Sample records for burma

  1. Burma. (United States)


    Demographic, political, and physical characteristics of Burma are outlined, the largest country on the Southeast Asian mainland. The population of Burma is predominantly rural with the most prevalent ethnic group being the Burmans. Theravada Buddhism is the religion of approximately 85% of the Burmese. Burma was unified in the 11th century by King Anawrahta. In 1988, General U Ne Win, the country's president, stepped down from his position after a series of violent riots protesting severe economic conditions. That same year, military rule was established and 2 new parties came into being: the National Unity Party and the National League for Democracy. Since August 1988, the issuance of tourist visas has been halted due to the unrest. Longterm visas for business purposes can be obtained, however. For those travelling to Burma, yellow fever inoculation certification is required. Cholera, tuberculosis, plague, leprosy and typhoid are all endemic as well, and dengue fever is present. A fairly inaccessible country, all international flights enter and exit through the country's capital, Rangoon. The tourist visiting Burma will see an agricultural nation. Approximately 70% of the country's exporting economy comes from the sale of rice and teak.

  2. Burma. Spotlight. (United States)

    Perry, S


    Current demographic, economic, and political conditions in Burma are briefly described. In 1962 the military overthrew the democratic government of Burma, established a socialist state, and adopted isolationist policies. Recently the government sought to renew, on a limited basis, contact with the outside world. Information derived from a 1983 national census indicates that the population size, as estimated for 1985, is 37 million, and population density is 51 persons/square mile. 2/3 of the population lives in the central plateau and the delta region of the Irrawaddy River. The annual population growth rate is 2.2% (1983), and 24% of the population is urban. The birth rate is 37, the death rate is 15, and the infant mortality rate is 94. The gross national product is US$180 (1983). 68% of the population is Burmese, and the remainder is composed of numerous minorities. The 2 million Karen and Shan members of the population, as well as members of the outlawed Burmese Communist party, are engaged in armed resistance to the government. 63% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture. Farming is done primarily by traditional methods on small, individually owned landholdings, and the major crops are rice, sugar cane, jute, pulses, and groundnuts. Agricultural production was serious disrupted during World War II, and yields did not reach pre-war levels again until 1964. Current yields are still well below those achieved in most other Asian countries. Despite the availability of additional land suitable for cultivation, the proportion of land under cultivation (15%) did not increase in recent years. Due to population growth, the amount of cultivated land/person actually decreased from 1.39 acres to 0.77 acres between 1940-78. The country experienced only minimal industrial growth in recent years. Although urban growth is slow, the cities of Mandaly and Rangoon are surrounded by slums. The government is promoting the residtribution of the slum inhabitants to a number of

  3. My Classroom: Burma (United States)

    Snider, Marie


    In this article, Marie Snider, a returning English Language Fellow in Burma who works on the Lower Mekong Initiative's Professional Communication Skills for Leaders project, describes the activities of Nyein Ei San, an English teacher in Upper Burma. Ms. San has been active in the English language teaching (ELT) community in Burma for the past…

  4. Burma/Myanmar - Where Now?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps......Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps...

  5. Area Handbook for Burma. (United States)

    Henderson, John W.; And Others

    This volume, one of a series of handbooks on foreign culture, is intended as a reference tool for military and other personnel requiring an objective, comprehensive, and balanced description of Burma's modern society. An analytical appraisal of social, economic, and political aspects is provided with emphasis on the interaction of these societal…

  6. Burma: Economic Sanctions (United States)


    financial institutions that do business with Burmese banks and individuals associated with the Government of Burma: Under Section 311 of the USA...payable-through account for, or on behalf of, a Burmese banking institution . Covered U.S. financial institutions also are similarly prohibited with... banking services to a Burmese banking institution . However, the special measure applied to Burmese banks does not prohibit U.S. financial institutions

  7. 10 Medisinplanter fra Burma



    Sammendrag Hensikten med denne masteroppgaven er å undersøke om tradisjonell bruk av utvalgte medisinplanter fra Burma har vitenskapelig støtte. I tillegg ble interessante studier på biologiske/farmakologiske effekter av plantene tatt med. Litteratursøket ble utført ved hjelp av databasene Medline/Ovid, Medline/Pubmed, Embase/Ovid, Chemical Abstracts/Scifinder, ISI Web of Knowledge, Biological Abstracts, Sciencedirect og Cochrane. Andre nettsider som ble brukt til å finne eventuelle sy...

  8. Internal displacement in Burma. (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V


    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  9. Internal displacement in eastern Burma


    Heather Rae


    The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  10. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rae


    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  11. 31 CFR 537.312 - Nongovernmental entity in Burma. (United States)


    ... is located in Burma or exists for the exclusive or predominant purpose of engaging in the economic development of resources located in Burma or derives its income predominantly from such economic...

  12. The Burma Issue in Sino-U.S. Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In January 2007, China and Russia vetoed a UN draft resolution on Burma with the result that the Burma issue has become yet another point of conflict between the U.S. and China. Although the Burma issue has been present for nearly 20 years, China and the U.S. have both successfully kept their differences under control. In the short term, it is unlikely that conflict will break out between China and U.S. over Burma. However, in the long term,there is still the possibility that the Burma issue could trigger a conflict between China and the U.S..

  13. School, State and Sangha in Burma. (United States)

    Cheesman, Nick


    The value of historical descriptive analysis in comparative education is highlighted by the method's application to schooling in Burma, demonstrating how control over schooling relates to state legitimacy. Supervision of Burmese education by Theravada Buddhist monasteries--Sangha--was undermined by 19th-century British colonial administration. The…

  14. 77 FR 62596 - Allowing New Investment in Burma (United States)


    ... New Investment in Burma AGENCY: Bureau of Economic & Business Affairs, Office of Sanctions Policy and....S. persons from making new investment in Burma, if the President makes certain determinations and... prohibition on new investment in Executive Order 13047 (May 20, 1997). He subsequently delegated the...

  15. Results of medical examination of refugees from Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H D; Lykke, J; Hougen, H P;


    To describe exposure to human rights violations among refugees from rural Burma; to compare exposure experienced by an ethnic Burmese minority group, the Shans, with that of the rest of the study population; and to compare exposure of those who had fled Burma recently with that of refugees who had...

  16. Burma: a country's health in crisis. (United States)

    Chelala, C


    Economic deterioration and a decade of military rule have had a disastrous impact on the health of women and children in Burma. In 1996, Burma's infant mortality rate was 105/1000 live births. The major causes of child mortality and morbidity are intestinal and respiratory infections, malaria, malnutrition, and vaccine-preventable diseases. Low birth weight, iodine and vitamin A deficiency diseases, and iron-deficiency anemia are widespread. Cholera outbreaks occur each year. The Universal Child Immunization Program, supported by UNICEF, reaches less than 60% of eligible children. The maternal mortality rate is 580/100,000 live births; most are related to unsafe abortion. Basic reproductive health care is available only in select areas of the country. 17-22% of women use modern contraception. UNAIDS has estimated that 440,000 Burmese are HIV-infected and there are 14,000 AIDS orphans. HIV prevalence is 26.5% in urban prostitutes, 91% among injecting drug users near the Chinese border, and 10.6% among pregnant women in one border town. Any improvement in the health status of the population requires a shift in priority on the part of the military government from weapons build-up to health promotion and protection.

  17. Burma assessing options for U.S. engagement


    Heaney, Dennis S.


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis will provide a background look at Burma's recent history from World War II to present day to examine how the current state of affairs came about in the country. Burma's diverse ethnic groups and the nearly continuous insurgencies since World War II will be analyzed relative to a short period of democracy (following British colonial rule) from 1948 to 1962, to repressive military rule from 1962 to today. This thesis examines h...

  18. Esoteric Theravada Buddhism in Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Foxeus


    Full Text Available The achievement of independence in 1948 was in many ways a watershed in Burma’s history. At this time, a variety of Buddhist movements emerged that were part not only of a ‘Burmese Buddhist revival’, in which even the government was involved, but also a general re-enchantment of Asia. In the period following World War II, projects of nation-building and further modernization were implemented in many newly independent Asian nation states. The theories of modernization adopted by the rulers had presupposed that a new, rationalized and secularized order that had set them on the path of ‘progress’ would entail a decline of religion. However, instead there was a widespread resurgence of religion, and a variety of new, eclectic religious movements emerged in Southeast Asia. In the thriving religious field of postcolonial Burma, two lay Buddhist movements associated with two different meditation techniques emerged, viz.; the insight meditation movement and the concentration meditation movement. The latter consisted of a variety of esoteric congregations combining concentration meditation with esoteric lore, and some of these were characterized by fundamentalist trends. At the same time, the supermundane form of Buddhism became increasingly influential in the entire field of religion. The aim of the present article is to discuss how this supermundane dimension has reshaped the complex religious field in Burma, with particular emphasis on the esoteric congregations; to present the Burmese form of esoteric Theravāda Buddhism, and to situate the fundamentalist trends which are present in these contexts.

  19. 31 CFR 537.305 - Exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma. (United States)


    ... financial services to Burma. 537.305 Section 537.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.305 Exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma. The term exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma means: (a) The transfer...

  20. 31 CFR 103.186 - Special measures against Burma. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special measures against Burma. 103.186 Section 103.186 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Law...

  1. Two new species of the genus Helota from Burma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.


    Among the Helotidae of Mr. A. Fry’s collection, kindly sent to me for identification, there were two new species, both from Burma, one of which is very interesting on account of its being allied to the almost unknown Helota thibetana Westw. ( Mellii Westw.) from Simlah, the typespecimen of which, a

  2. The role of the Tatmadaw in modern day Burma: an analysis/ Zaiton bte Johari.


    Johari, Zaiton bte.


    The Tatmadaw (Burmese Army) has dominated Burma's politics since the Japanese and British occupation of Burma until today. Its role in Burma has received international attention, especially while other countries in Southeast Asia have seen the decline of military power, the most recent that being Indonesia. The Tatmadaw seems unshaken with all the recent development affecting the military institution in Southeast Asia. This study is significant in that it attempts to understand how the Tatmad...

  3. Thinking Big about the Small Footprint: Making Strategy for a Security Cooperation Campaign in Burma (United States)


    legitimacy and control at the same time. 1 Introduction In 2010, Burma (or Myanmar) began to transition from its decades-old rule by military deepen ties with Burma even further, Burma’s military , the Tatmadaw, must be the prime target of engagement as it is the country’s most is the only force in Burma … incapable of political bias,” therefore justifying military coups when the country faces instability. 32 Third

  4. The Diplomacy of Thailand with Burma(Myanmar) (1988-2006)


    Takahashi, Masaki


    In September 1988, the Burmese junta cracked down on a people’s demonstration for democracy. Western countries and Japan stopped aid and imposed sanctions on Burma, while Thailand, other ASEAN countries, and China tried to foster good relations with the junta. Since the end of the 1980s, Thailand had altered its policy from a buffer policy to constructive engagement supporting the military regime of Burma. Thailand’s constructive engagement policy toward Burma has placed priority on good rela...

  5. Primary prevention for resettled refugees from Burma: where to begin? (United States)

    Haley, Heather-Lyn; Walsh, Meredith; Tin Maung, Nang H; Savage, Clara P; Cashman, Suzanne


    Developing effective primary prevention initiatives may help recently arrived refugees retain some of their own healthy cultural habits and reduce the tendency to adopt detrimental ones. This research explores recent arrivals' knowledge regarding eating behaviors, physical activity and sleep habits. Working collaboratively with community members, a healthy living curriculum was adapted and pilot tested in focus groups. A community-engaged approach to revising and implementing a health promotion tool was effective in beginning dialogue about primary prevention among a group of recently arrived refugees from Burma. Seven themes were identified as particularly relevant: food choices, living environment, health information, financial stress, mobility/transportation, social interaction and recreation, and hopes and dreams. Refugees desire more specific information about nutrition and exercise, and they find community health workers an effective medium for delivering this information. The outcomes of this study may inform future targeted interventions for health promotion with refugees from Burma.

  6. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma. (United States)


    ... supervision and guarantee of another person's performance of a contract that includes the economic development... royalties, earnings or profits of, the economic development of resources located in Burma. ... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  7. 78 FR 21497 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program (United States)


    ... articles of jewelry containing jadeite or rubies mined or extracted from Burma, or any other activity... jewelry containing jadeite or rubies mined or extracted from Burma or any other activity prohibited by... classifiable under chapter heading 7103 of the HTS; and the term articles of jewelry containing jadeite...

  8. 31 CFR 537.202 - Prohibited exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma. (United States)


    ... reexportation of financial services to Burma. 537.202 Section 537.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... permit granted prior to July 29, 2003, the exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 537.202 Prohibited exportation or reexportation of...

  9. China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei FAN


    Full Text Available This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino–Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Charac-terizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Bur-ma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports.

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma (United States)


    ... authority, inter alia, of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. On July 28... abuses or to have engaged in activities facilitating public corruption in Burma. On April 30, 2008,...

  11. Strategic Forum, Number 249, October 2009. Burma in Strategic Perspective: Renewing Discussion of Options (United States)


    leadership of Burma. Bangkok has urged flex- ibility, understanding, a certain amount of accommodation, and real recognition that the equation of...Thailand’s standing in the region or damage Bangkok’s status and leadership. It is not clear that Bangkok is in a posi- tion to add more to the mix. It able to persuade Burma that its national interest lies in freeing up the economy, mak- ing business law transparent, developing tourism as the

  12. Death and injury caused by land mines in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Petersen, H D; Lykke, J


    One hundred and eighty-eight Burmese refugees in Thailand were interviewed. One hundred and five of those interviewed had knowledge of a total of 313 persons who had been exposed to land mine explosions. Twenty-three of the interviewed were land mine survivors. They were all male, aged between...... eight and 68 years, and all except one had been injured between 1986 and 1997. Fifteen of the 23 were civilians, eight were guerilla soldiers who were injured either in battle or while deploying or disarming land mines. Those who had stepped on land mines were all crus or femur amputated and had several...... scars on the lower limbs, abdomen and some also on the forearms. Those who had handled a land mine had lost either fingers or hands and one also lost both eyes. This study shows that the frequency of land mine accidents in Burma has been underestimated and that the mortality is high. The study also...

  13. Multi-level partnerships to promote health services among internally displaced in eastern Burma. (United States)

    Mahn, M; Maung, C; Oo, E K Shwe; Smith, L; Lee, C I; Whichard, E; Neumann, C; Richards, A K; Mullany, L C; Kuiper, H; Lee, T J


    Ethnic populations in eastern Burma are the target of military policies that result in forced labour, destruction of food supplies, and massive forced displacement. Despite international assistance to Burmese refugees along the Thai-Burma border, traditional humanitarian models have failed to reach these internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Burma. Nevertheless, through the cultivation of a model (cross border local-global partnerships) 300,000 IDPs in eastern Burma now receive critical health services where, otherwise, there would be none. We describe key elements of the partnership model's genesis in eastern Burma. The role of the local partner, Backpack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), is highlighted for its indigenous access to the IDP populations and its maintenance of programmatic autonomy. These local elements are potentiated by international support for technical assistance, training, resources, and advocacy. International policy and investment should prioritize support of locally-driven health initiatives that utilize local-global partnerships to reach not only IDPs but also other war-torn or traditionally inaccessible populations worldwide.

  14. A Pilot Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for Refugee Youth from Burma (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah Dorothy; Emmerling, Dane; Gavarkavich, Diane; Mershon, Claire-Helene; Linton, Kristin; Rubesin, Hillary; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Eng, Eugenia


    Art therapy is a promising form of therapy to address mental health concerns for refugee youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a pilot evaluation of an art therapy program for refugee adolescents from Burma currently living in the United States. Evaluation activities were based on the Centers for Disease Control and…

  15. 31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma. 537.412 Section 537.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.412 Investments in entities involved in...

  16. 31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. The sale to a foreign person of a U.S. person's equity or income interest in a development project...

  17. The Monastic Schools of Burma and Siam during the Colonial Period, 1852-1912. (United States)

    Jones, Alan L.

    Prior to the colonial period, the rudiments of education consisting of religion, basic literacy, and arithmetic had been provided to male children in Burma and Siam through Buddhist monks that lived in local monasteries. Education commenced when the child reached five or six years of age and usually ended at puberty. Formal learning continued for…

  18. Burma: The Struggle for Democracy and Freedom. A Resource Guide for Teachers. (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This resource guide for teachers contains readings, investigative sources, and first-hand accounts of the actions of the present military regime in Burma, a regime which retained power even after it lost the 1990 national elections, and which sponsors repression of pro-democracy forces in the country. The first section, an introduction, includes…

  19. Teaching Citizenship under an Authoritarian Regime: A Case-Study of Burma (United States)

    Treadwell, Brooke Andrea


    What does citizenship education look like in a society ruled by an authoritarian military regime? This dissertation seeks to answer this question by examining official citizenship education policy in Burma/Myanmar and how it is implemented in contemporary government primary schools. Using critical qualitative methodology, I identify the…

  20. Transcriptional and physiological study of the response of Burma mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorhiza) to salt and osmotic stress. (United States)

    Miyama, Masashi; Tada, Yuichi


    We investigated the transcriptional response of Burma mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorhiza) to high salinity (salt stress; 500 mM NaCl) and hyperosmotic stress (osmotic stress; 1 M sorbitol) by microarray analysis. ANOVA (P Burma mangrove to salt stress was accompanied by the up-regulation of genes categorized for "cell communication," "signal transduction," "lipid metabolic process," "photosynthesis," "multicellular organismal development," and "transport," and by down-regulation of genes categorized for "catabolic process." Burma mangrove maintained its leaf water potential and recovered from its photosynthesis rate that declined temporarily under salt stress, but not under osmotic stress. These results demonstrated a fundamental difference between the response to salt and osmotic stress. Ion and sugar content analysis suggested that salt tolerance of Burma mangrove might be attributed to their ability to accumulate high concentrations of Na+ and Cl(-), even under non-stressed conditions; to uptake additional Na+ and Cl(-) for use as osmolytes; and to maintain K+ homeostasis under salt stress.

  1. An Embryonic Border: Racial Discourses and Compulsory Vaccination for Indian Immigrants at Ports in Colonial Burma, 1870-1937


    Osada, Noriyuki


    This paper examines how an administrative border emerged between historically and culturally different and geographically separate regions which nevertheless had been integrated into one state under the colonial power. As a result of three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century, Burma was colonized by the British. During the course of its colonization, the country formally became a province of India. Hence no border had existed between Burma and the rest of India until 1937 when the former wa...

  2. Burma: Strategic Backwater or Strategic Fulcrum? U.S. Choices in the Bay of Bengal (United States)


    530, JSTOR -pdf (accessed 11 December 2012); David Arnott, “China-Burma relations”, in Challenges to...No. 2, (Autumn, 1996), The MIT Press, JSTOR -pdf (accessed 7 September 2012). 14 James D. Fearon and...Association, JSTOR -pdf (accessed 7 October 2012) pp. 75-90. See also Lake and Rothchild. 71

  3. Sacred Spaces of Karen Refugees and Humanitarian Aid Across the Thailand-Burma Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann


    Full Text Available In this article, I demonstrate that the Karen National Union (KNU was able to manipulate and politicise humanitarian aid in the Thailand-Burma borderland. I contend that in the context of the civil war in eastern Burma, Protestant Christianity provides a crucial vehicle for political mobilisation. The article shows that refugee camps in the Thai borderland become centres of proselytisation, and that Protestant evangelical and missionary networks open up passages across the Thai-Burmese border. The article thus considers a case where a homeland is constructed in the liminal space between two nations. Illegal emergency aid that doubles as missionary project reinforces the image of a helpless victim being vandalized by evil Burmese army. ----- Dieser Artikel zeigt auf, wie es der Karen National Union (KNU gelungen ist, die humanitäre Hilfe im Grenzgebiet zwischen Thailand und Burma für eigene Ziele zu manipulieren und zu politisieren. Ich argumentiere, dass das protestantische Christentum ein entscheidendes Vehikel zur politischen Mobilisierung im Kontext des Bürgerkriegs in Ost-Burma darstellt. Der Artikel zeigt, dass die Flüchtlingslager im thailändischen Grenzgebiet als Zentren der Missionierung dienen und dass die protestantisch-evangelikalen und missionarischen Netzwerke territoriale Korridore durch die thailändisch-burmesische Grenze öffnen. Wir sehen hier ein Fallbeispiel, wie eine imaginierte Nation in der Grenzerfahrung zweier Nationen konstruiert wird. Soforthilfe, die mit protestantischer Mission doppelt, verstärkt das Bild hilfloser Opfer, die von der burmesischen Armee vandalisiert werden.

  4. Burma's transition to "disciplined democracy": Abdication or institutionalization of military rule?


    Bünte, Marco


    Direct military rule has become rare in world politics. Today, most military regimes have either given way to some form of democracy or been transformed into another form of authoritarianism. This article formulates an analytical framework for the detachment of militaries from politics and identifies positive and negative factors for a withdrawal. It then applies this framework to the case of Burma/Myanmar, which is an example of deeply entrenched military rule. It is argued that the retreat ...

  5. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma]. (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari


    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action.

  6. Burma/Myanmar: Challenges of a Ceasefire Accord in Karen State Burma/Myanmar: Herausforderungen eines Waffenstillstandsabkommens im Karen-Staat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Core


    Full Text Available Burma (Myanmar has seen some of the longest-running insurgencies in the world, which have had a devastating effect on local populations and the country as a whole. While the Karen National Union (KNU, which has fought successive Burmese governments since 1949, is in a critical phase of its life, the KNU/KNLA Peace Council (KPC is experiencing life under a ceasefire accord with the Burmese government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC. Major challenges have occurred since the ceasefire and future developments are uncertain. Like all ceasefire groups in the country, the KPC has come under immense pressure to follow the government’s “seven-step road map” to democracy, compete in the 2010 elections, and transform its troops into a border guard force under the control of the Burmese military or face disarmament. This article seeks to provide some insights into a ceasefire group, to analyse the failures and successes of the ceasefire accord, and to outline future challenges to the country. Myanmar (Burma ist bis heute Schauplatz von anhaltenden ethnischen Konflikten, welche einen erheblichen Einfluss auf lokale Bevölkerungen und das ganze Land haben. Während die Karen National Union, die seit dem Jahr 1949 gegen die burmesische Regierung kämpft, sich in einer kritischen Phase befindet, hat das KNU/KNLA Peace Council seinen eigenen Frieden mit der Militärregierung geschlossen. Seit dem Waffenstillstand haben sich erhebliche Herausforderungen aufgetan und zukünftige Entwicklungen sind ungewiss. Wie alle Waffenstillstandsgruppen im Land steht die Gruppe unter dem Druck der Regierung, dem „Sieben-Punkte-Fahrplan zur disziplinierten Demokratie“ zu folgen und damit eine politische Partei zu gründen sowie seine Truppen in eine Grenztruppe unter Kontrolle des burmesischen Militärs zu transformieren. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Einblick in eine Waffenstillstandsgruppe, analysiert die Erfolge sowie Misserfolge des

  7. Slim Chance: The Pivotal Role of Air Mobility in the Burma Campaign (United States)


    served as chief of strategy and plans at the 609th Air and Space Operations Center, US Air Forces Central, Southwest Asia . Currently he is the com...destinations as Australia, Singapore, and the southern tip of Africa.47 Yet importantly, British aviation lagged considerably behind US companies in the...Pagoda, lookin’ eastward to the sea, There’s a Burma girl a-settin’, and I know she thinks of me; For the wind is in the palm -trees, and the temple

  8. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia. (United States)

    Talbott, K; Brown, M


    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues.

  9. Two Versions of Buddhist Karen History of the Late British Colonial Period in Burma:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Ikeda


    Full Text Available The majority of the Karen people in Burma are in fact Buddhist, in spite of their widespread image as Christian, pro-British, anti-Burman, and separatist. In the last decade of British rule, two Buddhist interpretations of Karen history—virtually the first ethnic self-assertion by the Buddhist Karens—were published along with the first Christian version. Writing in Burmese for Burmese readers, the authors of these Buddhist versions sought to prove that the Karen were a legitimate people (lumyo comparable to the Burman and Mon in the Buddhist world, with dynastic lineages of their own kingship (min reaching back into the remote past, and a group faithful to their religious order (thathana. This linkage of ethnicity=kingship=religion was presented in order to persuade skeptical readers who believed that the Karen, lacking the tradition of Buddhist min, were too primitive to constitute an authentic lumyo of the thathana world. Analysis of these texts will shed light on the social formation of Karen identity among the Buddhists from the 1920s to the 1930s. This will also lead us to consider the historical processes whereby the quasi-ethnic idioms and logic innate to the Burmese-speaking world were transformed in the face of modern and Western notions of race and nation, and consequently the mutation of Burma into an ethnically articulated society.

  10. Women of Burma Speak Out: Workshops to Deconstruct Gender-Based Violence and Build Systems of Peace and Justice (United States)

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.; Khuankaew, Ouyporn


    Refugee and internally displaced women of Burma examined structural and institutional violence against women within their communities within workshop formats. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and gender justice. The authors describe their methodology, based…

  11. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  12. GPS Velocities and Structure Across the Burma Accretionary Prism and Shillong Plateau in Bangladesh (United States)

    Akhter, S. H.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Agostinetti, N. P.; Kogan, M. G.


    We have installed a suite of 18 GPS receiver across the Bengal Basin, covering the country of Bangladesh, near the junction of the Indian Shield, the Himayalan collision belt and the Burma Arc subduction zone. The crust of the Indian Shield thins eastward across the hinge zone of an Early Cretaceous continental margin. The thin continental and/or oceanic crust of the eastern Bengal Basin beyond the hinge zone is overlain by a thick sedimentary sequence of 16 km or more. This heavily-sedimented basin is being overridden from the north by the Shillong Massif, a 2-km high plateau exposing Indian Shield, and from the east by the accretionary prism of the Burma Arc subduction system. The soft collision of the Burma Arc with the Bengal Basin and Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) has built a large accretionary prism that widens northwards to 250-300 km. The prism reaches as much as half way across the deep Bengal Basin and the thrust front is blind and buried by the rapid sedimentation of the GBD. Our GPS data cover the frontal region of this unusual subaerial accretionary prism. The convergence across this belt is oblique and partitioned. Our GPS array in Bangladesh shows similar velocity gradients across the accretionary prism corresponding to both E-W shortening and N-S dextral shear. The rates are consistent with the data further east in India. How this motion is partitioned into elastic earthquake-cycle loading and permanent inelastic deformation is unclear. The north-dipping Dauki thrust fault is responsible for the uplifted Shillong Plateau overriding the low-lying and rapidly subsiding Surma Basin. This crustal scale convergent boundary could represent the beginning of a forward jump of the Himalayan front. The surface expression of this boundary is a regional south-verging anticline folding Quaternary sediment into its forelimb at the deformation front south of the Plateau. This suggests that the Dauki Fault, too, is blind and extends well south of the topographic

  13. The Vital Presence: The Generalship of Field Marshal Viscount William Slim General Officer Commanding XIV Army in the Burma Theater 1943-1945 (United States)


    in theatre. Additionally, Mountbatten proposed Operation DRACULA developed by hos own staff, intended as an 23 ambitious combined airborne...amphibious assault to seize Rangoon by coup de main, then push north to link up with XIV Army fixing Japanese in Central Burma.75 DRACULA required...north of the city. It would matter little, Operation DRACULA had been revitalized as Slim’s success in Central Burma became apparent and the XXVI

  14. Geochemical loading of suspended sediment carried by large monsoonal rivers in Burma (United States)

    Robinson, R. A.; Tipper, E.; Bird, M. I.; Oo, N.


    The Irrawaddy and Salween rivers of Burma drain the most rapidly exhuming region in the Himalayas, the eastern syntaxis zone. These monsoonal rivers have catchment areas of 0.413 x 106 km2 and 0.272 x 106 km2, respectively, and approximately 95% of the Irrawaddy catchment lies within Burma, while the catchment of the Salween flows through China, Thailand and Burma. They are long rivers (~2000 and ~2800 km) which have steep and narrow bedrock gorges along much of their length, and different amounts of floodplain in their lower reaches. These rivers have been less studied than other large Asian systems because of political instability in Burma and restricted access. Based on available historical data, and field work in 2005-2008, Robinson et al. (2007) estimated that the Irrawaddy is likely to be the 3rd largest river globally in terms of sediment load and when the Irrawaddy and Salween estimated fluxes are combined, they together contribute 4.6 Mt/yr of particulate organic carbon (POC) and an additional 1.1Mt/yr of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the ocean. When estimated yields of total organic carbon are calculated, the Irrawaddy-Salween system ranks alongside the Amazon as one of the largest yields of organic carbon, and is higher than the yield for the Ganges-Brahmaptura (Bird et al., 2008). Here we present preliminary geochemical data for water and sediment from the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers, and demonstrate the variability in elemental concentrations of water between the rivers and the summer and winter monsoon seasons, and differences in suspended sediment geochemistry as a function of water depth. The variability and magnitude of weathering products carried by such significant systems need to be quantified in order to understand their contribution to global element cycling (Tipper et al., 2006) and sedimentary depocentres. Our data highlight that further study of the geochemistry of such large rivers will significantly improve our understanding of the

  15. The Whole Story of Britain's Policies on Burma during the Pacific War%太平洋战争期间英国对缅甸政策出台始末

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the early period of the Pacific War, the British colonists in the Far East Asia were driven out of Burma. In order to return to Burma after the war, the British government was unwilling to express its attitude toward Burmese future. Although studies and plans had been done on Burmese development after the war within the British Conservative Party, yet they were all denied by Churchill, who later had to work out an explicit policy towards Burma after the counter attack against the Japanese fascists began. Britain worked out a white book, which reflected its dilemma. On the one hand, its government was unwilling to retreat from Burma and on the other, it could not find a better way to control Burma. So this paper argues that the above reasons are the essential cause for Burma to seek independence from the British Commonwealth.

  16. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma]. (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari


    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  17. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States. (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M


    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change.

  18. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot (United States)

    Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi


    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world’s largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10–20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased—particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately

  19. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot. (United States)

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo


    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  20. The Impact of Sino-Indian Energy Security Ambitions on Burma’s Domestic and Foreign Politics (United States)


    shortage of resources as the first of three fundamental challenges to China’s peaceful rise in the twenty-first century.”70 By shifting from a “net...hydrocarbon projects in Myanmar.”88 It also acquired a total of twelve offshore and onshore blocks, or groupings of tracts of land or sections leased for...Burma won’t help locals,” ( Bangkok Post, Sept. 7, 2011) accessed Sept. 9, 2011, 45

  1. Paysages de l’hybridité en Birmanie Landscapes of Hybridity in Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Robinne


    Full Text Available Du fait de la dimension composite, hétérogène, de tout paysage social, une nécessaire cohérence d’ensemble se dessine. À la croisée de populations d’origines diverses produisant une diversité sociale et linguistique aussi complexe qu’instable, la région de Nyaung-Shwé dans l’État Shan de Birmanie est fondamentalement structurée par l’évolution concomitante de la cérémonie processionnelle de cinq images de Bouddha et par le cycle économique de « cinq jours un marché ». L’articulation de ces deux sphères économiques et religieuses non seulement contribue à organiser les déplacements des biens et des personnes de part et d’autre du lac Inlé ; elle génère également une suprématie politique du paysage social au profit de ceux qui contrôlent – au moins symboliquement – leur évolution. Cet exemple pourrait être étendu à d’autres paysages sociaux où le bouddhisme opère comme fédérateur commun (comme dans la région de Thibaw, on le verra, où le christianisme pluriel est indissociable des revendications ethniques, et finalement partout où j’ai été conduit à faire des enquêtes de terrain en Birmanie, dans des régions reculées comme en milieu urbain. Dans tous les cas, la problématique consistant à mettre de côté, au moins dans un premier temps, l’habituel surdéterminant ethnique – voire même interethnique –, c’est-à-dire à centrer l’analyse sur les carrefours transethniques plutôt que sur les frontières culturelles et territoriales, une telle problématique contribuerait à démontrer la dynamique inclusive de tout paysage social et l’intérêt à prendre l’hybridité pour objet d’étude.Despite the composite dimensions of any social landscape, a necesserary social coherence has to be produced. At the crossroad of peoples of multiple origins producing a complex and unstable social and linguistic diversity, the Nyaung Shwe township in the Shan State of Burma

  2. GPS Velocities and Structure Across the Burma Accretionary Prism and Shillong Anticline in Bangladesh (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Bilham, R. G.; Kogan, M. G.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Mondal, D.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Rangin, C.; Saha, P.


    We installed a suite of 25 GPS receivers between 2003 and 2012 covering the deltaic country of Bangladesh, which lies near the junction of the Indian Shield, the Himayalan collision belt and the Indo-Burman Wedge. The crust of the Indian Shield thins southeastward in the Bengal Basin across the hinge zone of an Early Cretaceous continental margin. The thin continental and/or oceanic crust of the Bengal Basin beyond the hinge zone is overlain by the southward prograding Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) creating a total sediment thickness of ≥16 km. This heavily-sedimented basin is being overthrust from the north by the Shillong Massif, a 2-km high basement-cored anticlinorium exposing Indian Shield, and from the east by the accretionary prism of the Indo-Burma Wedge. The soft, oblique collision of Burma with the Bengal Basin and Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) has built a large accretionary prism that widens northwards to 250-300 km. The prism reaches as much as half way across the deep Bengal Basin. The outer folds and the thrust front are blind and buried by the rapid sedimentation of the GBD. The GPS data in Bangladesh cover the frontal region of this unusual subaerial accretionary prism, while observations from India and Myanmar provide velocities for more internal parts of the system. The convergence across this belt is oblique and partitioned. The velocity gradients across the accretionary prism indicate E-W shortening at ~13 mm/y and N-S dextral shear at ~25 mm/y. The shortening appears to be more concentrated farther west, towards the thrust front, while the shear is more distributed and does not extend to the frontal folds. How this motion is further partitioned into elastic earthquake-cycle loading and permanent inelastic deformation remains unclear. The north-dipping Dauki thrust fault raises the Shillong Massif lowers the rapidly subsiding Surma Basin foredeep. This crustal scale convergent boundary could represent the beginning of a forward jump of the

  3. Assessment of multifaceted environmental issues and model development of an Indo-Burma hotspot region. (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar


    The present article provides a multifaceted critical research review on environmental issues intimately related with the socio-economy of North East India (NE), a part of Indo-Burma hotspot. Further, the article addresses the issue of sustainable development of NE India through diverse ecological practices inextricably linked with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). The biodiversity of NE India comprises endemic floral diversity, particularly medicinal plants of importance to pharmaceutical industry, and unique faunal diversity. Nevertheless, it is very unfortunate that this great land of biodiversity is least explored taxonomically as well as biotechnologically, probably due to geographical and political constraints. Different anthropogenic and socio-economic factors have perturbed the pristine ecology of this region, leading to environmental degradation. Also, the practice of unregulated shifting cultivation (jhooming), bamboo flowering, biological invasions and anthropogenic perturbations to biodiversity exacerbate the gloomy situation. Instead of a plethora of policies, the TEK of NE people may be integrated with modern scientific knowledge in order to conserve the environment which is the strong pillar for socio-economic sector here. The aforesaid approach can be practiced in NE India through the broad implementation and extension of agroforestry practices. Further, case studies on Apatanis, ethnomedicinal plants use by indigenous tribal groups and sacred forests are particularly relevant in the context of conservation of environmental health in totality while addressing the socioeconomic impact as well. In context with the prevailing scenarios in this region, we developed an eco-sustainable model for natural resource management through agroforestry practices in order to uplift the social as well as environmental framework.

  4. Snakes, Ladders, and Information about Sexually Transmitted Infections: Evaluation of a Peer Educator Training on the Thailand-Burma Border. (United States)

    Gedeon, Jillian; Hkum, Jessica; Hsue, Saw Nanda; Walsh, Meredith; Foster, Angel M


    The longstanding conflict and civil strife in Burma has had significant consequences on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of ethnic minority groups, including adolescents. The Adolescent Reproductive Health Zone in Chiang Mai, Thailand promotes adolescent SRH rights and access to services by having peer educators travel to their hometowns in Burma and lead intensive youth-focused trainings on a variety of topics and issues. In order to evaluate the impact of an intensive three-day workshop dedicated to improving knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among peer educators through didactic, experiential, and skill-building exercises, we administered a pre-, post-, and longitudinal assessment. All 13 participants completed both the pre-test and post-test; 11 of 13 participants (85%) completed the longitudinal evaluation administered three months after the training. Our results indicate that both individual and aggregate STI knowledge increased from baseline and that this knowledge was retained. Moreover, the training increased participants' confidence in their outreach abilities, informed changes in the curricular modules, and led to the implementation of new teaching and learning techniques, especially the incorporation of games and activities. Our findings showcase a successful initiative and suggest similar adolescent peer health educator programs could be undertaken in this protracted crisis and conflict setting.

  5. On the frontline of eastern Burma's chronic conflict--listening to the voices of local health workers. (United States)

    Footer, Katherine H A; Meyer, Sarah; Sherman, Susan G; Rubenstein, Leonard


    Globally, attacks on and interferences with health workers and healthcare delivery, including targeted violence towards providers, attacks on hospitals and delays and denial of health care, represent a serious humanitarian and human rights issue. However, gaps in research about these events persist, limiting the evidence base from which to understand and address the problem. This paper focuses on experiences of local health workers in eastern Burma's chronic conflict, including their strategies for addressing security and ensuring access to vulnerable ethnic communities in the region. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in June and August 2012 with 27 health workers from three health organizations that operate throughout eastern Burma, with their operational head quarters located in Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand. Qualitative analysis found that health workers in this setting experience violent and non-violent interferences with their work, and that the Burmese government's military activities in the region have severely impacted access to care, which remains restricted. Data show that innovative security strategies have emerged, including the important role of the community in ensuring securer access to health care. This study underscores health workers' concern for improved data collection to support the rights of health workers to provide health care, and the rights of community members to receive health care in conflict-affected settings. Findings will inform the development of an incident reporting form to improve systematic data collection and documentation of attacks on health in this setting.

  6. Earthquakes and slip rate of the southern Sagaing fault: insights from an offset ancient fort wall, lower Burma (Myanmar) (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Aung, Thura; Min, Soe; Khaing, Saw Ngwe; Tun, Soe Thura


    Field investigations of an ancient fortress wall in southern Myanmar reveal an offset of ˜6 m across the Sagaing fault, the major right-lateral fault between the Sunda and Burma plates. The fault slip rate implied by offset of this 16th-century fortress is between 11 and 18 cm yr-1. A palaeoseismological excavation within the fortress reveals at least two major fault ruptures since its construction. The slip rate we obtained is comparable to geodetic and geological estimates farther north, but is only 50 per cent of the spreading rate (38 mm yr-1) at the Andaman Sea spreading centre. This disparity suggests that other structures may be accommodating deformation within the Burma Plate. We propose two fault-slip scenarios to explain the earthquake-rupture history of the southern Sagaing fault. Using both small offset features along the fault trace and historical records, we speculate that the southern Sagaing fault exhibits a uniform-fault-slip behaviour and that one section of the fault could generate a M7+ earthquake within the next few decades.

  7. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-05-07 to 2007-06-14 (NCEI Accession 0155654) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155654 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  8. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1117 in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal and others from 2011-12-15 to 2012-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0138170) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138170 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1117 in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  9. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar (United States)

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin


    Background Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs) and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this

  10. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Low


    Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in

  11. Notes on Reading Rare Books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma%滇缅抗战稀见文献知见录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    中国远征军出动对日作战的中缅印战场,既是抗日战争正面战场的重要组成部分,又是世界反法西斯战争亚洲-太平洋战场即东方战线主战场之一。滇缅抗战胜利对世界反法西斯战争取得全面胜利作出了举世瞩目的贡献,是世界反法西斯战争重大战果。中国远征军是滇缅抗战的主力军。笔者就所知所见的稀见滇缅抗战文献单行本逐一概说,共计介绍中美盟国中英文文献十二种和中译日方文献两种,以丰富世界反法西斯战争史和中国抗战史研究史料。%The Chinese Expeditionary Army (CEA) was dispatched from China inland to the west of Yunnan province, Burma, and India for fighting against the Japanese invaders during the Second World War. Not only the battle field which CEA had once experienced and bled was an important component of the frontier battlefields during the period of Anti-Japanese War in China, but also it was one of the oriental main battle fields, the Asia-Pacific, in the International Anti-Fascist War. The victory of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma had made a remarkable contribution towards the finally overall success of the International Anti-Fascism War. CEA was the main force of the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which had achieved splendid results on the battle field in West Yunnan and North Burma. The essay is written down to introduce the rare books about the Anti-Japanese War in Yunnan and Burma, which is made of twelve volumes written in Chinese or English, and other two volumes in Japanese. Surely it is worthy of studying for the history of the International Anti-Fascism War and the Anti-Japanese War in China.

  12. A redescription of the monotypic felt scale insect genus Pedroniopsis Green (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Eriococcidae) from India and Burma. (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris J; Williams, Douglas J


    Here we redescribe the felt scale genus Pedroniopsis Green and its type species Pedroniopsis beesoni Green for the first time since it was described 90 years ago. We consider that the genus belongs to the family Eriococcidae as presently understood but realise that the family may not be monophyletic. The species was collected in crevices and pits on the bark of Shorea robusta (Dipterocarpaceae) from Odisha State, India, which is its only known locality in India. We also record the species from Burma (Myanmar) for the first time living in galls on Dipterocarpus tuberculatus (Dipterocarpaceae) and, therefore, the species may have a wider distribution but has not been observed because of its cryptic habit. The adult females of the genus and species have some unusual features such as truncate-conical marginal and dorsal setae that are mostly bifid at the tip. We suggest that the genus may be similar in some respects to the genus Sangicoccus Reyne known from farther east in southern Asia.

  13. Tourism Cooperation among China, India, Burma and Bangladesh%中印缅孟区域的旅游合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are rich resources for tourism among the adjacent areas of China, India, Burma and Ban- gladesh. To develop the industry may facilitate economic and social development and promote poverty alleviation in this region. While recognizing the potentials and advantages for tourism cooperation, however, the nations concerned must address the existing problems and turn potential resources into palpable interests.%中印缅孟毗邻地区旅游资源富集,大力发展旅游业有利于促进该区域经济社会发展,加快民众脱贫致富,互惠双赢.该区域开展旅游合作潜力很大,也具备一些有利条件,但现存问题需要逐步得到解决,才能把潜在资源转变为现实收益.在大力促进中国与印度的双边旅游合作的同时,逐步推进区域旅游合作,是比较可行的思路.

  14. Combined effects of Eurasia/Sunda oblique convergence and East-Tibetan crustal flow on the active tectonics of Burma (United States)

    Rangin, Claude; Maurin, Thomas; Masson, Frederic


    It is widely accepted that deformation of the India/Sunda plate is the result of partitioned hyper oblique convergence. Presently, sub-meridian dextral strike slip faulting accommodates this India/Sunda motion in a buffer zone, the Burma platelet. This wide dextral strike slip shear zone is complicated by the side effect of the Tibet plateau collapse that can be described in term of crustal flow and gravity tectonics. The loss of potential energy related to this plateau collapse affects most of the Burmese platelet particularly in its northernmost part. Interaction of these two distinct geodynamic processes is recorded in the GPS based regional strain field, the analysis of seismic focal mechanism but also from direct geologic observations both onshore and offshore Myanmar and Bangladesh. We propose the apparent E-W shortening component of this so called partitioned hyper-oblique subduction is only the effect of regional gravitational forces related to the Tibet plateau collapse whereas the NS strike slip faulting accommodates the India/Sunda motion.

  15. Burma's Irrawaddy River Upstreann Hydropower Project Enviromnental Assessment Work%缅甸伊江上游水电项目环境评价工作浅述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官朝锋; 全秀荣; 段春梅


    Burma's Irrawaddy River upstream hydropower project is a giant foreign investment project answering the call of "going out" from the central party committee. The project development and construction will greatly drive the economic development of Burma especially northern Burma, improve the infrastructure conditions of the developing basin, will also promote the communication and development relations between the two countries. However, because the development of level 7 hydropower station will change the environment of river basin, the environmental protection work is an important factor determining the smooth development of project. The article presents the basic principles and general thought of EIA work, and introduces the preliminary project environmental impact assessment, environmental protection and work during the operation.%缅甸伊江上游水电项目是中国公司为了践行党中央国务院“走出去”号召的一个巨型对外投资项目.项目的开发建设将极大地带动缅甸特别是缅甸北部经济的发展,改善开发流域的基础设施条件,也将促进两国关系的交流和发展.但是,由于7级电站的开发将改变拟开发流域的环境现状,环境保护工作能否有效开展,是决定项目能否顺利推进的重要因素.文章对项目环评的基本原则和总体思路进行了阐述,对项目前期环境影响评估、施工期环保和运营期工作进行了介绍.

  16. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

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    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

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    Jianxiong Ma


    Full Text Available The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers. The political elites of the Five Buddha Districts, however, were monks who had escaped the strict orthodoxy of the Qing government to become local chieftains, or rebels, depending on political changes in southern Yunnan. As a centralized polity, the Five Buddha Districts system was attached to the frontier politics of the Qing state before the coming of European colonial powers. The Qing state provided a sociopolitical space for local groups to develop their political ideals between various powerful Dai-Shan chieftains. The negotiation, competition, and cooperation between the Five Buddha leadership and the Qing, Dai chieftains, and neighboring political powers had been thoroughly integrated into the frontier politics of this interdependent society for more than two hundred years. As the history of the Yunnan-Burma frontier formation shows that no mountain space existed to allow the natives to escape from the state through their shifting agriculture, and anarchism was not practiced by the mountain people who were separated from the state, the author argues that a stateless region like James Scott’s “Zomia” did not historically exist in this region.

  18. 投资缅甸伊江上游水电项目国家风险分析%Country Risk of Investing Burma's Irrawaddy Upstream Hydropower Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官朝锋; 黄丽; 段春梅


    In order to actively implement the "going out" strategy, after years of effort, China's company gets the Burma's Irrawaddy upstream hydropower development right. The project's scale is large, investment is large, construction cycle is long, social influence is long. Because Burma's politic is instable, project development faces the great risk. In order to reduce project risk loss, this paper makes a deep analysis on the country risk that the project faces, and puts forward the avoidance.%为了积极贯彻落实党中央、国务院“走出去”战略,经过几年的努力,中国公司获得了缅甸伊洛瓦底江上游的水电开发权.该项目规模大、投资多、建设周期长、社会影响大,由于缅甸政治不稳定,项目开发面临较大的国家风险.为了减少项目风险损失,本文对项目面临的国家风险进行了深入分析,并提出了规避措施.

  19. 中缅边境蚊虫调查研究%A survey for mosquito at the border between China and Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓龙; 孙肖红; 曹晓梅; 李亚平; 和志宏; 房健慧; 王静


    目的 调查中缅边境3个口岸蚊虫种群数量及构成.方法 灯诱法.结果 在中缅边境3个采样点共采集19种蚊虫,其中三带喙库蚊是优势种群,致倦库蚊、棕头库蚊和中华按蚊数量较多.结论 中缅边境蚊种丰富,优势度较高的三带喙库蚊为流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)的媒介,联合开展中缅边境蚊虫和蚊传疾病的监测是双方共同控制传染病传入传出的关键.%Objective To investigate mosquitoes species at the border between China and Burma. Methods Lamp trapping was conducted. Results 19 species of mosquito were collected in three ports. Culex tritaeniorhyn-chus was predominant species. Conclusion Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the vector of Japanese encephalitis, so survey for mosquito and mosquito-bome disease is required at the sino-Burma border.

  20. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on Ramree Island, the western coast of Myanmar (Burma) (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuang-Chou; Thura Tun, Soe


    Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Offshore western Myanmar, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust. Wide-spread marine terraces with numerous uplifted corals are evident for the active deformation along the coast of western Myanmar. The 1762 Arakan earthquake, the last major seismic event along this plate boundary belt, has been proposed to result from slip on upper-plate splay faults, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Some previous studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years from the ages of the marine terraces, but the seismic activity of upper-plate splay faults remains unclear. From the ages of multiple steps of uplifted coral microatolls, we have identified several previous earthquake events that are likely produced by the upper-plate splay faults. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, western Myanmar, we found three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations on the wave-cut platform. U-Th ages of the corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. A lower group of corals suggests that there was at least one event after the 1762 earthquake, probably in 1848 according to Myanmar's recorded history. This event has not been reported previously elsewhere, thus it may represent a minor, local event that occurred entirely on a splay fault. Geomorphic evidence for such a local structure is also present near the central western Ramree coast. Detailed topographic survey revealed that the uplifted marine terrace gets higher oceanward. This deformation pattern is likely produced by an east-dipping reverse fault not too far offshore the coastline there. Since most previous studies focused on megathrust earthquakes, the

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-23 (NODC Accession 0115009) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115009 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-21 (NODC Accession 0115589) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115589 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay...

  3. An Embryonic Border: Racial Discourses and Compulsory Vaccination for Indian Immigrants at Ports in Colonial Burma, 1870-1937 Une frontière embryonnaire : discours raciaux et vaccination obligatoire des immigrants indiens dans les ports de la Birmanie coloniale, 1870-1937


    Noriyuki Osada


    This paper examines how an administrative border emerged between historically and culturally different and geographically separate regions which nevertheless had been integrated into one state under the colonial power. As a result of three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century, Burma was colonized by the British. During the course of its colonization, the country formally became a province of India. Hence no border had existed between Burma and the rest of India until 1937 when the former wa...

  4. Veterinary experiences as a Japanese prisoner of war and ex-POW along the Burma railroad from 1942 to January 1946. (United States)

    van der Schaaf, A


    As a prisoner of war the writer was working for nearly three years in different POW camps, and outside them, along the Burma railway from Thanbyuyzat in southern Burma up to Kanchanabury in Thiland. In the army of the Netherlands-Indian archipelago (KNIL) he had the military rank of reserve horse-doctor. In civilian life he was attached to the Veterinary Institute in Buitenzorg(now Bogor) as a veterinary bacteriologist. His task as a POW became that of meathygienist and supervisor of the living animals in the camps. In this function he diagnosed swine fever in growing pigs which had mainly been fed on the offal of the Japanese kitchen. The acute course and the pathological alterations observed during the post-mortem examinations were identical with those of the Southern-African type of the disease. In slaughter cattle the author diagnosed some cases of lung tuberculosis, one of anthrax, several of rinderpest, some of rhinal granulomatosis and one of foot and mouth disease. In chickens he found NCD (pseudo-fowlpest) and in ducklings a mortal disease which the author then called 'keeling disease' but which he many years later, recognized as virus hepatitis. As assistant bacteriologist and ex-POW he joined the British regimental hospital in Bangkok. Here he had the apportunity to assist the bacteriologist pathologist, Maj. C. R. Peck IMS/IAMC in diagnosing the first case of melioidosis in an ex-POW of the KNIL who died from the sub-acute infection, notwithstanding treatment in the hospital with sulfa-drugs and penicillin.

  5. Impact of community-based maternal health workers on coverage of essential maternal health interventions among internally displaced communities in eastern Burma: the MOM project.

