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Sample records for burma

  1. Burma/Myanmar - Where Now?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps......Burma's transition to democracy & peace process. Religin, ethnicity, economy, health, development and others subjects. illustrated, maps...

  2. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rae

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  3. Ten Medicinal Plants from Burma

    OpenAIRE

    Sesoltani, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this Master thesis, there is an emphasis on scientific studies carried out to find information about the pharmacological effects and phytochemical constituents in 10 selected medicinal plants from Burma. These plants are taken from Burma collection compiled by Arnold Nordal during the period 1957-1961. Information was obtained about ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry and biological activities of the 10 chosen plants. After a thorough search in different databases, there were...

  4. Development research in Burma | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Burma in the 1990s ranked among the most repressive and self-isolated countries in the world. But the occasional appearance of a few hopeful signs of possible transition prompted IDRC's interest in the potential for development research.

  5. U.S. Sanctions on Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    did not pass the 2008 JADE Act until the SPDC crushed a nationwide protest initiated by Buddhist monks in the autumn of 2007—the so-called “ Saffron ...and the House and Senate Appropriations Committees on: progress towards democratization in Burma; progress on improving the quality of life of the...House and Senate Appropriations Committees on: progress towards democratization in Burma; progress on improving the quality of life of the Burmese

  6. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravers, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  7. 11 Medisinplanter fra Burma : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Sulic, Estella Iris

    2006-01-01

    Hovedoppgaven tar for seg vitenskapelige studier som er utført på 11 medisinplanter fra Burma-samlingen til Farmasøytisk institutt, utarbeidet av Arnold Nordal 1957-1961.I oppgaven fokuseres det på kjemiske, biologiske og toksikologiske studier som kan dokumentere de tradisjonelle anvendelsene av disse plantene i Burma og andre land. Det ble foretatt litteratursøk i databasene Medline, Embase/Ovid, Biological Abstracts, ISI Web of Knowledge, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts og Chemi...

  8. Examining Burma's Development: A Research Fellowship Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The program's launch takes advantage of recent governance and societal changes in Burma, which have created an encouraging research environment where ... Internet et les technologies en réseau telles que la téléphonie mobile suscitent des changements économiques et sociaux dans les pays en développement.

  9. Examining Burma's Development: A Research Fellowship Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The program's launch takes advantage of recent governance and societal changes in Burma, which have created an encouraging research environment where research can influence public policy. A sufficient supply of researchers with the capacity and means to conduct quality research is essential to exploit these new ...

  10. Examining Burma's Development: A Research Fellowship Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The program's launch takes advantage of recent governance and societal changes in Burma, which have created an encouraging research environment where research can influence ... The main objective of this competitive research fund is to support applied research in areas vital to achieving long-term food security.

  11. 77 FR 62596 - Allowing New Investment in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... New Investment in Burma AGENCY: Bureau of Economic & Business Affairs, Office of Sanctions Policy and....S. persons from making new investment in Burma, if the President makes certain determinations and... prohibition on new investment in Executive Order 13047 (May 20, 1997). He subsequently delegated the waiver...

  12. Toward a Networked Economy in Burma | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 2010, Burma's transition to democracy has opened up new opportunities to use digital technologies to support social development and economic growth. After decades of state restrictions on outside communication, Burma may be poised to make a leap from being one of the least connected societies in the world to a ...

  13. Results of medical examination of refugees from Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H D; Lykke, J; Hougen, H P

    1998-01-01

    To describe exposure to human rights violations among refugees from rural Burma; to compare exposure experienced by an ethnic Burmese minority group, the Shans, with that of the rest of the study population; and to compare exposure of those who had fled Burma recently with that of refugees who ha...

  14. Review: Gravers, Mikael (ed. (2007, Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Mischung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Gravers, Mikael (ed., Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma, Copenhagen: NIAS Press (= NIAS Studies in Asian Topics Series, 39, 2007, ISBN 9788791114960, 283 pages

  15. 31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic development projects in Burma. 537.412 Section 537.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... economic development of resources located in Burma is prohibited by § 537.204 where the company's profits are predominantly derived from the company's economic development of resources located in Burma. (b...

