obtained from southwest China's opening-up to the outside world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺圣达

    2016-01-01

    The Sino-Burmese relations in ancient times and southwest China's opening-up to the out-side world had a complicated history of over two thousand years,whose study from the perspective of friendly relations or on the basis of short-term investigations could not reveal its truth and rich impli-cations.From a macro-perspective,this paper focuses on the Sino-Burmese relations since the Yuan dynasty because it was from the Yuan dynasty that the Sino-Burmese relations began to have strong and comprehensive influence on southwest China's opening-up to the outside world.The Yuan dynasty established Yunnan administrative province,the courier stations and the system of Tusi officials in the north of present-day Myanmar,which laid a solid foundation for a closer Sino-Burmese relation in the geographical,institutional and transport aspects.In the early period of the Yuan dynasty,the Central Government appointed quite a few Tusi officials in present-day Myanmar who would pay tribute to the Imperial Court and promoted the socio-economic development and the opening-up to the outside world.However,due to its poor knowledge of the actual situations in Burma,the Yuan dynasty in its mid-period and later period was unable to fight against the rising Toungoo dynasty that launched a northern invasion,which resulted in the setbacks of southwest China's opening-up to the outside world.The Qing dynasty did nothing better that the two previous dynasties in terms of its opening-up to the outside world.The Qing dynasty in its early period carried out a conservative policy and banned the private mines in Sino-Burmese borderlands.The Qing dynasty in its mid-period had a war(1766~1770)with the Toungoo dynasty and when the war was over,the Toungoo dynasty resumed its pay-ing tribute to the Qing dynasty and maintained a stable border trade.The Qing dynasty in its later pe-riod began to seriously carry out its opening-up policy,but it was under the restraint of the British co-lonialist invasion

  12. Histoire des migrations et ethnicité à partir d’une réflexion en Asie du Sud-Est The history of migration and ethnicity from a South East Asian perspective. Towards an anthropology of borders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ivanoff

    2010-12-01

    millions of people to satisfy their own needs. What leads displaced people towards what are often illusory dreams and increasingly international networks? How do border populations develop, build “pioneering” areas, take on new identities and adopt new social practices in South-East Asia? The “Burma-isation” of southern Thailand and widening trafficking networks are not unique to this region, and can be compared to similar situations observed elsewhere. Are these movements characterised by a common contemporary structure?

  13. 入侵害虫椰子木蛾(鳞翅目:木蛾科)在我国的潜在分布%Potential Geographical Distribution of the Introduced Opisina arenosella (Lepidoptera:Xylorictidae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧琪; 朱耿平; 蔡波; 李敏; 刘强

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The coconut caterpillar Opisina arenosella Walker ( Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae) is a serious pest to the coconuts ( Cocos nucifera) in tropical and subtropical countries. It is native in southern India and Sri Lanka,and has been introduced into Bangladesh,Burma,Indonesia,Thailand,Malaysia Pakistan,and Singapore successively. In August 2013,O. arenosella was reported in 9 cities in Hainan,Zhongshan and Shunde in Guangdong,and Fangchenggang in Guangxi,with the pest population outbreaks in some areas. This pest has the potential to spread many areas in southern China ,and it was listed as the dangerous forest pest by State Forestry Bureau in 2014 . Predicting the potential distribution of newly introduced species is the priority task for invasion monitoring and spread management.[Method]Ecological niche modeling has been widely used in biological invasion with a premise that ecological niche is conservative. In this study,we first compared the climate space occupied by native and introduced Chinese populations. We then integrated the planting zone of coconut into the spatial prediction of ecological niche model. Both Maxent and GARP models were used to generate the potential distribution.[Results]Difference was observed bin the occupied climate spaces between the two populations, and nonetheless,the climate niche was conservative during its invasion. Thus,the observed difference was due to a geographic background effect. Although there were significant differences in the results estimated by the two niche model predictions,they were consistent in the southern China prediction. Both Maxent and GARP suggest that the potential distribution of O. arenosella in China includes: Guangdong,Guangxi,coastal Fujian,and most areas in Hainan,and the central and southern Guangxi also showed high suitability to O. arenosella. These suitable areas are fallen in the planting areas of coconut in China,and were heavily influenced by human activity.[Conclusion]It is concluded