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    Luke C Mullany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to essential maternal and reproductive health care is poor throughout Burma, but is particularly lacking among internally displaced communities in the eastern border regions. In such settings, innovative strategies for accessing vulnerable populations and delivering basic public health interventions are urgently needed. METHODS: Four ethnic health organizations from the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions collaborated on a pilot project between 2005 and 2008 to examine the feasibility of an innovative three-tiered network of community-based providers for delivery of maternal health interventions in the complex emergency setting of eastern Burma. Two-stage cluster-sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y conducted before and after program implementation enabled evaluation of changes in coverage of essential antenatal care interventions, attendance at birth by those trained to manage complications, postnatal care, and family planning services. RESULTS: Among 2,889 and 2,442 women of reproductive age in 2006 and 2008, respectively, population characteristics (age, marital status, ethnic distribution, literacy were similar. Compared to baseline, women whose most recent pregnancy occurred during the implementation period were substantially more likely to receive antenatal care (71.8% versus 39.3%, prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-2.04] and specific interventions such as urine testing (42.4% versus 15.7%, PRR = 2.69 [95% CI 2.69-3.54], malaria screening (55.9% versus 21.9%, PRR = 2.88 [95% CI 2.15-3.85], and deworming (58.2% versus 4.1%, PRR = 14.18 [95% CI 10.76-18.71]. Postnatal care visits within 7 d doubled. Use of modern methods to avoid pregnancy increased from 23.9% to 45.0% (PRR = 1.88 [95% CI 1.63-2.17], and unmet need for contraception was reduced from 61.7% to 40.5%, a relative reduction of 35% (95% CI 28%-40%. Attendance at birth by those trained to

  6. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

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    Mahn Mahn


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. Methods A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. Results One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Conclusions Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during

  7. Summary of field trials in 1964-69 in Rangoon, Burma, of organophosphorus larvicides and oils against Culex pipiens fatigens larvae in polluted water. (United States)

    Self, L S; Tun, M M


    In tests in Rangoon, Burma, of the larvicidal activity of various organophosphorus compounds against C. p. fatigans, it was found that the activity usually lasted much longer in septic tanks and pit latrines than in open drains. Dursban, Abate, fenthion and several other emulsifiable concentrates caused high larval mortality at a concentration of 0.05 ppm but 0.5 ppm was normally required to obtain a minimum of 1-2 weeks of complete larval control. For the desired residual activity, dosages about 40-400 times the laboratory LC(95) values were normally required, depending on the compound used.The most effective formulation was Dursban emulsifiable concentrate, which, at a concentration of 0.5 ppm, was effective for 3, 7 and 12 weeks in concrete drains, pit latrines and septic tanks, respectively. Petroleum oils applied at rates of 25-40 US gal/ac (approx. 237 l/ha-380 l/ha) and a pyrethrum derivative at a concentration of 1.0 ppm were toxic to larvae but not highly residual. Some emulsifiable-concentrate/oil mixtures appeared to be outstandingly effective, although inconsistent results also occurred. Granular formulations were normally less effective than the emulsifiable concentrates.

  8. Purification and partial characterization of novel penicillin V acylase from Acinetobacter sp. AP24 isolated from Loktak Lake, an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. (United States)

    Philem, Pushparani Devi; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Dharne, Mahesh S; Prabhune, Asmita A


    Members of the bacterial genus Acinetobacter have attracted great attention over the past few decades, on account of their various biotechnological applications and clinical implications. In this study, we are reporting the first experimental penicillin V acylase (PVA) activity from this genus. Penicillin acylases are pharmaceutically important enzymes widely used in the synthesis of semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. The bacterium, identified as Acinetobacter sp. AP24, was isolated from the water of Loktak Lake (Manipur, India), an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. PVA production was increased threefold in an optimized medium with 0.2% sodium glutamate and 1% glucose as nitrogen and carbon sources respectively, after 24 hr of fermentation at 28°C and pH 7.0 with shaking at 180 rpm. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by cation-exchange chromatography using SP-sepharose resin. The PVA is a homotetramer with subunit molecular mass of 34 kD. The enzyme was highly specific toward penicillin V with optimal hydrolytic activity at 40°C and pH 7.5. The enzyme was stable from pH 5.0 to 9.0 at 25 °C for 2 hr. The enzyme retained 75% activity after 1 hr of incubation at 40°C at pH 7.5.

  9. Phylogeny and Taxonomical Investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian Region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hot Spot Region with Special Reference to Manipur

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    Th. Kamala


    Full Text Available Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice.

  10. Phylogeny and taxonomical investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hot spot region with special reference to Manipur. (United States)

    Kamala, Th; Devi, S Indira; Sharma, K Chandradev; Kennedy, K


    Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice.

  11. Tagaung Taung Nickel Mine of Burma An Overview of Ore Matching Process%缅甸达贡山红土型镍矿配矿工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the rapid development of stainless steel and battery industry , the demand for nickel is also increasing , used to produce metal nickel and nickel alloy type laterite nickel ore has been greatly devel‐oped . As southeast Asia nickel resource big country Burma has a lot of laterite nickel ore , detailed under‐standing of the geological characteristics and type laterite nickel ore matching process , the reasonable de‐velopment and utilization of nickel resources , ease the shortage of nickel resources in our country the sta‐tus quo . In this paper , the type laterite nickel ore mineralization mechanism and laterite nickel ore produc‐tion technology for interpretation , and the country for gongshan nickel ore matching method and obtain the economic benefits of project are introduced in details .%随着不锈钢和电池行业的快速发展,对镍的需求也不断的增加,用来生产金属镍和镍铁合金的红土型镍矿得到了很大程度的开发。作为东南亚镍资源大国缅甸拥有丰富的红土型镍矿,深入了解红土型镍矿的地质特征及配矿工艺,合理开发利用镍矿资源,缓解我国镍资源紧缺现状。本文对红土型镍矿成矿机理及红土型镍矿生产工艺进行诠释,并对缅甸达贡山镍矿项目配矿方法及取得的经济效益进行详细介绍。

  12. Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo–Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai


    Full Text Available The present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, north east India falling under an Indo–Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. The phytosociolology of invasive weeds has been studied, showing that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter as well as respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Aizawl. Biomonitoring through plant leaves has been recognized as a recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter science. We aimed to investigate whether L. camara leaves may act as a biomonitoring tool hence allowing its sustainable management. The quantity of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter at four different sites were much higher than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board of India during the summer and winter seasons. The dust deposition of L. camara leaves was 1.01 mg/cm2 and, pertaining to the biochemical parameters: pH was 7.49; relative water content 73.74%; total chlorophyll 1.91 mg/g; ascorbic acid 7.06 mg/g; sugar 0.16 mg/g; protein 0.67 mg/g; catalase 30.76 U/mg protein; peroxidase 0.16 U/mg protein; and air pollution tolerance index was 12.91. L. camara was observed in the good category in anticipated performance index, which shows the tolerant and conditioning capacity of air pollution. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of L. camara as biomonitor that may further have sustainable management implications for an invasive plant.

  13. Adapting to social and political transitions - the influence of history on health policy formation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma). (United States)

    Grundy, John; Annear, Peter; Ahmed, Shakil; Biggs, Beverley-Ann


    The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action.

  14. Geological, petrogical and geochemical characteristics of granitoid rocks in Burma: with special reference to the associated WSn mineralization and their tectonic setting (United States)

    Zaw, Khin

    The granitoid rocks in Burma extend over a distance of 1450 km from Putao, Kachin State in the north, through Mogok, Kyaukse, Yamethin and Pyinmana in the Mandalay Division, to Tavoy and Mergui areas, Tenasserim Division, in the south. The Burmese granitoids can be subdivided into three N-S trending, major belts viz. western granitoid belt, central graniotoid belt and eastern granitoid belt. The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene western belt granitoids are characterized by high-level intrusions associated with porphyry Cu(Au) related, younger volcanics; these plutonic and volcanic rocks are thought to have been emplaced as a magmatic-volcanic arc (inner magmatic-volcanic arc) above an east-dipping, but westwardly migrating, subduction zone related to the prolonged plate convergence which occurred during Upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The central granitoid belt is characterized by mesozonal, Mostly Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene plutons associated with abundant pegmalites and aplites, numerous vein-type W-Sn deposits and rare co-magmatic volcanics. The country rocks are structurally deformed, metamorphic rocks of greenschist to upper amphibolite facies ranging in age as early as Upper Precambrian to Upper Paleozoic and locally of fossiliferous, metaclastic rocks (Mid Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous). Available K/Ar radiometric data indicate significant and possibly widespread thermal disturbances in the central granitoid belt during the Tertiary (mostly Miocence). In this study, the distribution, lithological, textural and structural characteristics of the central belt granitoids are reviewed, and their mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical features are presented. A brief description of W-Sn ore veins associated with these granitoid plutons is also reported. Present geological, petrological and geochemical evidences demonstrate that the W-Sn related, central belt granitoids are mostly granodiorite and granite which are commonly transformed into granitoid gneisses

  15. Current Situation in Burma and its Influence on China's Security Strategy%缅甸局势及其对中国安全战略的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Military in the government of Burma had being in offiee after 22 years, a new government is reeombined. 22 party in 17 is for the minority party, and most of these parties survive in the Sino-Burmese boundary, and party members" blood vessels is a eonsiderablely part of Chinese blood. Whether from the government, economy, humanities, national and even customs are inseparable. This article analysis and countermeasures from the unstable factors which results from Burma situation on chinese security strategy.%缅甸政府在军人执政22年后,改文官为主组成新政府,22个政党中有17个为少数民族党派,这些党派大部分生存于中缅边界,组成人员大多与中国华人血脉相连,无论从政府、经济、人文、民族甚至习俗都不可分割。本文从缅甸局势对中国安全战略的不稳定因素及影响做分析并提出对策。

  16. Study of aerosol optical properties at Kunming in southwest China and long-range transport of biomass burning aerosols from North Burma (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Xia, X.; Che, H.; Wang, J.; Zhang, J.; Duan, Y.


    Seasonal variation of aerosol optical properties and dominant aerosol types at Kunming (KM), an urban site in southwest China, is characterized. Substantial influences of the hygroscopic growth and long-range transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosols on aerosol optical properties at KM are revealed. These results are derived from a detailed analysis of (a) aerosol optical properties (e.g. aerosol optical depth (AOD), columnar water vapor (CWV), single scattering albedo (SSA) and size distribution) retrieved from sunphotometer measurements during March 2012-August 2013, (b) satellite AOD and active fire products, (c) the attenuated backscatter profiles from the space-born lidar, and (d) the back-trajectories. The mean AOD440nm and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE440 - 870) at KM are 0.42 ± 0.32 and 1.25 ± 0.35, respectively. Seasonally, high AOD440nm (0.51 ± 0.34), low EAE440 - 870 (1.06 ± 0.34) and high CWV (4.25 ± 0.97 cm) during the wet season (May - October) contrast with their counterparts 0.17 ± 0.11, 1.40 ± 0.31 and 1.91 ± 0.37 cm during the major dry season (November-February) and 0.53 ± 0.29, 1.39 ± 0.19, and 2.66 ± 0.44 cm in the late dry season (March-April). These contrasts between wet and major dry season, together with the finding that the fine mode radius increases significantly with AOD during the wet season, suggest the importance of the aerosol hygroscopic growth in regulating the seasonal variation of aerosol properties. BB and Urban/Industrial (UI) aerosols are two major aerosol types. Back trajectory analysis shows that airflows on clean days during the major dry season are often from west of KM where the AOD is low. In contrast, air masses on polluted days are from west (in late dry season) and east (in wet season) of KM where the AOD is often large. BB air mass is found mostly originated from North Burma where BB aerosols are lifted upward to 5 km and then subsequently transported to southwest China via prevailing westerly winds.

  17. Mosquito Communities in Boarder Areas between China and Burma%云南中缅边境蚊科昆虫群落的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 郑重; 董言德; 赵彤言


    The mosquito populations were investigated by trap lamps and larva collection in GaoLi village and virgin forests around the village in boarder areas between China and Burma. The results showed that a total of 3305 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 13 species were collected from the populated area, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Armigeres, among these mosquitoes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. sinensis were the dominant species; While in the virgin forests, a total of 200 mosquitoes belonging to 5 genus and 21 species were sampled, the 5 genus were Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Toxorhynchites and Uanotaenia, Ae. albopictus and Cx. mimeticus were the dominant species. The population structure was imbalanced at populated areas, and the diversity index of mosquito communities is lower at forests than that is residential area, which might attribute to environmental changes.%为调查和了解云南省瑞丽市中缅边境蚊虫多样性状况,应用灯诱法和采集幼虫法对瑞丽市中缅边境上高丽村和周边方圆4 km原始森林内的蚊虫的优势种组成、蚊虫群落结构的集中性指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数进行分析.结果显示,在居民区共采获蚊虫3 305只,共5属13种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属Aedes、库蚊属Culex、按蚊属Anopheles、曼蚊属Mansonia和阿蚊属Armigeres.其中优势种蚊虫为三带喙库蚊和中华按蚊.在非居民区共采或蚊虫200只,共5属21种,隶属于蚊科Culicidae中的伊蚊属、库蚊属、按蚊属、巨蚊属Toxorhynchites和蓝带蚊属Uanotaenia.其中优势种蚊虫为白纹伊蚊、拟态库蚊.由于自然环境的破坏,居民区优势集中度过高,群落结构不均匀,非居民区多样性较差,群落内物种的均匀度也偏低.

  18. 缅北地区华裔青少年中华民族认同的现状分析%Analysis on the National Identity of Chinese Teenagers in North Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    缅北地区是中华文化圈、东南亚文化圈、南亚文化圈交流交融多元文化并存的立体文化生态区,生活于此的华裔青少年一代对中华民族的认知、评价、情感和行为成分上的认同感究竟有多高。经抽样调查研究发现,缅北地区华裔青少年普遍认为中华民族是一个伟大的民族,为中华民族的传统历史感到骄傲,对中国人有一种亲切感,觉得自己的将来与中华民族的将来休戚相关。相关部门应利用这一有效时机积极增进缅北地区华裔青少年中华民族认同感,并制定积极的侨务政策,大力推进该地区的侨务工作,以加强我国边疆稳定与和谐发展。%North Burma is in an area of a stereo ecological culture within the intersection of Chinese culture circle,Southeastern culture circle,and the Southern culture circle.How much do the Chinese teenagers know the legend,history,typical custom of Chinese in this area? How about the identity for the cognition,evaluation,emotion,and behavior of Chinese nationality? The investigation found that the Chinese teenagers in North Burma take Chinese as a great nation,and get proud of the traditional history of China,considering that their futures have close relation to Chinese nation.The institutions concerned should grasp the effective time to enhance the Chinese national identity of the teenagers in North Burma,making active policy for the oversea Chinese affairs,carrying the oversea Chinese affairs forward,which help to strengthen the stability and harmonious border development of China.

  19. A Case for Plane-Strain during the Development of the Indo-Burma Fold-Thrust Belt in Tripura and Mizoram, Northeast India (23-24°N; 91-93°E) (United States)

    Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.


    The Indo-Burma fold-thrust belt (FTB) in northeast India and Myanmar records shortening of a forearc prism resulting from ongoing collision of the Burma microplate and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. A >5 km thick succession of deep water, deltaic and tidal as well as fluvial deposits that span the Oligocene to present were deformed to form a ~400 km wide FTB between 91.5-96°E longitude. India-Eurasia convergence across the Indo-Burma region trends northeast and is highly oblique to the northerly structural trend of the FTB. According to geodetic data, 21 mm/yr of dextral shear and 18 mm/yr of approximately east-west shortening must be accommodated within the FTB between the active thrust front in Bangladesh (90.5°E) and the Sagaing Fault in Myanmar (96°E). This paper presents new surface geologic data collected along a ~250 km transect that crosses 15 anticline-syncline pairs between the cities of Argatala (~91.2°E) and Champhai (93.3°E), the part of FTB exposing syn-Himalayan sediment, to determine the degree of noncoaxial shear that is accommodated internally within the belt. Results indicate that the majority of the folds are upright or asymmetric horizontal folds that are either concentric or have a narrow hinge (chevron folds) and form open—closed interlimb angles which generally tighten from the foreland toward the hinterland. A cylindrical best fit describes the data well and shows dominantly east-west shortening with a horizontal north-trending regional fold axis (005/01 ± 2°). Shortening was partly accommodated by flexural slip. Flexural slip-lineations (n=32) are subperpendicular to the regional fold axis. In some locations the limbs of folds are breached by thrust faults that dip either east or west and strike north. Incremental strain axes calculated from the flexural-slip surfaces and thrust faults (n=61) indicate horizontal west-trending shortening (279/03 ± 8°) and vertical extension that is kinematically compatible with folding. Altogether

  20. Health Data Publications No. 30. Burma (Union of Burma) (United States)


    ftWDD DBURMAIO 4*960 ~98 1000 or2 8 Home Affairs in the central government. The four associated states have a certain degree of autonomy in that some...Hills Special Division is administered as a territory by the central government. Autonomy is limited to certain administrative personnel, schools, and...hospitals. One hundred fifty eight nurses were graduated in 1961. Midwives Training in midwifery is done in an 18-month course at Rangoon and Mandalay

  1. Petroleum geologic characteristis and exploration potential of Block D in Burma%缅甸D区块石油地质特征及勘探潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 曹永斌; 王新云


    Block D located in the western-central of Irrawaddy basin in Burma, has two major Eocene deltaic sedimentary systems with one in the east and the other in the west. The main sedimentary facies include delta plain-prodelta and shallow marine facies. Block D experienced three main tectonic evolution phases including the Eocene united subsidence, the Oligocene-Miocene differential subsidence and the post-Pliocene overthrus-ting. The tectonic framework of Block D is characterized by NS-trending and EW-zoning "four uplifts, two depressions and one slope". The quality source rocks in Block D are dominated by the Tabyin Formation gray mudstone and coal-seam mudstone, and the Laungshe Formation dark shale. They feature in high organic abundance and high hydrocarbon-generation potential. Moreover, three reservoir-seal combinations in the Pengdang, Kabaw and Tabyin formations provide favorable conditions for effective hydrocarbon accumulation and preservation. There are two trap styles in Block D, including anticline trap controlled by faults and sand lens trap. Study of thermal evolution of source rocks indicates that the timing of hydrocarbon generation, migration, trap formation and reservoir-seal combination is rational. The potential plays of Block D mainly occur in three structural belts including Patolon anticline belt, Mahudaung anticline belt and Thingadon synclinorial belt.%缅甸D区块位于伊洛瓦底盆地中西部,主要勘探层系始新统发育东、西两大三角洲沉积体系,沉积相以三角洲平原-前三角洲亚相以及浅海相为主,构造演化主要经历了始新世的统一沉降期、渐新世-中新世的差异沉降期和上新世以后的逆冲推覆期3个阶段,形成了南北走向、东西分带的“四隆二凹一斜坡”的构造格局.烃源岩以塔本组的灰色泥岩和煤系泥岩以及朗欣组的暗色泥岩为主,有机质丰度高,具有非常好的生烃能力.蓬当组、塔本组和提林组3套储-盖组合保

  2. 缅甸某区块始新统沉积相对储层的控制作用分析%On How the Eocene Series Sedimentary Facies in the Studied Area in Burma Affect Reservoirs' Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 王海鹏; 曾庆立


    The targeted area under research situated in the middle of Irrawaddy Basin, Burma, is a favorable place for oil gas exploration. By studying the characteristics of reservoirs in different sedimentary fades of Eocene series in the researched area, this paper points out that the underwater distributary channels are the best reservoir development microfacies followed by distributary channels, braided channel and river mouth bars while natural levees and splay sand bodies have low reservoir quality which unveils the fact that sedimentary fades do influence the development of reservoirs to some extent.%研究区位于缅甸伊洛瓦底盆地中部,是油气勘探的有利地区。通过对研究区始新统不同沉积相带储层特征研究,认为水下分流河道为最有利的储层发育微相;分流河道、辫状河道、河口坝次之;天然堤、决口扇砂体的储层性质相对较差,反映了沉积相对储层的发育特征有一定的控制作用。

  3. 缅甸高地震区某电站重力坝深层抗滑稳定分析%Deep Stability against Sliding Analysis of Gravity Dam in Active Seismic Zone of Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余昕卉; 龚道勇; 曹艳辉; 胡清义


    以缅甸高地震区某电站为例,针对坝基岩体存在不整合面(带)、缓倾角及中倾角、陡倾角裂隙问题,采用被动抗力法分析计算了该地区重力坝方案深层抗滑稳定性,并分析了各种荷载工况下的安全裕度,提出了裕度不足的基础处理措施.%The rock mass of dam foundation exists unconformity facet band). Low-angle, middle-angle and steep-angle dip crack. Taking a hydropower station in active seismic zone of Burma for an example, the passive resistance method is adopted to calculate deep stability against sliding of gravity dam. And then the safety margin is analyzed under the conditions of various loads. Finally, the measure of insufficient margin is pui forward to deal with dam foundation.

  4. Lights of Democracy, Authority and Liberty-On the History of News Legal System in Burma over the Past 160 Years%开明、威权与自由之光--160年缅甸新闻法制史管窥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展江; 黄晶晶


    缅甸曾经是亚洲享有最充分的新闻自由的国家,但是到了20世纪中期以后,随着1962年军事政变,缅甸由一个亚洲较富裕国家变成了落后国家,新闻界则经历了长达半个世纪的新闻管制。2011年,缅甸开启民主化政治改革,新闻界也随之开始了改革之路。通过梳理缅甸历史上的新闻自由、二战后军政府对新闻的管制和媒体的抗争以及正在进行的政治新闻变革举措,可以揭示出一个当代威权主义国家刚刚开始的媒体和政治转型之路。%Burma used to be a country which enjoyed the freedom of press in Asia during the 19th century.However, after the military coup in 1962, the press in Burma experienced more than half a century of news blackout, drawing back from a rich country in Asia to a backward one.In 2011, due to the launching of the political and democratic reform, the press in Burma started its reforming process.This paper aims to discuss the history of news development in Burma, including the freedom of press in the past, the news blackout after the 2nd World War by the military government and the struggle of media, and the polit-ical, news reform at the moment.In this way, an authoritative nation with news and political change on its way is to be presen-ted.

  5. Yunnan-Burma Anti-Japanese War by Chinese Expeditionary Force during the World Anti-Fascist War%世界反法西斯战争全局视角下的中国远征军滇缅抗战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝华; 刘潇湘


    全面抗日战争爆发后,中国挫败了日本速战速决的企图,成功地开辟了东方反法西斯战场。中国的持久抗战得到了世界反法西斯国家的援助。围绕着国际援华交通线,反法西斯国家与日本展开了激烈的较量。太平洋战争爆发后,中国政府根据世界反法西斯战争的整体需要,出兵缅甸,与英美盟军并肩作战,牵制并消灭了大量日军,成为缅甸战场反法西斯的主力军,为世界反法西斯战争立下了不朽的历史功绩。%After the breakout of the anti-Japanese war,China prevented Japanese Army from fighting a quick battle and successfully opened the Eastern anti -fascism battlefield.During the protracted war against Japan,China had been supported by other anti-fascist countries in the world,who fiercely fought against Japan around the China Aid Communications.After the Pacific War broke out,considering the needs of world anti-fascist war,Chinese government sent troops to Burma to fight side by side with the British-US Allies,distracting and destroying considerable Japanese forces.Chinese Army became the main force and made historical contributions to the Yunnan-Burma anti-fascist war.

  6. Influence of Refugees in Burma Kokang Flooded into the Border Area on China%缅甸果敢难民涌入对中国边境地区的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海利; 刘静; 胡志丁; 熊理然; 李灿松; 付磊


    The conflict in Burma Kokang Broke Out, and a large number of refugees have poured into China’s Yunnan Province border area to escape the war. The Kokang refugees entered China and live in penury. But with the help of government and the public in our country, their basic need of life was guaranteed. Although people in Kokang and people in China’s border areas, language is interlinked, live in a similar way, people on both sides almost have no estrangement. But we cannot ignore the effects caused by the influx of Kokang refugees in border areas, so as to avoid the refugee problem lead to the scourge. This study analyzes the impact of the conflict on the border areas of China through field trips, questionnaires, and interviews. The result shows that an influx of refugees has damaged border areas of bilateral trade and increased security pressure, and threatened the ecological environment, but also has brought new labor and economic source for the border area. At the same time, the government has promulgated a series of effective measures for the problem of refugees. Overall, the impact of the influx of Kokang refugees in the border area of our country is in the controllable range, and did not cause the unbalance of border area society.%缅甸果敢冲突爆发,大量难民为躲避战争纷纷涌入中国云南省的边境地区。进入中国的果敢难民生活拮据,但在中国政府及民众的帮助下,基本生活得到保障。虽然果敢人民与中国边境地区的人民语言相通,生活方式相似,双方人民间隔阂较小,但大量涌入的果敢难民对边境地区造成的影响依然不可忽视,以免因难民问题酿成祸患。研究通过实地考察、问卷调查、深度访谈等方法分析此次冲突对中国边境地区造成的影响。结果表明,难民的涌入使得边境地区的双方贸易往来受损,治安压力增大,生态环境受到威胁,但也为边境地区带来了新的劳

  7. An Embryonic Border: Racial Discourses and Compulsory Vaccination for Indian Immigrants at Ports in Colonial Burma, 1870-1937 Une frontière embryonnaire : discours raciaux et vaccination obligatoire des immigrants indiens dans les ports de la Birmanie coloniale, 1870-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Osada


    Full Text Available This paper examines how an administrative border emerged between historically and culturally different and geographically separate regions which nevertheless had been integrated into one state under the colonial power. As a result of three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century, Burma was colonized by the British. During the course of its colonization, the country formally became a province of India. Hence no border had existed between Burma and the rest of India until 1937 when the former was separated from the latter. This connection with India brought Burma unrestricted labour supply from India which was necessary for the growth of the economy. But at the same time, such a vast flow of people included undesirable elements like criminals, beggars and people sick of infectious diseases which caused social problems in Burma. While the government of Burma attempted to deter or exclude those undesirable elements in order to maintain social order, these attempts were frustrated by several factors. In spite of these circumstances, the local government started taking more decisive policy for examinations of immigrants after the middle of the 1910s. No border existed yet, but port cities, especially Rangoon, gradually assumed function of checking people who came from “outside” into “inside”. I would like to call this phenomenon, tentatively, the emergence of an embryonic border. As a part of this phenomenon, this paper describes a history of sanitary regulations for Indian immigrant labourers in colonial Burma, by focusing on a case of implementation of compulsory vaccination at ports. And it points out that those regulations wereCet article montre comment une frontière administrative est apparue entre deux régions historiquement et culturellement différentes et géographiquement séparées réunies toutefois en un État par un pouvoir colonial. Après trois guerres anglo-birmanes au xixe siècle, la Birmanie devint une colonie

  8. What Lessons Does the Burma Campaign Hold? (United States)


    for DRACULA decision passes 28Feb-4Mar - Meiktila taken by 14th Army Mar - NCAC achieves objectives, S"AC agrees to return remaining divisions to...China 4Mar - Manila cleared 20Mar - Mandalay captured 26Mar - LtGen Leese recommends an early, modified DRACULA (Rangoon) 29Apr - Monsoon rains start...early 2May - D-Day for DRACULA 3May - Rangoon captured 15Aug - End of offensive against Japan 36 CHAIN OF CComCAmI AIR~~~~m FOCS1J D 143 TAF call IS N a

  9. Area Handbook Series: Burma: A Country Study (United States)


    Burmans as inferior to Buddhist monks, despite their skills in astrology and other mystic arts. Memories of British troops using Indian soldiers to...Outside the sangha are various other religious practitioners, such as hermits, wizards, alchemists, astrologers , shamans, mediums, and folk experts of all...34carpet" of their hair. Respect often involves an emotional feeling akin to love . Monks so revered may be honored with gifts, which they are too

  10. The “Moving” Frontiers of Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Boutry


    Full Text Available From the frontiers as an object to the frontiers as a methodAnthropology of borders in its contemporary developments answers to the awareness of the radical changes bring by the drawing of national borders. Before the colonization, territories were seen by their populations differently, subjected to moving and relative relations of power regarding the hegemony of a State, a kingdom or a society. Even if Thailand haven’t been, strictly speaking, colonized, the work of Winichakul (2005 Siam Ma...

  11. Women as refugees: perspectives from Burma. (United States)

    Lang, H J


    This article highlights the experiences of women refugees in an effort to provide an accurate portrayal of the civil war and its impact. An estimated 19 million refugees and further 24 million internally displaced civilians face the overwhelming post-war situation with significant effect on women and children. To obtain an accurate understanding on the sociopolitical life, inclusion of female experiences must be done. Counterinsurgency tactics have been done through infliction of fear among civilians to maintain the control or victory over a population. One of the tactics includes the cut-off of 4 main links of food, funding, intelligence and recruits among insurgent fighters, their families and local villages. A carefully detailed documentation of these experiences, such as the one done by the Karen Human Rights Group, an indigenous organization, could lead not only to the elimination of the pain but also the encouragement of its further infliction. With men collected as forced porters to carry military supplies, women were forced to take additional roles in their communities. Several women groups have been established to provide health services, educational opportunities and resources, and financial development for women and children. This article concludes that inclusion and recognition of the needs are necessary in the establishment of epistemological systems.

  12. Defining ‘forced migration’ in Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley South


    Full Text Available Most Burmese people fleeing their homes do so for a combination of reasons. The root causes for leaving, however,determine which ‘category’ they belong to: ‘internally displaced persons’ (IDPs or ‘economic migrants’. There issome discussion as to whether people leaving their homes due to exhaustion of livelihoods options are IDPsaccording to the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement1 – or not. Ashley South and Andrew Bosson presenttheir views below.By analogy, this debate can be extended to Burmese people in exile. Are Burmese people outside refugee camps‘economic migrants’ or ‘self-settled refugees’? The article ‘Invisible in Thailand’ (pp31-33 sheds more light on this.

  13. Shaping of the Yunnan-Burma Frontier by Secret Societies since the End of the 17th Century Comment les sociétés secrètes ont façonné la frontière birmano-yunnanaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianxiong


    Full Text Available After the 1680s, Big Vehicle Religion gradually developed on the Yunnan-Burma frontier. It was banned by the Qing government and became a sect of Chinese secret societies. The founders of this religion combined various Buddhist and Taoist elements together and claimed this to be the route to their salvation. They also trained many students to be monks. After the Sino-Burma wars these monks established a Five Buddha Districts system among the Lahu and some Wa villages in western Mekong River, until the system was destroyed by the Qing government in the 1880s. The monks became leaders of the Luohei/Lahu through millenarianism and many Han immigrants also became involved in the movements to become the Lahu or the Wa. The monks performed critical roles as social activists in Lahu cultural reconstruction. As a shaping power, their human agency was deeply integrated into secret societies and they formulated regional political centers as well as a network mechanism for the floating indigenous populations. Secret societies clearly shaped a historical framework for local politics and economic flux in the Yunnan-Burma frontier and became a cross-border mechanism for contemporary life after the border between Yunnan, Burma and Thailand was decided. However, it used to be a networking dynamic linked with silver and copper minefields, Sino-Burma wars, and anti-Qing millenarianism. Local people could also use this frontier space for their negotiations with different states before the coming of European colonialism.Après les années 1680, le bouddhisme du grand véhicule se développa sur la frontière birmano-yunnanaise. Le gouvernement des Qing l’interdit mais il devint une secte diffusée par des sociétés secrètes. Les fondateurs de cette religion combinèrent des éléments bouddhistes et taoïstes et prétendirent que c’était la voie du salut. Ils formèrent également des élèves pour en faire des moines. Après les guerres sino-birmanes, ces

  14. The Impact Analysis of Sino - Burma Border Illegal Transnational Marriage on Harmony and Stability of Yunnan Border Minority Areas -- A Case in Xu Jia village of Long Ling of Yunnan%中缅边境非法跨国婚姻对云南边境少数民族地区和谐稳定的影响分析——以云南省龙陵县徐家寨为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白志红; 李喜景


    Due to geographical conditions, traditional habits and so on, there are large numbers of illegal transnational marriage in Sino - Burma border Areas of Yunnan. Those marriages not only weaken the authority of Chinese law and give rise to security and stability problems in the border areas but also disturb the residents' self- identity with homeland especially young residents and damage the legitimate rights and interests of women and children in the border areas. There are some suggestions, such as recognize transnational marriages condi- tionally, provide the occupation skill training for the women in Burma and strengthen marriage and family guid- ance work in the border areas. All of these not only can properly solve the above problems, but also contribute to harmony and stability of Yunnan border minority area in the long - term.%由于地缘条件、民族传统习惯等因素的影响,在云南中缅边境地区形成大量非法跨国婚姻。不仅削弱了中国法律在边境地区的权威,给边境地区的安全与稳定带来隐患,而且损害妇女儿童合法权益。有条件认可中缅跨国婚姻,为缅甸女性提供职业技能培训,有助于云南边境地区的长期和谐稳定。

  15. Sacred Networks and Struggles among the Karen Baptists across the Thailand-Burma Border Réseaux sacrés et conflits parmi les Baptistes karen de part et d’autre de la frontière birmano-thaïlandaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann


    Full Text Available In this article, I provide a case study of a moving border between Thailand and Burma. Emphasizing the agency of people who become refugees, the article is concerned to point out the important role of religious networks in providing humanitarian assistance, shelter and mobility to stateless Karen refugees. I argue that Christian and Buddhist literate networks- realigned in political exile, develop competing visions of a Karen “homeland.” Arguing that membership in the network is crucial for survival, the article follows the social organization and religious practices in Baptist networks. I examine how the Baptist church network in close partnership with the Karen National Union is able or not able to mobilize refugees for proselytization. Karen refugee leaders and KNU-pastors find analogies in the bible to find an explanation to the suffering of the Karen civil population in the war. The article is interested in the nexus and overlap of humanitarian ideology, Christianity and nationalism in the transitional space between Thailand and Burma. Providing case-studies of individual refugees, the article gives ethnographic sketches from the refugee camp, the countryside and humanitarian assistance to the internally displaced.Cet article est une étude de cas d’une frontière mouvante entre la Thaïlande et la Birmanie. Insistant sur l’agency (action de personnes devenues des réfugiés, l’article souligne le rôle important des réseaux religieux qui apportent une assistance humanitaire, des abris et de la mobilité à des réfugiés karen dépourvus d’État. Je soutiens que les réseaux intellectuels chrétiens et bouddhistes, recomposés dans l’exil, développent des visions concurrentes d’une « mère-patrie » karen. Soutenant que la participation au réseau est cruciale pour la survie, l’article développe plus particulièrement l’organisation sociale et les pratiques religieuses en vigueur dans les réseaux baptistes. J

  16. Burma: Assessing Options for U.S. Engagement (United States)


    been sown and, at independence, the seeds of rebellion began to germinate . On WWII’s conclusion, with the end of British colonialism imminent, hope...the vigor they possessed prior to the war. Inter-ethnic fighting which pitted the Karen, Karenni, and Kachin against the Burmans and Shan, as well...Burmans/Shan against the Karen, Kachin, and Karenni caused greater hatred between the ethnic groups. By the end of WWII, the seeds of insurgency had

  17. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata) (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.


    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  18. Learning English in the Periphery: A View from Myanmar (Burma) (United States)

    Tin, Tan Bee


    Although researchers have called for the investigation of local vernacular learning and teaching practices in various ELT (English language teaching) contexts, studies conducted in the Periphery are fewer in number. This study attempts to understand English learning experiences of a group of students from the Periphery, who were studying English…

  19. ASEAN’s Constructive Engagement Policy Toward Myanmar (Burma) (United States)


    ASEAN’s ability to influence Myanmar may have reached a culminating point. In a recent interview, the Dean of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public...During the regional security seminar in 2007, Singapore’s Prime Minister and current Chairman of ASEAN, Lee Hsien Loong, aptly summarized the...Minister Lee Hsien Loong gave the following analysis: 47 "First of all, this is a country which wants to isolate itself from the world, so

  20. The Geology of Burma (Myanmar): An Annotated Bibliography of Burma’s Geology, Geography and Earth Science (United States)


    Resources Abstracts. ISSN: 0009-2541. Bolin, T. D., Genge, J. R., Duncombe, V. M., Soe-Aung and Myo-Khin Affiliation: Gastrointestinal Unit, Prince of...Abstract: Physalopterid nematodes identified as Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) were collected from the stomach of rice-paddy eels Pisodonophis...known nematode species, including its first SEM examination, enabled a detailed redescription of H. longissimum. Present taxonomic problems in the

  1. Recall Shi Diwei's General in the Burma Campaign of Burma Campaign%回忆缅甸作战中的史迪威将军

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  2. Burma’s 2010 Elections: Implications of the New Constitution and Election Laws (United States)


    disciplined democratic system 3. Draft a new constitution based on the principles laid out the National Convention 4. Adopt the constitution via a...and seven regions15 under “a genuine, disciplined multi-party democratic system .” Although “the Sovereign power of the Union is derived from the

  3. Burma/Myanmars Nonviolent Movement Failures: Why Resilience and Leverage Matter (United States)


    gratitude also extends to Dr. Anshu Chatterjee for providing me quick feedback, being patient with me, and setting deadlines, which kept me motivated to...hassled customers who shopped at businesses “of known activists.”158 Friends of a well-known activist, Aung Din, chose to avoid attending the funeral...for networking or organizing.171 With the volatile nature of campus closures, over seventy percent of students took their courses online with the

  4. Final RFI/RI Report Burma Road Rubble Pit (231-4F). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)


    The Savannah River Site is located in Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties, in South Carolina. Certain activities at the SRS require operating or post closure permits issued in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  5. The environmental history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area in Myanmar (Burma). (United States)

    Aung, Myint; Khaing Swe, Khaing; Oo, Thida; Kyaw Moe, Kyaw; Leimgruber, Peter; Allendorf, Teri; Duncan, Chris; Wemmer, Chris


    We reconstructed the history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) to understand how social and economic events, and policy changes affected the sanctuary's condition. We surveyed 25 villages surrounding CWS to evaluate past and present ecological conditions, compare the results with historical accounts and identify causal relationships. During the first half of the 20th century, the primary threat was the government's reduction of old growth forest to supply fuel wood for the British-built railway. The railroad opened the area to colonization, but the villagers' impact on timber and wildlife was low. From 1945 to 1988, villagers became the primary force of landscape degradation. The post-war windfall of firearms increased hunting pressure, and populations of large mammal started to decline. With the economic decline of the 1970s and 1980s, the community's demand for game and forest products intensified, and the large mammal fauna was reduced from eleven to four species. From 1988-2003, the forests surrounding the sanctuary were fragmented and degraded. The absence of large predators rendered the park safe for livestock, and the combined effects of grazing and removal of forest products seriously degraded habitat within CWS. Major threats to CWS during the past two decades have resulted from land use decisions in which government-planned economic enterprises caused encroachment by villagers. Stabilization and recovery of this sanctuary will require management compatible with human needs, including expanded buffer zones, better core area protection, community forestry projects, and probably relocation of villages within the park.

  6. Relict faunal testimony for sea-level fluctuations off Myanmar (Burma)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Raviprasad, G.V.; Rajagopalan, G.; Ray, D.K.; Hla, U Ko Yi

    of External Affairs with the support of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi) and Government of Myanmar (Min- istry of Education). The authors thank Director, National In- stitute of Oceanography (NIO... changes along Indian Coasts. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 58 : 461-472. Murray, J. W. 1973, Distribution and Ecology of Living Benthic Foraminiferids: Heinemann Educational Books, London, 274 p. Pirazzoli, P.A. 1991. World Atlas...

  7. Ethnofederalism and the Accommodation of Ethnic Minorities in Burma: United They Stand (United States)


    is reserved for my God and my Savior, Jesus Christ . I entrust the totality of my life to His gracious and generous hands, and I am continually in...examine Burma’s pre-colonial and colonial history, focusing on the origins of the country’s deep ethnic differences, and on the emergence of its main...misgiving originating from the past, cooperation and “close relations” were possible as long as “hereditary rights, customs and religions” were

  8. 77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program (United States)


    ... of shelter, and clean water, sanitation, and hygiene assistance; (2) Democracy building and good... infrastructure necessary to support the aforementioned non-commercial development projects; and (6)...

  9. 77 FR 41243 - Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential... of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency..., or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE...

  10. The socio-economic impacts of rice policies implementation in rural Burma/Myanmar. (United States)

    Thawnghmung, Ardeth Maung


    This paper, focusing on two rice-farming villages where the Burmese government has experimented with a variety of agricultural programmes, explores the problems associated with rice implementation processes. In particular it looks at the basic structure and operation of agricultural administration — salary and income of government officials, the predominance of military officers in civilian ministries and departments, the creation of departments with overlapping responsibilities, and the hierarchical structure of the Agricultural Ministry — and highlight their limitations. It provides another aspect to evaluating the roots of poverty among average rice farmers.

  11. Offset ancient city wall yields plausible slip rate for the Sagaing fault, Burma (Myanmar) (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Aung, T.; Min, S.; Lin, K.; Tun, S.; Sieh, K.; Myint, U.


    The Sagaing fault offers great potential for paleoseismology study, because it traverses a region with a long history and high rates of sedimentation. Buddhist documents from ancient Pegu (Bago), in southern Myanmar, record 34 strong earthquakes in the past 2.3 millennia. The latest of these is the 1930 Pegu earthquake (M 7.3), which had high intensities along a 90 km stretch from Pegu to the southern coastline of the country. We have found evidences for surface rupture in 1930 in the stories of village elders and in offset paddy fields. These reports and offsets suggest that coseismic displacement decreased from several meters in Pegu to liquefaction without faulting near Payagyi Township, 15 km farther north. West of Payagyi, the fault trace cuts through and offsets an ancient city wall. The age of the ancient city is uncertain, but descriptions from Burmese history indicate it was built in the late 16th century, probably about 440 yrs ago. Determination of the offset of the 440-year-old city wall is possible, but not simple, in part because vertical displacements across the fault have resulted in differential sedimentation on the flanks of the wall. After accounting geomorphologically for the differential sedimentation, the offset of both the outer and inner edges of the city wall appear to have sustained a right-lateral offset of about 6 meters. This yields an approximate slip rate of 14 mm/yr, which is slightly lower than the slip rate determined by others from GPS geodesy. The number of earthquakes involved in creating the 6-meter offset is currently unknown, but paleoseismic excavations within the ancient city may well yield evidence of discrete offsets that we will be able to ascribe to specific large earthquakes in the historical record. Candidates include historical earthquakes 1582, 1644, 1768, 1830, 1888, 1913 and 1917 C.E.

  12. Burma in Diaspora: A Preliminary Research Note on the Politics of Burmese Diasporic Communities in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Egreteau


    Full Text Available This research note focuses on the far-flung Burmese overseas communities, situating them into the wider diaspora literature. Drawing on extant scholarship on refugees, migrants and exiled dissidents of Burmese origin, it presents an original cartography of Burmese diasporic groups dispersed throughout Asia. It explores their migration patterns and tentatively maps out their transnational networks. It seeks to comparatively examine the relationships these polymorphous exiled groups have developed with the homeland. Two research questions have been identified and need further exploration in the context of the post-junta opening that has been observed since 2011: First, what comprises the contribution of the Burmese diaspora to political change and homeland democratization? This has been widely debated over the years. Despite a dynamic transnational activism, there is still little evidence that overseas Burmese have influenced recent domestic political developments. Second and subsequently, how can the Burmese diaspora effectively generate social and economic change back home: by “remitting” or by “returning”? This note argues that Burmese migrant social and financial remittances might prove a more viable instrument to foster development and democratization inside Myanmar in the short term than a mere homecoming of exiles and skilled migrants. This is a preliminary analysis that hopes to encourage further research on Burmese diasporic politics and their potential leverage as “agents of change”.

  13. 31 CFR 537.526 - Authorized transactions necessary and ordinarily incident to publishing. (United States)


    ... State Peace and Development Council of Burma or the Union Solidarity and Development Association of... Burma or the Union Solidarity and Development Association of Burma; or (3) The operation of a...

  14. In Search of Chin Identity. A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma, Lian H. Sakhong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Robinne


    Full Text Available Les Chin, groupe tibéto-birman de Birmanie, ont le privilège d’avoir fait l’objet de publications de référence aux différentes époques de leur histoire mouvementée. On doit aux administrateurs britanniques quelques monographies de référence sur lesquelles s’appuie pour beaucoup l’auteur. Après la Seconde guerre mondiale et l’indépendance de Birmanie, F.K. Lehman publia, dans la ligne de Edmund Leach, un ouvrage qui continue de faire autorité. L’étude de Lian Sakhong, ancien Secrétaire général...

  15. The Rohingyas in Myanmar (Burma and the Moros in the Philippines: A Comparative Analysis of Two Liberation Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul lslam


    Full Text Available In recent years, the relative success of the Moros in the Philippines and the tragic failure of the Rohingyas in Myanmar raise important questions: what are the reasons behind the Moros' liberation movement being a success and the Rohingyas movement being a failure? What has led the Moros to achieve at least partial regional autonomy vis-a-vis the failure of the Rohingyas? In the light of Huntington’s theory of revolution, this paper argues that despite the fact that Myanmar and the Philippines have nearly the same percentage of Muslims, the Moros have been successful at least due to three reasons: First, the political conditions have been much more conducive in the Philippines compared to Myanmar for liberation movement. Secondly, the Moros' movement has been led by a strong organization under a capable leadership while the Rohingyas' movement lacks a strong organization and an able leadership. Finally, while the Moros have successfully mobilized mass support both at home and abroad, the Rohingyas have failed to internationalize their movement and, consequently, they have become "stateless" and “political refugees”.

  16. Improving Outcomes for Refugee Children: A Case Study on the Impact of Montessori Education along the Thai-Burma Border (United States)

    Tobin, Tierney; Boulmier, Prairie; Zhu, Wenyi; Hancock, Paul; Muennig, Peter


    There are 25 million displaced children worldwide, and those receiving schooling are often educated in overcrowded classrooms. Montessori is a child-centred educational method that provides an alternative model to traditional educational approaches. In this model, students are able to direct their own learning and develop at their own pace,…

  17. The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War (United States)


    Air Command consisted of 576 aircraft with a good mix of heavy bombers, medium bombers, reconnaissance, transport, and pursuit aircraft.98 As a...Defeat into Victory, 199. 27 new air-ground interface. The purchase and distribution of SCR -117 and SCR -118 radios bridged the technological gap

  18. The petrology of a six amphibole association: a record of metasomatic processes in the jadeitite area in northwestern Myanmar (Burma) (United States)

    Shi, G.; Tropper, P.; Cui, W.


    In the Myanmar jadeitite area of Pharkan, amphibole felses occur between jadeitites and serpentinized dunites. These amphibole felses were found to contain the six amphibole species magnesiokatophorite (Mg-kat), nyböite (Nyb), eckermannite (Eck), glaucophane (Gln), richterite (Rich) and winchite (Win). In most samples, the two main amphibole species Mg-kat and Eck coexist with amphiboles containing variable amounts of components of the remaining four species, as well as with jadeite (Jd), omphacite (Omp) and kosmochlor (Ko). However, zoned porphyroblasts with Mg-kat in the core, Nyb in the inner rims and Eck in the outer rims also occur. The analytical data on such zoned amphiboles reveal that the chemistry changes from core to inner rim by virtue of the substitution NaAlCa-1Mg-1 (glaucophane vector), and from the inner to the outer rim along MgSiAl-1Al-1 (tschermak vector). The overall substitution from core to outer rim is, therefore, along NaSiCa-1Al-1 (plagioclase vector). Within Eck, three groups can be distinguished based on the Si-content: Eck coexisting with Nyb has low Si contents of Win and Gln, whereas the three subsets of C contain high Na amphiboles (Eck, Nyb, high Na-Mg-kats). Textural observations indicate three stages of sodic and sodic calcic amphibole growth: stage 1: amphiboles of group A (Mg-kat + Rich), stage 2: amphiboles of groups C2 (Nyb + Eck with Si 7.6 a.p.f.u. + Gln + Win). Textural observations suggest amphibole formation during fluid infiltration in the contact zone between the jadeitite bodies and the surrounding peridotite under high pressure conditions (>1.0 GPa) and rather low temperatures of about 250--370^oC. The compositional trends within the amphiboles and phase equilibrium constraints between amphibole and coexisting pyroxene solid solutions indicate two growth episodes: increasing pressures from stage 1 to stage 2 lead to the formation of Nyb from Mg-kat and subsequently decreasing pressure lead to the formation of stage 3 Eck from Rich.

  19. The Prospect of China’s Access to Naval Facilities in Burma and the Ramifications for Regional Stability (United States)

    2007-06-01,,1939380,00.html (accessed 2 March 2007). 34 David Zweig and Bi Jianhai. “China’s Global Hunt for Energy.” Foreign Affairs 84... (accessed November 30, 2006). Zweig , David, and Bi Jianhai. “China’s Global Hunt for

  20. General Dai Anlan in the Battleground of Burma%戴安澜将军在缅甸战场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  1. High prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with thalassemia and patients with liver diseases in Myanmar (Burma). (United States)

    Okada, S; Taketa, K; Ishikawa, T; Koji, T; Swe, T; Win, N; Win, K M; Mra, R; Myint, T T


    We conducted Myanmar-Japan cooperation studies on hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus markers in patients with thalassemias and those with liver diseases. Among the 102 patients with liver diseases, 92% had a history of hepatitis B virus infection (antibody to hepatitis B core antigen positive), 35% were hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 39% were positive for anti-HCV. Among 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 46% had hepatitis B surface antigen, 21.4% had antibody to hepatitis C virus, and 7% were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and anti hepatitis C virus. The history of HCV infection among blood recipients at the Haematology Department of the Yangon General Hospital and at the Yangon Children's Hospital was found to be 55.5% and 46.7%, respectively, which is comparable to the history of hepatitis B infection (66.7% and 46.7%, respectively). This preliminary survey also encountered 2 cases positive for anti-HCV among 34 voluntary blood donors. This survey is the first one to report that hepatitis C is at the epidemic stage in Myanmar. As there is no effective treatment for hepatitis C in this country, a screening program for blood used in transfusion should be started immediately.

  2. High prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with thalassemia and patients with liver diseases in Myanmar (Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada S


    Full Text Available We conducted Myanmar-Japan cooperation studies on hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus markers in patients with thalassemias and those with liver diseases. Among the 102 patients with liver diseases, 92% had a history of hepatitis B virus infection (antibody to hepatitis B core antigen positive, 35% were hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 39% were positive for anti-HCV. Among 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 46% had hepatitis B surface antigen, 21.4% had antibody to hepatitis C virus, and 7% were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and anti hepatitis C virus. The history of HCV infection among blood recipients at the Haematology Department of the Yangon General Hospital and at the Yangon Children's Hospital was found to be 55.5% and 46.7%, respectively, which is comparable to the history of hepatitis B infection (66.7% and 46.7%, respectively. This preliminary survey also encountered 2 cases positive for anti-HCV among 34 voluntary blood donors. This survey is the first one to report that hepatitis C is at the epidemic stage in Myanmar. As there is no effective treatment for hepatitis C in this country, a screening program for blood used in transfusion should be started immediately.

  3. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India


    Singh HB; Kanjilal PB; Kotoky R; Roshnibala S; Sundriyal M; Jain A; Sundriyal RC


    Abstract Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West...

  4. 缅甸封建社会的"蔓荼罗"行政结构%Mandala Administration of Feudal Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 缅甸是一个多民族国家.从公元1044至1885年是缅甸的封建社会时期,经历了蒲甘王朝、实阶王朝、邦牙王朝、阿瓦王朝、东吁王朝、贡榜王朝等几个封建王朝的更迭,逐渐形成了与其历史发展相适应的独特的行政结构.

  5. On the occurrence of Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus) and its parasite Sacculina carcini Thompson in Burma, with notes on the transport of crabs to new localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.