  16. 31 CFR 537.305 - Exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial services to Burma. 537.305 Section 537.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.305 Exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma. The term exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma means: (a) The transfer of...

  17. Opportunities and Challenges of Doing Business in Burma's Special ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many countries in Asia employ Special Economic Zones (SEZs) as an integral part of their development strategy to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). As it opens its borders, Burma is considering SEZs and engagement with corporations from Thailand, Japan, and China. This research project will contribute to a deeper ...

  18. 31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma... Burma of shares of ownership, including an equity interest, in the economic development of resources... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of shares in economic...

  19. 31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. 537.413 Section 537.413 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  20. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject of...

  1. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... supervision and guarantee of another person's performance of a contract that includes the economic development... royalties, earnings or profits of, the economic development of resources located in Burma. ...

  2. Burma/Myanmars Nonviolent Movement Failures: Why Resilience and Leverage Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    to be more effective than armed rebellion in influencing regime change, but in Burma (renamed Myanmar in 1989), the people failed twice in...shows that nonviolent movements tend to be more effective than armed rebellion in influencing regime change, but in Burma (renamed Myanmar in 1989), the...1 B. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS ......................................1 C. LITERATURE REVIEW

  3. 31 CFR 537.202 - Prohibited exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of financial services to Burma. 537.202 Section 537.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... permit granted prior to July 29, 2003, the exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 537.202 Prohibited exportation or reexportation of financial...

  4. Antileishmanial compounds from Cordia fragrantissima collected in Burma (Myanmar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kanami; Kawano, Marii; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Ooi, Takashi; Satake, Motoyoshi; Agatsuma, Yutaka; Kusumi, Takenori; Sekita, Setsuko

    2008-01-01

    A methanol extract of the wood of Cordia fragrantissima, collected in Burma (Myanmar), was found to exhibit significant activity against Leishmania major. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using several chromatographic techniques afforded three new compounds (1-3) and five known compounds (4-8). The structures of the new compounds were revealed on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Interestingly, the new compounds, despite the presence of asymmetric carbons, were found to be racemates. The activities of the isolates from C. fragrantissima and several derivatives were evaluated against the promastigote forms of Leishmania major, L. panamensis, and L. guyanensis.

  5. China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei FAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino–Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Charac-terizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Bur-ma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports.

  6. Ethnofederalism and the Accommodation of Ethnic Minorities in Burma: United They Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Ibid., 22. 43 Josef Silverstein, Burma: Military Rule and the Politics of Stagnation , Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977, 7; Taylor, The State...and instead, the secular courts of the states established the extents to which ethnic specific justice could be sought and executed.144 The...System Design, Vol. 1, (Stockholm: International IDEA, 1997), 28; Silverstein, Burma: Military Rule and the Politics of Stagnation , 68-69. 167 Tinker

  7. Life, Liberty, the Pursuit of Happiness : Cyberhate, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    regional stability, enhance global security, and prevent unnecessary suffering by the Burmese people. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Burma, Myanmar , Internet...Rakhine and the Muslim-minority Rohingya . In fact, it is already taking place. In 2012, anti- Rohingya rhetoric, insults, accusations, and calls to...action on the Internet turned into physical violence in western Burma. The ensuing riots resulted in eleven mosques burned, 250 Rohingya murdered

  8. Death and injury caused by land mines in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Petersen, H D; Lykke, J

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight Burmese refugees in Thailand were interviewed. One hundred and five of those interviewed had knowledge of a total of 313 persons who had been exposed to land mine explosions. Twenty-three of the interviewed were land mine survivors. They were all male, aged between...... eight and 68 years, and all except one had been injured between 1986 and 1997. Fifteen of the 23 were civilians, eight were guerilla soldiers who were injured either in battle or while deploying or disarming land mines. Those who had stepped on land mines were all crus or femur amputated and had several...... scars on the lower limbs, abdomen and some also on the forearms. Those who had handled a land mine had lost either fingers or hands and one also lost both eyes. This study shows that the frequency of land mine accidents in Burma has been underestimated and that the mortality is high. The study also...