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Salmon

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available - G.W.J. Drewes, Taufik Abdullah, Islam and society in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore, 1986, XII and 348 pp., Sharon Siddique (eds. - Th. van den End, T.Valentino Sitoy, A history of Christianity in the Philippines. The initial encounter , Vol. I, Quezon City (Philippines: New day publishers, 1985. - R. Hagesteijn, David G. Marr, Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th centuries, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies and the research school of Pacific studies of the Australian National University, 1986, 416 pp., A.C. Milner (eds. - R. Hagesteijn, Constance M. Wilson, The Burma-Thai frontier over sixteen decades - Three descriptive documents, Ohio University monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series No. 70, 1985,120 pp., Lucien M. Hanks (eds. - Barbara Harrisson, John S. Guy, Oriental trade ceramics in South-east Asia, ninth to sixteenth century, Oxford University Press, Singapore, 1986. [Revised, updated version of an exhibition catalogue issued in Australia in 1980, in the enlarged format of the Oxford in Asia studies of ceramic series.] 161 pp. with figs. and maps, 197 catalogue ills., numerous thereof in colour, extensive bibliography, chronol. tables, glossary, index. - V.J.H. Houben, G.D. Larson, Prelude to revolution. Palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942. VKI 124, Dordrecht/Providence: Foris publications 1987. - Marijke J. Klokke, Stephanie Morgan, Aesthetic tradition and cultural transition in Java and Bali. University of Wisconsin, Center for Southeast Asian studies, Monograph 2, 1984., Laurie Jo Sears (eds. - Liaw Yock Fang, Mohamad Jajuli, The undang-undang; A mid-eighteenth century law text, Center for South-East Asian studies, University of Kent at Canterbury, Occasional paper No. 6, 1986, VIII + 104 + 16 pp. - S.D.G. de Lima, A.B. Adam, The vernacular press and the emergence of modern Indonesian consciousness (1855-1913, unpublished Ph. D. thesis, School of

  15. Genetic Diversity Analysis of 98 Collections of Sugarcane Germplasm with AFLP Markers%98份甘蔗种质资源遗传多样性的AFLP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝逢刚; 应雄美; 吴才文; 赵培方; 陈学宽; 马丽; 苏火生; 刘家勇

    2015-01-01

    pair group method analysis) and PCA (principal component analysis) to group the sugarcane germplasm.[Result]Among 1 392 bands detected by 10 selective primer pairs proved by Yunnan Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Genetic Improvement, 1 344 (96.55%) were polymorphic. On average, each primer combination amplified 139.2 loci and 134.4 polymorphic loci. The genetic similarity of 98 sugarcane germplasm ranged from 0.484 to 0.929 with an average of 0.734, the number of polymorphic information was 0.2495, the number of effective alleles for each loci was 1.4092, the average index of genetic diversity was 0.3890. The highest genetic similarity (0.929) was found between KN90-418 and KN90-455, and the lowest (0.484) was found between Yunzhe94-375 and IS76-126. According to the genetic similarity of 0.64, 98 sugarcane germplasm were divided into 4 groups, 5 sugarcane germplasm IK76-48, IS76-126, IK76-22, SES309 and E.SARPET collected from Australia was classified as group I. 1 sugarcane germplasm IS76-199 collected from Australia was classified as group II. KN93-06, 90-110-9 and BURMA were classified as group III; other 89 sugarcane germplasm were classified as group IV which was divided into 9 subgroups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I ) at the genetic similarity of 0.79. The coefficient of Jaccard was used in PCA and indicated a similar result with cluster analysis that the germplasm with the same region shares high similarity, the similarity within Australian sugarcane germplasm was much lower, and the lowest was found within the germplasm belongs toErianthus fulvus orSaccharum spontaneum.[Conclusion]It was concluded that 98 sugarcane germplasm share high genetic similarity and low genetic diversity, the Australian sugarcane germplasm is relatively high in genetic diversity. 90-110-9, KN93-06 and Yuetang00-236 are 3 unique germplasm and are worth utilizing in hybridization.