    From time to time crabs have been found in localities at great distances from their normal area of distribution, owing to their being transported by ships in ballast water tanks or on the hulls. Much attention has been paid to a report by Catta (1876), who examined the Crustacea taken from the hull

  6. United States Counter-narcotics Policies towards Burma, and How the Illegal Myanmar Regime is Manipulating Those Policies to Commit Ethnic Genocide (United States)


    Cocaine and Acetic Anhydride for Heroin. 209 Jones. 64 strength is the reason for the growing number of paranoid schizophrenia and powerful mental...than other amphetamines. The hypo-chloride methamphetamines produced from the Golden Triangle region cause severe paranoia, schizophrenia , and

  7. 迟到的非殖民化与缅甸对英联邦的突破%Delayed Decolonization and Burma Walking out of the British Commonwealth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  8. Convergences conceptuelles en Birmanie : la transition du xixe siècle Conceptual Convergences in Burma : the 19th Century Period of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Candier


    Full Text Available Les conceptions politiques birmanes ont évolué au fil des siècles, échafaudées sur des interprétations renouvelées d’emprunts conceptuels à l’étranger, afin de rester en phase avec une réalité sociopolitique changeante. Le contact avec l’Occident a été à l’origine de l’une des « greffes » conceptuelles des plus prolifiques. Entre 1820 et 1880, les rois birmans ont subi deux défaites contre les Anglais et ont dû céder plusieurs provinces avant l’annexion définitive de leur pays en 1886. Pendant cette période, les élites politiques et religieuses de la cour birmane ont été confrontées à la pénétration progressive des idées et des valeurs du vainqueur. L’analyse historique et linguistique d’ouvrages contemporains de l’époque révèle l’évolution de leurs représentations sociopolitiques. La pensée politique moderne a nettement influencé les lettrés à partir des années 1830. Ils ont dès lors commencé de rationaliser et d’adapter les concepts, qu’ils soient locaux ou empruntés au pāli, à une représentation du monde en transformation. Ces convergences conceptuelles n’ont véritablement donné corps à un nouveau système de pensée que dans les années 1870. L’idée de roi universel a été délaissée, alors que l’accent a été mis sur l’aspect social de la norme de conduite royale. La conception moderne de la réforme, portant les notions d’amélioration et de progrès, a fait son apparition dans les projets de loi. Les valeurs occidentales de classification raciale, de définition territoriale, de communauté de langue et de culture ont été adoptées. Mais ces emprunts n’ont pas fondamentalement altéré la conception birmane traditionnelle de l’humanité, sous-tendue par les lois du kamma, de l’impermanence et de l’interdépendance entre l’ordre social et cosmique.Burmese political conceptions have varied through centuries, borrowing and adapting certain foreign concepts according to the changing sociopolitical context. In this sense, the contact with the Western political thinking was very productive. Between 1820 and 1880, the Burmese kings lost two wars against the British and had to give away several territories before the final annexation of their country in 1886. During this period, the Burmese political and religious elites were confronted to the progressive penetration of British ideas and values. A historical and linguistic investigation of significant texts shows the gradual changes of their sociopolitical representations. Modern political thinking had a strong influence on the Burmese literati from the 1830’ onwards. They gradually rationalized and adapted concepts, whether local or borrowed from the pāli, to a changing conception of the world. These conceptual convergences gave shape to a new way of thinking in the 1870’. The idea of universal king was neglected, when the literati emphasized the social interpretation of the laws of kinship conduct. The modern conception of the reform, conveying the notion of progress, was used to draft new laws. Western notions of racial classification, territorial definition, linguistic and cultural communities, were adopted. But these borrowings did not dramatically alter the Burmese traditional conception of humanity, based on the laws of kamma and impermanence, and the interdependence between the social and the cosmic order as well.

  9. George Orwell's Politics in His Colonial Life of Burma%论乔治·奥威尔缅甸殖民生活的政治观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  10. Biodiversity of roadside plants and their response to air pollution in an Indo-Burma hotspot region: implications for urban ecosystem restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai


    Full Text Available In recent Anthropocene, biodiversity of urban roadside plants is now increasingly being realized as an eco-sustainable tool for monitoring and mitigation of air pollution. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of particulate matter (PM pollutants on leaf morphology (stomata, biochemical (heavy metals, protein, and sugars parameters and enzyme activity (peroxidase and catalase of 12 common roadside plant species, growing at two different sites of Aizawl City, i.e. the Ramrikawn (RKN-Med; polluted peri-urban site and the Mizoram University (MZU-Low; less polluted rural site. The highest dust deposition was noted for the RKN-Med site on Ficus benghalensis and the lowest in Bauhinia variegate. The plant species growing at the RKN-Med site showed significant decreases in stomatal size and stomatal index (p ˂ 0.05. Further, increased concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, and Zn was recorded at the RKN-Med site. Moreover, tolerant roadside plants find their suitability for plantation in ecologically sensitive regions, having implications for urban ecosystem restoration.

  11. Recall of the Jiaokexi Conference Attended by the Heads of the Allied Forces in Burma%忆缅甸皎克西盟军首脑会议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  12. Arakan and Bengal : the rise and decline of the Mrauk U kingdom (Burma) from the fifteenth to the seventeeth century AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galen, Stephan Egbert Arie van


    The Arakanese kingdom (Rakhine state in modern Myanmar) grew from the fifteenth century AD from a small agrarian state with its nucleus in the hart of the Kaladan valley to a significant local power by the early seventeenth century. Arakan asserted its influence across the northern shores of the Bay

  13. Sino-Burmese relations : past, present and (a glimpse of the) future


    Kleiven, Øystein Johan


    Abstract China is almost unanimously being portrayed as the most important ally of the military junta in Burma. The notion that Burma is turning into a vassal state of China is not uncommon; it has even been suggested that Burma is becoming the 24th province of China, and that China is the puppet master of Burma. Do these descriptions depict a realistic picture of Sino-Burmese relations? If not, what is then the genuine nature of the relationship? China and Burma share not only a l...

  14. Effects of Heavy Metals and pH Value on Seed Germination of Burma Reed%重金属和pH值对类芦种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宏; 戴军; 李永涛; 郭彦彪


    类芦(Neyraudia reynaudiana)是一种具有极强耐下旱、贫瘠、高温等逆境的多年生禾草植物,是南方水蚀荒漠化地区、采矿采石厂及各类边坡植被自然恢复中的先锋植物.为探索在各类矿区及受重金属污染的地区采用类芦进行生态修复的可行性,通过窀内发芽试验,对类芦种子在Hg2+,Cr6+,Cd2+,Pb2+,Zn2+,Cu2+等6种重金属离子胁迫及不同pH值条件下的萌发能力进行了研究.结果表明,类芦种子在pH值为5.0~9.0的范围内具有良好的萌发能力;6种重金属离子随着处理浓度的升高,对类芦种子的抑制作用逐渐加强,且出现显著抑制作用的最低浓度顺序为:Cd2+<Cu2+<Hg2+,Zn2+,Cr6+<Pb2+;6种重金属对类芦种子活力指数出现显著影响的浓度均较显著影响发芽率、发芽势和发芽指数3个指标的浓度低,说明类芦幼苗生长比种子萌发对6种重金属更加敏感.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖生华; 麻建明; 廖林


    基于对区域构造特征和演化的分析,认为缅甸中央盆地形成于第三纪,经历了始新世-渐新世、中新世和上新世三期构造演化,可划分为西部深坳区和东部浅坳区2个二级构造单元及Irrawaddy凹陷、Prome凹陷、Salin凹陷、Chindwin凹陷、Hukawng凹陷、Putao凹陷、Shwebo凹陷、Inlelake凹陷、Salween凹陷、Sittang凹陷、Pegu凸起等11个三级构造单元.认为碎屑物由北而南入海,形成前积型纵向三角洲,其新生代地层厚度大于20000 m.露头和实钻资料表明,Chindwin凹陷主要烃源岩为Yaw组、Laungshe组及Kabaw组页岩.储层为白垩系-始新统砂岩,盖层为泥页岩,厚度大,分布广.Chindwin凹陷具有良好的上、中、下3套生储盖组合,生烃高峰为中新世晚期,Yaw组、Laungshe组和Kabaw组页岩形成的油气沿斜坡向上运移.该凹陷中的Indaw和Yenan构造规模大、保存条件较好、油气可采资源量丰富,有可能发现大型油气田.

  16. A review of the studies on pteropods from the northern Indian Ocean A review of the studies on pteropods of the northern Indian Ocean region with a report on the pteropods of Irrawaddy continental shelf off Myanmar (Burma)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Riedel, F.; Janssen, A; Hla, U Ko Yi

    and ostracods have been reviewed earlier and this is the first time a review of the pteropod studies in the northern Indian Ocean is being attempted, in view of the vast data generated in this region. The pteropod assemblages from two cores collected...

  17. 二战期间中英在反攻缅甸问题上的分歧与斗争%Disputes between China and Britain in Burma during WWII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  18. British Divide - and - Rule Policy towards the Mountain Ethnic Groups in Burma after WWII%论二战后英国对缅甸山区民族的分治政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  19. 制空权与中国远征军第一次入缅作战失利原因分析%Air Domination and Analysis of Failure of the Chinese Expeditionary Force in Its First Operations in Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  20. 官僚制を破壊せよ--ネー・ウィン体制期ビルマにおける行政機構改革と国軍将校の出向 (特集 地域研究の前線)


    中西, 嘉宏


    This article examines the transformation of bureaucracy under the Ne Win regime (1962-1988) in Burma, in an attempt to demonstrate the process of the military intervention into the civilian bureaucracy. The modern bureaucracy in Burma was constructed under the British Empire, and the Indian Civil Service (or Burma Civil Service) was the powerful cadre of the colonial bureaucracy. The commanding position of the ICS or BCS did not change signifi cantly with the coming of independence in 1948, s...

  1. Zahraničná politika USA a Číny voči Barme


    Hlopková, Lucia


    Burma, abounds with vast natural resources and this coupled with its strategic geographical and political position draws the country increasing attention from the international community. However, any further cooperation with Burma is complicated by her nondemocratic regime represented by the military junta.The thesis presented here aims to compare the attitude of two world powers the U.S. and China towards Burma, find motives of their foreign policy and to evaluate the consequences of this p...

  2. 19 CFR 4.22 - Exemptions from special tonnage taxes. (United States)


    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada Chile Colombia..., Republic of Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungarian People's Republic Iceland India Indonesia Iran...

  3. 48 CFR 52.212-3 - Offeror Representations and Certifications-Commercial Items. (United States)


    ..., mineral extraction activities, oil-related activities, or the production of military equipment, as those...). _Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia,...

  4. 78 FR 6179 - Unblocking of One Specially Designated National and Blocked Person Pursuant to Executive Order 13448 (United States)


    ... Kyaw, 503 Sembawang Road, 02-29 757707, Singapore; c/o Air Bagan Holdings Pte. Ltd., undetermined; c/o Htoo Wood Products Pte. Ltd., undetermined; c/o Pavo Aircraft Leasing Pte. Ltd., undetermined; c/o Pavo Trading Pte. Ltd., undetermined; DOB 25 Oct 1947; nationality Burma; citizen Burma; National ID...

  5. 76 FR 55419 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal... (United States)


    ... FY12. Prohibited Countries: Low Income Category Burma is subject to numerous restrictions, including... Programs Appropriations Act (Pub. L. 104-208), which prohibits assistance to the government of Burma until... assistance to the government of a country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by military...

  6. Shan beauty


    Beato, Felix, fl 1850-1891, photographer


    184 x 246 mm. Showing a Shan girl standing in front of a raised house constructed of woven palm fronds. Her dress proclaims her a woman of the British Tai (Shan) States. The dress is described in J.G. Scott's 'Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States' (Rangoon: Printed by the Superintendent, Government printing, Burma, 1900). 'The dress is not open at the front as it is with the Burma girl, nor is it tucked up between the legs as it is with the Siamese. It is, however, fastened in th...

  7. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS BARBEY using BT and XBT casts in the Indian ocean and other seas from 07 January 1989 to 31 January 1989 (NODC Accession 8900034) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS BARBEY in the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Burma Sea, and Malacca of...

  8. 76 FR 68250 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Study of the U.S... (United States)


    ... sciences, social sciences, arts and humanities, education, and business. All participants will have a good..., and South Sudan). (2) North Africa/Middle East and East Asia (countries include Burma, Egypt,...

  9. Libraries in Wyoming: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... this page: Libraries in Wyoming To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Gillette Campbell County Health Medical Library 501 S. Burma Ave. PO Box 3011 Gillette, WY ...

  10. Temperature and salinity profile data collected from XBT, CTD, MBT and Bottle casts from multiple platforms by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India, in the Bay of Bengal from August 28, 1976 to January 07, 2009 (NODC Accession 0055418) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from Bottle, MBT, XBT, and CTD casts from the Andaman and Burma Seas, Bay of Bengal, Malacca Straits, and the Indian Ocean. Data were...

  11. Mekong sub-region committed to ending trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Thatun


    Full Text Available In October 2004 six countries - Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar/Burma, Thailand and Vietnam – joined hands in the battle against human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS.

  12. A Study on the Harmonious and Confl icting Relation between Pluricentric Languages: Taking the Case Study of Sino-Burma Jinghpo Language as an Example%论跨境语言的和谐与冲突 ——以中缅景颇语个案为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  13. 缅甸奈温军政府的政治合法性诉求与华人的政治地位%On the Claim for Political Legitimacy of the Ne Win Military Rule and Political Status of Ethnic Chinese in Burma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  14. Hero of Huangpu Military Accademy, Soul of the Chinese Nation——An Authentic Account of General Dai Anlan Going On an Expedlton to Burma%黄埔之雄民族之魂——戴安澜将军远征缅甸抗日纪实

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 浴血东瓜守 1941年12月7日,日军偷袭珍珠港,太平洋战争爆发,世界反法西斯阵营最终确立.日军野心勃勃,继续向南太平洋推进,占领菲、马、新、印尼后,又向缅、泰、印进攻.

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR, MAURICE EWING and others in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1983-10-10 to 1998-10-20 (NODC Accession 0115689) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115689 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR, MAURICE EWING, METEOR, NATHANIEL B. PALMER and THOMAS G....

  16. 迎合西南地缘特征的山地文化生成逻辑--以滇缅边境地区的德昂族为例%The Construction Logic of Mountain Culture Catering to Geographical Features of Southwest China-A Case Study of De’ang Nationality in the Cross-border Area of Burma and Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷家荣; 蒲跃


    The object system shaping culture includes two double factors of natural ecological environment and social historical environment affected by both the objective and subjective elements,which impact on human culture system together.De ’ang culture is deeply affected by the southwest physical environment and the local social and historical process,and even it is the specific performance of the spirit system shaped by the southwest object system.During the course of culture shaping based on ethnic groups’history migration and ethnic memory,De’ang people had to give up some traditional culture to comply with local physical field,because of the frequent encountering of local ethnic groups and objective geography environment.On the surface, they constructed their cultures based on ethnic boundary.In fact,they often shaped some cultural “pedigree”to adapt to local objective system.During the course of culture construction,De’ang people created their cultures with more geographical features and ethnic characteristics,so as to continue and create their cultures more adeptly.%塑造文化的物体系双重包容自然生态环境及其由客观和主观因素共同作用的社会历史环境,这两个基础要素共同决定人类文化体系。德昂族文化的发生发展深受西南客观物理环境及地方社会历史进程影响,德昂族文化根本就是西南边疆特有“物体系”共同形塑的精神体系的具体化存在。德昂族基于族群的历史迁徙和族群记忆基础上生产族文化过程中,经常会不同程度地遭遇地方大民族和客观地域环境障碍,逼迫人们牺牲性地放弃曾经的文化要素而调适性地依从地方物理区场。表层上,德昂族基于族群自我边界塑造自己的文化系谱,但其本质却是在不断地磨合不能有效吻合于地方物体系的文化菱角。也就是在这种文化打磨的过程中,德昂族创造出了充分浓郁有西南地缘特征和极具民族特色的文化结构,从而以更加“适应”的生活姿态延续和新创生多彩的族文化。

  17. Application of Informatization in Material Customs Clearance Management of Burmese Irrawaddy River Hydroipower Project%信息化在缅甸伊江水电项目物资通关管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    缅甸伊江水电项目建设需求物资以实物投资形式进口缅甸需经三个阶段的批文报批,以及多个部委的审核和审批.文章通过对信息化在物资通关管理中的应用分析,总结出缅甸水电项目物资通关管理的一些经验.%For Burmese Irrawaddy River hydropower project construction, materials are all supplied by China. The import of material to Burma needs experience three phase, and covers more than one departments of Burma. Based on analyzing the application of informatization in the goods customs clearance management, the article summed up the experience in material customs clearance management of Burma hydropower project.

  18. A Brief Discussion on Chinese Expeditionary Army's Battle in Burma and the Cause of Its Failure --.Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of the Chinese Expeditionary Army' s Overseas Operations%略论中国远征军第一次入缅作战及其失败的原因——纪念中国远征军出国作战70周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the Second World War, as a member of the Allies China not only contained and consumed most of the Japanese troops, but also organized the Chinese Expeditionary Force march to Myanmar and fought alongside British and American Allies at the invitation of them, and made an outstanding contribution to the victory of the world anti - fascist war. In the first Burmese war, Chinese Expeditionary Force in Renanqiang successfully saved the British army and gave a heavy blow on the Japanese troops in the defense of Tonggu, such military exploits caused a sensation in the world and made the world fully realized that China was one of the important forces in the world anti - fascist war. However, in the process of the Allies' cooperation in the Bunna's battlefield, them existed many reasons that leading to the failure of the first Burmese War, such as global strategic target, Sino - British strategic contradiction, the coalition with ineffective, and the contradiction and the dereliction of the Chinese Expeditionary Force generals.%第二次世界大战期间,中国作为同盟国的一员不仅在本土牵制和消耗了绝大多数日军,而且还在英美盟国的邀请下,组织中国远征军开赴缅甸与英美盟国共同作战,为世界反法西斯战争的胜利做出了杰出的贡献。在第一次入缅作战中,中国远征军在仁安羌成功解救英军,同古保卫战中重创日军等战绩轰动了世界,让世人充分认识到了中国是世界反法西斯统一战线的一支重要力量。但是,由于同盟国在缅甸战场的合作过程中存在全球战略目标、中英战略矛盾、中英联军配合不力、分歧和矛盾及中国远征军将领失职等原因,致使中国远征军第一次入缅作战失败而告终。

  19. A Survey on Minor Languages Learning Situation of Colleges in Sino-Burma Border Areas--With Applied Burmese of Lincang Teachers' College as a Case%中缅边境地区高校小语种学习现状调查研究--以临沧师范高等专科学校应用缅甸语专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 龙宇


    With the implementation of the"bridgehead"strategy, minor languages learning flourishes. How to develop minor languages teaching work with the advantages of ground source in the border areas is a question worthy of consideration. This paper investigates the learning situation by questionnaires based on the major of applied Burmese of Lincang Teachers' College, and then provides the necessary reference for meeting the social needs on minor languages and improving teaching quality.%  随着“桥头堡”政策的实施,小语种学习蓬勃发展,如何结合地源优势在边境地区更好地开展小语种教学是一个值得思考的问题,本文以临沧师范高等专科学校应用缅甸语专业为例,以问卷调查的形式调查其学习现状,为小语种专业能更好地适应社会需求,提高教学质量提供必要参考。

  20. Another Talk on the Chinese Expeditonary Army's Success or Failure and on Its Influence on the War Situation in the Second World War——Also Analysing the War Situation in Burma from the Angle of Control of the Air%再论中国远征军成败及对第二次世界大战战局的影响——兼从制空权的角度分析缅甸战局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  1. The Establishment of Ne Win Military Regime and China's Burma Policy: Ideology and Realistic Option in China's Foreign Policy in the Early 1960s%奈温军人政权的建立与中国的对缅政策——兼论20世纪60年代初中国对外政策中的意识形态与现实选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  2. Of baby ducklings and clay pots: method and metaphor in HIV prevention. (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian


    In this article, I report on my decision to undertake a process of elicitation, development, and examination of metaphors for experiences of HIV prevention work in Burma/Myanmar. I cover the theoretical basis to that decision, my rationale for using metaphor elicitation as method when researching the rhetoric and practice of HIV prevention in Burma/Myanmar, the process I used, and some of the resultant metaphors. I also demonstrate that this process resulted in the opening up of a space for talking about HIV prevention that avoided recourse to standard prevention rhetoric, thereby enabling a new and deeper understanding of the gap between this rhetoric and people's actual practice or experience.

  3. Improving the Quality of Freeze Dried Rice: Initial Evaluations (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Improving the Quality of Freeze Dried Rice: Initial Evaluations Lan Bui and Ross Coad Land ...RELEASE LIMITATION Approved for public release ` UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Published by Land Division DSTO...techniques and final characteristics. The people of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Burma and Thailand generally prefer a cooked rice

  4. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 38, 3rd Quarter, July 2005 (United States)


    anthropologists such as Gregory Bateson served the war effort directly, first conduct- ing intelligence opera- tions in Burma for the Office of...leaders such as General James L. Jones, Jr., USMC, Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, and Admi- ral Gregory G. Johnson, USN, combatant com- mander, Joint

  5. Feminist Interventions for Southeast Asian Women Trauma Survivors: Deconstructing Gender-Based Violence and Developing Structures of Peace. (United States)

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.

    An analysis of structural and institutional violence against women in three cultures in Southeast Asia, Thailand, Cambodia, and among refugees of Burma, was generated by groups of women and men from these countries. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and…

  6. Termitophilous Scarabs of the Tribe Corythoderini: A taxonomic review (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, I.R.M.; Krikken, J.


    The scarab tribe Corythoderini is reviewed. All its members appear associated with termites, probably in a symphilous way; the host records all pertain to Odontotermes species. The known range of the Corythoderini falls within the range of the host genus : Africa to Burma. The phylogeny of the coryt

  7. "I Want to Do Things with Languages": A Male Karenni Refugee's Reconstructing Multilingual Capital (United States)

    Duran, Chatwara Suwannamai


    This article discusses how a male Karenni refugee in the United States has constructed multilingual capital along the way of his multiple movements across national borders. As a member of an ethnic minority group in three different countries (Burma, Thailand, and the United States), he has invested in learning multiple languages throughout the…

  8. Under attack: a way of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eubank


    Full Text Available Much of what is happening in the conflict zones ofeastern Burma is difficult to capture with photos, videoand reports. It is a slow and insidious strangulation of thepopulation rather than an all-out effort to crush them.

  9. Estimates of run off, evaporation and precipitation for the Bay of Bengal on seasonal basis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Mean seasonal river discharge rates (R) of the major rivers along the east coast of India, Bangla Desh and Burma; evaporation rates (E) computed for 5 degrees lat-long. Squares from data on heat loss and mean yearly precipitation (P) values at 5...

  10. White Hmong Dialogues. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number Three. (United States)

    Strecker, David; Vang, Lopao

    This document presents the scripts of 20 brief dialogues presented as lessons which were developed for an intensive beginning class in the White Hmong dialect. Hmong is spoken by several million people in China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Burma, and by Hmong living in such countries as Australia, France, French Guiana, and the United States.…

  11. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand. (United States)

    Suwanvanichkij, Voravit


    Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  12. 31 CFR 537.514 - Importation of certain personal and household effects. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of certain personal and... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS... personal and household effects. (a) A U.S. person who maintained a residence in Burma prior to July...

  13. The world heroin market : Can supply be cut?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paoli, L.; Greenfield, V.A.; Reuter, P.


    This book proceeds in three parts. The first part sets out basic facts. It reviews the historical development of the world opiate market. The second part explores market conditions in Afghanistan, Burma, India, Columbia and Tajikistan in greater detail. The fourth appendix (D) provides information o

  14. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process (United States)


    ... Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma, in the Federal Register at 74 FR 40463 on August 11, 2009... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. In addition, the waiver request must address any... prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule...

  15. China's foreign relations and the survival of autocracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.


    The Chinese government has frequently been criticized for propping up anti-democratic governments. This book investigates the rise of China as an emerging authoritarian power. By comparing China’s bilateral relations to three Asian developing countries - Burma, Cambodia and Mongolia - it examines ho

  16. The Quiet Ones. (United States)

    Shillue, Edith


    Using the story of George Orwell's experience with imperialism in Burma from the essay "Shooting the Elephant," one English-as-a-Second-Language teacher confronts her desire to "stand over" students in the language learning classroom as they try to negotiate meaning in English. (Author/VWL)

  17. DoD-Wide Intelligence Career Development Program. General Intelligence Personnel (United States)


    Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia , Japan, Burma) FREE WORLD FREE WORLD LATIN AMERICA LAT AMER MIDDLE EAST MID EAST (Cyprus, Greece, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon...Japanese. Javanese 4-81 PART 4 LANGUAGE PROFIC. ENCY LEVELS AND CODES (For Speaking, Reading, Oral Comprehension and Writing) Level Code N one

  18. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution. (United States)

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  19. Chinese Dialects in Southeast Asia. Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 7 No. 4. (United States)

    Leok Har Chan

    This paper discusses the dialects of the Chinese people who have settled in various countries of Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Burma, Thailand, Laos, North and South Vietnam, and the Khmer Republic. Data are first given regarding the area in general. The data are then broken down according to individual…

  20. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration (United States)


    ... include, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and... ] with key stakeholders and to enter the promising Chinese and Vietnamese markets for civil nuclear goods... organizations to meet with Chinese and Vietnamese officials to discuss timely nuclear issues. The mission...

  1. 75 FR 42164 - Notice of Final Determination Updating the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor... (United States)


    ..., alleging forced or indentured child labor in the production of eight products in China, both filed pursuant.... Bricks Burma, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Carpets Nepal, Pakistan. Charcoal Brazil. Coal Pakistan. Coca (stimulant plant) Colombia. Cocoa Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria. Coffee Cote d'Ivoire. Cotton...

  2. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko


    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  3. Agency as the Acquisition of Capital: The Role of One-on-One Tutoring and Mentoring in Changing a Refugee Student's Educational Trajectory (United States)

    Dumenden, Iris E.


    Current research into the experiences of refugee students in mainstream secondary schools in Australia indicates that for these students, schools are places of social and academic isolation and failure. This article introduces one such student, Lian, who came to Australia as a refugee from Burma, and whom the author tutored and mentored…

  4. Poppies or Peace: The Relationship between Opium Production and Conflict (United States)


    Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia GDP Gross Domestic Product ICC International Criminal Court INSCR International Narcotics Control Strategy Report...those addicts, the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection exceeds ninety percent.35 Although opium addiction has an undeniably adverse...5Ibid., 4. Note that the authors specifically reference the ongoing Karen insurgency in Burma and civil conflict in Colombia ; both regions have

  5. Engaged Teaching and Learning with Adult Karen Refugees in a Service-Learning Site (United States)

    Smolen, Lynn Atkinson; Zhang, Wei; Detwiler, Stephen


    This article describes a case study of a service-learning project connected to a TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) teacher preparation program. The case study explored the teacher candidates' experiences teaching English to Karen refugees from Myanmar (Burma) in a midwestern city in the United States. The teacher candidates'…

  6. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ólafur


    , however, the two plates moved by a distance of several meters, releasing the stress accumulated over hundreds of years. The result was a devastating tsunami that hit coastlines across the Indian Ocean, killing about 300,000 people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Somalia...

  7. Hypopituitarism and AutoimmuneThyroiditis Following Snake Bite: An Unusual Clinical Scenario. (United States)

    Shetty, Sahana; Abi, Manesh S; Hickson, Ravali; David, Thambu; Rajaratnam, Simon


    Snake venom can cause local tissue damage and lead to coagulopathy, shock, neurotoxicity and acute kidney injury. Hypopituitarism is a rare complication following snake bite. It has been described following Russell's viper bite from Burma and South India. Herein we describe a patient who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis and partial hypopituitarism following snake bite.

  8. Voice and Valence-Altering Operations in Falam Chin: A Role and Reference Grammar Approach (United States)

    King, Deborah


    This dissertation describes and analyzes voice and valence-altering operations in Falam Chin, a Tibeto-Burman language of Burma. The data is explained within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which supplies several key concepts particularly useful for generalizing the behavior of the Falam Chin operations. The first is RRG's…

  9. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.


    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  10. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Special Operations/Low Intensity Conflict (SO/LIC) Symposium and Exhibition, "National Security Strategy in Transition" The Critical Role of Special Operations Forces (SOF) in Preparing Now for an Uncertain Future. (United States)


    War, and cessation of nomic reforms, resist the flow of heroin from Burma, its chemical and biological programs and ballistic and encourage...establish commo links to all elements of Recovery effort "* Transportation assets * Vehicle & Aviation support "* Technical support • Water purification units

  11. China’s Soft Power and Growing Influence in Southeast Asia (United States)


    members (Indonesia, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) understood their 78 Joffe. “The...the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Co-operation, agreeing the FTA would be created within 10 years.121 Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia ...has resulted in the export of poor labor, political, and environmental policies. Deforestation is an issue in Burma as trade increases with China

  12. Book review - Borderline justice: the fight for refugee and migrant rights by Frances Webber, London, Pluto Press, 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liempt, I.C. van


    Our leaders encourage and treat as heroes those people who are fighting for democracy and human rights, in Burma, in Libya, in Egypt and Syria…But as soon as these heroes seek sanctuary here in the ‘free world’, they are transformed into a hostile alien threat to our culture and our values, to be ke

  13. 76 FR 47990 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Updates to Country Policies, and... (United States)


    ... Eritrea. Fiji: As a result of a military coup in Fiji, as of December 2006, the United States suspended... direct commercial sales of military equipment may be issued to the government of a country that is... an arms embargo (e.g., Burma, China, and the Republic of the Sudan) or whenever an export would...

  14. National and International Views. (United States)

    Kilgour, David


    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  15. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanvanichkij Voravit


    Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  16. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Middle East (United States)


    Larvae feed on small crustaceans , protozoa, algae, bacteria, and decaying bits of plants and animals suspended in the water. They progress through 6...Institut Pasteur d’Algérie Docteur Laveran, Algiers, Algeria 18 Industrial and Pharmaceutical Corporation, Rangoon, Burma 19 Rogoff Medical Research

  17. How Hot Can a Fire Piston Get? (United States)

    Scott-Brown, J. A.; Cunningham, O. A.; Goad, B. C.


    The fire piston is just a sealed syringe containing a small amount of tinder. When the plunger is forced downwards, the air inside is compressed and heats up, setting fire to the tinder. It has been used as a convenient and portable way of starting fires "over a wide area from northern Burma and Siam through the Malay Peninsula and the Malayan…

  18. Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation. 1993 (United States)


    Because authorities in Lahore refused the aircraft permission to land, however, the pilot went to Raja Sansi Airport in Amritsar, India. There the hijacker...Maroc ATR-42 Casablanca , Morocco/El Aaiun Canary Islands/ Asmara, Western Sahara Mentally unstable 10-06-89 Myanmar Fokker 28 Mergui/Rangoon, Burma

  19. Minfong Ho: Politics in Prose (United States)

    Wiggins, Joy L.


    In this article, the author interviews Minfong Ho, an award-winning Thai writer of children's and young adult novels. Ho was born in Burma to Chinese parents in 1951, raised in Singapore and Thailand, educated in Bangkok, Taiwan, and at Cornell University in New York. Ho's first novel, "Sing to the Dawn," won first prize from the Council of…

  20. Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document (United States)


    crocodilus crocodilus Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname , Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru Caiman, Yacare Caiman yacare Bolivia...Bangladesh and Burma Viper, Lar Valley Vipera latifii Iran Amphibians Frog, California red-legged Rana aurora draytonii U.S.A., Mexico. Frog

  1. 78 FR 54013 - Office of the Chief of Protocol; Gifts to Federal Employees from Foreign Government Sources... (United States)


    .... Preservation of the Haji Omar `Ali World,'' photos by E. Saifuddien Sa'adul Porter and text by Khairi, Sultan... would the United States. gold and diamond Sein, President of cause embarrassment to clasp. Rec'd--11/20... embarrassment to diamond. Rec'd--11/20/ Burma. donor and U.S. 2012. Est. Value-- Government....

  2. 基于行为主体的缅甸排华思潮产生及其原因解析%An Analysis on the Formation and Cause of Anti-China Sentiment in Myanmar based on Actant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灿松; 葛岳静; 马纳; 胡志丁


    After the Myitsone event in 2011, anti-Chinese sentiment in Burma has been soaring. This sentiment, along with the advancement of the democratic reform in Burma, has become one important trigger point of changes in Bur-ma-China relationship and changes in China’s foreign policy. This paper com-bines theories of emotions of different social classes of Burma and different behaviors and utilizes theories of constructivism of geopolitics of emotion and foreign relations to construct an analytical frame of anti-Chinese senti-ment in Burma on both macro and micro level. Then the thesis explores the main rationales behind the anti-Chinese sentiment in terms of long-cultivated‘shame culture’ in Burma, political change in Burma after the democratic re-form, long-term cultivated cultural psyche, anti-Chinese memorization of civilians in Burma, the prevailing nationalism, the misunderstanding towards China supporting military government, industrial structure of companies in-vested in Burma, Chinese failing to fit into the local culture, the neglect of local classes, wrong inducement by local NGOs, over-exposure by local media and exaggerated influence of Chinese companies by local media. The paper pro-vides policy suggestions from the perspectives of improvement in foreign poli-cy, behavioral change by Chinese companies and Chinese people in Burma, how to strengthen relations with NGOs in Burma and how to properly guide local media.%2011年密松水电站事件之后,缅甸排华思潮不断攀升。这一思潮伴随着缅甸民主改革的进程不断发展,成为影响中缅关系转折和思考中国外交政策转变的重要触发点,文章结合缅甸各阶层的情感和不同行为体行为、利用情感地缘政治和国际关系的建构主义理论,从缅甸排华思潮产生的国内国际地缘政治格局出发,从宏微观两个层面构建缅甸排华思潮产生的分析框架。利用框架从缅甸殖民时期以来形成的“羞辱”

  3. Interannual variation of springtime biomass burning in Indochina: Regional differences, associated atmospheric dynamical changes, and downwind impacts (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Promchote, Parichart


    During March and April, widespread burning occurs across farmlands in Indochina in preparation for planting at the monsoon onset. The resultant aerosols impact the air quality downwind. In this study, we investigate the climatic aspect of the interannual variation of springtime biomass burning in Indochina and its correlation with air quality at Mt. Lulin in Taiwan using long-term (2005-2015) satellite and global reanalysis data. Based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, we find that the biomass burning activities vary with two geographical regions: northern Indochina (the primary EOF mode) and southern Indochina (the secondary EOF mode). We determine that the variation of biomass burning over northern Indochina is significantly related with the change in aerosol concentrations at Mt. Lulin. This occurs following the change in the so-called India-Burma Trough in the lower and middle troposphere. When the India-Burma Trough is intensified, a stronger northwesterly wind (to the west of the trough) transports the dryer air from higher latitude into northern Indochina, and this promotes local biomass burning activities. The increase in upward motion to the east of the intensified India-Burma Trough lifts the aerosols, which are transported toward Taiwan by the increased low-level westerly jet. Further diagnoses revealed the connection between the India-Burma Trough and the South Asian jet's wave train pattern as well as the previous winter's El Niño-Southern Oscillation phase. This information highlights the role of the India-Burma Trough in modulating northern Indochina biomass burning and possibly predicting aerosol transport to East Asia on the interannual time scale.

  4. Data to the earthworm fauna of Myanmar with notes on some little known species (Annelida, Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.


    Full Text Available The earthworm fauna of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma is quite well studied due to the studious works of Gordon E. Gates. However, after the publication of the comprehensive monograph Burmese earthworms (Gates 1972 there has been no new data published from this country. In the last year the last author collected several earthworm samples from Burma, resulting in 7 species records belonging to the families Moniligastridae, Benhamiidae, Octochaetidae and Megascolecidae including some little known species like Tonoscolex depressus (Gates, 1929 and Eutyphoeus constrictus Gates, 1929. Examination of the E. constrictus specimens revealed that they show different states of metandry, they are morphologically very similar to E. hastatus Gates, 1929, and only differ by the functionality of the testes in segment 10, therefore it should be regarded as a synonym of E. constrictus.

  5. Timber Entrepreneur, Cukong Kayu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael


    We live in a world populated not just by individuals but by figures, those larger-than-life people who in some way express and challenge our conventional understandings of social types. This innovative and collaborative work takes up the wide range of figures that populate the social and cultural...... that is at once highly particular and general. They include the Muslim Television Preacher in Indonesia, Miss Beer Lao, the Rural DJ in Thailand, the Korean Soap Opera Junkie in Burma, the Filipino Seaman, and the Photo Retoucher in Vietnam. Figures of Southeast Asian Modernity brings together the fieldwork...... of over eighty scholars and covers the nine major countries of the region: Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. An introduction outlines important social transformations in Southeast Asia and key theoretical and methodological innovations...

  6. Interaction between the Dauki and the Indo-Burman convergence boundaries from teleseismic and locally recorded earthquake data (United States)

    Howe, M.; Moulik, P.; Seeber, L.; Kim, W.; Steckler, M. S.


    The Himalayan and the Burma Arcs converge onto the Indian plate from opposite sides near their syntaxial juncture and have reduced it to a sliver. Both geology and seismicity point to recent internal deformation and high seismogenic potential within this sliver. Large historical earthquakes, including the Great Indian earthquake of 1897 (Mw ~8.1), along with the recent seismicity, suggest that the cratonic blocks in the region are bounded by active faults. The most prominent is the E-W trending Dauki Fault, a deeply-rooted, north-dipping thrust fault, situated between the Shillong massif to the north and the Sylhet Basin to the south. Along the Burma Arc, the subducted seismogenic slab of the Indian plate is continuous north to the syntaxis. Yet the Naga and Tripura segments of the accretionary fold belt, respectively north and south of the easterly extrapolation of the Dauki fault, are distinct. Accretion has advanced far westward into the foredeep of the Dauki structure along the front of the Tripura segment, while it has remained stunted facing the uplifted Shillong massif along the Naga segment. Moreover, the Dauki topographic front can be traced eastwards across the Burma Arc separating the two segments. Recent earthquakes support the hypothesis that the Dauki convergence structure continues below the Burma accretionary belt. Using teleseismic and regional data from the deployment of a local network, we explore the interaction of the Dauki thrust fault with the Burma Arc subduction zone. Preliminary observations include: While seismicity is concentrated in the slab at the eastward extrapolation of the Dauki fault, shallow seismicity is diffuse and does not illuminate the Dauki fault itself. P-axes in moment-tensor solutions of earthquakes within the Indian plate tend to be directed N-S and are locally parallel to the India-Burma boundary, particularly in the slab. T-axes tend to be oriented E-W with a strong tendency to follow the slab down dip. This pattern

  7. The Burmese medic: an international physician assistant analogue. (United States)

    Pedersen, Donald M; Pedersen, Kathy J; Santitamrongpan, Verapan


    Although there have been recent democratic reforms in Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), for nearly 60 years there has been a consistent history of human rights violations as part of a civil war waged by the Myanmar military, known as the Tatmadaw. Approximately 3,500 villages have been destroyed by the Tatmadaw during the half-century of civil war. Oppression against minority groups, including the Karen, Karenni, Kachin, Mon, Shan, Chin, and Muslims has adversely affected the health outcomes of these vulnerable populations. Since the mid 1990s, medics have been providing care for the ethnic minorities who were displaced from their homes by the civil war and who live in the jungles of eastern Burma as well as in the refugee camps and towns in the border areas of Thailand. This article will look at how these medics are providing care similar to that provided by physician assistants in the United States.

  8. The United States and Myanmar: From Antagonists to Security Partners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haacke


    Full Text Available This article provides an overview both of the considerable makeover that relations between the United States and Myanmar have undergone since Naypyidaw ushered in a programme of wide-ranging reforms, and of the main policy areas in relation to which Washington remains keen to induce further change. The article also aims to explain why, notwithstanding the significant improvement in bilateral relations and the Obama administration’s interest in also pursuing military engagement, progress in this field has remained rather limited. Focusing on the politics of US policymaking on Burma, the article argues that while the Obama administration was able to take the initiative on recalibrating US Burma policy, congressional resistance in particular, amid wider concerns shared by non-governmental organisations, has so far constrained the administration vis-à-vis US–Myanmar military-to-military relations.

  9. Logistics and Strategy (United States)


    islands from 1941 to 1944 in the Philippines, Thailand , Malaya, Singapore, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Wake Island, Gilbert Islands, New Britain and... northeast coast of New Guinea and the central Solomon Islands to secure the northern lines of communication. The final task required the reduction of...commander for Operation Cartwheel, advanced forces along the northeast coast of New Guinea and occupied nearby islands to include New Caledonia, Milne

  10. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  11. Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Estimates Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster Assistance, and Civic Aid (United States)


    109,731 2,300 -4,369 107,662 * The FY 2010/2011 Actual column includes obligations for the Haiti Earthquake and Pakistan Flooding Disaster Relief...of severe natural and man-made disasters such as the Pacific Tsunami (2005), Pakistan Earthquake (2006), Burma Cyclone (2007), Georgia conflict (2008... Haiti Earthquake (2010), and Pakistan Flooding (2010) the U.S. military has and will continue to be called upon to provide aid and assistance

  12. Defining Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) Operations Requirements for Future Department of the Navy Training and Analytical Models and Simulations (United States)


    event 193 Rene Descartes (1960). Discourse on Method and Meditations. New York: The Liberal Arts Press...of State’s country website for Burma. Retrieved from Descartes , Rene ; Laurence J. Lafleur (trans.) (1960...objects which in their own nature do not stand in a relation of antecedence and sequence. -- Rene Descartes193 A. INTRODUCTION Implementation of

  13. Updated Distribution Records for Anopheles vagus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Republic of Philippines, and Considerations Regarding Its Secondary Vector Roles in Southeast Asia (United States)


    5 cm ht, 13 cm diam; Bioquip, Rancho Dominguez, CA). Collected larvae were placed in plastic Whirl-Pak® bags (118 ml, 8 x 18 cm) (BioQuip, Rancho...Bangladesh, Cambodia (Kampuchea), China (including Hong Kong), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Mariana Islands, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, Philippines, Sri...Ramalingam (1974) elevated subspecies An. vagus limosus to species status when he collected both subspecies at the same locality in Sabah, Malaysia . In

  14. ’Huts and Nuts’ or ’Hearts and Minds?’ -- Anthropologists and Operational Art (United States)


    NSCC)”-- Program Solicitation, NSF 08-594. 44. Matthew B. Stannard, “Montgomery McFate’s Mission: Can One Anthropologist Possibly Steer the Course...starving populations in Somalia best by civil war in 1994. 22. U.S. attempt to support victims of cyclone Nargis in Myan Mar (Burma) in Spring 2008...lessons learned studies from Somalia, Haiti , the Balkans, and most recently Afghanistan and Iraq, have consistently pointed to a lack of cultural

  15. Southeast Asian Perceptions of U.S. Security Policy in the Post-Cold War Era (United States)


    over the prospect of U.S. isolationism and China’s power projection in the South China Sea.i Although the Singaporean government has allowed U.S. forces...Due to its vulnerability, Rangoon has adopted a foreign policy of nonalignment that has transformed into isolationism (Neher, 1991: chap. 9). Burma’s...light manufacturing 1 2 6,;Minister: Clinton Not To Adopt Protectionism ," Jakarta Radio Republik Indonesia, November 7, 1992. Translated and

  16. The Sanity of Imperial Japan: How the Threat of Extinction Simplifies the Decision for War (United States)


    Philippines , Indo-China, Borneo, Indonesia, Malaya, and Burma were essentially forbidden. The infamous Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka eloquently...decide to exist according to Western practices or she would have to forcibly carve out a means for survival. Although references to a self-sufficiency... Philippines , Manchukuo, French Indo-China and the Dutch East Indies.25 In reality, this proclamation was not the reciprocal partnership of Hakko

  17. Wang Junyi's Deep Complex for Jade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chinese people have apprecriated jade since remote antiquity, Jade represents the lofty spirit of humanity and carries Chinese people's expectation for happy life. In ancient times when tools were primitive, carving a beautiful jade required extraordinary talent and perseverance. Chinese emperors and poets wore beautiful jade wares as symbols for gentlemen. After emerald was introduced from Burma to China, its brilliant colors and crystal-clear quality fit for Chinese people's taste far beauty and has created a new fashion.

  18. A National Security Strategy for A New Century. (United States)


    children, violence against women and children, and female genital mutilation . We will encourage governments to not return people to countries where they...Italy, the former Soviet Union, Colombia, Southeast Asia, and Nigeria . In particular, in the context of the P-8 and bilaterally, we are promoting legal...against human rights violators. These include economic sanctions, as have been maintained against Nigeria , Iraq, Burma and Cuba; visa restrictions

  19. Measles among U.S.-bound refugees from Malaysia--California, Maryland, North Carolina, and Wisconsin, August-September 2011. (United States)


    On August 26, 2011, California public health officials notified CDC of a suspected measles case in an unvaccinated male refugee aged 15 years from Burma (the index patient), who had lived in an urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which is experiencing ongoing measles outbreaks. Currently, approximately 92,000 such refugees are living in urban communities in Malaysia. Resettlement programs in the United States and other countries are ongoing. The health and vaccination status of urban refugees are largely unknown.

  20. Coercion, Cash-Crops and Culture: From Insurgency to Proto-State in Asia’s Opium Belt (United States)


    Hodes and Sedra claim a more extensive Taliban extraction system that includes taxation of production, transportation, and processing,33 Turning to...33 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2007), 39. 34 Martin Smith, Burma...104 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2007), 26. 105 Giustozzi

  1. New data on painite


    Shigley, James E.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Rossman, George R.


    A crystal of painite discovered in 1979 in a parcel of rough gem spinel from Burma represents the third known crystal of the species. This crystal is similar to the type crystal in most respects. Chemical analyses of both the new crystal and the type crystal confirmed the essential constituents reported by Moore and Araki (1976) and showed in addition the presence of trace amounts of Fe, Cr, V, Ti, Na, and Hf. Optical absorption spectra suggest that the red colour of p...

  2. Elephants for Mr. Lincoln: American Civil War-Era Diplomacy in Southeast Asia, William Strobridge & Anita Hibler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Baer


    Full Text Available This curious book, which begins with events in the 1810s, emphasizes Burma and Siam but undervalues other parts of Southeast Asia. The title refers to the offer by the king of Siam to send elephants to the United States to help President Lincoln win the Civil War. The book rightly discusses commerce, diplomats, and military actions in Southeast Asia. Missionaries are, for unclear reasons, also given prominence; in fact, much of the authors’ information comes from Protestant missionary sources...

  3. The Evolving Private Military Sector: A Survey (United States)


    organizational rents; the second stage examines how much of that rent is appropriated by inside stakeholders—i.e., employees ( Coff , 1999). For an...these contracts don’t necessarily yield profits. According to Coff (1999), employees’ ability to appropriate rent depends on three factors that drive...countries such as Laos and Cambodia, Burma and North Korea, and several central Asian countries. These states have both low GDP (gross national

  4. Alcoholism in Southeast Asia. Prevalence and treatment. (United States)

    McGovern, M P


    A pilot, field investigation of the prevalence and treatment of alcoholism in Southeast Asia (Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, and Thailand) and conducted. The methodology combined an informant study, interviewing leading alcohol and drug abuse authorities; utilising existing data; and clinical and naturalistic observation. The effects of modernisation, multiracial culture, and the unilateral focus on opiates are discussed; recommendations on treatment, education, and research are presented.

  5. Baliospermum montanum (Danti): Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology- A review


    Mali Ravindra; Wadekar Raju


    Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae) is a leafy monoecious undershrub distributed throughout the greater parts of India, Burma and Malaya. The various parts of the plant (leaves, roots, seeds and seed oil) are widely used by various tribal communities and forest dwellers for the treatment of variety of ailments. The roots of the plant are ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic system of medicine and used in preparation of important Ayurvedic formulations. The p...

  6. Naval War College Review. Volume 63, Number 3, Summer 2010 (United States)


    Continental Shelf, an inter- national commission of experts in marine geology and related fi elds established by UNCLOS for confi rmation of national claims...presence of Bangladesh and Pakistan, and in the north by the Himalayas. In this regard, India’s access to Southwest Asia runs into a geopolitical barrier...because of its rivalry with Pakistan. Simi- larly, India suffers constraints with respect to East Asia imposed by Bangladesh and Burma, which

  7. Near East/South Asia Report, No. 2702 (United States)


    Yugoslavia Middle and Near East: Abou-Dhabi, Egypt, Iran, Syria, Turkey, Kuwait Asia: Bangladesh , Burma, China, India, Indonesia, Malaya, Sri Lanka... Bangladesh , and Uganda where mUalse relations with us, It is be- no-alwned nations ,ato call for there had not been genocide on cause It is keen to re...communications, indus- every year ’alternately in New Capital by visiting Vietnamese try, textile industry, geology , and Delhi and -Hn-oi. Foreign

  8. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan (United States)


    edibles, is very alert indeed in apprehending those who adulterate alcoholic beverages . Regarding the aid issue the U.S. administration ensured He...border belt. After cutting the poppy bud, opium juice is derived which is processed by the crudest to more sophisticated In Girdi Jungle brown heroin is...stan, Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Iraq, Iran, Kurdistan, stan. According to a report published by our immigra- Thailand , Sri Lanka, and Burma. Uganda

  9. Economics of Landmines and Demining (United States)


    poaching protected wildlife. Landmine-poaching has been used against endangered species such as tigers in Burma and other animals in Southeast Asia...use their milk or meat to sell to make more money. In some other cultures, livestock are considered nothing less than human. Mostly, livestock...fails to consider the cost implications, for example, for a cow which provides milk at the time it is killed. In addition, Gildestad did not

  10. Modernizing China’s Military: Opportunities and Constraints (United States)


    tween 1961 and 1989, and South Korea reported average annual rates of growth of 8.1 percent between 1970 and 1991. Japan, Malaysia , Singapore, 11 Yuan, 2001, pp. 978–1001; see also Sighu and Yuan, 2003. 12 These include: Nepal, Sikkim, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Malaysia , Indonesia, the...caused by deforestation and other environmental problems. The air in most of China’s major cities is a serious health haz- ard; the World Bank maintains

  11. U.S. Accession to ASEAN’s Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) (United States)


    of deforestation . U.S. relations with Malaysia , another core majority-Muslim ASEAN member, also have global and regional importance because of...Darussalam, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. 2 Treaty of Amity and Cooperation...or to what extent U.S. participation would be resisted by EAS members, particularly China and Malaysia , which in the past have voiced reservations

  12. U.S. Accession to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations? Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) (United States)


    world’s largest carbon emitters, largely by virtue of the rapid pace of deforestation . U.S. relations with Malaysia , another core majority-Muslim ASEAN...02/119422.htm. ASEAN’s ten members are Brunei Darussalam, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, Thailand...particularly China and Malaysia , which in the past have voiced reservations with U.S. participation. Australia’s accession to the TAC in 2005, which

  13. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile East Asia (United States)


    outbreaks were recorded in Peru, and an isolated case occurred in Algeria . Body lice are common human parasites in mountainous temperate areas of East...up to 160 m, although they generally inhabit much shallower water. Sea snakes feed on fish, crustaceans , or other marine life. Hydrophiids are so...Laveran, Algiers, Algeria 18 Industrial and Pharmaceutical Corporation, Rangoon, Burma 19 Rogoff Medical Research Institute, Beillinson Medical Center

  14. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia. (United States)


    Stand [THE ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY OF INDIA 15 Jan] 52 Sweden Asked To Reopen Bofors Probe /PATRIOT26 Jan] 54 Insurgency Problem in Manipur Examined...Swiss court orders. Insurgency Problem in Manipur Examined 91AS06I7A Calcutta THE STATESMAN in English 29-31 Jan 91 [Reports by Gautam Chaudhuri] [29...March 1991 SOUTH ASIA 55 Manipur , which has common borders with Burma and easily accessible routes, to Bangladesh. The distrust between India and

  15. Overseas Surveys (1981-1983) for Insects to Control Hydrilla. (United States)


    several treatments usually required during the growing season, only high priority waters can be effectively managed. Taxonomy Identification difficulties...11. Hydrilla has been recognized as a separate species of plant since the early days of taxonomy . According to Cook and Luond’s (1982) synonomy...Order Tanaidacea Tanaids Philippines 5 LUZ32Z1, LUZ832Z2 Total 105 Glass Mollusca Order Gastropoda (Snails) Ampullariidae Burma 3 BUR82204 Malaysia I

  16. Report on metric study tour to Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laner, F. J.


    The modernized metric system, known universally as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI under the French name) was renamed in 1960 by the world body on standards. A map shows 98 percent of the world using or moving toward adoption of SI units. Only the countries of Burma, Liberia, Brunei, and Southern Yemen are nonmetric. The author describes a two-week session in Pretoria and Johannesburg on metrication, followed by additional meetings on metrication in Rhodesia. (MCW)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto


    Full Text Available Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan strain baru ikan lele Afrika (Clarias gariepinus hasil pemuliaan yang memiliki keunggulan-keunggulan karakteristik budidaya, terutama pertumbuhan. Selain karakteristik budidayanya, karakteristik morfologis ikan lele Mutiara juga perlu dieksplorasi. Salah satu aspek morfologi yang perlu dieksplorasi tersebut adalah abnormalitas morfologis benihnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui abnormalitas morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara dibandingkan dengan benih strain-strain ikan lele Afrika lain yang digunakan dalam kegiatan budidaya di Indonesia, yakni ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo. Karakteristik yang diamati adalah abnormalitas bentuk morfologis (deformitas dan fluktuasi asimetri sirip dada dan sirip perut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat deformitas (4,00% dan fluktuasi asimetri (sirip dada 0,14 dan sirip perut 0,02 benih ikan lele Mutiara lebih rendah daripada benih-benih ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo (deformitas berkisar 6,00-42,00%, fluktuasi asimetri sirip dada berkisar 0,30-0,68 dan sirip perut berkisar 0,12-0,62. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa bentuk morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara lebih normal daripada benih-benih ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa mutu dan keragaman genetis ikan lele Mutiara lebih tinggi daripada strain-strain ikan lele Afrika lain yang digunakan dalam kegiatan budidaya di Indonesia tersebut.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics and biogeography of Musaceae reveal a correlation between the diversification of the banana family and the geological and climatic history of Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Vandelook, Filip; De Langhe, Edmond; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik; Vandenhouwe, Ines; Swennen, Rony


    Tropical Southeast Asia, which harbors most of the Musaceae biodiversity, is one of the most species-rich regions in the world. Its high degree of endemism is shaped by the region's tectonic and climatic history, with large differences between northern Indo-Burma and the Malayan Archipelago. Here, we aim to find a link between the diversification and biogeography of Musaceae and geological history of the Southeast Asian subcontinent. The Musaceae family (including five Ensete, 45 Musa and one Musella species) was dated using a large phylogenetic framework encompassing 163 species from all Zingiberales families. Evolutionary patterns within Musaceae were inferred using ancestral area reconstruction and diversification rate analyses. All three Musaceae genera - Ensete, Musa and Musella - originated in northern Indo-Burma during the early Eocene. Musa species dispersed from 'northwest to southeast' into Southeast Asia with only few back-dispersals towards northern Indo-Burma. Musaceae colonization events of the Malayan Archipelago subcontinent are clearly linked to the geological and climatic history of the region. Musa species were only able to colonize the region east of Wallace's line after the availability of emergent land from the late Miocene onwards.