  9. A Bowl of Rice Too Far: The Burma Campaign of the Japanese Fifteen Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    subordinates. ―Sun Tzu, The Art of War “In the rain, with no place to sit, we took short spells of sleep standing on our feet. The bodies of our comrades...Imphal, Kohima, and the Chindit Issue, March 1944 to May 1945 (London: Arms and Armour Press. 1992), 61; Micheal Pearson, The Burma Air Campaign...Rooney, David. Burma Victory: Imphal, Kohima, and the Chindit Issue, March 1944 to May 1945. London: Arms and Armour Press. 1992. Spector, Ronald H

  10. Merrill’s Marauders: Combined Operations in Northern Burma in 1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Merrill’s Marallders,: Combined Operations i:n Northern Burma In 1944 by Gary J. Bjorge Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...fighting it. In iliis. Special Study, Dr. GlII)’ Bjorge of the Combat Studies Institute offers a case study in coalItion warI’me duJ:ing the Second Wodd...DepartmentpfOefense, Merrill’s Marauders: Combined Operations in Northern Burma in 1944 bY Gary 3. Bjorge Printed courtesy of the U.S. Army Center of

  11. Teaching Citizenship under an Authoritarian Regime: A Case-Study of Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Brooke Andrea

    2013-01-01

    What does citizenship education look like in a society ruled by an authoritarian military regime? This dissertation seeks to answer this question by examining official citizenship education policy in Burma/Myanmar and how it is implemented in contemporary government primary schools. Using critical qualitative methodology, I identify the…

  12. Narratives and the Constitution of a Common Identity : The Karen in Burma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuroiwa, Yoko; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted in an informal school located in Thailand at the border with Myanmar (Burma) and supervised by the Karen National Union (KNU). The KNU has claimed and fought for political autonomy and independence from the Burmese government for more than a half century. The authors

  13. A Pilot Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for Refugee Youth from Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah Dorothy; Emmerling, Dane; Gavarkavich, Diane; Mershon, Claire-Helene; Linton, Kristin; Rubesin, Hillary; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Eng, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Art therapy is a promising form of therapy to address mental health concerns for refugee youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a pilot evaluation of an art therapy program for refugee adolescents from Burma currently living in the United States. Evaluation activities were based on the Centers for Disease Control and…

  14. 77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... authorities, provided that the account is not on the books of a financial institution that is a U.S. person...) Educational activities in Burma, including, but not limited to, combating illiteracy; increasing access to... E.O. 13464, provided that the account is not on the books of a financial institution that is a U.S...

  15. Tectonics of the IndoBurma Oblique Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Akhter, S. H.; Betka, P. M.; Cai, Y.; Grall, C.; Mondal, D. R.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Maung Maung, P.; Ni, J.; Persaud, P.; Sandvol, E. A.; Tun, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) is obliquely colliding with the IndoBurma subduction zone. Most of the 42 mm/y of arc-parallel motion is absorbed in a set of dextral to dextral-convergent faults, the Sagaing, Kabaw and Churachandpur-Mao Faults. The 13-17 mm/y of convergence with the delta has built a 250-km wide active accretionary prism. The upper part of the 19-km sediment thickness consists of a shallowing-up stack of prograding strata that has shifted the shelf edge 3-400 km since the Himalayan orogeny at 50 Ma. The upper 3-5 km sandy shelf to fluvial strata are deformed into a broad fold and thrust belt above an overpressured décollement. It forms a flat shallow roof thrust in the frontal accretionary prism. The structure of the deeper part of the accretionary prism, which must transfer the incoming sediments to the upper plate, is unknown. GPS indicates the downdip end of the megathrust locked zone is 25 km at 92.5°E. The deformation front, marked by nascent detachment folds above the shallow décollement reaches the megacity of Dhaka in the middle of the GBD. The seismogenic potential of this portion of the prism is unknown. Arc volcanism in Myanmar, 500 km east of the deformation front, is sparse. Limited geochemical data on the arc volcanics are consistent with hot slab conditions. One possibility is that the deep GBD slab and basement are metamorphosed and dewatered early in the subduction process whereby most of the fluids are transferred to the growing prism by buoyancy driven migration or accretion of fluid-rich strata. Since it is entirely subaerial this little-studied region crossing Bangladesh, India and Myanmar provides an opportunity for a detailed multidisciplinary geophysical and geological investigation. It has the potential to highlight the role of fluids in subduction zones, the tectonics of extreme accretion and their seismic hazards, and the interplay between driving and resistance forces of a subduction zone during a soft collision.