  19. Burmese Attitude toward Chinese: Portrayal of the Chinese in Contemporary Cultural and Media Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zin


    Full Text Available This paper argues that since at least the mid 1980s, there has been an observable negative attitude among the people of Burma against the Chinese. Such sentiment is not just transient public opinion, but an attitude. The author measures it by studying contemporary cultural and media works as found in legally published expressions, so as to exclude any material rejected by the regime’s censors. The causes of such sentiment are various: massive Chinese migration and purchases of real estate (especially in Upper Burma, Chinese money that is inflating the cost of everything, and cultural “intrusion.” The sentiment extends to the military, as well: the article examines a dozen memoirs of former military generals and finds that Burma’s generals do not trust the Chinese, a legacy of China’s interference in Burma’s civil war until the 1980s. The public outcry over the Myitsone dam issue, however, was the most significant expression of such sentiment since 1969, when anti-Chinese riots broke out in Burma. The relaxation of media restrictions under the new government has allowed this expression to gather steam and spread throughout the country, especially in private weekly journals that are becoming more outspoken and daring in pushing the boundaries of the state’s restrictions.

  20. Review - Naga Identitites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Fiskesjö


    Full Text Available Review of: Michael Oppitz, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen, and Marion Wettstein (eds. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. This rich volume, with 464 pages packed with information on many aspects of the history and culture of the Naga peoples of Northeast India and Burma, and with a wealth of fascinating illustrations, was simultaneously published in German as Naga-Identitäten: Zeitenwende einer Lokalkultur im Nordosten Indiens. This English version was translated by a team of dedicated editors and proofreaders, resulting in a remarkably rich and well-produced book of great value to everyone concerned with the peoples of Asia's highlands. The Nagas, a large grouping of distinct Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples whose ancient lands have become a part of Northeast India and northern Burma, occupy a key place in the history of Asian highlands peoples. This book explores the last several centuries of their history, up to the present day. It deploys a host of different perspectives to examine how the Nagas have survived and dealt with the three major 'shock-waves' that have affected them over the last 150 years: the onslaught of British colonial rule over their areas, as extended from British-occupied India and Burma; the spread of Christianity by foreign missionaries; and the struggle for autonomy against the Indian state, which sent tens of thousands of ...

  1. Structure and Kinematics of the Indo-Burmese Wedge (United States)

    Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.


    The Burma subduction trench and the associated Indo Burmese wedge mark the present eastern boundary of the Indian plate in the northern Bengal area. The initiation, duration and history of the Bengal crust subduction beneath Burma is still debated. The aim of this paper is to provide a structural and kinematic analysis of the Indo- Burmese wedge in order to better constraints the Bengal crust subduction history beneath Burma. On the basis of field observations, seismic reflection data interpretation and well logs data we present a structural analysis of the Outer Indo-Burmese Wedge. We also constrain the onset of this Outer Wedge to be younger than 2Ma, implying a recent and fast westward growth (~10cm/yr) since Late Pliocene in close relationship with the onset of the Shillong plateau. Restoration process of a synthetic cross section through the Outer Wedge allowed us to estimate the amount of EW shortening accommodated in the Outer Wedge to be 5.1mm/yr since 2Ma. These results combined with previous available GPS data from central Myanmar suggest strain partitioning at wedge scale. The core of the wedge is affected by shear deformation and acts as a buttress for a frontal wedge that accommodates a more compressive strain component. Finally we propose that the main characteristic of the Indo-Burmese wedge growth mechanism is the progressive incorporation of the most internal part of the wedge, formerly affected by transpressive thin-skinned tectonics, to the buttress where they are subsequently affected by shear deformation. The crustal structure boarding the newly formed buttress seems to be guided by the subducting crust fabrics. We are in favour of a very recent (Late Miocene) onset of the present Indian crust subduction beneath Burma coeval with the global plate kinematics reorganisation related to the Indian/Australian plate spliting. This subduction postdates the Indo Burmese range onset that must have started in early Miocene. This range first began to

  2. コンバウン王朝ビルマの成立と成文法『マヌヂエ・ダマタッ』の編纂:第一編「王権神話」の創作をめぐって




    King Alaungpaya, who founded the third Burmese dynasty in 1752, ordered the compilation of a new law book called “Manugye Dhammathat”, which was composed from various law sources, as part of the reorganization of the administrative system.This law book is part of a series of law books called ‘Dhammathat’, which were often revised or newly compiled in response to the needs of changing times, and it was one of the leading ones, in the Kingdoms of Burma for more than eight hundred years.Each Dha...

  3. Effects of Biosynthetic Human Epidermal Growth Factor on Wound Healing. (United States)


    an automatic tensometer (Unite-0-Matic Instruments). The values of the three strips were averaged to determine the tensile strength for each • incision...Perforations. As part of an initial study on the *potential usefulness of EGF in stimulating healing oTM perforations, we determined if TM is a target...10.75 Silvadene + EGF 8.10 TABLE I Effect of hEGF and Vehice on Healing of Part ai.thiknss Burma Treatment Peetage ol burnare healed hEGF 93* 6

  4. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff (United States)

    Lavers, C.; Bishop, C.; Hawkins, O.; Grealey, E.; Cox, C.; Thomas, D.; Trimel, S.


    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  5. Geopolitical Considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    India is contiguous with Southeast Asia, holding borderlines of more than 2000 kilometers with Burma. India's Andaman-Nicobar Islands situate near the outlet of the Malacca Strait, with their southmost point only 128 kilometers from Indonesia's Sumatra. Given its dominant status and power in South Asia, and its special geographic location neighboring Southeast Asia, India is the only power in South Asia that can interact geopolitically with Southeast Asia in the present and foreseeable future. In fact, its geopolitical connection with the latter has long come into existence.

  6. 中、越、老、泰等国壮泰族群的饮食文化%Diet Culture of Zhuang and Dai Ethnic Group in China, Vietnam, Laos and Thai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    壮泰族群包括中、越、老、泰、缅、印6个国家的27个同根同源民族,从中国迁徙到不同的国家后,既有不同的文化,也保持了他们原来的共生文化。%Zhuang and Dai ethnic group includes 27 homologous nationalities in 6 countries: China, Vietnam, Laos, Thai, Burma and India, where they remain their own symbiotic cultures and obtain new different cultures when migrant to different countries. This thesis studies 3 kinds of unique food in diet culture.

  7. Leadership in Combat: An Historical Appraisal (United States)


    instead of instructing the reader zo look for traits that should be obvious after having read the essay on combat leadership in histoy. For the reader...Union artillery officer who had graduated from West Point in 1847. He had served in the Mexican War from Veracruz to Pueblo and campaigned against...of Stilwell’s ’family’, not by kinship but by the other great password to Stilwell’s favour; membership of the group he led out on foot from Burma

  8. Imaging trench-line disruptions: Swath mapping of subduction zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    positioning system (GPS) to document even minor crustal mov e ments 2 . The distribution of after shocks suggests progressive rot a- tion of the strike of the fault plane towards right as the rupture progressed towards north 3 , implying i n crease... of 2.5 km/s for the next 6 mi n (average rupture speed 8050 km/h) 4 . Analysis of regional geodetic (GPS) data further su g- gests that a highly oblique motion b e tween Indo - Australian and Burma ? Sunda plates is partitioned between...

  9. Impact of lower plate structure on upper plate deformation at the NW Sumatran convergent margin from seafloor morphology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Sibuet, J-C.; McNeill, L.; Henstock, T.J.; Dean, S.; Gutscher, M-A.; Dessa, J.X.; Permana, H.; Singh, S.C.; Leau, H.; White, N.; Carton, H.; Malod, J.A.; Rangin, C.; Aryawan, K.G.; Chaubey, A.K.; Chauhan, A.; Galih, D.R.; Greenroyd, C.J.; Laesanpura, A.; Prihantono, J.; Royle, G.; Shankar, U.

    an average ~10 m slip along a 1300 km long segment of the plate boundary between the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian (Sunda–Burma) plate (Lay et al., 2005). Rupture initiated at 30–40 km depth, about 50 km north of Simeulue Island, along a segment... (Vigny et al., 2005). In the 2 years following this event, a concerted international effort to study the rupture zone of this great earthquake led to several oceanographic expeditions (e.g., Singh and Sumatra-Aftershocks Team, 2005; Ladage et al., 2006...

  10. Surveys of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from three different geographical areas for possible colonization factors.



    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from Burma, central Africa (Rwanda and Zaire) and Peru, were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassays for the colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and putative colonization factors (PCFs): CFA/I, CFA/II, which consists of three coli surface-associated (CS) antigens, CS1, CS2 and CS3, CFA/III, CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6), CS7, PCFO9, PCFO159. H4, PCFO166, and CS17. The highest proportion of ETEC with identifiable colonization factors (71%) were found in the stra...

  11. Temporal-spatial distribution and tectonic implications of the batholiths in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, western Yunnan: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Lan, Jiang-Bo; Luo, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Long; Shi, Yu-Ruo; Xie, Lie-Wen


    Considerable progress has recently been made regarding temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism in the Lhasa Terrane. However the eastward and southeastward correlation of these Tibetan magmatic suites in western Yunnan and Burma remains poorly constrained. This paper reports zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions of granites in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, west Yunnan. It reveals three episodes of plutonism, and more importantly a southwestward magmatic migration. The Gaoligong batholiths in the northeast were mainly emplaced during early Cretaceous (126-121 Ma) and comprised predominantly S-type granites with negative zircon ɛHf values (ɛHf = -2˜-12). The Tengliang granites, situated southwest of the Gaoligong belt, were emplaced in late Cretaceous (68-76 Ma) and also displayed a strong peraluminous affinity and negative ɛHf (-5˜-14), indicating a provenance from a Proterozoic sedimentary source with little mantle contribution. The youngest phase of magmatism (52-66 Ma) occurred in Yingjiang, southwestmost of the study area. It is composed of S-type granites (ɛHf = -2˜-12) in east Yingjiang and I-type granites (ɛHf = -4˜+6) in west Yingjiang, near the China-Burma border. The late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic plutons in the Tengliang and Yingjiang area are thus considered as the northern continuation of the late Cretaceous magmatic arc (west), which comprises I-type granites and andesitic rocks, and of the belt of predominant S-type granites (east) in Burma, Thailand and Malaysia. Such a chemical polarity of the dual I-type and S-type granites is strongly reminiscent of the northern American Cordillera, indicating a Cordilleran-style continental margin during the late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic. While the magmatic arc was related to eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethys beneath the Asian continent, the S-type granites represented the melting products of thickened crust in the hinterland, in response to subduction-induced decrease in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yadav et al.


    Full Text Available Ventilago calyculata (Rhamnaceae commonly known as Pitti. Ventilago calyculata is present in hotter parts of India, Burma, Siam, China, in forest region. The plant is antimalarial, Antiviral, stomachic, skin disorder. Phytochemical studies had revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannin, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone. Present study was carried out to determine, the morphological, microscopical and phytochemical profiles. Microscopy show thick unicellular covering trichomes, vein islet no.-3, vein termination no.-6, Anomocytic type stomata, lignifed, xylem, etc. The physical parameter such as moisture content, ash value and extractive value were evaluated.

  13. Agility Into Victory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    This paper will investigate how the three core concepts of command and control agility can increase the chance for a successful outcome in military operations and what elements that should be strengthen within a military organization in order to achieve an agile approach to command and control. T....... This paper argues the concept was framed and tested during WWII in Burma and the Far East Asia campaign and that an agile approach to command and control is highly relevant for modern military organizations wishing to improve their warfighting capabilities....

  14. Alternative Education or Teaching Radicalism? New Literature on Islamic Education in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Warnk


    Full Text Available This review article focuses on three recent publications on Islamic education in Southeast Asia. While two are monographs on South Thailand and Myanmar/ Burma, one is a collection of essays on Indonesia, Malaysia, South Thailand, Cambodia, and the Southern Philippines. All works highlight local, regional and international educational networks, as well as their connections to the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East. Based chiefly on first-hand fieldwork, the works deliver an up-to-date and detailed picture of current discussions and developments regarding Islamic education in Southeast Asia.

  15. 浅析缅甸华人的公民资格问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着全球化的迅速发展,特别是移民的增加,民族国家的边界日益受到挑战。东道主国家在考虑外来移民归化入籍的诉求时,并不总是做出接纳或拒绝的二元选择。一些国家赋予外来移民公民资格,但只给予其"半公民资格"或"差别公民资格"。华人、印度人等外来移民虽然被缅甸政府接纳归化入籍,但并不被给予"完全的成员资格"。缅甸公民法规定,华人是缅甸的"二等或三等"公民,其在政治权利、公民社会权利和公民权利等方面均处于不平等的地位。作为外来移民,华人享有的"差异公民资格"不仅是对华人个人或群体的不公平,更阻碍了缅甸民族国家的建构和公民国家认同的形成。%Along with the rapid development of globalization,especially the increase of immigrants,the national borders are facing gradual challenges.When immigrants apply for naturalization,the host countries can offer a choice alternative to "yes" or "no".Some countries practice in this direction is to grant the immigrant applicants citizenship but with so-called "semi-qualification" or "differentiated citizenship" like Chinese and Indians in Burma who are not granted a "complete citizenship".They are classified as the second or third rank of Burma citizens stipulated by the Burma Citizenship Law.Chinese is the second or third rank citizens who are deprived of the equal rights such as political rights,citizen ’ s rights and social rights in the country.The hat of the "differentiated citizenship" that Chinese is wearing not just symbolizes the inequality to individuals and to the group;it also impedes the state-building process and the formation of a national identification in Burma country.

  16. First record of the family Pseudochiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from continental South America--a Pseudochiridium from a Brazilian cave. (United States)

    Von Schimonsky, Diego Monteiro; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Mahnert, Volker


    The small pseudoscorpion family Pseudochiridiidae Chamberlin, 1923 comprises two genera and 12 extant species recorded from Asia (Burma, Christmas Island, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Nicobars and Sumba), eastern, central and southern Africa (Chad, D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania), Madagascar, Seychelles (Aldabra), North America (Florida) and the Caribbean Islands of Dominican Republic and Cuba (Harvey 2013, Barba & Barroso 2013); one unidentified species is mentioned for the fauna of Mexico (Ceballos 2004). A fossil species has been described from Dominican amber by Judson (2007), who predicted the presence of this family in South America. 

  17. 2003年东南亚政治发展回顾%A Review of the Political Development in Southeast Asia in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The latest political development in Southeast Asia can be characterized by the following four aspects, which are 1. Campaigns were under way for the general elections in Indonesia and the Philippines. 2. Cambodia and Malaysia were undertaking the change of governments and power transition. 3. Latest developments were made in anti - terrorist campaigns in the area, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. 4. There occurred domestic military conflicts and violence, namely the military conflict in Indonesia, the military coup d'état in the Philippines and the blood event of May 30 in Burma.

  18. Micronutrient deficiencies in early childhood can lower a country's GDP: The Myanmar example. (United States)

    Win, Aung Zaw


    Myanmar (Burma) is a developing country in South East Asia. While Myanmar is among the 20 countries where 80% of the world's malnourished children live, its military consumes the majority of the national budget. Children who are malnourished between conception and age two are at high risk for impaired physical and mental development, which adversely affects the country's productivity and growth. Myanmar is facing three major micronutrient deficiencies which are iodine, iron and vitamin A deficiencies. The three micronutrient deficiencies can cost about 2.4% of the country's GDP. Children are the future of Myanmar and persistent micronutrient deficiencies will hamper its economic growth and lower its GDP.

  19. A new species of Tylothrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera with new records of four terebrantians and four tubuliferans from Manipur, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Varatharajan


    Full Text Available  A survey carried out for thrips (Thysanoptera at the Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur and at Manipur University campus, within  the Indo-Burma hotspot region of northeastern India revealed the occurrence of Anaphothrips incertus (Girault, Mycterothrips auratus Wang, Bamboosiella hartwigi (Pitkin, Euphysothrips minozzii Bagnall, Mycterothrips ricini (Shumsheer, Dolichothrips citripes (Bagnall, Xylaplothrips flavitibia Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish and X. inquilinus Priesner.  The occurrence of the first three species in India and the remaining five species in northeastern India is reported for the first time through the present study.  In addition, a new species, Tylothrips samirseni sp. nov. is described.

  20. Genetic diversity and species pattern of Trichoderma and Hypocrea in Manipur using in silico analysis. (United States)

    Kamala, Thongram; Devi, Sarangthem Indira; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao


    We investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of Trichoderma and Hypocrea in Manipur which lies in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hot spot region. 65 Trichoderma isolates were identified at species level by morphological as well as sequence based analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 and 4. Altogether 22 different species of Trichoderma and Hypocrea were found, of which Trichoderma harzianum represent the dominant species. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a clear cut distinction of strains isolated from various collection sites which further hints the need for detail study of Trichoderma on molecular level.

  1. Science Diplomacy in Action (United States)

    Neureiter, Norman P.


    For us at AAAS science diplomacy means the use of scientific cooperation as an active instrument of a foreign policy of engagement-particularly with countries where overall political relations are strained. Historic precedents are noted with Japan, the Soviet Union, and China. Recent experiences of our AAAS Center for Science Diplomacy are described-with Iran, Syria, Cuba, Burma (Myanmar), and North Korea. In this presentation I will explore cases and the key contributing factors that determine where it makes a difference, and where it is truly constructive.

  2. Community Coping Strategies in Response to Hardship and Human Rights Abuses Among Burmese Refugees and Migrants at the Thai-Burmese Border: A Qualitative Approach. (United States)

    Cohen, Shawn; Asgary, Ramin


    We conducted 10 focus groups (n = 49) with community members and key informant interviews (n = 28) to explore hardships and community coping strategies for sequelae of abuse among Burmese refugees/migrants in Thailand. Transcripts were coded and analyzed for major themes. In Burma, they universally experienced human rights violations and economic hardship. Hardships continued in Thailand through exploitation and threat of deportation. Coping was achieved through both personal and community-based mechanisms including self-reflection, sharing experiences, spirituality, and serving their community. Western psychosocial counseling, although available, was used infrequently. Effective psychosocial support often originates from the community and should be supported by international organizations.

  3. Yuan Longping-An Outstanding Technical Talent in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Acad. Yuan Longping, Director General of China National Hybrid Rice R & D Center and Honourable President of HAAS, is internationally recognized as the father of hybrid rice. He not only developed three lines for hybrid seed production but also developed the seed production technology. Hybrid rice is now planted on 15 million hectares or so in China, almost 50%of the country's total rice land. It has contributed greatly to the rice production increase in China. Hybrid rice technology is being adopted in other countries such as India , Vietnam,Philippines and Burma.

  4. Effect of Finger Joint on Flexural Strength of Teak Wood

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    Bharatesh A. Danawade


    Full Text Available This paper presents the flexural properties of rectangular Burma teak wood beam without finger joint and with finger joint. Finger joints enable full utilization of wood. Finger jointing technique is also used to eliminate wood defects which weaken the strength of wood. This paper considers finger joint as defined defect and its effect on the flexural strength is determined. Teakwood is hard and heavy, seasons rapidly and has good durability. The specimens were studied under three point bending test. Both edge wise and flat wise tests were carried out. It is observed that Burma teakwood beam without finger joint is stronger than beams with finger joints. Because of finger jointing the flexural strength reduces. It can be concluded that the strength loss can improved upon by selecting suitable geometry of finger joint and a suitable adhesive. It is recognized that further studies are necessary on jointing techniques of wood and type of adhesive so as to equal the flexural strength properties of clear teak wood beams.

  5. The Effect of Water Shortage on Water Quality of Different Resources in Jerash Governorate/Jordan, Based On New Water Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eham Al-Ajlouni


    Full Text Available The individual average of water share In Jerash governorate is only 71 litres per day and that is the lowest allotment in Jordan. The aim of the study is to assess water quality of different resources in Jerash governorate, based on demographic, chemical and biological changes within a period of 11 years. Cluster survey method was applied and samples of drinking water were taken from different resources. Water of municipality and bottled groundwater resources were of acceptable quality; groundwater of tanker trucks and wells were also acceptable except that of high level of nitrate; spring water and harvested rainwater were potentially not safe and susceptible for biological contamination. At level of sub-districts, based on a new developed water quality index, it was chemically found that water in Mastaba sub-district was more complying with standards than Jerash and Burma sub-districts, but in biological respect both Jerash and Burma sub-districts were more compliance with the standards than Mastaba sub-district. In general, drinking water in Jerash governorate was chemically found of medium quality, and biologically of good quality.

  6. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia. (United States)

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G


    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  7. Surface latent heat flux anomalies prior to the Indonesia Mw9.0 earthquake of 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The temporal and spatial variations of surface latent heat flux (SLHF) before and after the Mw9.0 earthquake that occurred on the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia on 26 December 2004 are summarized. It is found that before the earthquake significant SLHF anomalies occurred at the epicentral area and its vicinity. The largest SLHF anomaly occurred on the subduction zone in the middle part of Burma micro-plate, where the middle part of the rupture zone is located and the aftershocks are concentrated. The developments of the anomaly involved growing of the anomaly from small to large and spreading of the anomaly from disordered to concentrated. The anomaly began to occur on the east extensional boundary of the Burma micro-plate and its adjacent oceanic basin, and then propagated to the west compressive boundary, where the subduction zone exists. Finally, the anomaly disappeared after the main shock. The seismic source is considered to be a dissipation system. The increase of stress prior to an earthquake may enhance the exchange of energy and material between the seismic source system and the outer system, resulting in the increase of the rate of energy exchange between sea surface and atmosphere, which is believed to be the main reason of the generation of SLHF anomaly.

  8. AcEST: DK952006 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3|A8EMN3_BURPS Transporter, major facilitator family OS=... 33 7.1 tr|A5XW63|A5XW63_BURMA Major facilitator ...r hom... 33 5.4 tr|Q63IF0|Q63IF0_BURPS Putative transporter protein OS=Burkholde... 33 7.1 tr|Q62DQ2|Q62DQ2_BURMA Maj...or facilitator family transporter OS=B... 33 7.1 tr|Q3JJ70|Q3JJ70_BURP1 Maj...or facilitator family transporter OS=B... 33 7.1 tr|A3P987|A3P987_BURP0 Transporter, major facilitator fa...mily OS=... 33 7.1 tr|A3NNQ5|A3NNQ5_BURP6 Major facilitator family transporter OS=B... 33 7.1 tr|A3MBI6|A3MBI6_BURM7 Maj

  9. Insights into Himalayan biogeography from geckos: a molecular phylogeny of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae). (United States)

    Agarwal, Ishan; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Karanth, K Praveen


    The India-Asia collision profoundly influenced the climate, topography and biodiversity of Asia, causing the formation of the biodiverse Himalayas. The species-rich gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus is an ideal clade for exploring the biological impacts of the India-Asia collision, as previous phylogenetic hypotheses suggest basal divergences occurred within the Himalayas and Indo-Burma during the Eocene. To this end, we sampled for Cyrtodactylus across Indian areas of the Himalayas and Indo-Burma Hotspots and used three genes to reconstruct relationships and estimate divergence times. Basal divergences in Cyrtodactylus, Hemidactylus and the Palaearctic naked-toed geckos were simultaneous with or just preceded the start of the India-Asia collision. Diversification within Cyrtodactylus tracks the India-Asia collision and subsequent geological events. A number of geographically concordant clades are resolved within Indo-Burmese Cyrtodactylus. Our study reveals 17 divergent lineages that may represent undescribed species, underscoring the previously undocumented diversity of the region. The importance of rocky habitats for Cyrtodactylus indicates the Indo-Gangetic flood plains and the Garo-Rajmahal Gap are likely to have been important historical barriers for this group.

  10. Shan women and girls and the sex industry in Southeast Asia; political causes and human rights implications. (United States)

    Beyrer, C


    The human rights abuses which occur during civil conflicts pose special threats to the health and lives of women. These can include rape, sexual violence, increased vulnerability to trafficking into prostitution, and exposure to HIV infection. The long-standing civil conflict in the Shan States of Burma is investigated as a contributing cause to the trafficking of ethnic Shan women and girls into the Southeast Asian sex industry, and to the subsequent high rates of HIV infection found among these women. The context of chronic human rights abuses in the Shan states is explored, as well as the effects of recent forced population transfers on the part of the Burmese Military Regime. Rights abuses specific to trafficked women may further increase their vulnerability to HIV and other STD. The need for a political resolution to the crisis in Burma is discussed, as are approaches aimed at preventing trafficking, empowering women already in the sex industry, and reducing the risks of HIV and other STD among these women and girls.

  11. Detrital Mineral Record of the Central Myanmar Basin and implications for the evolution of the eastern Himalayan margin (United States)

    Brezina, C. A.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Barfod, D. N.; Carter, A.; Parrish, R. R.; Horstwood, M. S.; Thein, M.; Win Oo, N.


    Single grain detrital thermochronology (40Ar/39Ar white mica, zircon fission track and Lu-Hf analysis) of Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Central Myanmar Basin permits the identification of tectonothermal events in the source areas, and an understanding of how exhumation histories and changing provenance are related to the palaeogeography of the West Burma block during India-Asia collision. Robinson et al. (2014) used detrital zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis to show that Eocene and Oligocene sedimentary rocks were primarily sourced from the Gangdese magmatic arc that lies exclusively within the southern Lhasa terrane, and that the Yarlung Tsangpo and Irrawaddy River were connected at this time. Detrital thermochronology reveal these Paleogene deposits contain broadly distributed, mainly pre-Himalayan 40Ar/39Ar white mica cooling ages, reflecting the contribution from multiple source areas with a cooling history that is similar to the Lhasa terrane. A distinct change in provenance to a single, sustained source area during deposition of the Miocene units is recorded by a white mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling age peak of 37 Ma and a lesser peak of 17 - 21 Ma that is also observed in detrital zircon fission track age data. These two age peaks, 37 Ma and 17 - 21 Ma, likely reflect an initial period of crustal thickening, metamorphism and exhumation in the southern Mogok Metamorphic Belt, and a later phase of exhumation associated with deformation in the eastern syntaxis and the onset of extension in Myanmar and other parts of SE Asia. The latter events are also associated with the disconnection of the Yarlung Tsangpo from the Irrawaddy River around 18 Ma (Robinson et al., 2014). The combined dataset provides constraints on the position and movement of the West Burma block from the Late Eocene to Early Miocene, supports an Oligocene (~37 Ma) age for the timing of India-West Burma-Sibumasu coupling, and an Early Miocene age for extension

  12. Mesozoic-Cenozoic rift-drift sequence of Asian fragments from Gondwanaland (United States)

    Audley-Charles, M. G.; Ballantyne, P. D.; Hall, R.


    The University of Cambridge Atlas map-plotting computer program has been used to plot a reconstruction of the dispersal of continental blocks from eastern Gondwanaland from the Late Jurassic (160 Ma) until the Late Miocene (10 Ma). The geological basis for the reconstruction rests on the concept of South Tibet, Burma, western Thailand, Malaya and Sumatra having been part of the eastern Gondwana continent during the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic. The reconstruction is also based on the view that these Asian continental blocks were rifted from eastern Gondwanaland in the Late Jurassic. This rifting episode gave rise to the continental margin of central New Guinea and northern Australia. It was associated with the sea-floor spreading anomalies preserved in the floor of the northeastern Indian Ocean. The model considers the indication of crustal uplift in the Middle Jurassic followed by profound subsidence in the Cretaceous and Palaeogene, exposed in the islands of the Outer Banda Arc from Seram to Timor, and the similar Jurassic-Cretaceous facies in eastern Sulawesi implies that these areas formed part of this rifted northern margin of Australia in the Jurassic. Subsequent tectonic collision and associated major strike-slip movements have deformed and disrupted these rock sequences during the Cainozoic. The date of the rifting that removed South Tibet, Burma, western Thailand and Malaya from Gondwanaland is controversial. The indications in favour of the rifting episode having occurred in the Jurassic rather than in the Permo-Triassic are stratigraphie-structural observations on the northwestern Australian shelf, in the Banda Arc and in central New Guinea. The identification of the continental blocks removed by this rifting is based partly on stratigraphie correlation with the Banda Arc and New Guinea and partly on indications that the age of collision of Tibet, Burma, western Thailand and Malaya with Asia was a Late Cretaceous event and not Triassic-Jurassic as

  13. Petrotectonic Evolution of Paleo-Tethys in Western Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从柏林; 吴根耀; 张旗; 张儒媛; 翟明国; 赵大升; 张雯华


    The Western Yunnan is just situated in juncture area of the Yangtze,Indosinia and Shan-Thai Microcontinents,with the geosuture zones among them marked by ophiolite suites and blue schists.Agreat number of petrological data support systematic evidences for Paleo-Tethys occurring in the area,andaccording to them,the tectonic evolution is reconstructed.Paleo-Tethys might be a poly-island ocean duringthe Late Paleozoic,and relic oceanic basins developed in Triassic1 Neo-Tethys immigrated westwards intoBurma.The area is an orogenic belt experiencing complicated subduction and violent continent-continent col-lision,and reformed by the younger structures,specially the Himalayan movement.

  14. New Materials of the Shanita-Hemigordius Assemblage (Permian Foraminifers) from the Baoshan Block, Western Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiangning; JIN Xiaochi; JI Zhansheng; WANG Yizhao; YAO Jianxin; YANG Hailin


    Fossil materials of Shanita and Hemigordius from a section northeast of the Woniusi (the Woniu Temple) of Baoshan, western Yunnan are described and figured in this paper. Field investigation indicates that fossils of these two foraminifer genera are extremely abundant and form a typical Shanita-Hemigordius assemblage in the so-called "Cracked Limestone" in the Baoshan area. Preliminary study has revealed that the features of this assemblage, which includes Shanita amosi, S. chagouensis, Hemigordius renzi and H. biconcavus, are similar not only to the Shanita fauna previously reported from the Shazipo Formation in the Zhengkang area, west Yunnan, but also to those from the Permian of Burma,Thailand, Iran and Turkey.

  15. Borders of fertility: unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Burmese women migrating to Thailand. (United States)

    Belton, Suzanne


    Burmese women are forced to migrate to find work and security in Thailand due to the social, political, and economic disarray present in Burma. Unplanned pregnancies are common in this area, and one third of pregnancy loss is self-induced. Poverty, lack of employment rights, and domestic violence are important factors in deciding to terminate the pregnancy. Women face multiple barriers in managing their fertility and use traditional techniques often with the help of lay midwives. The research methods include a retrospective review of medical records held in Thai and Burmese-led health facilities, as well as semistructured interviews and group discussions with Burmese women experiencing a pregnancy loss, Burmese traditional and modern health workers, and their husbands and community members.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in southeastern part of Iran, India, West Pakistan and Ceylon. In 1959 the LC50 % DDT in the Panchmahal district of Gujarat state (India had increased. DDT resistant population of A. culicifacies has been reported from West Pakistan, Burma and Iran. After application of DDT in 1959, the density of A. culicifacies decreased sharply. The susceptibility test carried out in 1963 showed that the LC50 was 0.5%.After DDT spraying, followed by Dieldrin, for about 10 years the density of A. culicifacies was so negligible that it was not possible to perform susceptibility tests. By April and May of 1973 the density of A.culicifacies in Saidabad, Khairabad and Hit in Baluchesten province, Southeast of Iran, increased to about 500 per shelter. The susceptibility tests carried out showed that A. culicfacies is resistant to DDT and susceptible to Dieldrin and Malathion.

  17. State of tectonic stress in Shillong Plateau of northeast India (United States)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Saikia, Sowrav; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Sharma, Antara; Reddy, C. D.; Kayal, J. R.


    Tectonic stress regime in the Shillong plateau, northeast region of India, is examined by stress tensor inversion. Some 97 reliable fault plane solutions are used for stress inversion by the Michael and Gauss methods. Although an overall NNW-SSE compressional stress is observed in the area, the stress regime varies from western part to eastern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plateau is dominated by NNE-SSW compression and the western part by NNW-SSE compression. The NNW-SSE compression in the western part may be due to the tectonic loading induced by the Himalayan orogeny in the north, and the NNE-SSW compression in the eastern part may be attributed to the influence of oblique convergence of the Indian plate beneath the Indo-Burma ranges. Further, Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) derived stress also indicates a variation from west to east.

  18. Accreted terranes and mineral deposits of Myanmar (United States)

    Fan, Pow-foong; Ko, Ko

    There are three terranes in Myanmar: (1) Shan-West Malaysia-Sumatra, (2) Central Burma Basin, and (3) Arakan Yoma. The Shan-West Malaysia-Sumatra terrane can be divided into three subterranes: (a) West Kachin, (b) East Kachin-Shan, and (c) Karen-Tenasserim. The Shan-West Malaysia-Sumatra terrane consists of jadeite of gem quality in the West Kachin subterrane ruby and other gems, Paleozoic strata-bound lead-zinc and iron deposits in the East Kachin-Shan subterrane; and a tin and tungsten mineralized belt in the Karen-Tenasserim subterrane. The volcanic arc divides the Central Myanmar Basin terrane into forearc and back-arc basins; the oil-bearing fields are located in the forearc basin. In the Arakan Yoma terrane, chromium and nickel of late Cretaceous-early Tertiary age occur within ultramafic belts.

  19. Terpenoid composition and botanical affinity of Cretaceous resins from India and Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay (India); Kumar, Kishor [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Uttarakhand (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungzentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere; Greenwood, Paul F. [John De Laeter Mass Spectrometry and WA Biogeochemistry Centres (M090), University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia)


    Fossil resins from the Cretaceous sediments of Meghalaya, India and Kachin, Myanmar (Burma) were analysed using Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to help elucidate their botanical source. The major pyrolysis products and methyl-esterified thermochemolysis products of both the resins were abietane and labdane type diterpenoids with minor amount of sesquiterpenoids. The thermochemolysis products also included methyl-16,17-dinor callitrisate, methyl-16,17-dinor dehydroabietate and methyl-8-pimaren-18-oate - the latter two from just the Myanmarese resin. The exclusive presence of both labdane and abietane diterpenoids and the lack of phenolic terpenoids may suggest that the studied Cretaceous resins were derived from Pinaceae (pine family) conifers. (author)

  20. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees. (United States)

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K


    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration.

  1. Exploring the mental health effects of political trauma with newly arrived refugees. (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J; Wieling, Elizabeth; McCleary, Jennifer Simmelink; Becher, Emily


    We explored the mental health effects of war trauma and torture as described by 111 refugees newly arrived in the United States. We used ethnocultural methodologies to inform 13 culture-specific focus groups with refugees from Bhutan (34), Burma (23), Ethiopia (27), and Somalia (27). Contrary to the belief that stigma prevents refugees from discussing mental health distress, participants readily described complex conceptualizations of degrees of mental health distress informed by political context, observation of symptoms, cultural idioms, and functional impairment. Recommendations for health care providers include assessment processes that inquire about symptoms in their political context, the degree of distress as it is culturally conceptualized, and its effect on functioning. Findings confirm the cross-cultural recognition of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; however, refugees described significant cultural variation in expressions of distress, indicating the need for more research on culture-bound disorders and idioms of distress.

  2. Features of Salt—Affected Soils and Salinization Hazard in East Asia and Its Neighboring Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Asia is the largest distribution area of salt-affected soils in the world,Very few countries in Asia could escape from hazard of salinization.This paper deals with various salt-affected soils spreading in East Asia and its neighboring regions (including China,Japan,Kampuchea,Democratic Peolpe's Republic of Kores,Republic of Korea,Laos,Mongolia,Burma,Thailand and Vietnam),Principles of occurrence of salinization,and features of salt-affected soils in these regions have been studied in the present paper,Based on studies on types,features and distribution patterns of salt-affected soils.a salt-affected soil map of East Asia and its neighboring regions has been complied.Mechanism and manifestation of the salinization hazard on the regional agriculture and ecological environment,measures of preventing salinization hazard and exploiting salt-affected soils in these regions are also discussed.

  3. George Orwell (1903-1950)--writer, socialist, eccentric and tuberculosis sufferer. (United States)

    Dubovsky, H


    George Orwell, born Eric Blair in India in 1903, the third generation of colonial service stock, joined the Indian Imperial Police in Burma in 1922 after leaving school in England. Rejecting the racial and cultural barriers of colonial rule he encountered there, he returned to England to become a writer. He became allied to leftist and labour causes and, based on personal participation, documented the life and work of the underprivileged and working classes in England and Paris. He also fought with the leftist alliance in the Spanish Civil War against Franco's army revolt against the Republican Government. Although a fine essayist and master of English prose, he is best known for Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, two political satires on the Soviet system and totalitarianism respectively. These brought him fame and financial security shortly before his death of tuberculosis at the age of 47, after a life of recurrent ill health and economic hardship.

  4. Popular Orientalism: Somerset Maugham in Mainland Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Doran


    Full Text Available Based on his experiences during a journey through mainland Southeast Asia in 1923, Somerset Maugham wrote a book of colonial travel entitled The Gentleman in the Parlour. As the work of one of the most popular writers of the twentieth century, Maugham’s travelogue both expressed and helped to shape contemporary thinking about Southeast Asia and Western imperialism. Focusing especially on his representations of Burma and Cambodia, an analysis is presented of Maugham’s book in the light of postcolonial scholarship, especially the theoretical insights developed under the inspiration of Edward Said’s Orientalism. Despite its pretensions to be apolitical, Maugham’s travel book is shown to be a repository of Western colonial ideas and attitudes, integrally involved in the circulation of the prevailing European discourse of high imperialism. As such, it is a valuable resource for historians and other scholars who wish to understand the way that discourse worked at the level of popular literature.

  5. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL


    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  6. Indicators of State Failure: Phase 2 (United States)


    greater political utility. One trait that appears unfailingly in all of the definitions is that failed and fragile states are qualitatively different...7.46 7.34 6.53 4.40 6.26 7.20 Cote d’Ivoire 6.55 6.81 6.17 6.19 7.62 5.73 6.92 8.36 7.14 4.29 Nepal 6.55 7.02 6.50 6.20 7.11 6.36 7.59 6.23 6.59 5.46...and Gaza 6.62 Haiti 6.83 Togo 6.62 Niger 6.59 Myanmar (Burma) 6.82 Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.56 Benin 6.55 Nigeria 6.82 Liberia 6.55 Burundi 6.54 Cote d’Ivoire

  7. Remembrance of Dutch War Dead in Southeast Asia, 1942-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridus Steijlen


    Full Text Available Recognition of the war experience in Southeast Asia in the Netherlands was not easy. The Indisch community, those who had to leave the Netherlands East Indies after decolonization, did not feel that their war experience was accepted. Following the story of one man, a former POW, this article shows how unorthodox ways of protesting were used to command respect and acknowledgement. The arena for these actions was not only the Indisch monument in the Netherlands, but also the War cemetery in Thailand. The former Dutch POW ended up in a dispute with the Australian caretaker of that cemetery over the specific location of a camp. Both men, however, were motivated by the same urge to find the exact locations of camps along the Burma railway. The story of this POW shows how important official recognition is on a personal level.

  8. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences. (United States)

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G


    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul).

  9. The Naueti relationship terminology: A new instance of asymmetric prescription from East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hicks


    Full Text Available Relationship terminologies of an asymmetric prescriptive character are widespread throughout mainland and insular Southeast Asia. Their western limit is marked by the Kachin of northern Burma (Leach 1961:28-53 while their eastern limit is marked by the Mambai people of central East Timor (Figures 1 and 2. Between these limits are such other instances as occur, for example, among the Lamet of Cambodia (Needham 1960, the various Batak groups of Sumatra (Rodgers 1984, and the Rindi of eastern Sumba (Forth 1981. The principal intention of the present paper is to establish the existence of a new asymmetric prescriptive terminology in East Timor, and by doing so provide empirical justification for adjusting the easternmost limits of nomenclatures of this kind. A subsidiary intent is to offer a contribution to current speculations regarding the transformation of relationship terminologies in eastern Indonesia (Guermonprez 1998; Smedal 2002.

  10. Crystal structure of Cr-bearing Mg3BeAl8O16, a new polytype of magnesiotaaffeite-2N'2S. (United States)

    Malcherek, Thomas; Schlüter, Jochen


    The crystal structure of a new polytype of magnesiotaaffeite-2N'2S, ideally Mg3BeAl8O16 (trimagnesium beryllium octa-aluminium hexa-deca-oxide), is described in space-group symmetry P-3m1. It has been identified in a fragment of a mineral sample from Burma (Myanmar). The new polytype is composed of two Mg2Al4O8 (S)- and two BeMgAl4O8 (N')-modules in a stacking sequence N'SSN'' which differs from the N'SN'S-stacking sequence of the known magnesiotaaffeite-2N'2S polytype. The crystal structure can be derived from a close-packed arrangement of O atoms and is discussed with regard to its polytypism and its Cr(3+) chromophore content.

  11. Burmese culture, personality and mental health. (United States)

    Way, R T


    As Australia, shaped by new policies of immigration and multiculturalism, grows more cosmopolitan, the challenge for psychiatry is to gain greater familiarity with the new ethnic minority groups, including their cultural personalities and backgrounds. The problem faced by the Burmese group in Australia is distinctive and poignant. Some 20,000 Burmese immigrated following World War II, chiefly to Western Australia in the first place, uniting and consolidating their families. Following the military coup and the Revolutionary Council Government of the early 60s, further emigration from Burma was cut off. This meant that the Burmese in Australia, already under stress arising from cultural differences, were prevented from developing the extensive internal social support systems that characterise other major ethnic groups. The author, a Burmese doctor working in a psychiatric setting in Sydney, draws attention to aspects of his country and its people which should be helpful for psychiatric and related professions.

  12. Fifty years after: some experiences of the medical care of prisoners of war. (United States)

    Girdwood, R H


    Mention is made of Italian prisoners-of-war treated in Catterick military hospital but in October 1943 Italy joined the Allied side. An account is given of the medical condition of 78 Japanese POWs and of 228 members of the Japanese Indian Forces (JIFs) in a transit hospital in eastern India (now Bangladesh). Tropical sprue appeared to occur in an epidemic form each June and July in Burma and eastern India, but did not seem to have affected the Japanese or JIFs. A brief account is given of the condition of 180 European or Australian service men who had survived harsh conditions in Japanese POW camps until liberation in September 1945, then being admitted to a military hospital in Rangoon en route for home. Some had suffered from blindness as a result of malnutrition, the precise reason being uncertain, but there was some improvement after the injection of crude liver extract.

  13. Celebrities in International Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima


    , media, and NGOs, then considers exemplary cases of Angelina Jolie in Burma, Ben Affleck in the Democractic Republic of Congo, and Madonna in Malawi. These celebrity practices as diplomats, experts, and humanitarians in international affairs illustrate the diverse and contradictory forms of engagement......Celebrity engagement in global “helping” is not a simple matter of highly photogenic caring for needy others across borders; it is a complex relationship of power that often produces contradictory functions in relation to the goals of humanitarianism, development, and advocacy. This article argues...... that celebrities are acting as other elite actors in international affairs: investing considerable capital into processes that are highly political. It traces the emergence and practices of the elite politics of celebrities in North-South relations, an evolution made possible by recent changes in aid practices...

  14. Diversity, habitat preferences, and conservation of the primates of Southern Assam, India: The story of a primate paradise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Khairujjaman Mazumder


    Full Text Available The southern part of Assam in India, a part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, harbors a myriad number of wild plant and animal species. Although there is only one protected area, the Barail Wildlife Sanctuary (Cachar district and a few reserve forests (RFs, there are as many as eight primates inhabiting the region – a diversity hardly found elsewhere. In addition to the protected area and RFs, tea gardens and secondary forests also serve as habitats for animals. The border areas of the region with the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura are among the most important abodes of these primates. Unfortunately, these primates are under constant threat from multiple sources. The present article provides an extensive survey of the available literature on the primates of southern Assam with reference to their distribution, habitat preferences, threats, and conservation. Additionally, data from field observations of the author are also presented.

  15. The Global Youth Service Team: students applying science and technology in remote, developing region of the world (United States)

    Hollinger, Doug


    Eh Kalu, director of the Karen Department of Health and Welfare along the border region between Thailand and Burma said, ``It is very difficult to attend to a medical emergency at night when all you have are candles for light.'' The Global Youth Service Team (GYST) provides high school and college students with the opportunity to apply science that they have learned in the performance of international humanitarian service. Volunteers with the GYST build solar powered electrical systems, ultraviolet water purifiers, provide training and education to people who are most in need due to energy poverty, lack access to resources, natural disasters or human rights violations. GYST volunteers train with photovoltaic materials and equipment to become solar energy technicians. They then travel to remote communities in developing countries where we are able to catalyze improvements in education and health care, promote sustainable energy initiatives and help communities develop the capacity to use their own resources by which to create opportunity.

  16. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States. (United States)

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle


    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving.

  17. Crystal structure of Cr-bearing Mg3BeAl8O16, a new polytype of magnesiotaaffeite-2N′2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Malcherek


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of a new polytype of magnesiotaaffeite-2N′2S, ideally Mg3BeAl8O16 (trimagnesium beryllium octaaluminium hexadecaoxide, is described in space-group symmetry P-3m1. It has been identified in a fragment of a mineral sample from Burma (Myanmar. The new polytype is composed of two Mg2Al4O8 (S- and two BeMgAl4O8 (N′-modules in a stacking sequence N′SSN′′ which differs from the N′SN′S-stacking sequence of the known magnesiotaaffeite-2N′2S polytype. The crystal structure can be derived from a close-packed arrangement of O atoms and is discussed with regard to its polytypism and its Cr3+ chromophore content.

  18. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  19. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar, we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations.

  20. Enhancing Floodplain Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin Using Vegetation and Water Cycle Satellite Observations (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Spruce, J.; Wilson, R.; Strauch, K.; Doyle, T.; Srinivan, R.; Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.


    The Lower Mekong River Basin shared by China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, is considered the lifeblood of Southeast Asia. The Mekong Basin is subject to large hydrological fluctuations on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. The basin remains prone to severe annual floods that continue to cause widespread damage and endanger food security and the livelihood of the millions who dwell in the region. Also the placement of newly planned dams primarily for hydropower in the Lower Mekong Basin may cause damaging social, agriculture and fisheries impacts to the region where we may now likely be at a critical 'tipping point'. The primary goal of this project is to apply NASA and USGS products, tools, and information for improved flood and water management in the Lower Mekong River Basin to help characterize, understand, and predict future changes on the basin. Specifically, we are providing and helping transfer to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the member countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam, and Burma the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using remotely sensed surface, ground water, and root zone soil moisture along with improved Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps. In order to estimate the flood potential and constrain the SWAT Available Water Capacity model parameter over the region, we are assimilated GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage observations into the Catchment Land Surface Model. In addition, a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) as been developed to work in concert with the output of the SWAT model parameterized for the Mekong Basin as an adjunct tool of the MRC Decision Support Framework. The project requires a close coordination of the development and assessment of the enhanced MRC SWAT with the guidance of MRC resource managers and technical advisors. This presentation will evaluate the skill of the enhanced SWAT model using qualitative (i.e., MODIS change detection) and quantitative (e.g., streamflow) metrics over one


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Pradadimara


    Full Text Available This paper traces the ways in which rice, as a global commodity, has been produced and sold in various regions in Southeast Asia from the colonial era to the present days. This paper employs a food regime analysis first introduced by Harriet Friedmann (1982 and later developed together with Philip McMichael (1989 to look at the global political economy of rice. In this paper, it will be shown how various colonial and post colonial states in Southeast Asia (including Thailand who was never formally colonized through their policies have practically divided the region where Burma (now Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam in the mainland have become major rice producer and exporter, while Indonesia, Malaya (now Malaysia, and the Philippines in the archipelagic Southeast Asia have become major rice importers although at the same time producers and exporters of other agro-commodities (coffee, sugar, rubber.Keywords: rice history, food regime, Southeast Asia Artikel ini menelusuri cara di mana padi sebagai komoditas dunia diproduksi dan dijual di beberapa daerah di Asia Tenggara mulai zaman kolonial sampai sekarang. Artikel ini menggunakan analisis “food regime” yang pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Harrier Friedman (1982 dan kemudian dikembangkan bersama oleh Philip (1989 untuk mengetahui politik ekonomi global dari padi. Dalam artikel ini, akan dilihat mengenai bagaimana negara kolonial dan pasca-kolonial yanb berbeda di Asia Tenggara (termasuk Thailand yang tidak pernah dijajah sebelumnya melalui kebiakannya, yang hampir membagi wilayahnya, di mana Burma (Myanmar, Thailand, dan Vietnam telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir utama terbesar, sedangkan Indonesia dan Malaya (Malaysia dan Filipina di Asia Tenggara telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir komoditas pertanian lain (kopi, gula, karet dalam waktu yang bersamaan.Kata kunci: sejarah beras, food regime, Asia Tenggara. 

  2. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.


    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  3. The Gem Mineralogy Researching for Guatemala Jade%危地马拉翡翠的宝石矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶晶; 何明跃; 白志民


    利用电子探针(PXRF)、X射线粉末衍射(XRD)及红外光谱(FIR)等技术手段对危地马拉翡翠样品进行分析,并与缅甸翡翠的宝石矿物学特征进行对比研究.结果表明,危地马拉翡翠的化学成分与硬玉的基本相同.矿物组成主要为硬玉,并且含有钠长石、白云母以及少量金云母、黝帘石、榍石和方沸石等.结构主要为柱粒状变晶结构与碎裂结构,是导致其质地较粗的主要原因之一.红外光谱与缅甸翡翠的红外光谱相比有明显漂移.%The samples of Guatemala jadeite were analyzed by electron probe analysis (EP), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), and compared with the gem mineralogical characteristics of the Burma jade. Which shows that the chemical compositions of jadeite are as same as the jade's in Guatemala. The main minerals in Guatemala jadeite are jade containing albite, muscovite, and few phlogopite, zoisite, titanite and analcime; the main structures are columnargrain metacryst structure and cataclastic texture structure, which is one of the mainly reasons why their texture are crude; the infrared spectroscopy of Guatemala jade is drifted obviously than the Burma jade's.

  4. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India. (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi


    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  5. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  6. Japan’s Development Ambitions for Myanmar: The Problem of “Economics before Politics”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Seekins


    Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the country’s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the “militarization” of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962–1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmar’s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmar’s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmar’s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmar’s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.

  7. Break-up of the Greater Indo-Australian Continent and accretion of blocks framing South and East Asia (United States)

    Acharyya, S. K.


    The Tibetan and 'Sibumasu' continental blocks rifted apart from the northern margin of Gondwanan Indo-Australia during the Permo-Carboniferous whereas, the IndoBurma-Andamans (IBA), Sikuleh, Lolotoi micro-continents did so during the Late Jurassic. This continental margin experienced glacial or cool conditions during the Permo-Carboniferous. The Tibetan and Sibumasu blocks drifted northward during mid-late Permian initiating opening of the Neo-Tethys. The arm of the Palaeo-Tethys located to the north of these blocks closed as these blocks were accreted to the South China and Indochina blocks which had separated from the same Gondwanan margin during early Palaeozoic. All these blocks were amalgamated to form the Cathaysialand. The Sibumasu block was accreted to the Indochina block, and the Tibetan Changtang block to Eurasia during the late Permian-mid Triassic. Contemporaneously Mesozoic Neo-Tethys expanded between the Indian, Lhasa and Changtang blocks. The Indian and Australian continents separated during the Cretaceous leading to the opening up of the Indian Ocean and closing of the Tethyan ocean. The Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan sutures in Tibet, Yunnan, Myanmar, Laos-Thailand and Vietnam reveal the complex opening and closing history of the Tethys. IBA rotated clockwise from its earlier E-W orientation, because of dextral transcurrent fault movements which ensured faster northward movement of the Indian plate relative to Australia during late Cretaceous-early Eocene. Contemporaneous to India-Tibet terminal collision during early-mid Eocene there was thloeiitic-alkalic foreland volcanism (Abor and equivalents) at the leading edge of the Indian continent. Sustained post-collisional movement of the Indian plate, caused southward propagation of the Himalayan crystalline and frontal foreland thrust sheets. It also produced E-W trending folds and thrusts even in distal Central Indian Ocean areas as well as a clockwise rotation of the amalgamated SE Asian Cathaysian

  8. Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers (Daboia siamensis and D. russelii) resembling Sheehan's syndrome: first case report from Sri Lanka, a review of the literature and recommendations for endocrine management. (United States)

    Antonypillai, C N; Wass, J A H; Warrell, D A; Rajaratnam, H N


    Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii and D. siamensis) inhabit 10 South and South East Asian countries. People envenomed by these snakes suffer coagulopathy, bleeding, shock, neurotoxicity, acute kidney injury and local tissue damage leading to severe morbidity and mortality. An unusual complication of Russell's viper bite envenoming in Burma (D. siamensis) and southern India (D. russelii) is hypopituitarism but until now it has not been reported elsewhere. Here, we describe the first case of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite in Sri Lanka, review the literature on this subject and make recommendations for endocrine investigation and management. A 49-year-old man was bitten and seriously envenomed by D. russelii in 2005. He was treated with antivenom but although he recovered from the acute effects he remained feeling unwell. Hypopituitarism, with deficiencies of gonadal, steroid and thyroid axes, was diagnosed 3 years later. He showed marked improvement after replacement of anterior pituitary hormones. We attribute his hypopituitarism to D. russelii envenoming. Russell's viper bite is known to cause acute and chronic hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus, perhaps through deposition of fibrin microthrombi and haemorrhage in the pituitary gland resulting from the action of venom procoagulant enzymes and haemorrhagins. Forty nine cases of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite have been described in the English language literature. Patients with acute hypopituitarism may present with hypoglycaemia and hypotension during the acute phase of envenoming. Those with chronic hypopituitarism seem to have recovered from envenoming but present later with features of hypopituitarism. Over 85% of these patients had suffered acute kidney injury immediately after the bite. Steroid replacement in acute hypopituitarism is life saving. All 11 patients with chronic hypopituitarism in whom the outcome of treatment was reported, showed marked improvement with hormone

  9. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited) (United States)

    Zhao, D.


    Asia. Our results also show that the active Tengchong volcano in SW China is related to the deep subduction of the Burma microplate down to the mantle transition zone and a BMW above the Burma slab. References: D. Zhao (2004) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. J. Huang, D. Zhao (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, B09305. D. Zhao et al. (2009) Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 197-206.

  10. Long Indian Slab in the Mantle Transition Zone Under Eastern Tibet: Evidence from Teleseismic Tomography (United States)

    Lei, J.; Zhao, D.; Zha, X.


    We present a new 3-D P-wave velocity model of the upper mantle under eastern Tibet determined from 113,831 high-quality teleseismic arrival-time data. Our data are hand-picked from seismograms of 784 teleseismic events (30o-90o) with magnitudes of 5.2 or greater. These events were recorded by 21 portable seismic stations deployed in Yunnan during April 2010 to July 2011 and 259 permanent stations of Chinese provincial seismic networks during September 2008 to December 2011 in the study region. Our results provide new insights into the mantle structure and dynamics of eastern Tibet. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies are revealed down to 200 km depth under stable cratonic regions, such as Sichuan basin, Ordos and Alashan blocks. Prominent low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed in the upper mantle under the Kunlun-Qinling fold zone, Songpan-Ganzi, Qiangtang, Lahsa, and Chuan-Dian diamond blocks, suggesting that the eastward moving low-V materials are obstructed by Sichuan basin, Ordos and Alashan blocks, and they could be extruded through the Qinling fold zone and the Chuan-Dian block to eastern China. In addition, the extent and thickness of these low-V anomalies are well correlated with the surface topography, suggesting that uplift of eastern Tibet is closely related to the low-V anomalies which may reflect hot materials and have strong buoyancy. In the mantle transition zone, broad high-V anomalies are visible from the Burma arc northward to the Kunlun fault and eastward to the Xiaojiang fault, which extend for a total of approximately 700 km. The high-V anomalies are connected upward to the Wadati-Benioff seismic zone beneath the Burma arc. These results suggest that the Indian slab has subducted horizontally for a long distance in the mantle transition zone after it descended into the mantle, and its deep dehydration has contributed to forming the low-V anomalies in the big mantle wedge above the slab. Our present results shed new light on the formation and

  11. Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (19752005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia (United States)

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Tieszen, L.L.; Singh, A.; Gillette, S.; Kelmelis, J.A.


    Aim: We aimed to estimate the present extent of tsunami-affected mangrove forests and determine the rates and causes of deforestation from 1975 to 2005. Location: Our study region covers the tsunami-affected coastal areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka in Asia. Methods: We interpreted time-series Landsat data using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of plus-or-minus half a pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. Each image was normalized for solar irradiance by converting digital number values to the top-of-the atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and data bases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. We used a post-classification change detection approach. Results: were validated with the help of local experts and/or high-resolution commercial satellite data. Results The region lost 12% of its mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of c. 1,670,000 ha. Rates and causes of deforestation varied both spatially and temporally. Annual deforestation was highest in Burma (c. 1%) and lowest in Sri Lanka (0.1%). In contrast, mangrove forests in India and Bangladesh remained unchanged or gained a small percentage. Net deforestation peaked at 137,000 ha during 1990-2000, increasing from 97,000 ha during 1975-90, and declining to 14,000 ha during 2000-05. The major causes of deforestation were agricultural expansion (81%), aquaculture (12%) and urban development (2%). Main conclusions: We assessed and monitored mangrove forests in the tsunami-affected region of Asia using the historical archive of Landsat data. We also measured the rates of change and determined possible causes. The results of our study can be used to better understand the role of mangrove forests in saving lives and property from natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, and to identify

  12. 2-D modelling of the anticlinal structures and structural development of the eastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh (United States)

    Sikder, Arif Mohiuddin; Alam, M. Mustafa


    Structural architecture of the Bengal Basin has been strongly controlled by the collision pattern of the Indian plate with the Burma and Tibetan plates. The eastern fold belt (EFB) of the basin, comprising a series of north-south-trending curvilinear anticlines and synclines, represents a fold-and-thrust belt that constitutes the westward continuation of Arakan-Chin fold system of the Indo-Burman Ranges. The present study is mainly concerned with the 2-D modelling of the anticlinal structures in order to develop an understanding about the process-response relationships between the structural style and tectonic evolution of the eastern fold belt. The dominant fold-generating mechanism is believed to be the east-west-directed compressional force arising from oblique subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Burma plate that resulted in the growth of fault-propagation folds above a detachment or decollement at depth, giving rise to the Neogene accretionary prism complex development. A prominent feature of the region is the major east-dipping thrusts separating successive accretionary wedges. In seismic sections, evidence for several phases of compressional deformation suggests that multiphase stress conditions were responsible for the structural expression of the fold belt. Deep seismic sections reveal that the base of folding is characterized by a low-interval velocity horizon that represents a detachment separating the upper folded zone from the lower, seismically coherent, nearly unfolded zone. This detachment coincides with the undercompacted pressured shale unit, which is thought to have played an important role in the structural development of the eastern fold belt. Clay mineralogical analysis reveals the presence of a low-density shale horizon within the dense and thick shale sequence that is thought to be an undercompacted pressured shale during the geological past, and was responsible for the initiation of decollement and incipient diapirism involving thin

  13. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.


    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  14. Gondwanaland origin, dispersion, and accretion of East and Southeast Asian continental terranes (United States)

    Metcalfe, I.


    East and Southeast Asia is a complex assembly of allochthonous continental terranes, island arcs, accretionary complexes and small ocean basins. The boundaries between continental terranes are marked by major fault zones or by sutures recognized by the presence of ophiolites, mélanges and accretionary complexes. Stratigraphical, sedimentological, paleobiogeographical and paleomagnetic data suggest that all of the East and Southeast Asian continental terranes were derived directly or indirectly from the Iran-Himalaya-Australia margin of Gondwanaland. The evolution of the terranes is one of rifting from Gondwanaland, northwards drift and amalgamation/accretion to form present day East Asia. Three continental silvers were rifted from the northeast margin of Gondwanaland in the Silurian-Early Devonian (North China, South China, Indochina/East Malaya, Qamdo-Simao and Tarim terranes), Early-Middle Permian (Sibumasu, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes) and Late Jurassic (West Burma terrane, Woyla terranes). The northwards drift of these terranes was effected by the opening and closing of three successive Tethys oceans, the Paleo-Tethys, Meso-Tethys and Ceno-Tethys. Terrane assembly took place between the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, but the precise timings of amalgamation and accretion are still contentious. Amalgamation of South China and Indochina/East Malaya occurred during the Early Carboniferous along the Song Ma Suture to form "Cathaysialand". Cathaysialand, together with North China, formed a large continental region within the Paleotethys during the Late Carboniferous and Permian. Paleomagnetic data indicate that this continental region was in equatorial to low northern paleolatitudes which is consistent with the tropical Cathaysian flora developed on these terranes. The Tarim terrane (together with the Kunlun, Qaidam and Ala Shan terranes) accreted to Kazakhstan/Siberia in the Permian. This was followed by the suturing of Sibumasu and Qiangtang to Cathaysialand in the

  15. Effects of heat treatment on red gemstone spinel: single-crystal X-ray, Raman, and photoluminescence study (United States)

    Widmer, Remo; Malsy, Anna-Kathrin; Armbruster, Thomas


    A red spinel, MgAl2O4, from Burma (Myanmar) containing as chromophores ca. 0.5 wt% of each Cr2O3 and V2O3, was sequentially heated for at least 72 h at temperatures ranging from 600 °C to 1,100 °C. The untreated and quenched samples were examined with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD results display a linear decrease of the cell parameter a and a continuous shift of the oxygen coordinate u, u, u at 3 m toward lower values with increasing temperature and associated Mg, Al disorder: T(Mg1- x Al x )M(Al2- x Mg x )O4. The natural spinel has x = 0.157(2) and reaches x = 0.286(4) after quenching from 1,100 °C. In its natural state, M-O and T-O distances are 1.9226(2) and 1.9361(4) Å. With increasing inversion of Mg from the tetrahedrally coordinated T to the octahedrally coordinated M site, M-O distances increase at 1,100 °C to 1.9333(4) Å and T-O distances decrease to 1.9130(8) Å. The crossover temperature, at which T-O and M-O distances become equal (i.e., 1.927 Å), is found to be at 650 °C and corresponds to an inversion parameter x = 0.208(3). With increasing heat treatment, Raman spectra of quenched samples become significantly broadened and a peak characteristic for Mg, Al disorder at 721 cm-1 firstly appears for a crystal quenched from 800 °C with x = 0.248(4). At room temperature, photoluminescence spectra are dominated by a strong R line at 684.5 nm accompanied by poorly resolved N lines: N1 (687 nm), N2 (688 nm), and N3 (689 nm). N lines are caused by different Mg, Al environments of Cr3+. With increasing inversion parameter ( x), the R line decreases in intensity and the N lines become prominent leading to strongly broadened peaks with a maximum shifted toward higher wave lengths (687.5 nm at 1,100 °C). Criteria for the detection of heat treatment on gemstone spinel applicable to gemological routine examination are provided. Extrapolation of u, a, and bond lengths from heat


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available Myanmar, formerly Burma, is vulnerable to several natural hazards, such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis and landslides. The present study focuses on geomorphologic and geologic investigations of the south-western region of the country, based on satellite data (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-SRTM, MODIS and LANDSAT. The main objective is to detect areas vulnerable to inundation by tsunami waves and cyclone surges. Since the region is also vulnerable to earthquake hazards, it is also important to identify seismotectonic patterns, the location of major active faults, and local site conditions that may enhance ground motions and earthquake intensities. As illustrated by this study, linear, topographic features related to subsurface tectonic features become clearly visible on SRTM-derived morphometric maps and on LANDSAT imagery. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and SRTM data helps identify areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by tsunamis and storm surges. Additionally, land elevation maps help identify sites greater than 10 m in elevation height, that would be suitable for the building of protective tsunami/cyclone shelters.

  17. Possible Source Populations of the White-backed Planthopper in the Greater Mekong Subregion Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Chu, Dong; Yin, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Xue-Qing; Chen, Ai-Dong; Khay, Sathya; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Kyaw, Mu Mu; Kongchuensin, Manita; Ngo, Vien Vinh; Nguyen, Chung Huy


    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. However, little is known regarding the migration of this pest insect from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, into China’s Yunnan Province. To determine the migration patterns of S. furcifera in the GMS and putative secondary immigration inside China’s Yunnan Province, we investigated the population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of 42 S. furcifera populations across the six countries in the GMS by intensive sampling using mitochondrial genes. Our study revealed the potential emigration of S. furcifera from the GMS consists primarily of three major sources: 1) the S. furcifera from Laos and Vietnam migrate into south and southeast Yunnan, where they proceed to further migrate into northeast and central Yunnan; 2) the S. furcifera from Myanmar migrate into west Yunnan, and/or central Yunnan, and/or northeast Yunnan; 3) the S. furcifera from Cambodia migrate into southwest Yunnan, where the populations can migrate further into central Yunnan. The new data will not only be helpful in predicting population dynamics of the planthopper, but will also aid in regional control programs for this economically important pest insect.

  18. Presentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIBR. Consejo de Redacción


    Full Text Available Nos complace presentar esta edición de AIBR, compuesta de una nueva selección de contenidos escritos por antropólogos de diversos países iberoamericanos y europeos. De forma especial, destaca en el presente volumen la sección de entrevistas, que en esta ocasión está dedicada a Fredrik Barth. Gracias a la ayuda y colaboración de los profesores Alan Mcfarlane (University of Cambridge y Robert Anderson (Simon Fraser University, podemos ofrecer de forma abierta la excelente entrevista realizada por este último al antropólogo noruego, precursor de conceptos que han sido fundamentales para la antropología, como los de “fronteras étnicas” o “transaccionalismo”. Esta entrevista forma parte de la investigación que el profesor Anderson está actualmente llevando a cabo sobre los orígenes biográficos de la obra Political Systems of Highland Burma, de Edmund Leach. Desde estas líneas nos gustaría expresar nuestro agradecimiento al autor, tanto por su generosidad para permitirnos desinteresadamente publicar dicha entrevista como por por su excelente disposición y ayuda en el montaje y adaptación a la edición escrita.

  19. Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.

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    Han,Khin Ei


    Full Text Available "Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma. The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females. High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store iron, was higher than the normal range (10-200 ng/ml in 49 patients. On the other hand, serum iron of 39 sera samples fell within the normal range (50-150 micrograms/dl. Four were less than 50 micrograms/dl and eight were more than 150 micrograms/dl. Almost all the patients' sera of normal or higher serum iron level contained "free" iron. Thus, almost all the sera from thalassemic patients from Myanmar contain bleomycin-detectable iron, even when serum iron is within the normal range. In developing countries where undernutrition is prevalent (serum albumin in these patients was 3.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, P < 0.0001 vs. control value of 4.0 - 4.8 g/dl, normal serum iron does not preclude the presence of free iron in the serum.

  20. Revision of the Sundaland species of the genus Dysphaea Selys, 1853 using molecular and morphological methods, with notes on allied species (Odonata: Euphaeidae). (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Matti; Dow, Rory A; Stokvis, Frank R


    The Sundaland species of the genus Dysphaea were studied using molecular and morphological methods. Four species are recognized: D. dimidiata Selys, D. lugens Selys, D. ulu spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Borneo, Sarawak, Miri division, Upper Baram, Sungai Pejelai, Ulu Moh, 24 viii 2014; deposited in RMNH) and D. vanida spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Thailand, Ranong province, Khlong Nakha, Khlong Bang Man, 12-13 v 1999; deposited in RMNH). The four species are described and illustrated for both sexes, with keys provided. The type specimens of the four Dysphaea taxa named by E. de Selys Longchamps, i.e. dimidiata, limbata, semilimbata and lugens, were studied and their taxonomic status is discussed. Lectotypes are designated for D. dimidiata and D. limbata. D. dimidiata is recorded from Palawan (the Philippines) for the first time. A molecular analysis using three markers (COI, 16S and 28S) is presented. This includes specimens of three Sundaland species of the genus (D. lugens missing) and two congeners from other regions (D. basi-tincta and D. gloriosa). Notes and photographs of the male holotype of D. walli Fraser (from Maymyo, Burma) are provided.

  1. Behavior rather than diet mediates seasonal differences in seed dispersal by Asian elephants. (United States)

    Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Weerasinghe, Udayani R; Takatsuki, Seiki; Pastorini, Jennifer; Leimgruber, Peter; Fernando, Prithiviraj; Santamaría, Luis


    Digestive physiology and movement patterns of animal dispersers determine deposition patterns for endozoochorously dispersed seeds. We combined data from feeding trials, germination tests, and GPS telemetry of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to (1) describe the spatial scale at which Asian elephants disperse seeds; (2) assess whether seasonal differences in diet composition and ranging behavior translate into differences in seed shadows; and (3) evaluate whether scale and seasonal patterns vary between two ecologically distinct areas: Sri Lanka's dry monsoon forests and Myanmar's (Burma) mixed-deciduous forests. The combination of seed retention times (mean 39.5 h, maximum 114 h) and elephant displacement rates (average 1988 m in 116 hours) resulted in 50% of seeds dispersed over 1.2 km (mean 1222-2105 m, maximum 5772 m). Shifts in diet composition did not affect gut retention time and germination of ingested seeds. Elephant displacements were slightly longer, with stronger seasonal variation in Myanmar. As a consequence, seed dispersal curves varied seasonally with longer distances during the dry season in Myanmar but not in Sri Lanka. Seasonal and geographic variation in seed dispersal curves was the result of variation in elephant movement patterns, rather than the effect of diet changes on the fate of ingested seeds.

  2. The nature and impact of chronic stressors on refugee children in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp, Thailand. (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Murray, Laura K; Puffer, Eve S; Larsen, Jillian; Bolton, Paul


    Refugee camps are replete with risk factors for mental health problems among children, including poverty, disruption of family structure, family violence and food insecurity. This study, focused on refugee children from Burma, in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp in Thailand, sought to identify the particular risks children are exposed to in this context, and the impacts on their mental health and psychosocial well-being. This study employed two qualitative methods--free list interviews and key informant interviews--to identify the main problems impacting children in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp and to explore the causes of these problems and their impact on children's well-being. Respondents in free list interviews identified a number of problems that impact children in this context, including fighting between adults, alcohol use by adults and children, and child abuse and neglect. Across the issues, the causes included economic and social conditions associated with living in the camp and changes in family structures. Children are chronically exposed to stressors during their growth and development in the camp environment. Policies and interventions in areas of protracted displacement in camp-based settings should work to address these stressors and their impacts at community, household and individual levels.

  3. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Dowarah; H P Deka Boruah; J Gogoi; N Pathak; N Saikia; A K Handique


    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB)or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern.In the present investigation,an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries,Assam,India,which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot.A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals.Planting of herbs, shrubs,cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years.A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration:herbs,including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass)cover plants,including Mimosa strigillosa M. striata and M. pigra; shrubs,including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha)and Cassia streata (cassia);and tree species,including Gmelina arborea (gomari)and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo).Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  4. The identification of sites of biodiversity conservation significance: progress with the application of a global standard

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    M.N. Foster


    Full Text Available As a global community, we have a responsibility to ensure the long-term future of our natural heritage. As part of this, it is incumbent upon us to do all that we can to reverse the current trend of biodiversity loss, using all available tools at our disposal. One effective mean is safeguarding of those sites that are highest global priority for the conservation of biodiversity, whether through formal protected areas, community managed reserves, multiple-use areas, or other means. This special issue of the Journal of Threatened Taxa examines the application of the Key Biodiversity Area (KBA approach to identifying such sites. Given the global mandate expressed through policy instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, the KBA approach can help countries meet obligations in an efficient and transparent manner. KBA methodology follows the well-established general principles of vulnerability and irreplaceability, and while it aims to be a globally standardized approach, it recognizes the fundamental need for the process to be led at local and national levels. In this series of papers the application of the KBA approach is explored in seven countries or regions: the Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Japan, Macedonia, Mediterranean Algeria, the Philippines and the Upper Guinea region of West Africa. This introductory article synthesizes some of the common main findings and provides a comparison of key summary statistics.

  5. Integrating habitat status, human population pressure, and protection status into biodiversity conservation priority setting (United States)

    Shi, H.; Singh, A.; Kant, S.; Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.


    Priority setting is an essential component of biodiversity conservation. Existing methods to identify priority areas for conservation have focused almost entirely on biological factors. We suggest a new relative ranking method for identifying priority conservation areas that integrates both biological and social aspects. It is based on the following criteria: the habitat's status, human population pressure, human efforts to protect habitat, and number of endemic plant and vertebrate species. We used this method to rank 25 hotspots, 17 megadiverse countries, and the hotspots within each megadiverse country. We used consistent, comprehensive, georeferenced, and multiband data sets and analytical remote sensing and geographic information system tools to quantify habitat status, human population pressure, and protection status. The ranking suggests that the Philippines, Atlantic Forest, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean Islands, Caucasus, and Indo-Burma are the hottest hotspots and that China, the Philippines, and India are the hottest megadiverse countries. The great variation in terms of habitat, protected areas, and population pressure among the hotspots, the megadiverse countries, and the hotspots within the same country suggests the need for hotspot- and country-specific conservation policies. ??2005 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Baliospermum montanum (Danti: Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology- A review

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    Mali Ravindra


    Full Text Available Baliospermum montanum (Willd. Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae is a leafy monoecious undershrub distributed throughout the greater parts of India, Burma and Malaya. The various parts of the plant (leaves, roots, seeds and seed oil are widely used by various tribal communities and forest dwellers for the treatment of variety of ailments. The roots of the plant are ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic system of medicine and used in preparation of important Ayurvedic formulations. The plant is documented to possess beneficial effects as digestive, anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, rubefacient, febrifuge and tonic. It believed to be useful in asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, jaundice, wounds, constipation, anemia, leucoderma and fever. Following various folk claims for cure of numerous diseases, efforts have been made by researchers to verify the efficacy of the plant through scientific biological screenings. A scrutiny of literature revealed some notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anticancer, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and anthelmintic. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnobotanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on B. montanum.

  7. Assessment of haemolytic, cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities of an underutilized fruit, Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. (United States)

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Dey, Priyankar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kr; Sarker, Dilip De; Sen, Arnab


    Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. is an underutilized juicy fruit bearing plant found in sub-Himalayan area, South China, Indo-Burma region, etc. The fruit is considered to be nutritive, and in this study, we evaluated its antioxidant, haemolytic and cytotoxic properties. The juice was examined for the quenching activity of hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, total antioxidant activity (TAA), erythrocyte membrane stabilizing activity (EMSA) along with quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents and also tested for its potential activity as iron chelator, inhibitor of lipid peroxidation and total reducing power. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also performed to correlate antioxidant capacities with the phenolic and flavonoid content. Haemolytic activity on murine erythrocyte and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cytotoxic test was performed on murine splenocytes, thymocytes, hepatocytes and peritoneal exudates macrophage to examine the cytotoxic effect of its juice. The result exhibited its potent free radical scavenging activity. In case of TAA, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), EMSA and lipid peroxidation, the fruit juice was found to have significant (P cytotoxic test confirms that the juice does not contain any cytotoxic effect and the fruit is safe for consumption. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra analysis exhibited high possibility of presence of flavonoid compounds in the juice.

  8. The social context of the emergence of HIV in Thailand. (United States)

    Ford, N


    This paper reviews the developing pattern of HIV infection in Thailand with an introduction on basic principles of HIV transmission; a description of the emergence of HIV as a public health threat; a review of the social characteristics of HIV carriers in the context of the sexual culture in Thailand; and ends with a discussion of the dilemmas a developing country faces in dealing with HIV. Thailand is an example of a society where few people have many sex partners, a situation with a faster transmission of HIV than a case where most people have few partners. While Asia has lagged behind other regions in the spread of AIDS, in Thailand HIV has spread rapidly since 1988. Thailand has an illegal but tolerated commercial sex industry, with outlets very diverse in terms of STD control. This industry caters to tourists from other Asian countries, and is maintained by a strong male dominant culture, incomes averaging 25 times higher than other occupations pay, depression in outlying areas encouraging remittance of money back to families, and even status for sex workers in the marriage market. There is an entrenched subculture of intravenous drug injectors who also make up a nucleus of HIV carriers with high prevalence, 43% as of 1988. Some strategies open to the government to control spread of HIV include legalization and control of the sex industry, needle/syringe exchange and health care for drug injectors, social welfare for opium growers in the hills, and political solutions for the conflicts affecting drug traffic in Burma.

  9. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

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    Dapeng Zhao


    Full Text Available We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate. The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs’ deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab’s deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab–plume interactions.

  10. Seismic Hazard Analysis of Aizawl, India with a Focus on Water System Fragilities (United States)

    Belair, G. M.; Tran, A. J.; Dreger, D. S.; Rodgers, J. E.


    GeoHazards International (GHI) has partnered with the University of California, Berkeley in a joint Civil Engineering and Earth Science summer internship program to investigate geologic hazards. This year the focus was on Aizawl, the capital of India's Mizoram state, situated on a ridge in the Burma Ranges. Nearby sources have the potential for large (M > 7) earthquakes that would be devastating to the approximately 300,000 people living in the city. Earthquake induced landslides also threaten the population as well as the city's lifelines. Fieldwork conducted in June 2015 identified hazards to vital water system components. The focus of this abstract is a review of the seismic hazards that affect Aizawl, with special attention paid to water system locations. To motivate action to reduce risk, GHI created an earthquake scenario describing effects of a M7 right-lateral strike-slip intraplate earthquake occurring 30 km below the city. We extended this analysis by exploring additional mapped faults as well as hypothetical blind reverse faults in terms of PGA, PGV, and PSA. Ground motions with hanging wall and directivity effects were also examined. Several attenuation relationships were used in order to assess the uncertainty in the ground motion parameters. Results were used to determine the likely seismic performance of water system components, and will be applied in future PSHA studies.

  11. Efficiency of joint use of MRS and VES to characterize coastal aquifer in Myanmar (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J. M.; Chatenoux, B.; Mathieu, F.; Baltassat, J. M.; Legchenko, A.


    The productivity and the water quality of coastal aquifers can be highly heterogeneous in a complex environment. The characterization of these aquifers can be improved by hydrogeological and complementary geophysical surveys. Such an integrated approach is developed in a non-consolidated coastal aquifer in Myanmar (previously named Burma). A preliminary hydrogeological survey is conducted to know better the targeted aquifers. Then, 25 sites are selected to characterize aquifers through borehole drillings and pumping tests implementation. In the same sites, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) and vertical electrical soundings (VES) are carried out. Geophysical results are compared to hydrogeological data, and geophysical parameters are used to characterize aquifers using conversion equations. Finally, combining the analysis of technical and economical impacts of geophysics, a methodology is proposed to characterize non-consolidated coastal aquifers. Depth and thickness of saturated zone is determined by means of MRS in 68% of the sites (evaluated with 34 soundings). The average accuracy of confined storativity estimated with MRS is ± 6% (evaluated over 7 pumping tests) whereas the average accuracy of transmissivity estimation with MRS is ± 45% (evaluated using 15 pumping tests). To reduce uncertainty in VES interpretation, the aquifer geometry estimated with MRS is used as a fixed parameter in VES inversion. The accuracy of groundwater electrical conductivity evaluation from 15 VES is enough to estimate the risk of water salinity. In addition, the maximum depth of penetration of the MRS depends on the rocks' electrical resistivity and is between 20 and 80 m at the study area.

  12. Deforestation and fragmentation of natural forests in the upper Changhua watershed, Hainan, China: implications for biodiversity conservation. (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Jian-Chu


    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The Changhua watershed is a center of endemism for plants and birds and the cradle of Hainan's main rivers. However, this area has experienced recent and ongoing deforestation and habitat fragmentation. To quantify habitat loss and fragmentation of natural forests, as well as the land-cover changes in the Changhua watershed, we analyzed Landsat images obtained in 1988, 1995, and 2005. Land-cover dynamics analysis showed that natural forests increased in area (97,909 to 104,023 ha) from 1988 to 1995 but decreased rapidly to 76,306 ha over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily throughout the study period while pulp plantations rapidly expanded after 1995. Similar patterns of land cover change were observed in protected areas, indicating a lack of enforcement. Natural forests conversion to rubber and pulp plantations has a general negative effect on biodiversity, primarily through habitat fragmentation. The fragmentation analysis showed that natural forests area was reduced and patch number increased, while patch size and connectivity decreased. These land-cover changes threatened local biodiversity, especially island endemic species. Both natural forests losses and fragmentation should be stopped by strict enforcement to prevent further damage. Preserving the remaining natural forests and enforcing the status of protected areas should be a management priority to maximize the watershed's biodiversity conservation value.

  13. Phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activity of Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb Ali

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    Full Text Available Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb. Ali. also called as Paracalyx scariosus and cylista scariosa is a woody twiners belongs to the family Fabaceae is one of the important medicinal plant distributed in Central Provinces, West and South India, and Upper Burma. It is woody twiners with tomentose branches and stems finely downy. Leaves are 3-foliate with rhachis prolonged 6-13mm. between the insertion of the leaflets and stipels of the terminal one. The objective of this study is to explore the phytochemistry and the antioxidant potential of various extracts of Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb. Ali which is considered traditionally as an important medicinal plant. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done to find out the presence of various bioactive compounds and TLC was performed to identify the no of flavonoids present. In vitro antioxidant analysis of methanol, acetone, benzene extracts and ethyl acetate , aqueous fractions of methanol extract was carried out by DPPH assay and Nitric oxide assay. It is observed from the phytochemical study, carbohydrates, proteins, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids are present in all the three extracts and Ethyl acetate fraction, benzene extract were separated in to 5 spots identified by bluish black colour confirming the presence of 5 types of flavonoids and the Acetone extract was not separated. Besides the extracts and fractions also possess strong antioxidant activity

  14. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna


    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  15. Making Governance "Good": The Production of Scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Governance of the Salween River

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    Vanessa Lamb


    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments (EIAs are generally considered an important component of formal decision-making processes about development, serving to ensure that a project′s environmental impacts are considered in decisions about whether and how it will proceed. Scale is an important part of the narrative built into the assessment. Building on a rich literature at the intersection of human geography and political ecology, I focus on the way that scale is remade through the environmental impact assessment process for the Hatgyi hydroelectric dam proposed on the Salween River. Proposed near the stretch of the river that makes up the Thai-Burma border, the scales of governance for this cross-border project challenge assumed definitions of ′local′ impacts for ′national′ decision-making. By illustrating how scale-making is accomplished through producing and mobilising ecological knowledge, I illustrate how the scale of the local and the nation are at stake in these projects.

  16. Ethnic Minority Women Interaction with Environment in Southwest Frontier Region:Based on the Research Lushui and Fugong Counties in the Northwest of Yunnan%西南边疆少数民族妇女与环境互动研究--基于滇西北泸水、福贡两县的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    基于社会转型时期的现实情境,通过考察中缅边境以傈僳族为主体的少数民族妇女与环境的互动过程,以及她们面对气候变化及其灾害的具体应对状况,进而认为妇女与环境的互动过程必须放在具体的经济和社会发展的语境中阐释,环境治理中应为少数民族妇女提供发挥能动性的平台,而她们在边疆地区生态安全的建设过程中也具有重要作用。%In this article, the author describes how ethnic minority women interact with the environment in the north -ern section of the China-Burma border , and how they respond to the climate change and natural disasters in the concrete sit -uation.The conclusion is that the interactive process of women and environment should be explained in the context of spe -cific economic and social development , and a platform should be provided for them , which women will play dynamic roles , and have an important effect in the construction of ecological security in border areas .


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    记述贵州省扇山(虫,忽)属2新种,模式标本保存在浙江自然博物馆昆虫标本室.褐带扇山(虫,忽)Rhipidolestes fascia sp.nov图1-7.正模♂,贵州省赤水沙椤自然保护区.18-Ⅴ-2000;配模♀,副模10♂,8♀,采地与采期同正模.李氏扇山(虫,忽)Rhipidolestes lii sp.nov图1-7正模♂,贵州省习水国家级自然保护区,8-Ⅵ-2000;副模2♂,采地与采期同正模.%Rhipidolestes fascia sp. nov (holotype ♂, Ghishui, Guizhou, 18- Ⅴ -2000) and specimens are deposited in the Zhejiang Museum of History, Ha Hangzhou,China.Rhipidolestes is a small genus, extending from Burma,through southern China and Taiawan to Japan, 16 known species, 11 of which are known from China. (Wilson, 2000). Two new species from west-south China are described in this paper.

  18. 'Excuse me, do any of you ladies speak English?' Perspectives of refugee women living in South Australia: barriers to accessing primary health care and achieving the Quality Use of Medicines. (United States)

    Clark, Alice; Gilbert, Andrew; Rao, Deepa; Kerr, Lorraine


    Reforms to the Australian health system aim to ensure that services are accessible, clinically and culturally appropriate, timely and affordable. During the reform consultation process there were urgent calls from stakeholders to specifically consider the health needs of the thousands of refugees who settle here each year, but little is known about what is needed from the refugee perspective. Access to health services is a basic requirement of achieving the quality use of medicines, as outlined in Australia's National Medicines Policy. This study aimed to identify the barriers to accessing primary health care services and explore medicine-related issues as experienced by refugee women in South Australia. Thirty-six women participated in focus groups with accredited and community interpreters and participants were from Sudan, Burundi, Congo, Burma, Afghanistan and Bhutan who spoke English (as a second language), Chin, Matu, Dari and Nepali. The main barrier to accessing primary health care and understanding GPs and pharmacists was not being able to speak or comprehend English. Interpreter services were used inconsistently or not at all. To implement the health reforms and achieve the quality use of medicines, refugees, support organisations, GPs, pharmacists and their staff require education, training and support.

  19. Footprints, Imprints: Seeing Environmentalist and Buddhist Marie Byles as an Eastern Australian

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    Allison Jane Cadzow


    Full Text Available This paper looks at the Australian author, traveller, conservationist and Buddhist Marie Byles (1900-1979 as “eastern” and Australian at once. It investigates the influence of Buddhist spirituality and travel on her approach to the environment and explores some possibilities arising from looking at her work as part of a broader transnational humanitarian and intellectual identification, moving beyond ethnicity based boundaries. Thinking about eastern Australian identities can encourage consideration of Australia in Asia, Australia as Asian, connections across seas, and links and differences within Australia. The paper explores Marie Byles as an eastern Australian by considering her travel in Sydney and the region (in Australia, China, Vietnam, India and Burma from the 1930s to the 1960s, the design and use of her home as a hub for early Buddhist meetings, her publication of texts discussing Eastern philosophy, and her environmental activism. Throughout the discussion Byles’s understanding of power relations, derived from an entwining of feminist and socialist ideas, a pacifist and Buddhist/spiritualist revaluation of environments emerges. From these influences she provided challenges to her fellow walkers, environmentalists, and society at large to rethink relationships with nature and each other, insights that have yet to be adequately explored and recognised.

  20. Genetic relationship of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wu; Bruce A. McPheron; Jia-Jiao Wu; Zhi-Hong Li


    The melon fruit fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),has been the subject of worldwide quarantine and management efforts due to its widespread agricultural impact and potential for rapid range expansion.From its presumed native distribution in India,this species has spread throughout the hot-humid regions of the world.We provide information that reveals population structure,invasion history and population connectivity from 23 locations covering nine countries based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.Forty-two polymorphic sites were described among 38 haplotypes.The most common haplotype,H1,was observed in 73% of the samples distributed among all populations.Highest genetic diversity was seen within populations,and no isolation-by-distance was detected.The western regions (Nepal,Bangladesh,Thailand,Burma and China-west) showed higher haplotype diversity than eastern regions (Chins-east).China-Yunnan showed highest levels of genetic diversity in China.Haplotype diversity decreased with longitude from west to east.Together,these analyses suggest that B.cucurbitae has expanded from west to east within a limited geographic scale and recently invaded China through Yunnan Province.

  1. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011. (United States)


    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities.

  2. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in five US-bound refugee populations. (United States)

    Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle; Lee, Deborah; Thieme, Martha; Schmid, D Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R


    Little is known about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) susceptibility in US-bound refugee populations, although published data suggest that VZV seroprevalence in these refugee populations may be lower than US populations. We describe VZV seroprevalence in five US-bound refugee groups: (1) Bhutanese in Nepal, (2) Burmese on the Thailand-Burma (Myanmar) border, (3) Burmese in Malaysia, (4) Iraqi in Jordan, and (5) Somali in Kenya. Sera were tested for presence of VZV IgG antibodies among adults aged 18-45 years. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 97% across all refugee groups. VZV seroprevalence was also high across all age groups, with seroprevalence ranging from 92-100% for 18-26 year-olds depending on refugee group and 93-100% for 27-45 year-olds. VZV seroprevalence was unexpectedly high in these five US-bound refugee groups, though may not reflect seroprevalence in other refugee groups. Additional studies are needed to better understand VZV seroprevalence in refugee populations over time and by region.

  3. A new Late Eocene anthropoid primate from Thailand. (United States)

    Chaimanee, Y; Suteethorn, V; Jaeger, J J; Ducrocq, S


    The fossil record of anthropoid primates from the Middle Eocene of South Asia is so far restricted to two genera (Pondaungia cotteri Pilgrim, 1937 and Amphipithecus mogaungensis Colbert, 1937 from the Eocene Pondaung deposits of Burma) whose anthropoid status and phylogenetic position have long been under debate because they represent the oldest highly derived fossil primates of anthropoid grade. Moreover, several new African taxa, some of which are even older, have been recently included in the suborder Anthropoidea, suggesting an African origin for this group. Conversely, new fossil primates recently discovered in China (Eosimias) have been related to the most primitive representatives of Anthropoidea, alternatively suggesting an Asian origin and a probable Asian radiation centre. We report here the discovery of a new anthropoid from the Thai Late Eocene locality of Krabi, which displays several additional anthropoid characters with regard to those of the Eocene Burmese genera. This species, which is about the size of the Fayum Aegyptopithecus, can be related to the Burmese forms, and it further provides strong additional evidence for a southeast Asian evolutionary centre for anthropoids.

  4. Saras Cranes in Palwal District in Southern Haryana are Asking for Immediate Attention for Their Last Rescue Effort

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    Tirshem Kumar Kaushik


    Full Text Available Saras Cranes Grus antigone are endangered birds of open wetlands with highly worrying depletion trends being witnessed related with disappearance of marshy and shallow perennial, expansive wetlands throughout northern India. Alongside, massive hunting in 18th, 19th and 20th centuries and even today is another serious cause for their worrisome deterioration. Also, destruction of nests, eggs, fledglings and adults by aboriginals indeliberately or deliberately is causing these cranes to perish sooner than latter, completely. Now, Saras Cranes are found in limited number and domain as four populations in the entire world including India, China, Burma, South East Asia and northern Australia. The population of Indian Saras Crane is pitiably restricted to Etawa and Mainpuri districts of Uttar Pradesh. Stray birds of this species are restricted to Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh and in some parts of Gujarat and Assam. It is interesting to note that few pairs have been seen in Faridabad and Palwal districts in southern Haryana, India. These need to be protected and conserved.

  5. Doing belonging: Meanings of home and settlement among the Karen Community in Brisbane, Australia

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    Jessica Nancy Bird


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of belonging allows diasporic people to negotiate socio-cultural terrains that go beyond singular attachments to “here” or “there”.  This paper interrogates doing belonging amongst members of the Karen refugee community from Burma settling in Brisbane, Australia.  We use data collected over twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork using the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews.  This paper presents an interpretation of challenges faced by Karen community members as they grapple with local and transnational complexities of belonging within their own community, whilst also establishing belonging to Australian social environments.  We argue that Karen participants’ lived experiences of settlement challenge bounded notions of belonging, thereby allowing us to extend dominant constructions of settlement and social inclusion and give way to a more nuanced representation of an emerging diasporic community.  We thus reposition a resettled refugee community away from disempowering and exclusionary notions that dominant constructions of belonging and inclusion tend to impose. Keywords: Karen, belonging, settlement, refugee, transnational

  6. Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica sp. n. parasitizing goats and sheep in the Yemen Arab Republic and Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Pegram, R G; Hoogstraal, H; Wassef, H Y


    Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica sp. n. is described from 62 adults (29 males, 33 females) taken throughout the year from 23 goats and two sheep, mostly at 200 m altitude in the southern tihama foothills of Ta'izz Province, Yemen Arab Republic. One female from a goat at 2,300 m altitude in this Province may have attached to the host elsewhere and a male from Mecca, Saudi Arabia, was on a goat imported from an unknown source for the traditional religious pilgrimage feast. We postulate that the original host of adults was the Nubian ibex, Capra ibex nubiana F. Cuvier (Artiodactyla: Caprinae). This parasite is most closely related to H. (H.) kumari Sharif, which infests chiefly wild and domestic Caprinae from India to northwestern Iran and Tadzhik, SSR. It also shows relationships to H. (H.) punt Hoogstraal, Kaiser and Pedersen, which parasitizes gazelles and domestic mammals in Somalia and Ethiopia, but differs more widely from the third African-Arabian member of this subgenus, H. (H.) rhipicephaloides Neumann, which feeds on the Nubian ibex and gazelles in the Red Sea and Dead Sea areas. The Hyalomma subgenus Hyalommina now contains seven species, four confined to the Indian subcontinent (including Nepal, Burma, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Afghanistan) and Southwest Asia, and three in eastern Africa north of the equator and Arabia.

  7. Are We Them? Textual and Literary Representations of the Chinese in Twentieth-Century Thailand

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    Thak Chaloemtiarana


    Full Text Available King Vajiravudh famously published an essay titled Jews of the Orient in 1914 demonizing the Chinese in Siam as ingrates and parasites. The local Chinese became the “Other Within” in the Thai nation that the king was trying to establish. Whether his reaction to the local Chinese was fueled by ire over the recent strike by the Chinese which paralyzed Bangkok, or a reflection of his English education and exposure to European anti-Semitism, is not the focus of my concern. My interest for this exercise is to study how the Chinese in Siam/Thailand are portrayed in Thai language texts, that is, prose fiction and non-fiction produced in the twentieth century (I will not include related areas such as movies, television drama, music, and cartoons. This study does not involve an exhaustive review of all texts but will focus on a few well-known and popular ones. I would like to know whether King Vajiravudh’s portrayal of the Chinese is reflected in subsequent literary production or muted by other realities that existed in Thai society, and how the production of texts on the local Chinese changed over time. More importantly, I am very curious to know how this issue is played out in neighboring countries, especially the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, countries where the “assimilation” of the Chinese into the majority culture happens in varying degrees.

  8. THE GENUS DURIO Adans. (Bombac.

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    Full Text Available The genus Durio comprises, as far as known, 27 species. The centre ofdistribution is Borneo with 19 species, followed by Malaya with 11 spe-cies and Sumatra with 7 species. It is likely, when Sumatra will be betterexplored, that this island will prove to have many more species. An exclave of the area of distribution is found in Burma, where one endemic species occurs. The common Durio zibethinus Murr. probably originated in Borneo or in Sumatra. It is now widely cultivated outside of its former area and in many places it has become spontaneous.The genus Durio is subdivided into two subgenera: Durio and BoschiaKosterm. & Soegeng, according to the way of dehiscence of the anthers(with a longitudinal slit in the former, with an apical pore in the latter.A key to the species is proposed. A map is added, to show distribution and endemism. Each species is amply described and provided with a drawing . Economic and ecological data are given.

  9. Researching nature's venoms and poisons. (United States)

    Warrell, David A


    Our environment hosts a vast diversity of venomous and poisonous animals and plants. Clinical toxinology is devoted to understanding, preventing and treating their effects in humans and domestic animals. In Sri Lanka, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana, Sinhala 'kaneru'), a widespread and accessible ornamental shrub, is a popular means of self-harm. Its toxic glycosides resemble those of foxglove, against which therapeutic antibodies have been raised. A randomised placebo-controlled trial proved that this treatment effectively reversed kaneru cardiotoxicity. There are strong scientific grounds for the use of activated charcoal, but encouraging results with multiple-dose activated charcoal were not confirmed by a recent more powerful study. Venom of Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) in Burma (Myanmar) produces lethal effects in human victims. The case of a 17-year-old rice farmer is described with pathophysiological interpretations. During the first 9 days of hospital admission he suffered episodes of shock, coagulopathy, bleeding, acute renal failure, local tissue necrosis, generally increased capillary permeability and acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia with evidence of acute pituitary/adrenal insufficiency. Antivenom rapidly restored haemostatic function but failed to correct other effects of venom toxins incurred during the 3h before he could be treated.

  10. Book reviews

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    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available Chie Ikeya, Refiguring women, colonialism, and modernity in Burma (Henk Schulte Nordholt Thomas J. Conners, Mason C. Hoadley, Frank Dhont, Kevin Ko (eds, Pancasila’s contemporary appeal: Relegitimizing Indonesia’s founding ethos (R.E. Elson I Nyoman Darma Putra, A literary mirror: Balinese reflections on modernity and identity in the twentieth century (Dick van der Meij Margaret Jolly. Serge Tcherkézoff and Darrell Tryon (eds, Oceanic encounters: Exchange, desire, violence (H.J.M. Claessen Rudolf Mrázek, A certain age: Colonial Jakarta through the memories of its intellectuals (Lutgard Mutsaers Jan Ovesen and Ing-Britt Trankell, Cambodians and their doctors: A medical anthropology of colonial and post-colonial Cambodia (Vivek Neelakantan Daromir Rudnyckyj, Spiritual economies: Islam, globalization and the afterlife of development (Gabrial Facal Claudine Salmon, Sastra Indonesia awal: Kontribusi orang Tionghoa (Melani Budianta Renate Sternagel, Der Humboldt von Java: Leben und Werk des Naturforschers Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn 1809-1864 (Andreas Weber Wynn Wilcox (ed., Vietnam and the West: New approaches (Hans Hägerdal Zheng Yangwen and Charles J.H Macdonald (eds, Personal names in Asia: History, culture and identity (Rosemary Gianno

  11. On Being a Marxist Muslim: Reading Hasan Raid's Autobiography

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    Ihsan Ali-Fauzi


    Full Text Available In his recently published book, Clive Christie argues that Socialism, Marxism and Communism played a crucial role as weapons for Southeast Asian leaders in their fight against colonialism and as frameworks for them to run the newly independent nations. He also realizes that other ideologies such as those based on religion, which were older in terms of their coming into the region than the above-mentioned Western-originated ideologies, especially Islam in the Malay world and Confucianism and Buddhism in the Indo-China and Burma, also played a similarly important role. However, he provides only a dim analysis of the extremely intricate relationship between these types of ideology, especially between Marxism and Islam in the thought of leaders of movements such as the Islamic Union (Sarekat Islam or SI in the then Dutch East Indies. Most probably for reasons of space, he makes only a slight, insignificant reference to SI.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v9i1.675

  12. Charles Bachman Moore (1920-2010) (United States)

    Winn, William; Krehbiel, Paul


    Charles B. Moore passed away 2 March 2010 at the age of 89, following a long and varied scientific career in meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. He will be remembered best for his substantial contributions in the field of atmospheric electricity and for the students and faculty he guided as chairman of Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and professor of physics at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. He possessed a unique sense of humor and an excellent memory that served as a reservoir of scientific and historical knowledge. Like many of his generation, Charlie's career was profoundly influenced by the Second World War. Following Pearl Harbor, he interrupted his undergraduate studies in chemical engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology to enlist in the Army Air Corps, where he became the chief weather equipment officer in the 10th Weather Squadron, setting up and operating remote meteorological stations behind enemy lines in the China-Burma-India theater. He served with distinction alongside Athelstan Spilhaus Sr., who had been one of Charlie's instructors in the Army meteorology program.

  13. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai


    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits.

  14. Geographical markers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins domesticated for rice-based ethnic fermented beverages production in North East India. (United States)

    Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia


    Autochthonous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from traditional starters used for the production of rice-based ethnic fermented beverage in North East India were examined for their genetic polymorphism using mitochondrial DNA-RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Mitochondrial DNA-RFLP analysis of S. cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins from hamei starter of Manipur and marcha starter of Sikkim revealed widely separated clusters based on their geographical origin. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed high polymorphism amongst the hamei strains within similar mitochondrial DNA-RFLP cluster and one unique karyotype of marcha strain was widely distributed in the Sikkim-Himalayan region. We conceptualized the possibility of separate domestication events for hamei strains in Manipur (located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot) and marcha strains in Sikkim (located in Himalayan biodiversity hotspot), as a consequence of less homogeneity in the genomic structure between these two groups, their clear separation being based on geographical origin, but not on technological origin and low strain level diversity within each group. The molecular markers developed based on HinfI-mtDNA-RFLP profile and the chromosomal doublets in chromosome VIII position of Sikkim-Himalayan strains could be effectively used as geographical markers for authenticating the above starter strains and differentiating them from other commercial strains.

  15. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate. (United States)

    George, Charles R P


    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said.

  16. Rubber and pulp plantations represent a double threat to Hainan's natural tropical forests. (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Slik, J W Ferry; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Dai, Zhi-Cong


    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot and harbors large areas of tropical forests, particularly in the uplands. The Changhua watershed is the cradle of Hainan's main river and a center of endemism for plants and birds. The watershed contains great habitat diversity and is an important conservation area. We analyzed the impact of rubber and pulp plantations on the distribution and area of tropical forest in the watershed, using remote sensing analysis of Landsat images from 1988, 1995 and 2005. From 1988 to 1995, natural forest increased in area (979-1040 sq km) but decreased rapidly (763 sq km) over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily through the study period while pulp plantations appeared after 1995 but occupied 152 sq km by 2005. Rubber and pulp plantations displace different types of natural forest and do not replace one another. Because pulp is not as profitable as rubber and existing pulp processing capacity greatly exceeds local supply, considerable pressure exists on remaining upland forests. We recommend for future management that these plantation forests be reclassified as 'industrial', making a clear policy distinction between natural and industrial forestry. Additionally, the local government should work to enforce existing laws preventing forest conversion on marginal and protected areas.