  16. Review: Donald Seekins: Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ (2008 Buchbesprechung: Donald Seekins: Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Bernd Zöllner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Donald Seekins: Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, ISBN 978 87 7694 017 1, 191 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Donald Seekins: Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ Kopenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, ISBN 978 87 7694 017 1, 191 Seiten

  17. Stilwell’s North Burma campaign: a case study in multinational mission command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Stilwell’s North Burma Campaign: A Case Study in Multinational Mission Command A Monograph by MAJ Hayden D. Scardina United States Army...Study in Multinational Mission Command 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Hayden D...CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MAJ Hayden Scardina a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS

  18. Burma: Strategic Backwater or Strategic Fulcrum? U.S. Choices in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    from Rangoon to Arakan, killing over 100,000 people and leaving millions homeless . The SPDC delayed accepting aid from the international community...region. It is interesting to note that while Burma is a member, China, Japan, India, the U.S. and Australia are not. One of the ways that ASEAN...Canberra, Australia , The White House: Office of the Press Secretary, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/11/17/remarks-president-obama

  19. Thinking Big about the Small Footprint: Making Strategy for a Security Cooperation Campaign in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    Myanmar ) is in the midst of an exceptional transition from rule by dictatorship to becoming a more democratic state. The biggest threats to this...legitimacy and control at the same time. 1 Introduction In 2010, Burma (or Myanmar ) began to transition from its decades-old rule by military...unrest and communal violence. Buddhist (ethnic Rakhine) versus Muslim (ethnic Rohingya ) violence continues to wrack the western state of Rakhine. Eight

  20. Burma/Myanmar’s nonviolent movement failures: why resilience and leverage matter

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Glenda K.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Empirical research shows that nonviolent movements tend to be more effective than armed rebellion in influencing regime change, but in Burma (renamed Myanmar in 1989), the people failed twice in overthrowing the military-controlled government. The 1988 student-led movement had nationwide support and incapacitated the government but fell short of severing the military’s control of the state. In 2007, the monk-led Saffron Revolution attr...

  1. Burma/Myanmar: Challenges of a Ceasefire Accord in Karen State Burma/Myanmar: Herausforderungen eines Waffenstillstandsabkommens im Karen-Staat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Core

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Burma (Myanmar has seen some of the longest-running insurgencies in the world, which have had a devastating effect on local populations and the country as a whole. While the Karen National Union (KNU, which has fought successive Burmese governments since 1949, is in a critical phase of its life, the KNU/KNLA Peace Council (KPC is experiencing life under a ceasefire accord with the Burmese government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC. Major challenges have occurred since the ceasefire and future developments are uncertain. Like all ceasefire groups in the country, the KPC has come under immense pressure to follow the government’s “seven-step road map” to democracy, compete in the 2010 elections, and transform its troops into a border guard force under the control of the Burmese military or face disarmament. This article seeks to provide some insights into a ceasefire group, to analyse the failures and successes of the ceasefire accord, and to outline future challenges to the country. Myanmar (Burma ist bis heute Schauplatz von anhaltenden ethnischen Konflikten, welche einen erheblichen Einfluss auf lokale Bevölkerungen und das ganze Land haben. Während die Karen National Union, die seit dem Jahr 1949 gegen die burmesische Regierung kämpft, sich in einer kritischen Phase befindet, hat das KNU/KNLA Peace Council seinen eigenen Frieden mit der Militärregierung geschlossen. Seit dem Waffenstillstand haben sich erhebliche Herausforderungen aufgetan und zukünftige Entwicklungen sind ungewiss. Wie alle Waffenstillstandsgruppen im Land steht die Gruppe unter dem Druck der Regierung, dem „Sieben-Punkte-Fahrplan zur disziplinierten Demokratie“ zu folgen und damit eine politische Partei zu gründen sowie seine Truppen in eine Grenztruppe unter Kontrolle des burmesischen Militärs zu transformieren. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Einblick in eine Waffenstillstandsgruppe, analysiert die Erfolge sowie Misserfolge des

  2. Kinematic modeling of Neotectonic velocity field of the Persia-Tibet-Burma Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Bird, P.