  17. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dapeng Zhao; Lucy Liu


    We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate).The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions.

  18. The Praxis of Social Enterprise and Human Security: An Applied Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm David Brown


    Full Text Available The growth of social enterprise within development NGO work might lead one to suspect it has been irredeemably corrupted by neo-liberal capitalism. However, using the tools of capitalism is not the same as subscribing to the values of capitalism. This paper is situated at the intersection of five fields: human security, international development, social enterprise, social franchising, and left-wing anti-capitalist thought. It examines the relevance of social en­terprise to human security and to development, the relationship between social enterprise and the anti-capitalist values of the left, and it then focuses on social franchising—a subset of social enterprise that highlights the importance of cooperation—suggesting that it may be a useful methodology for NGOs carrying out educational work in parts of the developing world. It syn­thesises and extends ideas that I have presented elsewhere [1-3], it draws on ethnographic fieldwork on the Thai-Burma border, and it puts forward an agenda for further applied research that is rooted in a sociological analysis of civil society and contributes to the human security paradigm.

  19. Changes in Thai sexual behavior lower HIV spread. (United States)


    More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.

  20. New politics, an opportunity for maternal health advancement in eastern myanmar: an integrative review. (United States)

    Loyer, Adam B; Ali, Mohammed; Loyer, Diana


    Myanmar (formerly Burma) is a southeast Asian country, with a long history of military dictatorship, human rights violations, and poor health indicators. The health situation is particularly dire among pregnant women in the ethnic minorities of the eastern provinces (Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen and Karenni regions). This integrative review investigates the current status of maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar in the context of armed conflict between various separatist groups and the military regime. The review examines the underlying factors contributing to high maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar and assesses gaps in the existing research, suggesting areas for further research and policy response. Uncovered were a number of underlying factors uniquely contributing to maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar. These could be grouped into the following analytical themes: ongoing conflict, health system deficits, and political and socioeconomic influences. Abortion was interestingly not identified as an important contributor to maternal mortality. Recent political liberalization may provide space to act upon identified roles and opportunities for the Myanmar Government, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a manner that positively impacts on maternal healthcare in the eastern regions of Myanmar. This review makes a number of recommendations to this effect.

  1. Nuclear microscopy of rubies: Trace elements and inclusions (United States)

    Osipowicz, T.; Tay, T. S.; Orlic, I.; Tang, S. M.; Watt, F.


    The concentrations of trace elements (e.g. Ti, V, Cr, Fe and Cu) in ornamental rubies have been linked to the country of origin for natural stones [1,2]. These broad-beam PIXE results show relatively large variations between stones from one country, which might indicate that they stem from different geological environments in a country, or that there are inclusions or surface contaminations present in individual stones. PIXE elemental maps were used to find contamination and inclusion free regions on rubies from Mong Hsu, Burma, and from Thailand. Trace element concentrations were determined in these surface areas. The results indicate that the Fe-concentrations in Mong Hsu rubies have previously been overestimated due to the presence of surface contaminations. Cu is consistently present at a few hundred ppm level in these stones and not observed in any of the four Thai rubies, while it was observed sporadically in broad-beam measurements. The depth profiling capabilities of the proton microprobe were employed for the analysis of liquid and mineral inclusions in rubies, and some preliminary results are reported.

  2. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimation of Manipur, India (United States)

    Pallav, Kumar; Raghukanth, S. T. G.; Darunkumar Singh, Konjengbam


    This paper deals with the estimation of spectral acceleration for Manipur based on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The 500 km region surrounding Manipur is divided into seven tectonic zones and major faults located in these zones are used to estimate seismic hazard. The earthquake recurrence relations for the seven zones have been estimated from past seismicity data. Ground motion prediction equations proposed by Boore and Atkinson (2008 Earthq. Spectra 24 99-138) for shallow active regions and Atkinson and Boore (2003 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93 1703-29) for the Indo-Burma subduction zone are used for estimating ground motion. The uniform hazard response spectra for all the nine constituent districts of Manipur (Senapati, Tamenglong, Churachandpur, Chandel, Imphal east, Imphal west, Ukhrul, Thoubal and Bishnupur) at 100-, 500- and 2500-year return periods have been computed from PSHA. A contour map of peak ground acceleration over Manipur is also presented for 100-, 500-, and 2500-year return periods with variations of 0.075-0.225, 0.18-0.63 and 0.3-0.1.15 g, respectively, throughout the state. These results may be of use to planners and engineers for site selection, designing earthquake resistant structures and, further, may help the state administration in seismic hazard mitigation.

  3. A morphological review of subspecies of the Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Testudines, Geomydidae) (United States)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.


    The turtle Cuora amboinensis has an extensive distribution covering most of southern mainland Asia, Indonesia, and extending to the Philippine Islands. Unlike many species, C. amboinensis occurs on both sides of Wallace's Line separating Asian and Australian flora and fauna. Four subspecies are currently recognized; Cuora a. kamaroma (southern continental Asia, Java and the northern Philippines [introduced]), C. a. lineata (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China), C. a. couro (Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, and adjacent smaller Indonesian islands); and C. a. amboinensis (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines). Five pattern and 33 morphological characters were examined for variation in 691 individuals from throughout the species' range. Our analyses suggest that only two presently recognized subspecies are valid: amboinensis andkamaroma. Neither couro nor lineata are supported by our analysis. We recommend that C. a. couroshould be synonymized with the species C. amboinensis and C. a. lineata with the subspecies C. a. kamaroma.

  4. Orchid conservation in the biodiversity hotspot of southwestern China. (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T; Fan, XuLi; Yu, DongLi; Yang, HongPei; Gao, JiangYun


    Xishuangbanna is on the northern margins of tropical Asia in southwestern China and has the largest area of tropical forest remaining in the country. It is in the Indo-Burma hotspot and contains 16% of China's vascular flora in China. Species richness was highest at 1000-1200 m elevation. Three orchid species were assessed as possibly extinct in the wild, 15 as critically endangered, 82 as endangered, 124 as vulnerable, 186 as least concern, and 16 as data deficient. Declines over 20 years in harvested species suggested over-collection was the major threat, and utility value (i.e., medicinal or ornamental value) was significantly related to endangerment. Expansion of rubber tree plantations was less of a threat to orchids than to other taxa because only 75 orchid species (17.6%) occurred below the 1000-m-elevation ceiling for rubber cultivation, and most of these (46) occurred in nature reserves. However, climate change is projected to lift this ceiling to around 1300 m by 2050, and the limited area at higher elevations reduces the potential for upslope range expansion. The Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is committed to achieving zero plant extinctions in Xishuangbanna, and orchids are a high priority. Appropriate in and ex situ conservation strategies, including new protected areas and seed banking, have been developed for every threatened orchid species and are being implemented.

  5. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ito


    Full Text Available Myanmar (Burma constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharis flava with 2n = 20, Sagittaria trifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae, and Potamogeton distinctus × P. nodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae; the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  6. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records. (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki


    Myanmar (Burma) constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharisflava with 2n = 20, Sagittariatrifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae), and Potamogetondistinctus × Potamogetonnodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae); the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  7. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowarah, J.; Boruah, H.P.D.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A.K. [CSIR, Jorhat (India). North East Institute of Science & Technology


    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  8. Construction Traffic Organizational of Yingwen Highway “7.10”Damage Treatment by Changing Road to Bridge%映汶高速“7.10”灾损处治路改桥施工交通组织

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Firstly summarized and analyzed traffic organization modes and construction types and its implementation steps ,the advantages and disadvantages and the use scopes ;Secondly the design method of highway traffic organization are discussed ;Finally based on Yingwen highway damage treatment of road to bridge engineering ,highway in hit Burma road to bridge construction organization and the traffic organization design and implementation ;Results showed its good economic and social benefits ,and meantime it provided a theoretical basis and engineering for landslide damage treatment of highway rebuilding and reinforcement repair .%汇总、分析各种交通组织方式和施工作业类型及其实施步骤,阐述其优缺点和使用范围;对高速公路交通组织设计方法进行论述;最后依托映汶高速灾损处治路改桥工程,对映汶高速公路路改桥施工组织和交通组织进行设计与实施。结果表明其经济和社会效益良好,为泥石流灾损处治高速公路改建和加固修复提供理论及工程依据。

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Melaka and Enyan anak Usen, Iban art; Sexual selection and severed heads: weaving, sculpture, tattooing and other arts of the Iban of Borneo (Viktor T. King John Roosa; Pretext for mass murder; The September 30th Movement and Suharto’s coup d’état in Indonesia (Gerry van Klinken Vladimir Braginsky; The heritage of traditional Malay literature; A historical survey of genres, writings and literary views (Dick van der Meij Joel Robbins, Holly Wardlow (eds; The making of global and local modernities in Melanesia; Humiliation, transformation and the nature of cultural change (Toon van Meijl Kwee Hui Kian; The political economy of Java’s northeast coast c. 1740-1800; Elite synergy (Luc Nagtegaal Charles A. Coppel (ed.; Violent conflicts in Indonesia; Analysis, representation, resolution (Gerben Nooteboom Tom Therik; Wehali: the female land; Traditions of a Timorese ritual centre (Dianne van Oosterhout Patricio N. Abinales, Donna J. Amoroso; State and society in the Philippines (Portia L. Reyes Han ten Brummelhuis; King of the waters; Homan van der Heide and the origin of modern irrigation in Siam (Jeroen Rikkerink Hotze Lont; Juggling money; Financial self-help organizations and social security in Yogyakarta (Dirk Steinwand Henk Maier; We are playing relatives; A survey of Malay writing (Maya Sutedja-Liem Hjorleifur Jonsson; Mien relations; Mountain people and state control in Thailand (Nicholas Tapp Lee Hock Guan (ed.; Civil society in Southeast Asia (Bryan S. Turner Jan Mrázek; Phenomenology of a puppet theatre; Contemplations on the art of Javanese wayang kulit (Sarah Weiss Janet Steele; Wars within; The story of Tempo, an independent magazine in Soeharto’s Indonesia (Robert Wessing REVIEW ESSAY Sean Turnell; Burma today Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Robert Taylor, Tin Maung Maung Than (eds; Myanmar; Beyond politics to societal imperatives Monique Skidmore (ed.; Burma at the turn of the 21st century Mya Than; Myanmar in ASEAN

  10. Research on the current situation and trends of China's direct investment in Myanmar%中国对缅甸直接投资的发展特征及趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着中国-东盟自贸区的建立,中国与东南亚地区的经济合作不断加深。作为中国-东盟地缘经济合作的桥头堡,缅甸一直以来都是中国对外投资的热点区域。自军政府统治以来,由于和缅甸的传统友好关系,中国成为缅甸的最大的投资者,投资主要集中在油气资源、矿业资源、水电资源开发等资源相关领域,投资主体为大型的央企、国企等。地处地缘破碎地带,物产资源丰富,缅甸历来为战略要地。民主化改革后,众多大国势力进入对缅甸的投资和贸易,既在客观上对中国的对缅直接投资形成了竞争激励,又有主观上的挤压乃至遏制;随着缅甸国内边境战事的逐渐升级,中国企业对缅投资风险加大;中国企业对外投资未能更好融入当地,由此引发的群体性排华事件,也恶化了对缅的投资环境。未来中国对缅直接投资应进一步拓宽投资领域,融入多元的投资形式,着重对缅甸经济特区进行投资,并且在投资过程中兼顾各方利益。%With the establishment of China - ASEAN Free Trade Zone, the economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asia has been enhanced. As the bridgehead of China - ASEAN economic cooperation, Myanmar has long been a hot place of China's foreign investment. Since the military regime, as the traditional friendly neighbor country, China is Burma's biggest investor, mainly investing in the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources development and other resource-related areas by large central enterprises, state-owned enterprises. Located in the geographical fragmentation area, Myanmar has always been a pivot country with abundant natural resources in Southeast Asia. Since the democratic reform, many countries increased investment and trade with Myanmar, competing with China's direct investment in Myanmar. As the border wars in Myanmar escalated, the risks of Chinese

  11. Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: Balance of Subsidence, Sea level and Sedimentation in a Tectonically-Active Delta (Invited) (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Reitz, M. D.; Paola, C.; Nooner, S. L.; DeWolf, S.; Ferguson, E. K.; Gale, J.; Hossain, S.; Howe, M.; Kim, W.; McHugh, C. M.; Mondal, D. R.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Sincavage, R.; Williams, L. A.; Wilson, C.; Zumberge, M. A.


    Bangladesh is vulnerable to a host of short and long-term natural hazards - widespread seasonal flooding, river erosion and channel avulsions, permanent land loss from sea level rise, natural groundwater arsenic, recurrent cyclones, landslides and huge earthquakes. These hazards derive from active fluvial processes related to the growth of the delta and the tectonics at the India-Burma-Tibet plate junctions. The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers drain 3/4 of the Himalayas and carry ~1 GT/y of sediment, 6-8% of the total world flux. In Bangladesh, these two great rivers combine with the Meghna River to form the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD). The seasonality of the rivers' water and sediment discharge is a major influence causing widespread flooding during the summer monsoon. The mass of the water is so great that it causes 5-6 cm of seasonal elastic deformation of the delta discerned by our GPS data. Over the longer-term, the rivers are also dynamic. Two centuries ago, the Brahmaputra River avulsed westward up to 100 km and has since captured other rivers. The primary mouth of the Ganges has shifted 100s of km eastward from the Hooghly River over the last 400y, finally joining the Brahmaputra in the 19th century. These avulsions are influenced by the tectonics of the delta. On the east side of Bangladesh, the >16 km thick GBMD is being overridden by the Burma Arc where the attempted subduction of such a thick sediment pile has created a huge accretionary prism. The foldbelt is up to 250-km wide and its front is buried beneath the delta. The main Himalayan thrust front is geologic research in Bangladesh is that the rapid sediment accumulation preserves a detailed structural and stratigraphic archive. We have been tapping into these records using the combination of a local, low-cost drilling method, resistivity imaging and MCS seismics, while GPS, seismology and other geophysical methods are helping to unravel GBMD dynamics. Five transects of >130 wells are

  12. Exploration Status and Major Controlling Factors of Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Continental Margin Basins of the Bengal Bay%孟加拉湾地区大陆边缘盆地勘探概况与油气富集主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光辉; 李林涛


    The Bengal Bay lies in the east of India continent, west of Burma-Andaman-Sumatra area, and south of the Bangladesh. There are two different kinds of continental margins: passive and active continental margin. Many hydrocarbons bearing basins lie in the continental margins of the Bengal Bay, Based on the structure characteristics and plate position, we divided the basins into three types: passive continental margin basin (Mahanadi, Cauvery, and the K-G basins) , active continental margin basin (Rakhine, central Burma, Moattama, Andaman, and the north Sumatra basins) and remnant ocean basin (Bengal Basin). According to the distribution of the volcanic arcs, we further divided the active continental basin into trench, fore-arc and back-arc related basin. Through petroleum exploration analysis of the continental margin basins of the Bengal Bay, we come into the conclusion that the type of hydrocarbon source rocks and abundance of organic matters determined the nature of fluids and abundance of resources. Large river-delta system determined the distribution of big hydrocarbon field. Finally type, property and intensity of tectonic activities (especially of the late stage) determined the potential of exploration zones.%孟加拉湾位于印度大陆以东、缅甸—安达曼—苏门答腊以西、孟加拉国南部海上地区,该区存在主动和被动两种不同类型的大陆边缘,并发育众多大陆边缘含油气盆地.根据板块位置和构造特征将其划分为三大类,分别是:被动大陆边缘盆地(马哈纳迪、K-G和高韦里盆地);主动大陆边缘盆地(若开、缅甸中央、马达班、安达曼和北苏门答腊盆地);残留洋盆地(孟加拉盆地).根据火山岛弧带分布情况进一步将主动大陆边缘盆地划分为:①海沟型——若开盆地;②弧前型——缅甸中央盆地;③弧后型——马达班、安达曼和北苏门答腊盆地.对这些盆地油气勘探情况的统计与分析表明,该区大

  13. 两种源多油辣木苗期生长量比较%Comparison of Mass Growth during Seedling Stage between Two Provenances of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静; 吴疆种; 郑益兴; 张燕平


    通过对云南省元江县红河流域干热河谷地区相同立地条件下的印度和缅甸两种源多油辣木苗期生长量的连续观测,比较实生苗株高、地径、枝下高、冠幅、开花数和结实量等指标,研究多油辣木苗期生长规律的变化.结果表明,从播种到1年生期间两种源多油辣木的株高、地径、枝下高和开花数在种源间无显著差异,各个时期的生长速率略微不同.两种源多油辣木的冠幅和结实量有较大的差别,印度种源1年生实生苗的冠幅东西向、南北向分别比缅甸种源高12.5%、16.9%,结实量是缅甸种源的5倍,t检验结果显示,两种源多油辣木的冠幅和结实量差异显著(P<0.05).%Seedling mass growth from two provenances (India and Myanmar) of Moringa oleifera Lam.under the same site and culturing condition was observated.Seedlings were planted in Yuanjiang county,Yunnan province,which was basically in dry-hot valley of Red River basin.By comparing the plant height,ground diameter,under branch height,crown breadth,the number of flowers and fruit yield,the results showed that:From sowing to annual period,there were no significant differences in plant height,ground diameter,under branch height and flowering numbers between two provenances.For the two provenances,growth rate of each period was slightly different,but between provenances,crown breadth and fruit yield were significantly different.After plantation for a year,for the crown breadth of south to north direction and east to west direction,India provenance produced 12.5 % and 16.9 % respectively more than Burma provenance.For fruit yield,India provenance produced four times more than Burma provenance.Variance analysis showed that a significant difference (P < 0.05) was between the two provenances of crown breadth and fruit yield.

  14. 冷战后印缅关系好转的主要动因%The Improving Relations between India and Myanmar after the Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The world political situation changed dramatically during 1990s. Both India and Myanmar adjusted the foreign policy for the sake of their own interests. On the premise of India's active friendly, Indo-Burma relations ap-peared to ease, and obtained a rapid development in 21st Century. Why the relationship between Indian and Burma becomes better after the Cold War is discussed in this paper. From the Indian perspective, first of all, India has implemented the “Look East” policy, took efforts to strengthen exchanges with Southeast Asian countries, and ex-panded its influence in Southeast Asia since the 1990s. India has actively improved the relations with Myanmar for this purpose. Secondly, in order to balance China's growing influence in Myanmar, India must also strengthen rela-tions with Myanmar in many ways. Thirdly, facing the separation of northeastern India, the Indian government and the government of Myanmar have to cooperate in the military and security area. Fourthly, It was possible to obtain the right to use the rich oil and gas resources in Myanmar only through enhancing the relationship between India and Myanmar. And fifthly, the great potential of bilateral trade between India and Myanmar helped to improve the rela-tionship. From the aspect of Myanmar, the promotion of friendly relations with India is closely related to its geo-graphical location, the “balance” foreign policy and the level of economic development.%20世纪90年代,世界政治格局发生巨变,印度和缅甸为了自身利益都调整了外交政策,在印度主动友好的前提下印缅关系出现缓和,并在21世纪得到迅速发展。本文主要从印度和缅甸两个方面来探讨冷战后印缅关系出现好转的动因。从印度方面来看,首先,印度自20世纪90年代推行“向东看”政策,努力加强与东南亚国家的交流,扩大印度在东南亚地区的影响,为此目的,印度积极存进与缅甸关系的好转;其

  15. 关于南海夏季风建立的大尺度特征及其机制的讨论%Large Scale Features of SCS Summer Monsoon Onset and Its Possible Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金海; 徐海明; 周兵; 王黎娟


    The high quality dataset from the SCS (South China Sea) Monsoon Experiment and 40-year NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data are used to investigate the large scale features and abrupt change in meteorological elements during the onset of the SCS summer monsoon. It is found that the SCS summer monsoon establishment is characterized by the South Asian High migrating swiftly from the eastern side of Philippines to the northern part of Indo-China Peninsula and the enhancement of the Indian-Burma trough and equatorial westerly over the Indian Ocean associated with the equatorial westerly expanding towards northeastward, and followed by the mid-low latitude interaction and continuous retreat eastward of the western Pacific subtropical high. Further study shows that the meridional temperature difference and the zonal wind vertical shear over the Asian lower latitudes also experience abrupt change during the onset of the SCS summer monsoon. Numerical results reveal that the Indian Peninsula acts as a critical role for the enhancement of the Indian-Burma trough with a cyclonic difference circulation excited to the east side of the peninsula through ground sensible heating in such a way that the SCS summer monsoon occurs prior to the Indian summer monsoon.%使用1998年南海季风试验期间高质量资料和NCEP/NCAR 40年再分析资料分析了南海季风建立前后的大尺度环流特征和要素的突变及爆发过程。发现南亚高压迅速地从菲律宾以东移到中南半岛北部,印缅槽加强,赤道印度洋西风加强并向东向北迅速扩展和传播,以及相伴随的中低纬相互作用和西太平洋副高连续东撤是南海夏季风建立的大尺度特征,与此同时,亚洲低纬地区的南北温差和纬向风切变也发生相应的突变。数值实验结果指出,印度半岛地形的陆面加热作用在其东侧激发的气旋性环流对于印缅槽的加强有重要作用,并进而有利于南海夏季风先于印度夏季风爆发。

  16. Teleseismic shear-wave splitting in SE Tibet: Insight into complex crust and upper-mantle deformation (United States)

    Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu; Xu, Mingjie; Ding, Zhifeng; Wu, Yan; Wang, Pan; Mi, Ning; Yu, Dayong; Li, Hua


    We measured shear-wave splitting of teleseismic XKS phases (i.e., SKS, SKKS and PKS) recorded by more than 300 temporary ChinArray stations in Yunnan of SE Tibet. The first-order pattern of XKS splitting measurements shows that the fast polarization directions (φ) change (at ∼26-27°N) from dominant N-S in the north to E-W in the south. While splitting observations around the eastern Himalayan syntax well reflect anisotropy in the lithosphere under left-lateral shear deformation, the dominant E-W φ to the south of ∼26°N is consistent with the maximum extension in the crust and suggest vertically coherent pure-shear deformation throughout the lithosphere in Yunnan. However, the thin lithosphere (<80 km) could account for only part (<0.7 s) of the observed splitting delay times (δt, 0.9-1.5 s). Anisotropy in the asthenosphere is necessary to explain the NW-SE and nearly E-W φ in these regions. The NE-SW φ can be explained by the counter flow caused by the subduction and subsequent retreat of the Burma slab. The E-W φ is consistent with anisotropy due to the absolute plate motion in SE Tibet and the eastward asthenospheric flow from Tibet to eastern China accompanying the tectonic evolution of the plateau. Our results provide new information on different deformation fields in different layers under SE Tibet, which improves our understanding on the complex geodynamics related to the tectonic uplift and southeastward expansion of Tibetan material under the plateau.

  17. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suerialoasan Navanesan

    Full Text Available Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae, locally known as 'Senna makki' is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1 were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299 using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death.

  18. Economic feasibility of a new method to estimate mortality in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard Roberts

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mortality data provide essential evidence on the health status of populations in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings and to guide and assess relief operations. Retrospective surveys are commonly used to collect mortality data in such populations, but require substantial resources and have important methodological limitations. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative method for rapidly quantifying mortality (the informant method. The study objective was to assess the economic feasibility of the informant method. METHODS: The informant method captures deaths through an exhaustive search for all deaths occurring in a population over a defined and recent recall period, using key community informants and next-of-kin of decedents. Between July and October 2008, we implemented and evaluated the informant method in: Kabul, Afghanistan; Mae La camp for Karen refugees, Thai-Burma border; Chiradzulu District, Malawi; and Lugufu and Mtabila refugee camps, Tanzania. We documented the time and cost inputs for the informant method in each site, and compared these with projections for hypothetical retrospective mortality surveys implemented in the same site with a 6 month recall period and with a 30 day recall period. FINDINGS: The informant method was estimated to require an average of 29% less time inputs and 33% less monetary inputs across all four study sites when compared with retrospective surveys with a 6 month recall period, and 88% less time inputs and 86% less monetary inputs when compared with retrospective surveys with a 1 month recall period. Verbal autopsy questionnaires were feasible and efficient, constituting only 4% of total person-time for the informant method's implementation in Chiradzulu District. CONCLUSIONS: The informant method requires fewer resources and incurs less respondent burden. The method's generally impressive feasibility and the near real-time mortality data it provides warrant further work to

  19. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties. (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das


    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  20. The Hani Ethnic Identityand Social Stabilityin Border Areas%哈尼族民族认同与边疆社会稳定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Hani lives across the border is an international ancient nationality, distributed in the China and Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, laos. In the ethnic identity, the border on both sides of the Hani ethnic origin in history, historical and cultural background, ethnic origin, language, religion, culture, customs and other aspects are closely related, maintains the national culture identity. Ethnic identity is an important part of cultural soft power, has the special function of shaping the common psychological, is the only way which must be passed of multicultural relationship coordination, integration of ethnic cultural resources, has the vital significance to the social stability in border areas.%哈尼族是跨境而居的一个国际性古老民族,分布在中国及东南亚的越南、泰国、缅甸、老挝。在民族认同方面,国境两边的哈尼族在民族历史渊源、历史文化背景、族源、语言、宗教信仰、文化习俗等方面有着极为密切的联系,保持着本民族文化的认同。民族认同作为文化软实力的重要组成部分,有塑造共同心理的特殊功能,是协调多元文化关系、整合民族文化资源的必经之路,对边疆社会稳定具有重要的意义。

  1. Fungi in Thailand: a case study of the efficacy of an ITS barcode for automatically identifying species within the Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttika Suwannasai

    Full Text Available Thailand, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, has many endemic animals and plants. Some of its fungal species are difficult to recognize and separate, complicating assessments of biodiversity. We assessed species diversity within the fungal genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, which produce biologically active and potentially therapeutic compounds, by applying classical taxonomic methods to 552 teleomorphs collected from across Thailand. Using probability of correct identification (PCI, we also assessed the efficacy of automated species identification with a fungal barcode marker, ITS, in the model system of Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon. The 552 teleomorphs yielded 137 ITS sequences; in addition, we examined 128 GenBank ITS sequences, to assess biases in evaluating a DNA barcode with GenBank data. The use of multiple sequence alignment in a barcode database like BOLD raises some concerns about non-protein barcode markers like ITS, so we also compared species identification using different alignment methods. Our results suggest the following. (1 Multiple sequence alignment of ITS sequences is competitive with pairwise alignment when identifying species, so BOLD should be able to preserve its present bioinformatics workflow for species identification for ITS, and possibly therefore with at least some other non-protein barcode markers. (2 Automated species identification is insensitive to a specific choice of evolutionary distance, contributing to resolution of a current debate in DNA barcoding. (3 Statistical methods are available to address, at least partially, the possibility of expert misidentification of species. Phylogenetic trees discovered a cryptic species and strongly supported monophyletic clades for many Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon species, suggesting that ITS can contribute usefully to a barcode for these fungi. The PCIs here, derived solely from ITS, suggest that a fungal barcode will require secondary markers in

  2. A present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the data of earthquake centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution, P-wave first motion focal mechanism solution and deep hole breakouts, a present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region is compiled. The origi-nal stress data are smoothed for every 200 km ′ 200 km area by taking the average of all stress indicators within each sub-region. The stress map shows the spatial distribution of the orientation of principal stress axes and the stress regimes. An earthquake focal mechanism map for the eastern Asia is also given. The maps of orientation of principal stress axes show that, apart from the strong influence of the collision between the Indian Ocean plate and Eurasian plate, the present-day tectonic stress in eastern Asia is significantly affected by the back-arc extension of the subduction zones. The joint effect of the continental collision at the Himalaya arc and back-arc extension in the Burma arc region may be responsible for the remarkable rotation of the principal stress orientations in southeastern part of the Tibet plateau. The joint action of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate at Taiwan Island and the back-arc extension of the Ryukyu arc affect the stress field in eastern part of China. There are no strong earthquakes in the present day in the vast back-arc region of the Java trench subduction zone. The back-arc extension there may create a condition favorable to the southward flow of the lithosphere material in southeastern Asia. In the inner part of the Tibet plateau region, roughly demarcated by the Kunlun mountain, the northern and northeastern part is a broad intracontinental compressive zone, while the southern and southwestern part is generally in a normal-faulting stress state.

  3. Teleseismic P-wave tomography and mantle dynamics beneath Eastern Tibet (United States)

    Lei, Jianshe; Zhao, Dapeng


    We determined a new 3-D P-wave velocity model of the upper mantle beneath eastern Tibet using 112,613 high-quality arrival-time data collected from teleseismic seismograms recorded by a new portable seismic array in Yunnan and permanent networks in southwestern China. Our results provide new insights into the mantle structure and dynamics of eastern Tibet. High-velocity (high-V) anomalies are revealed down to 200 km depth under the Sichuan basin and the Ordos and Alashan blocks. Low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are imaged in the upper mantle under the Kunlun-Qilian and Qinling fold zones, and the Songpan-Ganzi, Qiangtang, Lhasa and Chuan-Dian diamond blocks, suggesting that eastward moving low-V materials are extruded to eastern China after the obstruction by the Sichuan basin, and the Ordos and Alashan blocks. Furthermore, the extent and thickness of these low-V anomalies are correlated with the surface topography, suggesting that the uplift of eastern Tibet could be partially related to these low-V materials having a higher temperature and strong positive buoyancy. In the mantle transition zone (MTZ), broad high-V anomalies are visible from the Burma arc northward to the Kunlun fault and eastward to the Xiaojiang fault, and they are connected upward with the Wadati-Benioff seismic zone. These results suggest that the subducted Indian slab has traveled horizontally for a long distance after it descended into the MTZ, and return corner flow and deep slab dehydration have contributed to forming the low-V anomalies in the big mantle wedge. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of the eastern Tibetan plateau.

  4. [Determination of gambogic acid in Gamboge by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis]. (United States)

    Ou, Wanlu; Li, Yujuan; Shi, Dongdong; Qu, Feng


    Gambogic acid (GA), a kind of caged xanthones, has low solubility in water. A non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) was established for the determination of GA in Gamboge based on the optimized conditions. The effect of 20% - 60% methanol or acetonitrile spiked in running solution was investigated. The effects of compositions, concentration, pH, additives like β-cyclodextrin in running buffer were thoroughly studied. Applied voltage and applied temperature were also observed. Optimal electrophoretic conditions were as follows: 20 mmol/L sodium borohydride solution (pH 9. 86) containing 40% (v/v) acetonitrile, 10 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin as running buffer, applied voltage of 10 kV, capillary temperature of 30 °C and detection wavelength of 280 nm. The calibration curve had good linearity in the range of 2-2 000 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0. 999 6. The limit of quantification (S/N= 3) of the method was 2 mg/L. The quantifications of GA in Gamboge from different producing places including Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, India were 1. 67-472.40 mg/g with the RSD (n= 3) of 1.12% -2.60%. The content of Gamboge from Vietnam is obviously low while the others are high. The recoveries of GA spiked in real samples ranged from 95. 2% to 105. 6%. The method of NACE is simple, efficient and of good reproducibility, can be served as a novel reference to identify and control the quality of Gamboge.

  5. The Life History of the Protandrous Tropical Shad Tenualosa macrura (Alosinae: Clupeidae): Fishery Implications (United States)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Brewer, D. T.; Milton, D. A.; Merta, Gede Sedana; Efizon, D.; Fry, G.; van der Velde, T.


    Tenualosa macrura is a tropical shad that was previously found throughout the estuaries and coastal waters of Sumatra and Borneo where it formed the basis of flourishing fisheries. The only viable fishery today has contracted to the Riau Province of Sumatra, Indonesia. To provide information for conservation and fisheries management, a two-year study of the biology, ecology and life history characteristics of T. macrura was conducted. The evidence from sizes of sexes, sex ratios and histology is that T. macrura is a protandrous hermaphrodite. It changes from male to female mainly between 14 and 20 cm SL (standard length) (six months to one year in age), after the male has spawned. Almost all fish in their second year are females; the species does not appear to live beyond two years. There is a regular movement of spawning males and females between the Strait of Malacca (salinity 28-30) and the spawning grounds in the sheltered straits (salinity 20-28) of Riau Province on each new and full moon. Their occurrence in the inshore straits leads to heavy fishing during these moon phases. The main nursery areas are the shallow coastal waters of the Strait of Malacca. The decline in catches of T. macrura has probably been as a result of fishers intensively targeting aggregations of spawning females. Furthermore, most are caught before spawning. It is postulated that the protandrous habit of this species, and its likewise endangered congener of Sarawak, T. toli, renders them more vulnerable to overfishing than is the gonochoristic and more widespread T. ilisha that is heavily fished from Burma through the Indian sub-continent to Kuwait.

  6. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots. (United States)

    Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee


    Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from global vegetation model and then by migration and biome classification assumptions. Bootstrap comparisons indicated that effects on hotpots as a group were not significantly different from effects on random same-biome collections of grid cells with respect to biome change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, botspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting suggestions that global warming is one of the most serious threats to the planet's biodiversity.

  7. Diversity of the 47-kD HtrA nucleic acid and translated amino acid sequences from 17 recent human isolates of Orientia. (United States)

    Jiang, Ju; Paris, Daniel H; Blacksell, Stuart D; Aukkanit, Nuntipa; Newton, Paul N; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Izzard, Leonard; Stenos, John; Graves, Stephen R; Day, Nicholas P J; Richards, Allen L


    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of potentially fatal scrub typhus, is characterized by a high antigenic diversity, which complicates the development of a broadly protective vaccine. Efficacy studies in murine and nonhuman primate models demonstrated the DNA vaccine candidate pKarp47, based upon the O. tsutsugamushi Karp 47-kD HtrA protein gene, to be a successful immunoprophylactic against scrub typhus. To characterize 47-kD HtrA protein diversity among human isolates of Orientia, we sequenced the full open reading frame (ORF) of the 47-kD HtrA gene and analyzed the translated amino acid sequences of 17 patient isolates from Thailand (n=13), Laos (n=2), Australia (n=1), and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (n=1) and 9 reference strains: Karp (New Guinea), Kato (Japan), Ikeda (Japan), Gilliam (Burma), Boryong (Korea), TA763, TH1811 and TH1817 (Thailand), and MAK243 (China). The percentage identity (similarity) of translated amino acid sequences between 16 new isolates and 9 reference strains of O. tsutsugamushi ranged from 96.4% to 100% (97.4% to 100%). However, inclusion of the recently identified Orientia chuto sp. nov. reduced identity (similarity) values to 82.2% to 83.3% (90.4% to 91.4%). These results demonstrate the diversity of Orientia 47-kD HtrA among isolates encountered by humans and therefore provide support for the necessity of developing a broadly protective scrub typhus vaccine that takes this diversity into account.

  8. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.


    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  9. Analysis of Basic Features of the Onset of the Asian Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, a relatively systematic climatological research on the onset of the Asian tropical summer monsoon (ATSM) was carried out. Based on a unified index of the ATSM onset, the advance of the whole ATSM was newly made and then the view that the ATSM firstly breaks out over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and the middle and southern Indo-China Peninsula was further documented, which was in the 26th pentad (about May 10), then over the South China Sea (SCS) in the 28th pentad. It seems that the ATSM onset over the two regions belongs to the different stages of the same monsoon system. Then, the onset mechanism of ATSM was further investigated by the comprehensive analysis on the land-sea thermodynamic contrast, intraseasonal oscillation, and so on, and the several key factors which influence the ATSM onset were put forward. Based on these results, a possible climatological schematic map that the ATSM firstly breaks out over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean, the Indo-China Peninsula, and the SCS was also presented, namely seasonal evolution of the atmospheric circulation was the background of the monsoon onset; the enhancement and northward advance of the convections, the sensible heating and latent heating over the Indo-China Peninsula and its neighboring areas, the dramatic deepening of the India-Burma trough, and the westerly warm advection over the eastern Tibetan Plateau were the major driving forces of the summer monsoon onset, which made the meridional gradient of the temperature firstly reverse over this region and ascending motion develop. Then the tropical monsoon and precipitation rapidly developed and enhanced. The phase-lock of the 30-60-day and 10-20-day low frequency oscillations originated from different sources was another triggering factor for the summer monsoon onset. It was just the common effect of these factors that induced the ATSM earliest onset over this region.

  10. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi. (United States)

    Srivastava, Rajani


    Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. "Jaundice curative tree" in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.

  11. Active faulting in Raghunandan Anticline, NE Bengal Basin, implications for future earthquake hazards (United States)

    Ahsan, A.; Kali, E.; Coudurier Curveur, A.; van der Woerd, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Alam, A. K.; Ildefonso, S.; Banerjee, P.; Dorbath, C.


    The Bengal basin is situated in a complex tectonic zone where the Indian-Eurasian Plates and Indian-Burmese Plates are colliding. This region is known for some of the largest intra-continental seismic events of the last 500 years, the 1548 Bengal earthquake of magnitude M>8?, the 1762 Arakan earthquake of magnitude M>8?, the 1897 Shillong earthquakes of magnitude Ms 8.7, the 1918 Srimangal earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.6 and the 1950 Assam earthquake of magnitude Mw 8.6. The source faults of these events and whether these large earthquakes occurred on faults that reached the surface or reminded blind remain controversial. The Bengal basin still needs to be better understood in terms of active faulting and seismicity. The Eastern boundary of Bengal basin is marked by numerous NS trending folds of the Indo-Burma Ranges. We focused on the Raghunandan Anticline, NE Bengal basin, a broad, asymmetric, growing ramp anticline, steep west-facing front and bounded westwards by a steep tectonic scarp truncating gently east dipping Quaternary sandstone beds. The scarp morphology is suggestive of a still preserved co-seismic free face above a colluvial wedge. We carried out more than 20 topographic profiles to document the precise height and shape of this 12-15 m high scarp (above alluvial surface) and to survey a set of uplifted alluvial terraces located along the Shahapur River behind the scarp. The analysis of the topographic profiles around the Shajibazar area reveals the presence of 5 alluvial terraces hanging 3 m to 19 m above Shahapur River bed. T1 and T2 terraces are the best-preserved terraces on both sides of the Shahapur River. C14 and Be 10 ages allow to date the lowest abandonned terrace and to estimate the uplift rate of this area.

  12. The Maintenance of China's Partnershipin the Perspective of Geopolitics:Taken Sino-burmese Relations for Example%地缘政治视角下的中国伙伴关系维护——以中缅关系为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China has already formed a large group of different levels partnership.Up to now, the number of Chi-na's partnership is 74.However, what should not be neglected is that the partnership system has displayed loosely or-ganized and the shortage of geopolitical considerations.This is fully reflected in the partnership of China and Burma. Now China's partnership has come to the stage, in which China must attach importance to maintain. Therefore, Chi-na must focus on positioning, attaching great importance to the geopolitical valuein future partnership 's develop-ment;for existing partnership, China should manage and maintain good relationship with the partners which have significant value in geopolitical strategy for China by using the ploitical, economic,cultural and other approaches.%中国的伙伴关系建设已经形成74对不同层次的庞大群体,但这个伙伴关系体系已经显现出组织松散、地缘政治考量不足等不可忽视的问题.这在中国和缅甸的伙伴关系中得到充分体现.现在中国的伙伴关系体系已经到了必须要重视维持的阶段,中国必须要重点定位,以后的伙伴关系发展要重视地缘政治价值;已有的伙伴关系要选择具有重要地缘战略价值的伙伴国,从政治、经济、文化等多角度经营和维护好伙伴关系.

  13. Use of Oral Cholera Vaccine and Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in a Long-Standing Refugee Camp, Thailand, 2012-2014 (United States)

    Phares, Christina R.; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Nyangoma, Edith; Taylor, Eboni M.; Fulton, Anna; Wongjindanon, Nuttapong; Aung, Naw Rody; Travers, Phillipe; Date, Kashmira


    Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are relatively new public health interventions, and limited data exist on the potential impact of OCV use on traditional cholera prevention and control measures—safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH). To assess OCV acceptability and knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding cholera and WaSH, we conducted cross-sectional surveys, 1 month before (baseline) and 3 and 12 months after (first and second follow-up) a preemptive OCV campaign in Maela, a long-standing refugee camp on the Thailand-Burma border. We randomly selected households for the surveys, and administered questionnaires to female heads of households. In total, 271 (77%), 187 (81%), and 199 (85%) households were included in the baseline, first and second follow-up surveys, respectively. Anticipated OCV acceptability was 97% at baseline, and 91% and 85% of household members were reported to have received 1 and 2 OCV doses at first follow-up. Compared with baseline, statistically significant differences (95% Wald confidence interval not overlapping zero) were noted at first and second follow-up among the proportions of respondents who correctly identified two or more means of cholera prevention (62% versus 78% and 80%), reported boiling or treating drinking water (19% versus 44% and 69%), and washing hands with soap (66% versus 77% and 85%); a significant difference was also observed in the proportion of households with soap available at handwashing areas (84% versus 90% and 95%), consistent with reported behaviors. No significant difference was noted in the proportion of households testing positive for Escherichia coli in stored household drinking water at second follow-up (39% versus 49% and 34%). Overall, we observed some positive, and no negative changes in cholera- and WaSH-related KAPs after an OCV campaign in Maela refugee camp. OCV campaigns may provide opportunities to reinforce beneficial WaSH-related KAPs for comprehensive cholera prevention and

  14. The Study on the Sound Change in Laomian Language under the Influence of Language Contact%语言接触下老缅语语音变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张益家; 潘水凡


    Belonging to a cross-border ethnic group, the Laomian people are distributed along the boundaries of China, Thailand, Burma and Laos. In China, Laomian Village in Zhutang, Lancang County, and Laopin village in Mengzhe, Menghai County are the two main habitations. A few researches based on the language contact of transnational languages are found. The study on the sound change in Laomian Language comes the first. This paper focuses on this language by collecting data of sound change and analyzing itsreasons to providesome useful suggestions for it's language development.%老缅人作为一个跨境族群,分布在中国、泰国、缅甸、老挝四国的边界区域.中国境内主要以澜沧拉祜族自治县竹塘乡的老缅大寨和勐海县勐遮乡的老品寨为主要聚居地.跨境民族语言的语言接触研究成果相对较少,而以在语言接触下老缅语的语音变化作为研究对象尚属首次.本文以老缅大寨为调查点,通过对老缅语语音系统和语言接触中老缅语语音变化的归纳,分析其变化的原因,并尝试为其语言的发展提供可参性意见.

  15. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries. (United States)

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z


    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  16. Molecular Characterization of Pasteurella multocida: Its Implication with Epidemiology and The Development of Local Isolate Vaccines

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    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida strains are the causative agents of pasteurellosis attacking wide range domestic and wild animals. The important pasteurellosis in animals in Indonesia are Haemorrhagic septicaemic (HS or Septicaemia epizootica (SE in large and small ruminants, fowl cholera in poultry and water powls. HS associated with P. multocida in large ruminants was controlled by killed whole cell vaccines produced by the use of P. multocida Katha strain, whereas fowl cholera was controlled by antimicrobial drugs. At present, there are only a limited molecular biology techniques have been applied to investigate P. multocida isolates from different geographic locations in Indonesia. Genomic DNA of P. multocida from HS cases from various provinces which were treated with restriction endonuclease ApaI and analysed by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoreses (PFGE demonstrated the presence of high degree distinctive DNA pattern compared to that of the vaccine (Katha strain from Burma and other reference strains. Similar different patterns were found in genomic DNA of local P. multocida isolates from cholera disease of chicken and ducks. P. multocida isolates from some provinces showed different DNA patterns to each other. These DNA pattern differences were probably associated with the alteration of their pathogenicity, antigenicity and immunogenicity, but it has not been confirmed yet. Vaccines prepared from P. multocida isolate originated from local HS cases and local cholera demonstrated better protection in experimental animals against heterologous and homologous challenges, in terms of higher and consistency antibody responses compared to that of Katha strain or imported P. multocida poultry strains. This supports the potential aspects of molecular characterization of local P. multocida isolates kept at the BCC Unit. These isolates may play an important role in developing local master seeds to produce pasteurellosis local vaccines which would be more

  17. Pushing the Limits: The Pattern and Dynamics of Rubber Monoculture Expansion in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

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    Huafang Chen

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing car industry in China has led to an equally rapid expansion of monoculture rubber in many regions of South East Asia. Xishuangbanna, the second largest rubber planting area in China, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, supplies about 37% of the domestic natural rubber production. There, high income possibilities from rubber drive a dramatic expansion of monoculture plantations which poses a threat to natural forests. For the first time we mapped rubber plantations in and outside protected areas and their net present value for the years 1988, 2002 (Landsat, 30 m resolution and 2010 (RapidEye, 5 m resolution. The purpose of our study was to better understand the pattern and dynamics of the expansion of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna, as well as its economic prospects and conservation impacts. We found that 1 the area of rubber plantations was 4.5% of the total area of Xishuangbanna in 1988, 9.9% in 2002, and 22.2% in 2010; 2 rubber monoculture expanded to higher elevations and onto steeper slopes between 1988 and 2010; 3 the proportion of rubber plantations with medium economic potential dropped from 57% between 1988 and 2002 to 47% in 2010, while the proportion of plantations with lower economic potential had increased from 30% to 40%; and 4 nearly 10% of the total area of nature reserves within Xishuangbanna has been converted to rubber monoculture by 2010. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the rapid expansion of rubber plantations into higher elevations, steeper terrain, and into nature reserves (where most of the remaining forests of Xishuangbanna are located poses a serious threat to biodiversity and environmental services while not producing the expected economic returns. Therefore, it is essential that local governments develop long-term land use strategies for balancing economic benefits with environmental sustainability, as well as for assisting farmers with the selection of land suitable

  18. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India (United States)

    Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.


    Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Time-series regression was applied to MODIS fire products at variable spatial scales in GIS. Significance of change in fire frequency at each grid level was tested using t statistic. Spatial clustering of higher or lower fire incidences across study area was determined using Getis-OrdGi statistic. Maximum fire incidences were encountered in moist mixed deciduous forests (46%) followed by secondary moist bamboo brakes (30%). In most parts of the study area fire incidences peaked during March while in warmer parts (e.g. Mon district dominated by indigenous people) fire activity starts as early as during November and peaks in January. Regression trend analysis captured noticeable areas with statistically significant positive (e.g. Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon, Tuensang and Kiphire districts) and negative (e.g. Kohima and north-western part of Mokokchung district) inter-annual fire frequency trends based on area-based aggregation of fire occurrences at different grid sizes. Localization of spatial clusters of high fire incidences was observed in Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon,Tuensang and Kiphire districts.

  19. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

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    Paul N Newton


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75, Cambodia (48, Lao PDR (115, Myanmar (Burma (137 and the Thai/Myanmar border (16, were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9% on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to approximately 50 mg per genuine tablet. Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy'. Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. CONCLUSIONS: An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal

  20. Pushing the Limits: The Pattern and Dynamics of Rubber Monoculture Expansion in Xishuangbanna, SW China. (United States)

    Chen, Huafang; Yi, Zhuang-Fang; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Ahrends, Antje; Beckschäfer, Philip; Kleinn, Christoph; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu


    The rapidly growing car industry in China has led to an equally rapid expansion of monoculture rubber in many regions of South East Asia. Xishuangbanna, the second largest rubber planting area in China, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, supplies about 37% of the domestic natural rubber production. There, high income possibilities from rubber drive a dramatic expansion of monoculture plantations which poses a threat to natural forests. For the first time we mapped rubber plantations in and outside protected areas and their net present value for the years 1988, 2002 (Landsat, 30 m resolution) and 2010 (RapidEye, 5 m resolution). The purpose of our study was to better understand the pattern and dynamics of the expansion of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna, as well as its economic prospects and conservation impacts. We found that 1) the area of rubber plantations was 4.5% of the total area of Xishuangbanna in 1988, 9.9% in 2002, and 22.2% in 2010; 2) rubber monoculture expanded to higher elevations and onto steeper slopes between 1988 and 2010; 3) the proportion of rubber plantations with medium economic potential dropped from 57% between 1988 and 2002 to 47% in 2010, while the proportion of plantations with lower economic potential had increased from 30% to 40%; and 4) nearly 10% of the total area of nature reserves within Xishuangbanna has been converted to rubber monoculture by 2010. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the rapid expansion of rubber plantations into higher elevations, steeper terrain, and into nature reserves (where most of the remaining forests of Xishuangbanna are located) poses a serious threat to biodiversity and environmental services while not producing the expected economic returns. Therefore, it is essential that local governments develop long-term land use strategies for balancing economic benefits with environmental sustainability, as well as for assisting farmers with the selection of land suitable for rubber

  1. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi

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    Rajani Srivastava


    Full Text Available Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer′s Oleander. "Jaundice curative tree" in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827. Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.

  2. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.


    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  3. Impact of land use change on the land atmosphere carbon flux of South and South East Asia: A Synthesis of Dynamic Vegetation Model Results (United States)

    Cervarich, M.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Stocker, B.; Arneth, A.; Viovy, N.; Kato, E.; Wiltshire, A.; Koven, C.; Sitch, S.; Zeng, N.; Friedlingstein, P.


    Understanding our present day carbon cycle and possible solutions to recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide is dependent upon quantifying the terrestrial carbon budget. Currently, global land cover and land use change is estimated to emit 0.9 PgC yr-1 compared to emissions due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production of 8.4 PgC yr-1. South and Southeast Asia (India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Singapore) is a region of rapid land cover and land use change due to the continuous development of agriculture, deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, and the increased demand of land for people to live. In this study, we synthesize outputs of nine models participated in Global Carbon Budget Project to identify the carbon budget of South and southeast Asia, diagnose the contribution of land cover and land use change to carbon emissions and assess areas of uncertainty in the suite of models. Uncertainty is determined using the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of net ecosystem exchange and its component parts. Results show the region's terrestrial biosphere was a source of carbon emissions from the 1980 to the early 1990s. During the same time period, land cover and land use change increasingly contributed to carbon emission. In the most recent two decades, the region became a carbon sink since emission due to land cover land use changes. Spatially, the greatest total emissions occurred in the tropical forest of Southeast Asia. Additionally, this is the subregion with the greatest uncertainty and greatest biomass. Model uncertainty is shown to be proportional to total biomass. The atmospheric impacts of ENSO are shown to suppress the net biosphere productivity in South and Southeast Asia leading to years of increased carbon emissions.

  4. Burmese Refugee Transnationalism: What Is the Effect? Die Auswirkungen der transnationalen Verbindungen von birmanischen Flüchtlingen

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    Inge Brees


    Full Text Available Burmese refugees in Thailand maintain economic, social and political links with their country of origin, but these transnational activities are influenced by the politics and level of development of the country of origin and the host country. Through transnational activities, refugees can have a positive impact on the home country by contributing to peace-building and development or they can enhance conflict, as the discussion on community engagement and political transnationalism will illustrate. Clearly, the increased capacity and networks of the Burmese diaspora have bestowed it with a large (future potential to influence peace-building, development and conflict. Therefore, it is argued here that the various civil, political and military groups in exile should be included in the peace-building process initiated by international actors, next to stakeholders inside the country. Birmanische Flüchtlinge in Thailand haben ökonomische, soziale und politische Verbindungen zu ihrem Herkunftsland. Diese transnationalen Aktivitäten sind von der Politik und Entwicklungsstufe ihres Ursprungs- und ihres Gastlandes abhängig. Mit Hilfe transnationaler Aktivitäten können Flüchtlinge eine positive Wirkung auf ihr Heimatland haben, indem sie zur Friedenserhaltung und Entwicklung beitragen. Sie können jedoch auch den Konflikt weiter verschärfen, wie die Diskussion über Gemeinschaftsengagement und politischen Transnationalismus zeigt. Die wachsenden Fähigkeiten und Netzwerke der burmesischen Diaspora haben sie mit einem großen zukünftigen Potenzial ausgestattet, Friedensinitiativen, Entwicklungen und Konflikte zu beeinflussen. Der Artikel behauptet deshalb, dass die unterschiedlichen zivilen, politischen und militärischen Gruppen im Exil in einen Friedensprozess eingeschlossen werden sollen, der von internationalen Akteuren und nationalen Stakeholders im Land angestoßen werden sollte. Schlüsselwörter: Burma/ Myanmar, Flüchtlinge, Diaspora

  5. Prevalence of β-Thalassemia and hemoglobin E in two migrant populations of Manipur, North East India. (United States)

    Achoubi, Nongthombam; Asghar, Mohammad; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Murry, Benrithung


    Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited single-gene disorders found commonly in the Mediterranean region, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Burma, and South East Asia. As many as 229 mutation variants of β-thalassemia are reported in the world, many community/region-specific mutations. Very little on thalassemia has been reported in Manipur, a North Eastern Indian state. Thus, a community genetic approach through population screening can be applied to the people of Manipur and a total of 602 blood samples from unrelated Meitei Brahmins (n=300) and Meitei Muslims (n=302) were screened for abnormal hemoglobins by Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test (NESTROFT). HBA(2) level was estimated by using high-performance liquid chromatography and molecular analysis was done by using PCR. Sequencing was also carried out to confirm the mutations. High frequencies of NESTROFT positive (10%) and NESTROFT doubtful (11%) cases were found among the Meitei Brahmins in comparison to the Meitei Muslims [NESTROFT positive (3.31%) and NESTROFT doubtful (1.33%)]. The allele frequency of HB*E was 0.022 and 0.012 among the Meitei Brahmin and Meitei Muslim, respectively. Sequencing of the β-globin gene confirmed a very rare β-thalassemia [-90 C→T (0.33%)] among the Meitei Brahmins of Manipur. This mutation with hemoglobin E in one of the present population hints the presence of the Mongoloid stock among them, possibly from China. There is a need for further studies on other populations of Manipur and the neighboring North East Indian states using such genetic markers.

  6. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Vision Defects among Muslim Males and Females of Manipur, India

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    Ahsana Shah


    Full Text Available Background: Color blindness is a common X-linked genetic disorder. However, most of color blinds remain undetected due to absence of proper screening. Our study was to determine the prevalence of red-green color vision defects among Manipuri Muslim males and females. The study could help in decreasing birth of children with this disorder as Muslims commonly perform consanguineous marriage among themselves.Methods: Unrelated individuals of both sexes (Male-1352, Female-1302 belonging to six different populations were randomly selected and screened for red-green color vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates test from the area of Imphal East and Imphal west districts of Manipur, which is a small hilly state, situated in the north eastern extreme corner of India sharing an international boundary with Myanmar (Burma.Results: About 8.73% of males and 1.69% of females were found to be color blind. Among six different populations studied the males of Meitei population shows the highest frequency i.e. 14.93% while Naga population shows the least frequency of 3.75%. Among females, Meitei population again shows the highest frequency of 2.5% and least frequency is shown by Mughal and Naga populations 0.00% as not a single female color blind was found.Conclusion: Present study shows higher prevalence rate of color blindness as compared to other reported rates of India. Deuteranomaly cases occur in higher percentage than other types of color blindness. The higher prevalence rate observed in Muslims may be due to the hidden effect of consanguineous marriages.

  7. Buddhism between Asia and Europe: The Concept of Mindfulness through a Historical Lens

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    Tamara DITRICH


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century mindfulness has been positioned at the core of modern Buddhism and viewed by many modern interpreters as an essential component of Buddhist doctrine and practices. More recently, the practice of mindfulness has become rapidly popularised, radically secularised and removed from its Buddhist context, employed mainly as a therapeutic tool or applied for the enhancement of well-being. This paper examines the concept of mindfulness using an historical lens, aiming to identify some of the main parameters and consequent implications involved in the changes and developments of this Buddhist contemplative method—from its early beginnings over 2,500 years ago to the present day. Special attention is given to the historical developments in the colonial period, when various Buddhist traditions encountered the main European discourses of the time, resulting in the birth of modern Buddhism. In this period, particularly in Burma, meditation was positioned at the centre of Buddhist teachings and thus provided the grounds and conditions for the subsequent popularisation and secularisation of mindfulness in the late twentieth century. Through an examination of the concept of mindfulness through history, the paper explores whether a critical awareness of historical facts provides a better understanding of the current ubiquity of mindfulness practices worldwide. In addition, mindfulness has recently become an object of scientific research and, hence, it is important to investigate it in different contexts and discourses throughout history, and understand the implications of various definitions, interpretations and applications of mindfulness for the development of modern research approaches and methodologies.

  8. Distributive pattern of malignant invasive species,Eupatorium adenophorum in Yunnan%恶性外来入侵植物紫茎泽兰在云南的分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正清; 周冠华; 权文婷


    云南省是我国紫茎泽兰入侵最早和危害最严重的地区,紫茎泽兰已对该地区的生物多样性与生态环境造成严重的危害.基于2008年该省16个州市的调查统计数据,分析了恶性外来入侵植物紫茎泽兰在云南发生的空间分布格局与不同生境条件下的发生面积及危害情况,为今后紫茎泽兰的科学防治提供参考.%Invasive species can alter the biological diversity, composition, structure, and function of terrestrial ecosystems. Yunnan Province is the earliest and most serious area on the exotic plant invasion. Eupatorium adenopho-rum, native to Mexico and Costa Rica of Central America, is a worldwide noxious invasive species. It occurs throughout many terrestrial areas of the world and is especially rampant in Southeast Asia, Hawaii, New Zealand, Austria and the Pacific islands. Since its invasion to China from the boundaries of Vietnam and Burma, the spread speed has been faster than anticipated. Presently, Eupatorium adenophorum can be found in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Tibet, Guangxi, Chongqing, Taiwan and Hubei etc. provinces(autonomous regions,municipality). It spread from south to north and from west to east in southwest of China, which is considered as a threat to local e-conomy and biodiversity. The distribution pattern of this invasive plant in Yunnan Province has been mapped based on geographic information system, which can help to understand the mechanisms of its invasion and spread.

  9. Die Rohingyas: Konstruktion, De-Konstruktion und Re-Konstruktion einer ethnisch-religiösen Identität [The Rohingyas in Myanmar: Construction, De-construction and Re-construction of an Ethnic Identity

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    Hans-Bernd Zöllner


    Full Text Available Die Rohingyas, die im Staat Rakhine (Arakan im Westen des heutigen Myanmar leben, bilden eine große geschlossene muslimische Bevölkerungsgruppe an der Grenze zu Bangladesh. In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten gab es mehrere Fluchtbewegungen über die Grenze und Aktionen der Rückführung. Bei alledem ist der Status der Rohingyas umstritten. Die Organisationen, die ihre Interessen vertreten, sehen sie als indigene Bewohner des Landes, die sich auf eine mehr als 1000jährige Geschichte berufen können. Von Seiten buddhistischer Arakanesen und der Zentralregierung Myanmars werden sie als Ausländer angesehen und behandelt. Das Papier untersucht die historische Genese der Konstruktion einer ethnischen Nationalität der Rohingyas vis à vis der buddhistischen Bevölkerung in Arakan und Gesamtbirma sowie die Bestreitung dieses Anspruchs und gibt dabei einen Überblick über die muslimische Einflüsse auf die Geschichte und Kultur des über Jahrhunderte unabhängigen Königreichs Arakan.The Rohingyas living in the state of Rakhine (Arakan in western Myanmar form a great en bloc community Muslim community on the border to Bangladesh. In the past decades, great numbers of people fled the country and were repatriated later. The status of the Rohingyas is a controversial issue. The organisations representing their interest consider them as indigenous people of Myanmar looking back at a history of 1000 years in Arakan. Buddhist Arakanese as well as the central government of Myanmar, however, regard and treat them as foreigners. The paper examines the historical genesis of the construction of a national Rohingya identity vis-à-vis the Buddhist population of Rakhine and the whole of Burma/Myanmar as well as its contradiction. In addition, an overview on the Muslim influences on history and culture of the kingdom of Arakan will be given.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Myanmar is one of the countries in the English Extended Circle and Myanmar English is a variant of English in the world with big differences from standard English and is an essential tool used by Burmese to ex-press their local culture to the outside world. Its history dates back to British colonial rule in Burma. With the development of democratization process in Myanmar and the deepening of international cooperation,English education is highly valued and various kinds of English education goes hand in hand,which is an important in-spiration to the English education in China. While English proficiency is improved and the Chinese culture is carried forward by using English,the imperialist influence of the English language should be avoided.%缅甸属于英语扩展圈国家,缅甸英语是世界英语变体的一种,与标准英语差异较大,是缅甸人对外表达本土文化的必要工具,其历史追溯至英国对缅甸的殖民统治。随着民主化进程的发展和国际合作的加强,英语教育受到缅甸国内高度重视,各类英语教育齐头并进。这对于我国的英语教育有重要启示,在提高英语应用能力、利用英语弘扬中国文化的同时,还应尽量避免英语语言帝国主义的影响。

  11. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls (United States)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.


    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  12. Use of Oral Cholera Vaccine and Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in a Long-Standing Refugee Camp, Thailand, 2012-2014. (United States)

    Scobie, Heather M; Phares, Christina R; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Nyangoma, Edith; Taylor, Eboni M; Fulton, Anna; Wongjindanon, Nuttapong; Aung, Naw Rody; Travers, Phillipe; Date, Kashmira


    Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are relatively new public health interventions, and limited data exist on the potential impact of OCV use on traditional cholera prevention and control measures-safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH). To assess OCV acceptability and knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding cholera and WaSH, we conducted cross-sectional surveys, 1 month before (baseline) and 3 and 12 months after (first and second follow-up) a preemptive OCV campaign in Maela, a long-standing refugee camp on the Thailand-Burma border. We randomly selected households for the surveys, and administered questionnaires to female heads of households. In total, 271 (77%), 187 (81%), and 199 (85%) households were included in the baseline, first and second follow-up surveys, respectively. Anticipated OCV acceptability was 97% at baseline, and 91% and 85% of household members were reported to have received 1 and 2 OCV doses at first follow-up. Compared with baseline, statistically significant differences (95% Wald confidence interval not overlapping zero) were noted at first and second follow-up among the proportions of respondents who correctly identified two or more means of cholera prevention (62% versus 78% and 80%), reported boiling or treating drinking water (19% versus 44% and 69%), and washing hands with soap (66% versus 77% and 85%); a significant difference was also observed in the proportion of households with soap available at handwashing areas (84% versus 90% and 95%), consistent with reported behaviors. No significant difference was noted in the proportion of households testing positive for Escherichia coli in stored household drinking water at second follow-up (39% versus 49% and 34%). Overall, we observed some positive, and no negative changes in cholera- and WaSH-related KAPs after an OCV campaign in Maela refugee camp. OCV campaigns may provide opportunities to reinforce beneficial WaSH-related KAPs for comprehensive cholera prevention and control.

  13. Screening and Identification of Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS

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    Hanzhuo Fu


    Full Text Available Kratom is a tree planted in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma and elsewhere in the region. A long history of usage and abuse of kratom has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the wide availability of kratom on the Internet and in the streets has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of misuse. With the increasing popularity of kratom, efficient protocols are needed to detect kratom use. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of kratom compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in human urine has been developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The chromatographic system employed a 2.6-μm 100 mm × 2.1 mm phenyl-hexyl analytical column and gradient elution with a 0.4-mL/min flow rate of water and acetonitrile as mobile phases. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used as the detector for data acquisition. The analyst was the quantification software. The established method demonstrated linearity of >0.99 for both analytes, and low detection limits were obtained down to 0.002581 ng/mL for mitragynine and 0.06910 ng/mL for 7-hydroxymitragynine. The validated method has been utilized for clinical analysis of urine for the purpose of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine detection.

  14. The anticancer potential of flavonoids isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina suberosa through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in human leukemia HL-60 cells. (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Pathania, Anup Singh; Saxena, A K; Vishwakarma, R A; Ali, Asif; Bhushan, Shashi


    Erythrina suberosa is an ornamental tall tree found in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. We have isolated four known distinct metabolites designated as α-Hydroxyerysotrine, 4'-Methoxy licoflavanone (MLF), Alpinumisoflavone (AIF) and Wighteone. Among the four isolated metabolites the two flavonoids, MLF and AIF were found to be the most potent cytotoxic agent with IC50 of ∼20μM in human leukemia HL-60 cells. We are reporting first time the anticancer and apoptotic potential of MLF and AIF in HL-60 cells. Both MLF and AIF inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis as measured by several biological endpoints. MLF and AIF induce apoptosis bodies formation, enhanced annexinV-FITC binding of the cells, increased sub-G0 cell fraction, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), release of cytochrome c, Bax, activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP (poly ADP Ribose polymers) cleavage in HL-60 cells. MLF and AIF also increase the expression of apical death receptor, Fas, with inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein Bid. All the above parameters revealed that these two flavonoids induce apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in HL-60 cells. In spite of apoptosis, these two flavonoids significantly inhibit nuclear transcription factor NF-κB and STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) signaling pathway, which are highly expressed in leukemia. The present study provide an insight of molecular mechanism of cell death induced by MLF and AIF in HL-60 cells which may be useful in managing and treating leukemia.

  15. 孟加拉残留洋盆地形成过程与构造单元划分%Tectonic Evolution and Element Division of the Bengal Remnant Oceanic Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林涛; 朱光辉; 闫青华


    The Bengal bain lies in the northeast of the India plate,where the India, Eurasia plate and the Burma micro plate converge. It abuts the Indo -Burma orogen in the east,the India continent shield to the west, facing the Himalayas foredeep across the Shilong plateau in the north, and extending southward to the Bengal bay in the south. Both the western and northern Bengal basin developed on the Indian ancient land, while the other majority of it is on the Cretaceous oceanic ernst,belonging to a remnant oceanic basin. This paper studies its regional tectonic evolution and characterizes the cross ections to illuminate the forming processes of the Bengal basin. It is suggested that this basin has undergone four stages : the pre rift - synrift, continental drift, soft collision and hard collision. According to the tectonic evolution and the current tectono - sedimentary characteristics, the Bengal basin is divided into six secondary tectonic elements : (1) west shelf, lying on the northeast margin of the India continent shelf; (2) shelf slope,located in the transition zone of the eastern India continent shelf to the deep Bengal basin; (3) north depression,located in the north part of the Bengal basin, also known as "Surma sub basin" ; (4) south depression, south part of the basin, totally lying on the oceanic crust ; (5) central uplift, an east - west - trending low uplift zone, separating the north depression from the south one; and (6) east Fold belt,the east part of the basin,a nearly north - south strike fold zone,adjacent to the India - Burma orogen in the east. Studies of the evolution processes show that the remnant oceanic part of the Bengal basin came into being in the Paleocene, and began to shrink from Eocene. In Pliocene,the eastern part of the remnant ocean basin vanished because of the plate convergence,and the remnant ocean was confined to the southern basin. The remnant oceanic part of the Bengal basin exerts a key control on the distribntion and migration

  16. 欧美学者对东南亚苗族研究概况(上)%Summary of Researches on the Hmong Miao in Southeast Asia Done by Western Scholars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳日碧力戈; 贾鹰雷[英


    Previous anthropological research on Miao/Hmong by Chinese scholars has mainly been limited to the groups within China .However , the importance of Miao/Hmong's transnational and emigrational nature has recently drawn the attention of certain scholars to the large population of Hmong in the Southeast Asian countries :Laos, Viet-nam,Thailand and Myanmar /Burma.Although Chinese scholars have increasing opportunities to continue research in this field, there is already a large body of work related to this population , mainly the work of western anthropologists , missionaries and scholars , who have been working on this field for over a century .This article takes these works as a basis , and traces the history of western scholarship on the Hmong in Southeast Asia , from the nineteenth century to the present .Following and examining the trends of academic fields , this article provides an introduction to the history and progression of Hmong research in Southeast Asia for Chinese scholars to use as a basis for future research .%以往中国学术界主要研究国内苗族。近些年来,跨国苗族群体研究进入国内学者的视野,苗族的跨国文化和跨国分布也是国际学者关注的热点。国内学者关注包括老挝、越南、泰国和缅甸等东南亚国家的苗族群体,希望能够推动有关研究。西方学者从事东南亚苗族研究已经有一百多年的历史,来自欧美的人类学、民族学研究者和传教士留下了大量有关东南亚苗族的研究著述。文章追溯自十九世纪以来本领域研究的历史与发展,尝试对有关东南亚苗族的文献进行理论梳理,加以总结,为国内外苗族研究提供借鉴。

  17. 欧美学者对东南亚苗族研究概况(下)%Summary of Researches on the Hmong Miao in Southeast Asia Done by Western Scholars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳日碧力戈; 贾鹰雷〔英〕


    以往中国学术界主要研究国内苗族。近些年来,跨国苗族群体研究进入国内学者的视野,苗族的跨国文化和跨国分布也是国际学者关注的热点。国内学者关注包括老挝、越南、泰国和缅甸等东南亚国家的苗族群体,希望能够推动有关研究。西方学者从事东南亚苗族研究已经有一百多年的历史,来自欧美的人类学、民族学研究者和传教士留下了大量有关东南亚苗族的研究著述。文章追溯自十九世纪以来本领域研究的历史与发展,尝试对有关东南亚苗族的文献进行理论梳理,加以总结,为国内外苗族研究提供借鉴。%Previous anthropological research on Miao/Hmong by Chinese scholars has mainly been limited to the groups within China .However , the importance of Miao/Hmong's transnational and emigrational nature has recently drawn the attention of certain scholars to the large population of Hmong in the Southeast Asian countries :Laos, Viet-nam, Thailand and Myanmar/Burma.Although Chinese scholars have increasing opportunities to continue research in this field, there is already a large body of work related to this population , mainly the work of western anthropologists , missionaries and scholars , who have been working on this field for over a century .This article takes these works as a basis , and traces the history of western scholarship on the Hmong in Southeast Asia , from the nineteenth century to the present .Following and examining the trends of academic fields , this article provides an introduction to the history and progression of Hmong research in Southeast Asia for Chinese scholars to use as a basis for future research .

  18. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

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    Sharma Mukta


    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  19. Are there any changes in burden and management of communicable diseases in areas affected by Cyclone Nargis?

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    Siriwan Pichit


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the situation of communicable diseases under national surveillance in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas in Myanmar (Burma before and after the incident. Methods Monthly data during 2007, 2008 and 2009 from the routine reporting system for disease surveillance of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH were reviewed and compared with weekly reporting from the Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR system. Data from some UN agencies, NGOs and Tri-Partite Core Group (TCG periodic reviews were also extracted for comparisons with indicators from Sphere and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Results Compared to 2007 and 2009, large and atypical increases in diarrheal disease and especially dysentery cases occurred in 2008 following Cyclone Nargis. A seasonal increase in ARI reached levels higher than usual in the months of 2008 post-Nargis. The number of malaria cases post-Nargis also increased, but it was less clear if this reflected normal seasonal patterns or was specifically associated with the disaster event. There was no significant change in the occurrence of other communicable diseases in Nargis-affected areas. Except for a small decrease in mortality for diarrheal diseases and ARI in 2008 in Nargis-affected areas, population-based mortality rates for all other communicable diseases showed no significant change in 2008 in these areas, compared to 2007 and 2009. Tuberculosis control programs reached their targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates in 2007 and 2008. Vaccination coverage rates for DPT 3rd dose and measles remained at high though measles coverage still did not reach the Sphere target of 95% even by 2009. Sanitary latrine coverage in the Nargis-affected area dropped sharply to 50% in the months of 2008 following the incident but then rose to 72% in 2009. Conclusion While the incidence of diarrhea, dysentery and ARI increased post-Nargis in areas affected by the

  20. The Transference of Gender-based Norms in the Law Reform Process: A Reflection on my Work in Thailand

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    Y-Vonne Hutchinson


    Full Text Available In 2008, I spent a year as a Rule of Law specialist in Thailand with the International Rescue Committee (IRC, as part of a fellowship program for human rights lawyers. I was assigned the task of facilitating the development of a comprehensive legal code for the refugee camps along the border between Thailand and /Burma. As part of my work, I also sought to increase gender-based protection under the law through the incorporation of Thai and international human rights norms. This paper is a reflection on the processes that occurred during my time at IRC. The reform project approached the transference of contentious international norms for protection of women and girls in two ways: a through the inclusive design of the law reform process and b the establishment of a prohibition on rules that clearly violated international or national law. By forming a representative drafting committee and placing an emphasis on community consultation as a precursor to code finalisation, refugee perspectives, particularly female perspectives, were given scope to inform interpretations of national and international legal standards. By requiring international and national legal compliance and placing an emphasis on explanation and clarification of international and national standards in discussions, the project supported downward transference of international norms to a specific community context. We hoped that, as a product of these two normative flows, the resulting legal code would be a sustainable mechanism for gender-based protection and redress in cases of sexual and gender-based violence. During negotiations, it became evident that the inclusive design of the law reform process had a more positive impact on the success of norms transference than the actual substance of the norm. The norms that were most readily accepted were those introduced by law reform committee members themselves. Local norm translators played a pivotal role in the norms diffusion process

  1. Feature Detection Systems Enhance Satellite Imagery (United States)


    In 1963, during the ninth orbit of the Faith 7 capsule, astronaut Gordon Cooper skipped his nap and took some photos of the Earth below using a Hasselblad camera. The sole flier on the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, Cooper took 24 photos - never-before-seen images including the Tibetan plateau, the crinkled heights of the Himalayas, and the jagged coast of Burma. From his lofty perch over 100 miles above the Earth, Cooper noted villages, roads, rivers, and even, on occasion, individual houses. In 1965, encouraged by the effectiveness of NASA s orbital photography experiments during the Mercury and subsequent Gemini manned space flight missions, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) director William Pecora put forward a plan for a remote sensing satellite program that would collect information about the planet never before attainable. By 1972, NASA had built and launched Landsat 1, the first in a series of Landsat sensors that have combined to provide the longest continuous collection of space-based Earth imagery. The archived Landsat data - 37 years worth and counting - has provided a vast library of information allowing not only the extensive mapping of Earth s surface but also the study of its environmental changes, from receding glaciers and tropical deforestation to urban growth and crop harvests. Developed and launched by NASA with data collection operated at various times by the Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT, a private sector partnership that became Space Imaging Corporation in 1996), and USGS, Landsat sensors have recorded flooding from Hurricane Katrina, the building boom in Dubai, and the extinction of the Aral Sea, offering scientists invaluable insights into the natural and manmade changes that shape the world. Of the seven Landsat sensors launched since 1972, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 are still operational. Though both are in use well beyond their intended lifespans, the mid


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Aims Our study was conducted in the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve (NBR) in the Garo hills districts of Meghalaya, Northeast India. Our aim was to assess the effects of human activities on plant diversity,population structure and regeneration.Methods We selected a representative 1.2 hm2 stand in both the core and buffer zones of NBR. Structure and composition were determined by randomly sampling square quadrats, population structure was assessed by determining age structure, and regeneration was assessed by measuring densities of seedling, sapling and adult trees.Important findings More woody species were recorded from the core zone than the buffer zone (87 vs. 81 species), and there were a large number of tropical, temperate, and Sino-Himalayan, Burma-Malaysian and Malayan elements, primitive families and primitive genera. The trees were distributed in three distinct strata,canopy, subcanopy and sapling. Subcanopy and sapling layers had the highest species richness (81% -88% ). Lauraceae and Euphorbiaceae were the dominant families in terms of the number of species, and a large number of families were represented by single species. Most woody species (57 % - 79 % ) were contagiously distributed and had low frequency ( < 20% ). Although stand density was high in the buffer zone, its basal area was low compared to the stand in the core zone. Low similarity and high β-diversity indicate marked differences in species composition of the stands. Shannon diversity index was high in both the stands, while Simpson dominance index was low. The diameter-class distribution for dominant species revealed that the most had a large number of young individuals in their populations. Preponderance of tree seedlings, followed by a steep decline in population density of saplings and adult trees, indicated that the seedling to sapling stage was the most critical in the life cycle of the tree populations. Most species (42 % - 48 % ) had no regeneration,25 % - 35 % had

  3. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng


    Burma block also has a strong lithosphere. To the west of the Indochina Block, there is a significant nearly NS-trending weak zone (Te 70 km. The ongoing subduction systems, such as the Sumatra and Java subduction systems show moderate to high Te values. The results also show that the negative gravity anomaly caused by slender thick sediment could affect the Te results derived from Spectral method, and should be corrected during data preparation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. SOENOV


    Full Text Available In this work we generalize the results of our study of stonework in Altai at the Hun-Sarmat period, based on the researches of the archaeological sources. It is noted that this craft is represented in the region only by products of stone cutting manufacture, which are basically tools and adornments, among which the most common ones are spindles, grinding bars or whetstones, beads and pendants from various types of stones. Findings of other stone products (incenseburner, stone graters, and plaques are rare. A set of technological operations and tools was quite diverse: to make stone adornments the Altai ancient masters used such operations as cutting, grinding, drilling, and polishing. As a result of the study, we conclude that tools and part of adornments were made of local rocks: rock crystal, calcite, fine-grained white marble, microcrystalgreen slates. Types of stone, from which were made the rest of the found adornments (carnelian, sard, sapphirine, amber, jade etc. were imported. Studies of geological formations in Altai did not show deposits of carnelian, sarder and sapphirine. Deposits of carnelian (serdolik are widespread throughout the world: they are known in the Trans-Baikal region, Yakutia, the Far East, the Crimea, India and Central America. Sard is usually found along with carnelian. In Russia, significant reserves of sard have been found only in the Trans-Baikal region. Sapphirine is a rare variety of chalcedony, its deposits have been found only in India. Natural amber has not been found in Altai; its nearest deposit is located in Burma and the Baltic-Dnepr amber-bearing area. Jade is a widespread decorative stone. The deposits of jade are known in Yakutia, Tuva, China and many other areas, but it was not mined in Altai. Adornments from these types of stones appeared in Altai rather as finished products, than raw materials. The place of their production is to be identified.

  5. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Patra


    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12, 23(24-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β--sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds

  6. InSAR measurements for the 2014 Mw 6.0 Jinggu, Yunnan Earthquake (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun; Feng, Wanpeng; Sergey, Samsonov; Mahdi, Motagh; Li, Zhenhong; Clarke, Peter


    An earthquake occurred in the southwest of Yunnan, China on 7 October 2014 at 21:49 local time, measured as Mw 6.0 by the United States Geological Survey and Mw 6.1 by the European Alert System. Strong earthquakes are common in this region because of the continental collision between the India and Eurasia plates with a relative convergence rate of 40-50 mm/yr. A detailed study of this earthquake will therefore allow better understanding of regional fault properties. For the first time, Radarsat-2 (RS2) data was employed to investigate co-seismic surface movements of this event. Two ascending RS2 images acquired on 2 October 2014 and 19 November 2014 were used to generate an interferogram, revealing line-of-sight (LOS) displacements with a maximum value of 0.13 m (towards the satellite) in the NW sector. We use PSOKINV to determine fault geometric parameters and slip distribution. First, fault parameters are determined using improved particle swarm optimization. Second, slip distribution over the fault plane is retrieved using an iterative strategy for estimating optimal dip angle and smoothing factors [Feng et al., 2013]. The comparison between the modelled LOS changes and the measured ones shows a good fit, with residuals smaller than 0.02 m. The best-fitting model suggests that the rupture occurred on a left-lateral strike-slip fault with a strike of 323°. The total released moment is equivalent to Mw 6.1 and the main slip zone is confined between depths of 2-8 km. A maximum slip of 1.1 m appears at a depth of 4.3 km, with a rupture length of about 10km. Reference: Feng, W., Z. Li, J. R. Elliott, Y. Fukushima, T. Hoey, A. Singleton, R. Cook, and Z. Xu (2013), The 2011 MW 6.8 Burma earthquake: fault constraints provided by multiple SAR techniques, Geophysical Journal International, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt254.

  7. Linking geological evidence from the Eurasian suture zones to a regional Indian Ocean plate tectonic model (United States)

    Gibbons, A.; Aitchison, J.; Müller, R.; Whittaker, J.


    (near Burma) causing anticlockwise rotation/retreat of the margin until collision between the main portion of Greater India and central Eurasian margin took place ~36 Ma. This relatively young collision between India and Eurasia is supported by subduction-related magmatism, which continued into the Late Eocene. The Upper Eocene Pengqu Formation also suggests that marine conditions prevailed south of the suture zone until that time, while the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene Gangrinboche conglomerates mark the initial mixing and deposition of both Eurasian and Indian-sourced sediments.

  8. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people. (United States)

    Zhu, G


    within the border of Jinjiang City, and counties in Putian City, in Longxi City, and in Xiamen Prefecture. Guangdong immigrants came from cities, places in the Pearl River Delta area and the Tan River Valley, counties in Xingmei hakka area, and Hainan Island. 90% of immigrants settled in southeast Asia (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Burma, Vietnam, Kampuchea, and Laos), and 8% came to North America and Latin America. Most were men, young, not well educated, and unemployed.

  9. Population change and some aspects of socio-economic development. (United States)


    Some of the major dimensions of the interrelationship of population dynamics and socioeconomic development are examined in the context of Asia and the Pacific. Most of the countries in the region are developing, and population growth is viewed more as an obstacle to development rather than as a stimulant to economic progress. There are at least 10 countries in the region whose per capita income is less than US$300, namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 1979 these countries had an estimated combined population of 1,867,103,000 or about 77% of the population of the region. Per capita gross national product (GNP) masks the real economic condition of the people as it fails to show the actual distribution of income and wealth. In most nonsocialist countries there is maldistribution of income and wealth. The International Labor Organization (ILO) report points out that during 1963-73 in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, the richest 20% of households receive about half the income. In contrast, the poorest 40% receive between 12-18% of total income. In short, there could be economic development but not social development, such as equitable distribution of wealth and income. Studies have shown that equitable income distribution exerts a far greater influence on fertility than the GNP. In many countries of the region poverty is reality. The World Bank estimates that half of the people in absolute poverty live in South Asia, mainly India and Bangladesh. It is most unfortunate that among the very poor, poverty is frequently regarded as the cause rather than the effect of high fertility. Among the very poor, mortality, particularly infant mortality, tends to be high. China is among the countries which have recognized that rapid population growth is not beneficial to the accelerated speed of capital accumulation. It has been observed that in most countries as the GNP per

  10. 中缅边境地区脊髓灰质炎免疫屏障现状分析%Status of immune barrier of population to poliomyelitis virus in China and Myanmar border area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安柱; 郑维斌; 张腾; 段生朝; 林冬梅; 马崇惠; 王黎明; 段平常


    目的 分析保山市脊髓灰质炎免疫屏障现状,为全市脊灰防控提供科学依据.方法 收集急性弛缓性麻痹(AFP)病例监测资料,OPV常规和强化免疫接种资料,入境人员免疫现状调查资料并进行分析.结果 2000~2010年15岁以下儿童AFP报告发病率为2.26/10万,麻痹后14d内粪便标本采集率为98.21%,合格采集率为98.21%,便标本7d内送达率为98.21%,麻痹后75d随访率为94.64%.调查120名缅甸籍入境边民和儿童脊灰疫苗免疫史,服过一次糖丸疫苗,仅占5.83%.结论 保山市中缅边境地区建立了敏感、可靠的监测系统和有效的免疫屏障,阻断了脊髓灰质炎野病毒的传播,但是仍然面临输入病例的威胁.%Objective To analyze the status of immune barrier of population to poliomyelitis virus in in Baoshan city, around China and Mynamar border area and provide scientific basis for maintaining polio-free status. Methods The data were collected from AFP surveillance system,routine and intensified immunization data,the Burmese immigration people survey from 2000 to 2010. Results From 2010 to 2010,the surveillance system was normal. The immunization rate of routine and intersified immunization was above 90% including the immunization rate of floating children. Besides the EPI cold chain system was gradually perfected. But immunization level of Burmese immigration was not good. Conclusion The immune barrier to poliomyelitis virus in China-Burma areas has been formed and the sensitive monitoring system estblished. But it still faced the threat of the imported cases.

  11. Theravada Buddhist Education and National Identity of Dai People in Ruili City%小乘佛教教育与瑞丽傣族的民族认同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The society, whether the daily life and ethics standard , or the life rituals and festivals , have been entrusted with rich religious content after Buddhists introduced Theravada Buddhism to Dai people of Ruili city. The common religious belief has raised the strong ownership of emotion and the cohesive force, and become the symbols of identity and difference of local Dai people, which has not only Played an important roll in cultural spread and reconstruction, but also strengthened national identity during traditional society. With the all-inclusive opening up of city, abundant material life made local Dai people abandon their religious belief gradually, which resulted in phenomenon with empty temple or immigration monks from Burma. Therefore, we should acquire cultural compensation of right system in accordance with their own national and religious characteristics, and seek cultural continuation and expansion of Dai people in Ruili city guided by the Communist party's religious policy.%小乘佛教与瑞丽傣族社会契合后,无论是生产生活和伦理规范,还是人生礼仪和节日庆典,均被赋予了丰富的宗教内容。共同的宗教信仰培养了当地傣族浓厚的情感归属和凝聚力,成为对内认同和对外区分的民族符号,不仅对民族文化的传承和重构起到重要作用,还增强了传统社会时期瑞丽傣族的民族认同。随着瑞丽全方位的开放,对现世求得福祉和物质生活的吸引使当地傣族的宗教观念日趋淡薄,有寺无僧和缅僧入境现象甚为严重。因此,应在党的宗教政策引导下,根据宗教和民族自身的特点,在健全的taCIT获得Y.A~b偿,以寻求瑞丽傣族民族文化在时间上的延续和空间上的拓展。

  12. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jänisch Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of ongoing local malaria transmission, identified though local surveillance and reported to regional WHO offices, by S-E Asian countries, forms the basis of national and international chemoprophylaxis recommendations in western countries. The study was designed to examine whether the strategy of using malaria transmission in a local population was an accurate estimate of the malaria threat faced by travellers and a correlate of malaria in returning travellers. Methods Malaria endemicity was described from distribution and intensity in the local populations of ten S-E Asian destination countries over the period 2003-2008 from regionally reported cases to WHO offices. Travel acquired malaria was collated from malaria surveillance reports from the USA and 12 European countries over the same period. The numbers of travellers visiting the destination countries was based on immigration and tourism statistics collected on entry of tourists to the destination countries. Results In the destination countries, mean malaria rates in endemic countries ranged between 0.01 in Korea to 4:1000 population per year in Lao PDR, with higher regional rates in a number of countries. Malaria cases imported into the 13 countries declined by 47% from 140 cases in 2003 to 66 in 2008. A total of 608 cases (27.3% Plasmodium falciparum (Pf were reported over the six years, the largest number acquired in Indonesia, Thailand and Korea. Four countries had an incidence > 1 case per 100,000 traveller visits; Burma (Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia and Laos (range 1 to 11.8-case per 100,000 visits. The remaining six countries rates were Conclusion The intensity of malaria transmission particularly sub-national activity did not correlate with the risk of travellers acquiring malaria in the large numbers of arriving visitors. It is proposed to use a threshold incidence of > 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis

  13. 23个广西本地芒果品种的ISSR分析%Genetic Analysis of 23 Mango Cultivar Collection in Guangxi Province Revealed by ISSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新华; 李杨瑞; 郭永泽; 唐志鹏; 李容柏


    本研究对23个分别来自广西本地品种或广西选育的品种进行了SSR分析,并用15个芒果栽培品种印度(4个品种)、美国(3个品种)、缅甸(3个品种)、泰国(2个品种)及菲律宾、巴基斯坦和斯里兰卡(各1个品种)和2个芒果近源种冬芒(1个)和扁桃(1个)作为参照.从42个ISSR引物中筛选出9个多态性好的引物构建DNA指纹图谱来鉴别芒果的基因型.根据这9个引物获得的电泳图谱结果表明,本研究中所有供试品种能互相区分开来并表现出丰富的遗传多样性,说明ISSR是一种鉴定芒果品种(系)非常有效的方法.用74条多态性条带聚类分析作图发现所有供试的广西品种与秋芒、马切苏芒、象牙芒和爱文芒归为一个大类,而且广西本地芒果品种之间的亲缘关系较近.%Twenty-three mango cultivars (Mangifera indica Linn) collecting in Guangxi province were examined by ISSR markers and two species relatives M. himalis J.Y. Liang and M. persiciformis Wu & Ming, other 15mango cultivars from India (4), USA (3), Burma (3), Thailand (2), Philippines (1), Pakistan (1) and Sir Lanka (1)used as references. Of the 42 primers screened, 9 primers gave reproducible, polymorphic DNA amplification patterns, and were selected to construct a DNA fingerprinting map to distinguish the genotypes of mango. According to the banding patternsobtained with 9 selected primers, all cultivars tested in this study were distinguished from each other and showed ample genetic diversity, indicating that ISSR-PCR was an effective method for cultivar identification of mangoes. Based on 74 selected bands, all Guangxi mango cultivars tested were clustered into a big group with Neelum, Macheso, Aroemwnis, and Irwin by UPGMA analysis, indicating that Guangxi mango cultivars had a close relationship each other.

  14. 历史的记忆与悲壮的叙述——论中国远征军的文学书写%Historical Memory and Solemn and Stirring Narrative——the Literary Writing on Chinese Expeditionary Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It has important significance to review the literary writing on Chinese Expeditionary Army for seeking a new breakthrough in writing in the coming of 70th anniversary Chinese Expeditionary Army into the Burma to against Japan.The literary writing on Chinese Expeditionary Army started very early as war broke out.It went into depth from field reports,on-the-spot literary works to MuDan's Forest Charm—Offering Hu Gentle on Bone.Writers' historical reduction and individual narrative made this period of history won the new literary significance when restarting the writing in the 1980s.Chinese Expeditionary Army as a thick literature writing resources has huge mining space in breadth and depth.%在中国远征军入缅作战70周年到来之际,梳理对中国远征军的文学书写以寻求新的写作突破,无疑具有重要意义。对中国远征军的文学书写伴随着远征军入缅作战就开始了,从最早出现的各种战地报道、纪实性文学作品到穆旦《森林之魅——祭胡康河上的白骨》的出现,中国远征军的文学书写在不断地走向深入。这一书写过程在20世纪80年代重新开启之后,作家们在历史还原和个体叙事两个维度之间深入展开,使这一段历史获得了新的文学意义。中国远征军作为一份厚实的文学书写资源,无论是在广度和深度上,都还有着巨大的挖掘空间。

  15. A Preliminary Analysis of Seismotectonics for the Indonesia M8.7 Earthquake on December 26, 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jie; Gao Xianglin; Chen Guoguang; Zhou Bengang; Zhang Jin


    The Indonesian region is one of the most seismically active zones on the earth. On December 26, 2004, an Ms 8.7 earthquake (as measured by the China Seismograph Network, or Mw = 9.3 as measured by USGS) struck the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. By its magnitude it is classified as the world's fourth largest earthquake since 1900 and the largest one since the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The spatial distribution of the relocation of larger aftershocks ( M > 4.5) following the main shock suggests a length and width of the rupture of about 1200km and 200km, respectively. The shock triggered massive tsunamis that affected several countries throughout South and Southeast Asia. It is a shallow interplate event of thrust type in the trench. Its epicenter is located at the northwestern end of the Indonesia-Melanesia plate boundary tectonic zone. In 2004, eight shocks of M ≥ 7.0 occurred in this area, showing a migration from east to west. It implies that these shocks represent a correlated and consistent dynamic process along this subduction zone. These interplate events are associated with convergence of several plates and their fast motion in this region, which result in strong and complex structures and deformation. The India-Australia plate is underthrusting toward the Sunda continental block or Burma plate at a low angle, producing a great locked area on the shallow portion of the subduction zone where enormous strain is accumulated. Interseismic uplift recorded by coral growth and horizontal velocities measured by GPS show the geometry of the locked portion of the Sumatra subduction zone. The vertical and horizontal data reasonably match with a model in which the plate interface is fully locked over a significant width. This locked fault zone extends to a horizontal distance of 132km from the trench, which corresponds to a depth of 50km. The sudden ruptures and large-scale slip of this locked area as a release of stress occurred, are the direct cause of

  16. Tectonics of the Qinling (Central China): Tectonostratigraphy, geochronology, and deformation history (United States)

    Ratschbacher, L.; Hacker, B.R.; Calvert, A.; Webb, L.E.; Grimmer, J.C.; McWilliams, M.O.; Ireland, T.; Dong, S.; Hu, Jiawen


    The Qinling orogen preserves a record of late mid-Proterozoic to Cenozoic tectonism in central China. High-pressure metamorphism and ophiolite emplacement (Songshugou ophiolite) assembled the Yangtze craton, including the lower Qinling unit, into Rodinia during the ???1.0 Ga Grenvillian orogeny. The lower Qinling unit then rifted from the Yangtze craton at ???0.7 Ga. Subsequent intra-oceanic arc formation at ???470-490 Ma was followed by accretion of the lower Qinling unit first to the intra-oceanic arc and then to the Sino-Korea craton. Subduction then imprinted a ???400 Ma Andean-type magmatic arc onto all units north of the northern Liuling unit. Oblique subduction created Silurian-Devonian WNW-trending, sinistral transpressive wrench zones (e.g., Lo-Nan, Shang-Dan), and Late Permian-Early Triassic subduction reactivated them in dextral transpression (Lo-Nan, Shang-Xiang, Shang-Dan) and subducted the northern edge of the Yangtze craton. Exhumation of the cratonal edge formed the Wudang metamorphic core complex during dominantly pure shear crustal extension at ???230-235 Ma. Post-collisional south-directed shortening continued through the Early Jurassic. Cretaceous reactivation of the Qinling orogen started with NW-SE sinistral transtension, coeval with large-scale Early Cretaceous crustal extension and sinistral transtension in the northern Dabie Shan; it presumably resulted from the combined effects of the Siberia-Mongolia-Sino-Korean and Lhasa-West Burma-Qiangtang-Indochina collisions and Pacific subduction. Regional dextral wrenching was active within a NE-SW extensional regime between ???60 and 100 Ma. An Early Cretaceous Andean-type continental magmatic arc, with widespread Early Cretaceous magmatism and back-arc extension, was overprinted by shortening related to the collision of Yangtze-Indochina Block with the West Philippines Block. Strike-slip and normal faults associated with Eocene half-graben basins record Paleogene NNE-SSW contraction and WNW

  17. Croissance économique des pays émergents et géographie mondiale des pierres précieuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Canavesio


    Full Text Available L’évolution mondiale des activités extractives est de plus en plus dépendante de la demande des pays émergents. Les conséquences de la croissance de ces pays sur les exploitations de pierres précieuses sont complexes car le marché des gemmes a de nombreuses particularités. La demande est étroitement liée aux matrices socioculturelles de chaque pays. Par ailleurs, l’enrichissement des populations a également un impact sur la production de pierres telles que les saphirs ou les rubis. En effet, ces gemmes sont principalement extraites dans des exploitations informelles et cette activité est de moins en moins attractive pour une population dont le niveau de vie s’élève peu à peu. Dans les vastes gisements sri lankais et birmans, l’épuisement de la ressource est une autre menace. Finalement, si la croissance du marché du diamant est assurée par le Canada, la Russie et l’Australie, pour les autres gemmes, l’Afrique de l’Est est devenue le nouvel « Eldorado ». Dans ces pays, les contextes géologiques, économiques, politiques et sociaux sont très favorables au développement des exploitations artisanales de gemmes.Extraction activities evolution is more and more dependent on the increase of demand in the emerging countries. The consequences of this growth on the gemstone mining activities are complex. The gemstone market is very special and the demand depends on the historic and cultural situation of every country. Moreover, for precious stones like rubby and sapphire, the supply coming from this emerging country is also affected by the social and economic changes. As the small scale mining is widely held in this activity, people that are becoming richer are less interested in that kind of job. In Sri Lanka and Burma, the depletion of many deposits is an other challenge. Finally, if new diamonds deposits of Canada, Russia and Australia are supplying the growth of the diamond market, Est Africa looks like the new

  18. Study on leakage laws and ventilation scheme of natural gas pipeline in Yanyingshan tunnel%岩鹰山隧道内天然气管道泄漏规律及通风方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志豪; 黄坤; 张兴龙; 吕游; 刘玉展


    The classical fluid dynamics theory and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method were combined to study the most representative Yanyingshan tunnel of the Sino-Burma Oil&Gas Pipeline .The leakage of natural gas pipeline in Yany-ingshan tunnel was simulated by using Fluent software , and combined the simulation results by Fluent with the calculation re-sults of leakage source , a calculation model on time to fill the tunnel by leaking natural gas was put forward through theoreti -cal analysis and data fitting .The time model was checked and corrected through the simulation results of gas leakage and dif -fusion in the tunnel under different boundary conditions .The efficiency of single fan ventilation scheme during the accident of gas leakage in Yanyingshan tunnel was studied by using CFD method , and the optimization scheme of tunnel ventilation was obtained , which included the optimal air supply mode , layout horizontal position , layout height and layout spacing .The sug-gestions on fan model selection and tunnel portal design were proposed according to the calculation results of ventilation scheme .%采用经典流体力学理论,以及计算流体力学(CFD)等方法相结合,对中缅油气管线上具有代表性的岩鹰山隧道进行研究.用Fluent软件对岩鹰山隧道天然气管道泄漏进行仿真模拟,利用Fluent模拟结果与泄漏源计算结果相结合,经过理论分析与数据拟合,提出泄漏天然气充满隧道的时间计算模型,通过不同边界条件下隧道内天然气泄漏扩散规律的模拟结果对时间模型进行验算并修正.利用计算流体力学(CFD)方法,研究岩鹰山隧道在发生天然气泄漏事故后,单风机通风方案的效率,得出隧道通风优化方案,方案内容包括最佳送风方式、布设水平位置、布设高度、布设间距.根据通风方案计算结果对风机型号选取、以及隧道洞门设计提出了建议.

  19. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project (United States)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.


    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  20. The Mekong Fish Network: expanding the capacity of the people and institutions of the Mekong River Basin to share information and conduct standardized fisheries monitoring (United States)

    Patricio, Harmony C.; Ainsley, Shaara M.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Beeman, John W.; Hewitt, David A.


    The Mekong River is one of the most biologically diverse rivers in the world, and it supports the most productive freshwater fisheries in the world. Millions of people in the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMB) countries of the Union of Myanmar (Burma), Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Kingdom of Thailand, the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam rely on the fisheries of the basin to provide a source of protein. The Mekong Fish Network Workshop was convened in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 2012 to discuss the potential for coordinating fisheries monitoring among nations and the utility of establishing standard methods for short- and long-term monitoring and data sharing throughout the LMB. The concept for this network developed out of a frequently cited need for fisheries researchers in the LMB to share their knowledge with other scientists and decisionmakers. A fish monitoring network could be a valuable forum for researchers to exchange ideas, store data, or access general information regarding fisheries studies in the LMB region. At the workshop, representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, and universities, as well as participating foreign technical experts, cited a great need for more international cooperation and technical support among them. Given the limited staff and resources of many institutions in the LMB, the success of the proposed network would depend on whether it could offer tools that would provide benefits to network participants. A potential tool discussed at the workshop was a user-friendly, Web-accessible portal and database that could help streamline data entry and storage at the institutional level, as well as facilitate communication and data sharing among institutions. The workshop provided a consensus to establish pilot standardized data collection and database efforts that will be further reviewed by the workshop participants. Overall, workshop participants agreed that this is the type of

  1. Decadal Anomalies of Winter Precipitation over Southern China in Association with El Niño and La Niña

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yuan; LI Chongyin; YANG Song


    Using multiple datasets, this paper analyzes the characteristics of winter precipitation over southern China and its association with warm and cold phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation during 1948-2011. The study proves that El Niño is an important external forcing factor resulting in above-normal winter precipitation in southern China. The study also reveals that the impact of La Niña on the winter precipitation in southern China has a decadal variability. During the winter of La Ni˜na before 1980, the East Asian winter monsoon is stronger than normal with a deeper trough over East Asia, and the western Pacifi c subtropical high weakens with its high ridge retreating more eastward. Therefore, anomalous northerly winds dominate over southern China, leading to a cold and dry winter. During La Ni˜na winter after 1980, however, the East Asian trough is weaker than normal, unfavorable for the southward invasion of the winter monsoon. The India-Burma trough is intensifi ed, and the anomalous low-level cyclone excited by La Ni˜na is located to the west of the Philippines. Therefore, anomalous easterly winds prevail over southern China, which increases moisture fl ux from the tropical oceans to southern China. Meanwhile, La Ni˜na after 1980 may lead to an enhanced and more northward subtropical westerly jet over East Asia in winter. Since southern China is rightly located on the right side of the jet entrance region, anomalous ascending motion dominates there through the secondary vertical circulation, favoring more winter precipitation in southern China. Therefore, a cold and wet winter, sometimes with snowy and icy weathers, would occur in southern China during La Niña winter after 1980. Further analyses indicate that the change in the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomaly during the La Ni˜na mature phase, as well as the decadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, would be the important reasons for the decadal

  2. Evidence for the 1762 Tsunamigenic Earthquake in an Extremely Sedimented Segment of the Sunda Subduction/Collision Boundary, SE Bangladesh (United States)

    McHugh, C. M.; Mansfield, V.; Mondal, D. R.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Mustaque, S.; Ahkter, S. H.


    After the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami, attention focussed on the segment of the Sunda subduction system along the heavily populated region of the Bay of Bengal. Here the Indian plate is converging obliquely with the Burma arc at GPS rates of 14mm/yr. The extremely thick sediments (~20km) of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) are accreted into a very wide thrust-fold belt. Despite some likely aseismic deformation, the great 1762 earthquake proves the seismogenic potential of this boundary. Evidence is mounting that the earthquake ruptured 700km of the boundary from the Bengal Fan to the GBD shelf along Myanmar and Bangladesh. Recent U-Th ages and GPS measurements in Saint Martin Island, an anticline in the outer part of the accretion belt on the shelf, showed that corals died and were uplifted 2.5m coseismically during the 1762 earthquake. Historic accounts and modelling predicted a 1762 tsunami, but geologic evidence for it was not previously reported. We found in both Saint Martin and ~20km north on the Teknaf coast strong evidence for tsunami emplacement. In Saint Martin we discovered a shelly sand layer that extends ~4km in the center of the island. The layer contains shallow water foraminifers, coral fragments and molluscs. Twenty C-14 ages from the shell layer range 1440-1753 cal yrs AD and average 1600 cal yrs AD. We also studied a shell layer that extends for 16,500 m2 on top of a terrace that is now 2m above present sea level and pre-1762 earthquake elevation. Ten C14 ages obtained from the shell bed range 1689-1875 cal yrs AD and average 1753 cal yrs AD. This bed is 1.2m thick and composed of molluscs and foraminifers of intertidal and subtidal origin currently found in shelf depths of 0-100 m. The layer is composed of cobble to mud size sediment and although chaotic, we identified at least three pulses of coarse sediment within an overall fining-upwards unit. The studied 1762 shoreline uplift is likely to partly include coseiesmic

  3. Coseismic Deformation of the Great 1762 Arakan Subduction Earthquake Along South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh (United States)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Mortlock, R. A.


    Large subduction earthquakes and tsunamis along the India-Burma (Sunda) plate boundary were brought to the world's attention after the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake. Subduction and thus possible megathrust earthquakes are thought to continue north of the Bay of Bengal into the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. Here the delta is being subducted resulting in ongoing accretion that is manifested by a wide active fold belt. Bangladesh, with a population of ~160 million is crossed by this plate boundary. Yet, little is known about the hazard there from megathrust earthquakes. The one in 1762 ruptured the >600 km long Arakan segment of the northern Sunda megathrust, well into the shelf area of the delta, including SE Bangladesh. The event was estimated as Mw8.8 by Cummins (2007) based on observed uplift and subsidence. To begin documenting coseismic uplift and the consequences of the 1762 earthquake in southern Bangladesh, we conducted paleoseismological studies on Saint Martin's Island and the Teknaf coast, along the outer portion of the fold belt in southeastern Bangladesh. Our structural and age data indicate that the island of Saint Martin overlies an active anticline, thus uplift can be caused by both anticline growth and the megathrust. Present water depths on the shelf near Saint Martin are ~30 m, but the island was marine during mid- to late-Holocene, and during Oxygen Isotope Stage 5. Shoreline erosion along the southern tip of the island has uncovered the tilted limbs of the anticline. Evidence for the 1762 earthquake is manifested in uplifted coquina terraces dated through detailed radiocarbon studies at 1590-1680 cal yrs AD. Similar ages were obtained for uplifted terraces along the Teknaf coast. Dead corals of the massive species "porites" are exposed along the eastern and western parts of Saint Martin. Coastal emergence was measured by a Fast Static GPS relative to mean sea level using EGM96 geoid model to be 6.6 m for the coquina terraces and 2 m for the

  4. Neotectonics of the Surma Basin, Bangladesh from GPS analysis (United States)

    Bulbul, M. A. U.


    The Surma Basin is a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active basin lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma Basin is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal Basin. The Surma basin is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma basin mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma Basin are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of India. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma Basin being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the

  5. Evidence for a tsunami generated by the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake, Southeastern Bangladesh (United States)

    Gurung, D.; McHugh, C. M.; Mondal, D. R.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Bastas-Hernandez, A.; Akhter, S. H.; Mustaque, S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.


    The devastating 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami brought to the world's attention the possibility of large megathrust ruptures occurring along the heavily populated coast of Bangladesh. The Sunda-Andaman subduction arc continues into Bangladesh where oblique convergence of the Indian plate with the Burma segment of the arc was measured at GPS rates of 14 mm/yr. A long section of the megathurst ruptured during the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake along the Myanmar coast. A 1762 tsunami was reported from historic accounts and predicted from modelling, but geologic evidence for it was not previously reported. St Martin's Island and the Teknaf peninsula in SE Bangladesh are expressions of anticlines in the outer part of the accretionary prism of the Arakan subduction boundary. Our lithology, biostratigraphy and C-14 ages in this region provide evidence for a possible tsunami associated with the 1762 earthquake and validate the continuity of the rupture zone for as much as 700 km, from the Myanmar coast, Bay of Bengal shelf to the Sitakund anticline inland. In St. Martin's, ≈70 km north of the shelf break, U-Th ages from ~2 m uplifted dead corals provide evidence for the 1762 rupture. The associated tsunami was dated from benthic foraminifers and marine molluscs obtained from a shell bed in a trench, and from the top of marine terraces possibly uplifted during 1762 or prior earthquakes. In Teknaf a chaotic bed containing benthic foraminifers, marine shells and cobble size rocks, extends for 100's of meters on top of the 2 m uplifted terrace. The marine molluscs were dated at 1695-1791 AD. The large ≈2m uplift found in the region is likely to be deformation associated with the 1762 rupture and could also be partly related to anelastic growth of the accretion wedge and anticlines. It is likely now slowly subsiding due to continuing elastic loading of the megathrust. To produce that large coastal, presumably coseismic, uplift, the megathrust rupture must have reached at

  6. Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Gahlot


    Full Text Available Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS R.Br. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES. The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o. did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl

  7. From support to embargo:An analysis of Britain’s positions on France returning to Indochina%从支持到禁运:对法国重返印度支那进程中英国立场的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Within the period of the World War II and the postwar, the British government maintained its influence on southeastern Asia through diplomatic ways when the tendency of power declination, decolonization and the Cold War became apparently interwoven. In the process of France returning to Indochina, the Churchill Coalition government and Attlee Government gave supports to France at diplomatic and military levels. However, after the outbreak of Indochina war, Attlee government took arms embargo measures to France as a response to antiwar public opinions that arose in India and Burma. The adjustment of positions from support to embargo reflected different perspectives and positions between French government and British government on the issue of Asian nationalism after the war, and also expressed part of diplomatic efforts that Attlee Government took to sustain the Commonwealth internal unity, and to maintain its influence on the southeastern Asia regional affairs in the shrinkage of Britain’s postwar plight.%二战及战后一段时期内,在英国式渐衰落、非殖民化和冷战态势相互交织的情况下,英国政府通过外交手段不懈地致力于维持对东南亚地区局势的影响与控制。在法国重返越南的进程中,丘吉尔联合政府与艾德礼政府从外交与军事两个层面给予法国不懈的支持;印度支那战争爆发后,艾德礼政府转而顺应印缅舆论,对法国采取有条件的武器禁运政策。从支持到禁运立场的调整,既反映了英国政府在战后地区民族主义问题上与法国相迥异的视角与立场,同时也是英国战后总体战略收缩困境下,艾德礼政府为维持英联邦内部的团结、保有在东南亚地区事务中话语权而开展的外交努力的一部分。

  8. Introduction to Biological Characteristics of Tree Shrew%树鼩的生物学特性研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏傲蕾; 秦银鸽; 郑禹; 陈群; 运晨霞; 黄正团; 冷静


    Tree shrews are the peculiar small mammals of the Southeast Asia,it mainly distributes in torrid zone and subtropical zone such as North of the Ganges River of India,Burma,Philippines,and Yunnan province,Guangxi District of China as well.It is similar to human beings in many aspects such as biological characteristics,biochemis-try,metabolism,physiology and biochemistry,genome,and etc.,which has been proposed as an alternative experi-mental animal to primates.Its value in biomedical research has drew attention to researchers.This article summa-rized the biology research progress and status of tree shrews,including its classification,phylogeny,living habit,rai-sing and breeding,anatomy,histomorphology,physiology,biochemistry and genetics etc.It also pointed out the present problems existing in the research of tree shrews,thus it will be of great importance of the consolidation and integration in the national laboratory animal germplasm resources.%树鼩是东南亚特有的小型哺乳动物,主要分布在热带和亚热带地区,如东南亚的印度恒河北部、缅甸和菲律宾,以及我国云南、广西和海南等地。它在生物学特征、新陈代谢、生理生化和基因组等方面与人类近似,被认为是有望代替灵长类动物的新型实验动物。它在生物医学研究中的价值日益受到研究者关注,将其作为实验动物的试验需求越来越多。论文对树鼩的生物学研究进展及现状进行综述,内容涉及其分类与系统发生、生活习性、饲养与繁殖、解剖和组织形态、生理生化及遗传等方面,并指出我国树鼩目前研究存在的一些问题,对推动我国实验动物种质资源的整理与整合研究具有积极的意义。

  9. Pn anisotropic tomography and mantle dynamics beneath China (United States)

    Zhou, Zhigang; Lei, Jianshe


    We present a new high-resolution Pn anisotropic tomographic model of the uppermost mantle beneath China inferred from 52,061 Pn arrival-time data manually picked from seismograms recorded at provincial seismic stations in China and temporary stations in Tibet and the Tienshan orogenic belt. Significant features well correlated with surface geology are revealed and provide new insights into the deep dynamics beneath China. Prominent high Pn velocities are visible under the stable cratonic blocks (e.g., the Tarim, Junngar, and Sichuan basins, and the Ordos block), whereas remarkable low Pn velocities are observed in the tectonically active areas (e.g., Pamir, the Tienshan orogenic belt, central Tibet and the Qilian fold belt). A distinct N-S trending low Pn velocity zone around 86°E is revealed under the rift running from the Himalayan block through the Lhasa block to the Qiangtang block, which indicates the hot material upwelling due to the breaking-off of the subducting Indian slab. Two N-S trending low Pn velocity belts with an approximate N-S Pn fast direction along the faults around the Chuan-Dian diamond block suggest that these faults may serve as channels of mantle flow from Tibet. The fast Pn direction changes from N-S in the north across 27°N to E-W in the south, which may reflect different types of mantle deformation. The anisotropy in the south could be caused by the asthenospheric flow resulted from the eastward subduction of the Indian plate down to the mantle transition zone beneath the Burma arc. Across the Talas-Fergana fault in the Tienshan orogenic belt, an obvious difference in velocity and anisotropy is revealed. To the west, high Pn velocities and an arc-shaped fast Pn direction are observed, implying the Indo-Asian collision, whereas to the east low Pn velocities and a range-parallel Pn fast direction are imaged, reflecting the northward underthrusting of the Tarim lithosphere and the southward underthrusting of the Kazakh lithosphere. In

  10. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of South East Asia: history of exploration, taxon richness and notes on zoogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai M. Korovchinsky


    Full Text Available The history of Cladocera studies in South-East Asia is reviewed, beginning from the early start of explorations in the end of the 19th century by J. Richard and T. Stingelin. In the first half of the 20th century, extensive research was carried out by V. Brehm, who investigated material collected by the Wallacea-Expedition and the Deutschen Limnologischen Sunda-Expedition. Later, in the 1970-1980s, C.H. Fernando and collaborators, besides a few other researchers, provided a new series of regional studies of the cladoceran faunas together with the systematic revisions of some taxa from tropical Asia. Then and up to present, investigations of the Cladocera have concentrated in Thailand and many species have been revised and described as new to science. In total, 298 taxa of species rank have been recorded in SE Asia but only comparatively few of them (67 taxa; 22.5% can be regarded good species, of which the valid status has been confirmed by recent studies, while others are synonyms (68; 22.8% or taxa of uncertain taxonomic status, including those which definitely represent complexes of species (163; 54.7%. Most total taxa of species level and good species are known from Thailand (155 and 54, respectively, followed by Malaysia (plus Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia in this respect (70-119 total taxa and 23-33 good species respectively. Laos, Burma (Myanmar and Brunei remain practically unexplored. Only good species were used for the zoogeographic analysis. Of them, about a quarter is known only in SE Asia but more species are distributed in tropical/subtropical/temperate Asia and Australia, others in tropics/subtropics of the eastern hemisphere (17.9% or even wider. Tropical species, constituting the primary part of the cladoceran fauna of SE Asia, can penetrate the neighboring subtropical and southern temperate zones to a different degree. Only a small fraction of species (7 or 10.5% here are of more or less northern

  11. Exotic Image of Southeast Asia in Xu Dishan’s Literature--Focus onSymbiotic Birds andKeep Mending Nets Spiders%许地山笔下的南洋形象--以《命命鸟》《缀网劳蛛》为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朦; 孙良好


    As a distinctive scholar in the history of the 1920s Chinese Modern Literature, Xu Dishan describes quite a lot of exotic features about the Southeast Asian style in his early novels. Both the deeply quiet Buddhist spirits in Burma from his Symbiotic Birds and the Christian feelings of mercy in Malaysia from his Keep Mending Nets Spiders embody the influence of the religion fusion and the exotic folk-custom in Xu Dishan’s novel. The factors of geographic, family, deity make a complicated relationship between Nan Yang (Southeast Asia) and the whole world, especially the Chinese civilization. The exotic images of Nan Yang, which Xu Dishan portrayed in his novels from the 19th to 20th century, hide the way behind “the others” how Xu Dishan makes efforts to solve the national issues in China by means of Southeast Asian literature.%许地山是20世纪中国现代文学史上与众不同的一位,他早期小说中描画的南洋风情极具异域特色。《命命鸟》中缅甸深厚静谧的佛教精神、《缀网劳蛛》中“我爱人人”的马来基督教情怀,都是宗教及异域风情浸润其早期小说的集中体现。地缘、族缘和神缘的因素让南洋和世界,尤其是和中国产生了复杂的交集和羁绊。19世纪20年代许地山小说中所描绘的南洋异域形象,在“他者”的背后,看许地山如何借助南洋文化试图解决中国本土的国民性问题。

  12. The Hot Cities and Their Space Transfer State of ASEAN Tourism Flow to Guangxi——Empirical Research on ASEAN(Seven Countries)and 14 Major Cities of Guangxi%东盟旅桂热点城市及其空间转移态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    东盟7国旅桂客流共同叠加表现为南宁、桂林、防城港、贺州、崇左吸引了较多东盟国家游客的到来,是其流向的热点城市.目前,桂林是印度尼西亚、马来西亚、菲律宾、新加坡、泰国旅桂客流的最大集聚地,占据着第一热点城市的位置.崇左是越南旅桂客流的最大集聚地,居于第二热点城市的位置;南宁是缅甸旅桂客流的最大集聚地,又是印度尼西亚、菲律宾、新加坡、泰国旅桂客流的第二大集聚地;防城港是越南旅桂客流的第二大集聚地;贺州是马来西亚旅桂客流的第二大集聚地.桂林→南宁的流动强度最大,居于首位,崇左→南宁的流动强度居于第二,南宁→防城港的流动强度居于第三,南宁→崇左的流动强度居于第四,南宁→桂林的流动强度居于第五,这5条单向旅游客流表现为强转移态.桂林→贺州的流动强度居于第六,防城港→南宁的流动强度居于第七,这2条单向旅游客流表现为较强转移态.贺州→桂林的单向流动以及桂林(←→)崇左的双向流动强度都不大,均表现为弱转移态.%The stack performance ofASEAN 7 countries (Burma,Indonesia,Malaysia,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand,Vietnam) tourism flow to Guangxi is Nanning,Guilin,Fangchenggang,Hezhou,Chongzuo attract more ASEAN tourists.At present,Guilin is the biggest gathering place of Indonesia,Malaysia,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand tourism flow to Guangxi and occupies the fust.Chongzuo is the biggest gathering place of Vietnam tourism flow to Guangxi and row in the second.It makes up this situation that is too concentrated in Guilin.Nanning is the biggest gathering place of Burma tourism flow to Guangxi and the second gathering place of Indonesia,Philippines,Singapore,Thailand tourism flow to Guangxi,and row in the third.Fangchenggang is the second gathering place of Vietnam tourism flow to Guangxi and row in the fourth.Hezhou is the second gathering

  13. Lacquer Seed Oil and the Food Culture of the Lisu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhiying; Sha Lina


    Because they practice a ritual of“climbing a mountain of swords and plunging into a sea of flames”,the Lisu are referred to as an eth-nic group who“climb up a mountain of swords and plunge into a sea of flames” by the outside world. However,if seen from their dietary characteristics, it would also be true to call them“an ethnic group who eats lacquer seed oil”. Lacquer seed oil is also referred to as “lacquer tree fat”. It is a kind of pure and natural plant oil which is always found in the Lisu’s diet. In the Lisu language,it is called as“zhiche”. For a long time, lacquer seed oil has been the primary cooking oil for the Lisu,who live next to the Langcang and Jinsha Rivers,as well as for their neighboring ethnic groups, such as the Nu,and the Dulong. Even though nowadays their communication with the outside world has in-creased,and the kinds of cooking oil have also di-versified, the Lisu who live in the “Three Parallel Rivers Area” still favor using lacquer seed oil,and it cannot be absent from their daily diet or during festival celebrations. Even those Lisu people who have migrated to Mytchina in northern Burma, where their daily production and living conditions have undergone great changes when compared with those in their ancestral land,they still have a spe-cial preference for lacquer seed oil. They regard lacquer seed oil given to them by their relatives from Nujiang as one of the best gifts. It could be said that the dietary culture developed from lacquer seed oil has become an important traditional cultur-al trait of the Lisu, and also an important cultural symbol for the Lisu. 1 . Lacquer Seed Oil and the Lisu The Lisu is a transnational ethnic group. The Lisu in China are scattered in “the three rivers”area( Nu River, Jinsha River and Langchang Riv-er) . The majority of Lisu live in Nujiang Lisu Au-tonomous Prefecture. The second largest concentra-tion of Lisu is in Weixi county of Diqing prefec-ture;As for foreign

  14. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.


    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  15. February 2012 workshop jumpstarts the Mekong Fish Monitoring Network (United States)

    Andersen, Matthew E.; Ainsley, Shaara M.


    The Mekong River in Southeast Asia travels through a basin rich in natural resources. The river originates on the northern slope of the world's tallest mountains, the Himalaya Range, and then drops elevation quickly through steep mountain gorges, tumbling out of China into Myanmar (Burma) and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). The precipitous terrain of Lao PDR and Thailand generates interest in the river and its tributaries for hydropower development. The terrain, soils, water, and climate make it one of the world's most biologically rich regions. The Mekong's bounty is again on display in the Mekong River Delta, where rice production has successfully been increased to high levels making Vietnam second only to Thailand as the world's largest rice exporters. At least 800 fish species contribute to the natural resource bounty of the Mekong River and are the basis for one of the world's most productive fisheries that provide the primary protein source to more than 50 million people. Against this backdrop of rich natural resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the consulting firm FISHBIO, colleagues from the international Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) Institute, and a broad contingent of Southeast Asian representatives and partners from abroad to increase knowledge of the Mekong River fisheries and to develop the capacity of permanent residents to investigate and understand these fisheries resources. With the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) region facing the likelihood of significant environmental changes as a result of both human activities and global climate change, enhancing environmental understanding is critical. To encourage cooperation among the LMB scientists and managers in the study of the Mekong River's fisheries, FISHBIO and the USGS, with generous support from the U.S. State Department, hosted a workshop in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 2012. Workshop participants were from Lao PDR, Thailand

  16. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Universiteit Leiden. Leiden: Opleiding Talen en Culturen van Zuidoost-Azië en Oceanië, Universiteit Leiden, 2002, xviii + 328 pp. [Semaian 22.], Willem van der Molen (eds -Dick van der Meij, Renato Rosaldo, Cultural citizenship in island Southeast Asia; Nation and belonging in the hinterlands. Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 2003, x + 228 pp. -Lisa Migo, Sjoerd R. Jaarsma, Handle with care; Ownership and control of ethnographic materials. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2002, x + 264 pp. [ASAO monograph series 20.] -Jonathan H. Ping, Priyambudi Sulistiyanto, Thailand, Indonesia and Burma in comparative perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002, xiv + 308 pp. [The international political economy of new regionalisms series.] -Anthony L. Smith, Amitav Acharya, Constructing a security community in Southeast Asia; ASEAN and the problem of regional order. London: Routledge, 2001, xx + 234 pp. -Achmad Sunjayadi, Elsbeth Locher-Scholten ,Hof en handel; Aziatische vorsten en de VOC 1620-1720. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2004, x + 350 pp. [Verhandelingen 223.], Peter Rietbergen (eds -Gerard Termorshuizen, Marieke Bloembergen, De koloniale vertoning; Nederland en Indië op de wereldtentoonstellingen (1880-1931. Amsterdam: Wereld-bibliotheek, 2002, 463 pp.''Koloniale inspiratie; Frankrijk, Nederland, Indië en de wereldtentoonstellingen 1883-1931. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2004, 256 pp. -Jojanneke van der Toorn, Philip Taylor, Goddess on the rise; Pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004, x + 332 pp. -Holger Warnk, Azyumardi Azra, The origins of Islamic reformism in Southeast Asia; Networks of Malay-Indonesian and Middle Eastern 'ulama' in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2004, ix + 253 pp. -Robert Wessing, Gregory Forth, Beneath the volcano; Religion, cosmology and spirit classification among the Nage of eastern Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998, xi + 369 pp. [Verhandelingen 117.] -Edwin

  17. Partial nucleotide sequencing of hepatitis E viruses detected in sera of patients with hepatitis E from 14 cities in China%从中国14个城市戊型肝炎病人血清中检测到的戊型肝炎病毒部分核苷酸序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奎; 庄辉; 朱万孚


    Objective To investigate the genotypes of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) detected in sera of patients from different regions of China. Methods The partial genome (nt6461-6860, nt5994-6294) of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of 45 HEV strains detected from 14 cities of China was amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing.Results Forty-one of 45 strains (91%) share the same genotype with HEV Burma strain (B), with nucleotide identities higher than 98% with the representative HEV Chinese strain. Only 4 HEV strains are significantly divergent from the 3 prototype strains of HEV, with nucleotide identities of 77%-80% with HEV Burmese/Chinese strain, 74%-76% with Mexican strain and 74%-77% with the newly discovered HEV US/swine strain, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these 4 strains may represent 2 different subtypes that belong to a novel genotype of HEV, which is significantly divergent from the prototype Mexico, Burmese and US/swine strains. Conclusion Among patients with hepatitis E in China, most are infected by the Chinese prototype HEV, and only a small part by the new genotype HEV.%目的调查从中国病人血清中分离的戊型肝炎病毒(HEV)基因型。方法 应用聚合酶链反应法(PCR)和直接测序法对从中国14个城市检测到的45株HEV开放读码框架2(ORF2)的部分基因序列(nt6461-6860及nt5994-6294)进行分析。结果 45株HEV中,41株(91%)与缅甸株属同一个基因型,与中国代表株HEV核苷酸序列的同源性均在98%以上。 仅4株与3个HEV原型株差异较大,与缅甸株/中国株同源性为77%-80%,与墨西哥株的同源性为74%-76%,与新发现的美国株/猪(US/Swine)HEV的同源性为74%-77%;基因进化树分析表明,该4株HEV可能为一新基因型的2个不同亚型,它们与原型墨西哥株、缅甸株和美国株/猪HEV明显不同。结论 中国戊型肝炎患者中,多数感染中国原型株HEV,仅少数感染新基因型HEV。

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    . Translated and annotated by Felicia Brichoux (Nicole Revel Joos van Vugt, José Eijt, Marjet Derks (eds; Tempo doeloe, tempo sekarang; Het proces van Indonesianisering in Nederlandse orden en congregaties (Karel Steenbrink Nancy Eberhardt; Imagining the course of life; Self-transformation in a Shan Buddhist community (Nicholas Tapp J.C. Smelik, C.M. Hogenstijn, W.J.M. Janssen; A.J. Duymaer van Twist; Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indi? (1851-1856 (Gerard Termorshuizen David Steinberg; Turmoil in Burma; Contested legitimacies in Myanmar (Sean Turnell Carl A. Trocki; Singapore; Wealth, power and the culture of control (Bryan S. Turner Matthew Isaac Cohen; The Komedie Stamboel; Popular theatre in colonial Indonesia, 1891-1903 (Holger Warnk Jörgen Hellman; Ritual fasting on West Java (Robert Wessing Waruno Mahdi; Malay words and Malay things; Lexical souvenirs from an exotic archipelago in German publications before 1700 (Edwin Wieringa RECENT PUBLICATIONS Russell Jones, C.D. Grijns, J.W. de Vries, M. Siegers (eds; Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay VERHANDELINGEN 249 Peter Carey: The power of prophecy. Prince Dipanagara and the end of an old order in Java, 1785-1855

  19. Morbidity situation of imported falciparum malaria in Hubei%湖北省输入性恶性疟发病态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光全; 袁方玉; 胡乐群; 李凯杰; 林文; 孙凌聪; 张华勋; 裴速建; 董小蓉; 刘井元


    Objective To understand the situation and disposal of imported falciparum malaria, and explore countermeasures for prevention and control. Method The data of imported falciparum malaria of Hubei province in 2010 was analyzed for the epidemic-stricken places and disposal of material, for cases gender, age, and vocational distribution, both the onset and diagnose time. Results There was 28 cases of inported falciparum malaria and death 1 cases in 2010, with an increase of 64.71% when compared with 2009, showing a peak in July. The Patients were men and at the age of 21 ~ 54 years old, in which the migrant workers accounted for 46.43%, workers accounted for 25.0%, engineering and technical personnel account for 14.29%. There were 11 new cases (39.29%), 16 cases of recurrent (57.14%), and 1 healthy carrier (3.57%). The time for patients showing clinical symptoms to visit clinics was 3.22 days in average, to confirm diagnose was 5.96 days in average. Patients were infected in 11 countries such as Burma, Indonesia and Mali. Conclusions Imported falciparum malaria cases were increased year by year, the patients were workers had been abroad and mainly migrant workers in rural area. The patients were not promptly consulted doctors and there were threats of secondary cases. Propaganda of the malaria knowledge, improvement of the diagnosis and treatment, and the improvement of surveillance of the disease should be strengthened.%目的 掌握输入性恶性疟发病态势和处置现状,探索防控对策.方法 收集2010年湖北省输人性恶性疟疫情、个案调查及疫点处置资料,对病例性别、年龄及职业分布,发病初诊及确诊时间进行计数统计与分析.结果 2010年全省报告输入性恶性疟28例,比2009年上升64.71%,死亡1例,发病高峰在7月.患者均为男性,年龄在21~54岁,农民工占46.43%、工人占25.0%、工程技术人员占14.29%.输入初发11例,占39.29%,复发16例,占57.14%,健康带虫1例,占3

  20. Deepwater fold and thrust belt classification, tectonics, structure and hydrocarbon prospectivity: A review (United States)

    Morley, C. K.; King, R.; Hillis, R.; Tingay, M.; Backe, G.


    and Type 2 systems is reservoir rock. High quality, continent-derived, quartz-rich sandstones are generally prevalent in Type 1 systems. More diagenetically reactive minerals derived from igneous and ophiolitic sources are commonly present in Type 2 systems, or many are simply poor in well-developed turbidite sandstone units. However, some Type 2 systems, particularly those adjacent to active orogenic belts are partially sourced by high quality continent-derived sandstones (e.g. NW Borneo, S. Caspian Sea, Columbus Basin). In some cases very high rates of deposition in accretionary prisms adjacent to orogenic belts, coupled with uplift due to collision, results in accretionary prism related fold belts that pass laterally from sub-aerial to deepwater conditions (e.g. S. Caspian Sea, Indo-Burma Ranges). The six major hydrocarbon producing regions of DWFTBs worldwide (Gulf of Mexico, Niger Delta, NW Borneo, Brazil, West Africa, S. Caspian Sea) stand out as differing from most other DWFTBs in certain fundamental ways, particularly the very large volume of sediment deposited in the basins, and/or the great thickness and extent of salt or overpressured shale sdetachments.

  1. Research on Dynamic Stress Triggering at Chinese North-South Seismic Belt in Recent Years (United States)

    Zhang, B.


    Seismic stress triggering refers to the influence induced by one earthquake to the nearby and remote seismic activity, including static stress triggering and dynamic stress triggering. Scientists have studied static stress triggering for a long time and have got lots of achievement. However, the researches of dynamic stress triggering were scarce. The time we actually researched on seismic dynamic stress triggering was after the Landers earthquake in 1992, USA. Due to the superiority of dynamic stress triggering in explaining remote triggering, it has been developing rapidly in recent years. China locates between the Pacific Ocean seismic zone and the Asia-Europe seismic zone, so Chinese mainland and its periphery has more strong shocks. Although Chinese seismologists study seismic dynamic stress triggering later, it is necessary to study seismic dynamic stress triggering in China. In order to explore Chinese seismic dynamic stress triggering, we take Chinese North-South seismic belt as an example in this article. With the method of calculating seismic dynamic stress, we researched the triggered situation of some strong earthquakes in Chinese North-South seismic belt: calculate stress tensor and coulomb stress in triggered area, including M8.0 earthquake of 2000 in Sumatra triggered M5.8 earthquake of Jingtai in Gansu and M6.5 earthquake of Burma, M7.9 earthquake of 2003 in border of China, Russia and Mongolia triggered M6.1 earthquake of Minle-Shandan and M5.2 earthquake of Minxian in Gansu, M8.7 earthquake of 2004 in Sumatra triggered M5.1 earthquake of Shuangbai and M5.1 earthquake of Simao in Yunnan. The results show that the dynamic stress peak value on triggered fault produced by several strong shocks all exceeds to triggering threshold value. All in all, the earthquake activity is triggered easily in the North-South seismic belt, but the earthquakes in different area have different triggering effect in the North-South seismic belt, probably influenced by the

  2. The paleoposition of India (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  3. Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies of communicable diseases in cross border area of Yunnan Province from 2009-2013%2009-2013年云南省边境地区传染病类突发公共卫生事件流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬志薇; 戚艳波; 林燕; 李琼芬


    ,which respectively accounted for 3.64%,41.82%,30.00% and 24.54%.The peak seasons appeared March to May and September to December,most of cases were respiratory infectious diseases,such as chickenpox,and the events mainly occurred in schools.There were 6 foreign imported events,and all were from Burma.[Conclusion] Imported communicable disease events,especially public health emergencies of category A communicable diseases,are the key point and difficulty of disease prevention and control in cross border area of Yunnan Province.

  4. Research on Efficiency and Potential of China’ s Agricultural Products Export to ASEAN Based on Stochastic Frontier Gravity Model%我国对东盟农产品出口效率及潜力研究--基于随机前沿引力模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽红; 朱智洺


    We apply Stochastic frontier gravity model to systematically research the efficiency and potential of China ’ s agri-cultural products export to the ASEAN countries .The results of empirical analysis show that:( 1) The trade non-efficiency factors are the main factors that reduce the efficiency of China ’ s agricultural products export.If the ASEAN countries increase technical trade barriers, join in APEC, or become the members of FTA, these will be helpful to the improvement of the export efficiency .If the ASEAN countries increase the import tariff level, it will inhibit the export efficiency.(2) Among the ASEAN countries, the efficiency of China’ s agricultural products export to Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam is higher, so the corresponding export po-tential promotion is smaller;the efficiency and potential of China ’ s agricultural products export to Thailand , Philippines and Sin-gapore are moderate;the efficiency of China’s agricultural products export to Laos, Brunei, Burma and Cambodia is lower, thus the corresponding export potential promotion is larger.Finally, some corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are given.%运用随机前沿引力模型,系统分析了我国对东盟国家的农产品出口效率及潜力。实证分析显示:(1)贸易非效率因素是降低我国农产品出口效率的主要因素。东盟国家增加技术性贸易壁垒、加入APEC、与我国成立FTA均有助于提高我国农产品出口效率,其加重进口关税水平,则会对我国农产品出口效率起到抑制作用。(2)东盟国家中,我国对马来西亚、印度尼西亚、越南的农产品出口效率最高,对应的出口潜力提升空间较为狭小;对泰国、菲律宾、新加坡的农产品出口效率及出口潜力提升空间属于居中位置;而对老挝、文莱、缅甸、柬埔寨4国的农产品出口效率低下,对应的出口潜力提升空间较为广阔。最后提出了相应的对策和建议。

  5. 一幅新近发现的明朝中叶彩绘航海图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    英国牛津大学鲍德林图书馆(Bodleian Library)近来发现了一幅被人们忽略了长达350余年之久的、绘制于中国明朝中叶的彩色航海地图。这是中国历史上现存的第一幅手工绘制的彩色航海图,而且或许是一幅出自明朝福建海商之手的地图。这幅航海图来自于英国一位著名的律师约翰·雪尔登(John Selden,1584—1654)的私人收藏,并于1659年捐献给了牛津大学鲍德林图书馆。该图相当大,大约长1.5米,宽1米。该图绘制的地域北起西伯利亚,南至今印尼爪哇岛和马鲁古群岛(香料群岛),东达北部的日本列岛和南部的菲律宾群岛,西抵缅甸和南印度。航海图上清楚地绘制出了明朝中叶中国帆船经常使用的6条东洋航路和12条西洋航路,对研究明清时期中国帆船的海外贸易具有重要的参考价值。%A mid Ming watercolour navigation map that has been overlooked for more than 350 years has recently been discovered at Bodleian Library of Oxford University in UK. It is the first extant watercolour navigation map in the maritime history of China, and very likely it was produced from the hands of Hokkien maritime merchants of Ming dynasty. It is from the private collection of John Selden (1584 -1654), a well -known British lawyer, and was donated to the Bodleian Library in 1659. This unofficial map is very large, approximately lxl. 5m. It depicts the vast region from Siberia in the north to Java and Maluku Islands (Spice Islands) in the south, and from Japan and the Philippines in the east to Burma and South India in the west. In addition, six East Ocean navigation routes and twelve West Ocean navigation routes are clearly marked on the map. Doubt- lessly this map is very important in terms of studying maritime trade of Chinese junks in the period of Ming and Qing.

  6. An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Nirod


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile population groups are at high risk for contracting HIV infection. Many factors contribute to this risk including high prevalence of risky behavior and increased risk of violence due to conflict and war. The Naf River serves as the primary border crossing point between Teknaf, Bangladesh and Mynamar [Burma] for both official and unofficial travel of people and goods. Little is known about the risk behavior of boatmen who travel back and forth between Teknaf and Myanmar. However, we hypothesize that boatmen may act as a bridging population for HIV/AIDS between the high-prevalence country of Myanmar and the low-prevalence country of Bangladesh. Methods Methods included initial rapport building with community members, mapping of boatmen communities, and in-depth qualitative interviews with key informants and members from other vulnerable groups such as spouses of boatmen, commercial female sex workers, and injecting drug users. Information from the first three stages was used to create a cross-sectional survey that was administered to 433 boatmen. Results Over 40% of the boatmen had visited Myanmar during the course of their work. 17% of these boatmen had sex with CSW while abroad. There was a significant correlation found between the number of nights spent in Myanmar and sex with commercial sex workers. In the past year, 19% of all boatmen surveyed had sex with another man. 14% of boatmen had participated in group sex, with groups ranging in size from three to fourteen people. Condom use was rare {0 to 4.7% during the last month}, irrespective of types of sex partners. Regression analysis showed that boatmen who were 25 years and older were statistically less likely to have sexual intercourse with non- marital female partners in the last year compared to the boatmen aged less than 25 years. Similarly deep-sea fishing boatmen and non-fishing boatmen were statistically less likely to have sexual intercourse with non

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available Chris Ballard, Paula Brown, R. Michael Bourke, Tracy Harwood (eds; The sweet potato in Oceania; A reappraisal (Peter Boomgaard Caroline Hughes; The political economy of Cambodia’s transition, 1991-2001 (Han Ten Brummelhuis Richard Robison, Vedi Hadiz; Reorganising power in Indonesia; The politics of oligarchy in an age of markets (Marleen Dieleman Michael W. Charney; Southeast Asian warfare, 1300-1900 (Hans Hägerdal Daniel Perret, Amara Srisuchat, Sombun Thanasuk (eds; Études sur l´histoire du sultanat de Patani (Mary Somers Heidhues Joel Robbins; Becoming sinners; Christianity and moral torment in a Papua New Guinea society (Menno Hekker Mujiburrahman; Feeling threatened; Muslim-Christian relations in Indonesia’s New Order (Gerry van Klinken Marie-Odette Scalliet; De Collectie-Galestin in de Leidse Universiteitsbibliotheek (Dick van der Meij James Neil Sneddon; Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian (Don van Minde James Leach; Creative land; Place and procreation on the Rai coast of Papua New Guinea (Dianne van Oosterhout Stanley J. Ulijaszek (ed.; Population, reproduction and fertility in Melanesia (Dianne van Oosterhout Angela Hobart; Healing performances of Bali; Between darkness and light (Nathan Porath Leo Suryadinata (ed.; Admiral Zheng He and Southeast Asia (Roderich Ptak Ruth Barnes; Ostindonesien im 20. Jahrhundert; Auf den Spuren der Sammlung Ernst Vatter (Reimar Schefold Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een missionarisleven in brieven; Willem van Bekkum, Indië 1936-1998 (Karel Steenbrink Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een pionier op Flores; Jilis Verheijen (1908-1997, missionaris en onderzoeker (Karel Steenbrink Akitoshi Shimizu, Jan van Bremen (eds; Wartime Japanese anthropology in Asia and the Pacific (Fridus Steijlen Lilie Roosman; Phonetic experiments on the word and sentence prosody of Betawi Malay and Toba Batak (Uri Tadmor Jamie D. Saul; The Naga of Burma; Their festivals, customs

  8. 2005-2013年全国本地感染与境外输入疟疾流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological characteristics of indigeous and imported malaria in China, 2005-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚丽; 王煊; 张彦平


    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of malaria in China between 2005 and 2013 and to provide scientific evidence for prevention and control. Methods Data on malaria cases in China from 2005 to 2013 were collected from the national information reporting system of infectious diseases. Data were input into Microsoft Excel 2010 and then imported into SPSS 18.0 to conduct the analysis. Results Of 210 220 malaria cases reported from 2005 to 2013, a total of 187 334 were indigeous, 17 990 were imported from other countries and 4896 had unknown infection sources. The imported cases showed an increasing trend since 2006 and it has become a major challenge for malaria elimination. Indigenous cases reached a peak during July⁃October and imported cases occurred mainly between May and June. Majority of indigenous and imported cases were farmers. The imported cases were mainly acquired from Africa and Asia. Most of Plasmodium spp. of malaria was acquired in Burma, but imported cases from African countries such as Nigeria, Angola, Ghana, and Equatorial Guinea increased year by year since 2008. Conclusion From 2005 to 2013 in China, there was a consistent increase in the number of malaria cases imported from other countries while the number of locally acquired cases sharply declined. The imported malaria has been an important infectious source. Preventive efforts should be focused on workers that return from overseas, and the surveillance and response system should be strengthened to further reduce malaria incidence in China.%目的:了解2005-2013年全国疟疾流行病学特征,为制定防控策略直至消除疟疾提供依据。方法收集2005-2013年中国疾病预防控制中心传染病信息报告管理系统所报告的疟疾病例,应用Excel 2010和SPSS 18.0软件对病例相关信息进行统计学分析。结果2005-2013年全国共报告疟疾210220例,其中本地感染187334例,境外输入17990

  9. 国境口岸输入性恶性疟的现状与预防控制%Imported falciparum malaria situation and its prevention and control at frontier ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 杨秀娟; 邹明强; 刘翌


    Objective To explore the focus of its prevention and control on Chinese imported falciparum malaria. Methods All literatures on imported falciparum malaria in the last six years were searched and analyzed. Results The imported patients mostly returned from Africa and Southeast Asia. The countries of most infection of falciparum malaria were Nigeria, Angola, Guinea and Equatorial Guinea from Africa, and Burma from Southeast Asia. Falciparum malaria was easy to misdiagnosis, the patients often died of delayed treatment. Microscopic examinations as the laboratory confirmation of diagnosis need to be combined with those new technologies such as plasmodial antigen rapid test and PCR. Those who returned from the high plasmodium falciparum transmission areas had a high falciparum malaria incidence and a high recurrence rate. Dihydroartemisinin based treatments could improve effect and prevent transmission of the disease. Conclusion Focus of prevention and control of the imported falciparum malaria should be paid on its surveillance and management, its early diagnosis and prompt treatment, and capacity building of self protection of the international travelers.%目的 了解近年来我国境外输入性恶性疟疫情,探讨现阶段恶性疟预防与控制措施.方法 查阅了2006年以来所有详细报道我国国境口岸输入性恶性疟的文献,对有关感染地区、诊疗状况等相关资料进行分析.结果 输入性恶性疟最主要的感染地为非洲和东南亚地区,其中非洲地区的尼日利亚、安哥拉、几内亚、赤道几内亚,东南亚的缅甸是我国输入性恶性疟来源最多的国家.恶性疟易引起误诊,感染者常因未得到及时有效的抗疟治疗而死亡.疟疾病人的实验室诊断率有待提高,采用疟原虫抗原快速检测法和PCR法等疟疾诊断新技术作为镜检的补充,有助于提高疟疾诊断水平.赴非洲等恶性疟高发区的归国劳务人员,恶性疟发病率高、复燃比例

  10. The Dauki Fault in NE India: A crustal scale thrust-fold reactivating the continental margin (United States)

    Ferguson, E. K.; Seeber, L.; Akhter, S. H.; Steckler, M. S.; Biswas, A.; Mukhopadhyay, B. P.


    plateau have been folded and uplifted up to 1.8 km and are only beginning to be dissected by deep canyons along its southern margin despite the high relief and rainfall. This immature morphology coupled with ongoing subsidence in the foredeep basin suggests active and rapid uplift, postdating the Miocene exhumation event inferred from available Miocene cooling ages. Samples of sediment collected from the deeply incised valleys are being dated using cosmogenic nuclides in order to quantify erosion rates in the south-central region of the Shillong Plateau. Tilting associated with the forelimb is manifested in asymmetric erosion along strike-parallel river valleys on the plateau and gravitational collapse of the saprolitic cover down the forelimb. Future work will investigate the structure associated with the eastern and western segments of the Dauki fault to determine the continuity along strike and the interaction between the Dauki Fault and the Burma fold belt.

  11. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.


    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Waterson


    fashioning of Leviathan: The beginnings of British rule in Burma, edited by Gehan Wijeyewardene. Canberra: Occasional paper of the department of Anthropology, Research school of Pacific studies, The Australian National University, 1991, ii+178 p. - Joke van Reenen, Wim van Zanten, Across the boundaries: Women’s perspectives; Papers read at the symposium in honour of Els Postel-Coster. Leiden: VENA, 1991. - Reimar Schefold, Roxana Waterson, The living house; An anthropology of architecture in South-East Asia. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1990, xx + 263 pp. - Gunter Senft, Jürg Wassmann, The song to the flying fox. Translated by Dennis Q. Stephenson. Apwitihiri:L Studies in Papua New Guinea musics, 2. Cultural studies division, Boroko: The National Research Institute , 1991, xxi + 313 pp. - A. Teeuw, Thomas John Hudak, The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International studies, Monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series number 87, 1990, x + 237 pp. - A. Teeuw, George Quinn, The novel in Javanese: Aspects of its social and literary character. Leiden: KITLV press, (VKI 148, 1992, ix + 330 pp. - Gerard Termorshuizen, Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf, Persgeschiedenis van Indonesië tot 1942. Geannoteerde bibliografie. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1990, xv + 249 pp. - A. Veldhuisen-Djajasoebrata, Daniele C. Geirnaert, The AÉDTA batik collection. Paris, 1989, p. 81, diagrams and colour ill., Sold out. (Paris Avenue de Breteuil, 75007., Rens Heringa (eds.

  13. On Strategic Choice of Tibet’s Border Tourism Development%“一带一路”背景下西藏边境旅游发展的战略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁; 图登克珠


    In 2013, XI Jin-ping, the General Secretary, proposed building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Cen⁃turyMaritime Silk Road(The Belt and Road, for short) . In the Third Session of the TenthPeople's Congress of the Party Committee and Government of Tibet Autonomous Region, it was proposed that in order to promote the building of the economic cooperation belt around the Himalayas, it is essential to accelerate the construction of South Asia Great Channel, and to link the Belt and Road and the China-Burma-India Economic Corridor.Tibet is an important south gateway of China, so the development of Tibet’s border tourism will effectively promote the link, which is in line with Tibet’s development with Chinese characteristics, and it also helps to promote the de⁃velopment of Tibetan society and economy.Based on the field research conducted inthe border areas in Ngari and Shigatse, this article analyses the opportunities and advantages of developing tourism in the border areas, and points out the strategic choice of the development of Tibet’s border tourism.%2013年习总书记提出了丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路,即“一带一路”。西藏自治区党委政府十届人大三次会议上提出,加快建设南亚大通道,积极对接“一带一路”和孟中印缅经济走廊,推动环喜马拉雅经济合作带建设。西藏是我国重要的西南门户,也是我国通往南亚的重要通道。因此,边境地区发展旅游业,将有效地促进西藏对接“一带一路”和孟中印缅经济走廊,推动环喜马拉雅经济合作带建设,这符合中国特色西藏特点的发展路子,也有助于推动西藏社会经济的发展。文章通过对日喀则市和阿里地区的相关边境口岸实地调研,分析了西藏边境地区发展旅游业的机遇和优势,同时也分析了发展边境旅游拟解决的关键性问题,从宏观和微观两个层面,提出了西藏发展边境旅游的战略选择。

  14. Engineering Geology Characteristic of the Carbonaceous Siltstone in Mangbang Basin, West of Yunnan Province%滇西芒棒盆地芒棒组碳质粉砂岩的工程地质特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭长宝; 李海华; 陈溪华; 和勇; 歹家文; 张能


    Mangbang basin is a SN directed fault depression basin which was shaped when Gaoligong Mountains intensely upheaved at the end of Himalayan movement in Pliocene period, where carbonaceous siltstone of Mangbang group, a kind of soft half-diagenesis rock, is well distributed. The Baoshan-Tengchong high way section of Burma Road will pass through this basin. Field geology survey indicates that this kind of carbonaceous siltstone is characterized by weak diagenesis, easy disintegration and strong structural strength, which can cause the engineering geological problems of slope failure and roof fall of surrounding rock in tunnel. Laboratory test results show a high natural water content, high porosity, low expansibility and high organic content of it. Due to organic cementation, striking difference can be obtained in the engineering properties of natural rock and dry rock after immersion in water, which indicates the enhancement in water stability and reduction in swelling potential of dried rock. Based on typical project example, in-situ shearing test was conducted on the carbonaceous siltstone, and the results indicate that it has the characteristics of high shear strength and little difference between peak and residual strength, which is one of the main factors for the development of large unstable slope body and creeping landslide in this kind of rock stratum.%滇西芒棒盆地是在上新世喜山运动后期高黎贡山强烈隆升过程中形成的近SN向的断陷盆地,在盆地内发育芒棒组碳质粉砂岩等半成岩,规划建设中的中缅公路保山—腾冲高速公路段从该套地层中通过.野外调查发现:该套碳质粉砂岩具有成岩差、易崩解、结构性强等特性,容易引发边坡失稳、隧洞围岩冒顶等工程地质问题.室内试验测试表明:该类岩石具有天然含水量高、孔隙度大、低膨胀性和有机质含量高等特点.由于有机质的胶结作用,天然岩体和干燥岩块浸水后的性状

  15. 重庆市万州区2015年登革热与蚊虫媒介监测结果分析%Analysis of the surveillance results of dengue and mosquito vectors in Wanzhou district of Chongqing in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 郑代坤; 陈春蓉; 王军


    capture the vectors of dengue fever, the Aedes mosquito bite index was zero. Conclusion The human population flow in this area is frequent, there are many migrant workers in Burma, Guangdong, Yunnan and the other places, this is a high possibility of imported case, but a low risk of local outbreaks of dengue fever, suggesting to strengthen the monitoring to prevent epidemic.

  16. Collection and Storage of Tectona grandis Pollen%柚木花粉收集与贮藏研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂华; 梁坤南; 林明平; 周再知; 马华明


    Anthesis pheology, pollen collection, viability determination and storage of Tectona grandis L. f. were introduced and studied,the results showed that pollen can be collected by water culture method and bagged method, the time for pollen collection of Indian provenances and Burma provenances were 9 to 11 o-clock and 11 to 13 o-clock,respectively. The pollen viability rose first and then decreased after anthesis,it have highest viability after anthesis 1. 5 h and no longer viable after 4. 5 h. The pollen viability decreased fast after collected and put in room temperature for wind to dry, it no longer viable after collected 2 h. The viability of pollen stored in 5 ℃ and - 15 ℃ rose first and then decreased, both of the pollen lost viability at 330 day. Both pollen germination rate and pollen tube length of pollen stored in 5 X decreased fast than that of - 15 ℃, pollen storage effect of - 15 ℃ was better than 5 ℃. Pollen stored in - 15 ℃. for 240 day can be used for controlled pollination among different teak provenances or different species of Tectona.%介绍了柚木开花生物学特性,开展了柚木花粉收集、活力测定、贮藏方法及其效果的研究.结果表明:柚木花粉收集可采用水培法和套袋法;不同种源收集花粉时间不同,印度种源和缅甸种源分别为09:~11:00时和11:00~13:00时;花开放后,花粉活力是先升后降,1.5h后花粉活力最强,4.5h后花粉即失去萌发力;随着贮藏时间的延长,5℃和-15℃干燥贮藏花粉的活力逐渐下降,贮藏到330 d,5℃和- 15℃的花粉都失去萌发力;在整个过程中,5℃的花粉萌发率和花粉管长度都比-15℃下降速度快;-15℃柚木花粉的贮藏效果优于5℃;-15℃干燥贮藏240d的柚木花粉,可满足当年柚木花期不同的种源间或柚木属不同种间人工杂交授粉.

  17. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue? (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher


    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  18. Geodetic Constraints From The Volcanic Arc Of The Andaman - Nicobar Subduction Zone (United States)

    Earnest, A.; Krishnan, R.; Mayandi, S.; Sringeri, S. T.; Jade, S.


    We report first ever GPS derived surface deformation rates in the Barren and Narcondum volcanic islands east of Andaman-Nicobar archipelago which lies in the Bay of Bengal, a zone that generates frequent earthquakes, and coincides with the eastern plate boundary of India. The tectonics of this region is predominantly driven by the subduction of the Indian plate under the Burma plate. Andaman sea region hosts few volcanoes which lies on the inner arc extending between Sumatra and Myanmar with the sub-aerial expressions at Barren and Narcondum Islands. Barren Island, about 135 km ENE of Port Blair, is presently active with frequent eruptive histories whereas Narcondum is believed to be dormant. We initiated precise geodetic campaign mode measurements at Barren Island between 2007 to 2012 and one year (2011-2012) continuous measurements at Narcondum island. Preliminary results from this study forms a unique data set, being the first geodetic estimate from the volcanic arc of this subducting margin. Our analysis indicates horizontal convergence of the Barren benchmark to south-westward (SW) direction towards the Andaman accretionary fore-arc wedge where as the Narcondum benchmark recorded northeast (NE) motion. West of the Andaman fore-arc there is NE oriented subduction of the Indian plate which is moving at the rate of ~5 cm/yr. Convergence rates for the Indian plate from the Nuvel 1A model also show oblique convergence towards N23°E at 5.4 cm/yr. GPS derived inter seismic motion of Andaman islands prior to 2004 Sumatra earthquake is ~4.5 cm/yr NE. The marginal sea basin east of Barren Island at the Andaman spreading ridge has a NNW orienting opening of the sea-floor at 3.6 cm/yr. However the recent post seismic measurements of Andaman islands indicate rotation of displacement vectors from SW to NNE during 2005 to 2012. In this tectonic backdrop, the estimated rate of displacement of the volcanic islands probably represents a composite signal of tectonic as well as

  19. 地缘政治经济学:次区域经济合作理论辨析%Geopolitical Economics:On the Theory of Sub-regional Economic Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The sub-regional areas of Greater Mekong constitute a regional subsystem:China (Yunnan), Thailand and the Asian Development Bank as the core of the regional subsystem,also Cambodia,Laos, Burma ,Vietnam and the Association of South-east Asian Nations as well as Mae Committee and so on forming the peripheral parties of the subsystem,and Japan,India,USA and other countries as the parties of intervention of the sub-regional areas.Through the combination of geographic factors with the other factors like regional economic cooperation,geopolitics,safety and culture,the interpretation frame of the geopolitical economics can be built to explain the sub-regional economic cooperation:the sub-regional countries (together with local governments),driven by international organizations,utilize the local natural geographical conditions to promote the cooperation of sub-regional areas in different levels and scopes by establishing cooperative cultures,so that the relevant cooperative regulation is built,and they lead the outside powers and international organizations to approve of this regulation.Ultimately,the sub-regional economy and society will develop together.%大湄公河次区域地区构成了一个地区子系统:中国(云南)和泰国以及亚行是该地区子系统中的核心部分,柬老缅越和一定程度上的东盟、湄委会等则构成了该地区子系统的边缘部分,日、印、美等国则成为大湄公河次区域地区的介入部分。通过将地理因素和区域经济合作、地缘政治、安全与文化等因素相结合,可以建构地缘政治经济学解释框架来阐释次区域经济合作:次区域地区国家(和地方政府)在国际组织的推动下利用该地区的自然地理条件,通过建构合作文化,推动次区域地区在不同层次和不同领域开展合作,从而建构起相应的合作规范,并引导域外大国和国际组织认同该规范,最终实现次区域地区经济社会的共同发展。

  20. Les frontiers de Leach au prisme des migrations birmanes ou penser la société en mouvement Leach Frontiers through the Prism of Burmese Migrations, or Thinking the Society in Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Boutry


    that on the first hand, the necessary continuity between the “native” and the arrival societies mobilizes some social structures revealed by the migration. On the other, the inherent discontinuities in the socialization process of the conquered environments reveal some frontiers of various natures (ecological, of social organization, cultural, ethnic structuring the social landscape. The Burmese relationship to the kyézu’shin is emphasized here as a continuity’s structure and a powerful vector for the Irrawaddy delta’s burmization and buddhisation process. In the southernmost region of Burma, this relation is transposed to the taukè’s one and modifies itself at the contact with the Moken (nomads of austronesian origins. As a consequence, the interactions between the two populations act both as the core of a social differentiation and a vector to integrate the insular environment to the Burmese social space.