    2003-12-01

    New kinematic finite-element program NeoKinema has been applied to compute the long-term-average velocity field and fault slip rates in the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogen using the Maximum-likelihood criterion. The orogen extends from east Turkey on the west, to Burma and Laos on the south, to east and southeast China on the east, and to Mongolia on the north. We use three data sets in our modeling: 1497 GPS benchmark solutions compiled from published sources, 366 geologic slip rates with standard deviations, 876 most compressive horizontal principal stress directions from the World Stress Map 2003 [Mueller et al., 2003]. Faults and potentially active faults are included. But faults of less constrained slip rates, e.g., faults in Iran, are assigned with large uncertainty. An iterative procedure is used to correct for transient fault locking effects on geodetic data. We use an updated plate model PB2002 to approximate the velocity boundary conditions from surrounding rigid plates (Anatolia, Arabia, India, Burma, Sunda, Yangtze, Amur) and the rigid part of the Eurasia plate in a Eurasia-fixed reference frame [Bird, 2003]. We also test various Sunda-Eurasia Euler poles and their effects on our modeling results. The F-E grid has 1564 nodes and 1964 triangular elements. So far 26 models have been computed with various background strain rates and weighting of GPS data. Initial results show a good correspondence between predicted strain rate and Harvard CMT earthquake catalogue with m>5.5. The preferred fault slip rates in central and southeast Asia are generally less than the geologic estimates but within +/-2σ error bounds. The strain rate field and optimal fault slip rate estimates suggest that crustal deformation in the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogen is a mixture of distributed and quasi-rigid block deformation. A few such blocks are central Iran and southern Caspian basin, Tarim basin and Gobi platform, Qaidam basin, Ordos block and north of Tienshan in central Asia.

  3. The Prospect of China’s Access to Naval Facilities in Burma and the Ramifications for Regional Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Jurgen Haacke. “Myanmar’s Foreign Policy.” 30. 24 Irrawaddy River .78 In addition to furthering development for Burma, this road will foster more...partner after Thailand, China, Singapore, and the European Union.86 India even provided a soft loan of US$56.35 million to upgrade the Yangon -Mandalay

  4. The Vital Presence: The Generalship of Field Marshal Viscount William Slim General Officer Commanding XIV Army in the Burma Theater 1943-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    Frank McLynn. The Burma Campaign: Disaster into Triumph 1942-45. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010), 165-178, and John Latimer . Burma: The...Forgotten War. (London: John Ives, 2004), 125. 10 Robert Lyman. Slim, Master of War. (London: Robinson Publishing, 2005), 117-118. 11 Latimer , 31-32. 12...Dunlop, 2-3. 13 Dunlop, 3. 14 Louis Allen. Burma: The Longest War 1941-45. (London: Phoenix Press, 2001), . 15 Latimer , 176-178. 16 See William

  5. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  6. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  7. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  9. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world’s largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10–20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased—particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately

  10. Causes of blindness in rural Myanmar (Burma: Mount Popa Taung-Kalat Blindness Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Y Nemet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet1, Pinhas Nemet2, Geoff Cohn3, Gina Sutton, Gerald Sutton4, Richard Rawson41Department of Ophthalmology, Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; 3Departments of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: This study is a review of the major causes of visual impairment (VI and severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL in Mount Popa Taung-Kalat, a rural region in Myanmar (Burma.Methods: A review of our clinical records of consecutive patients attending clinics was conducted. Participants of all ages (n = 650 of the population of Mount Popa Taung-Kalat and villages in its vicinity underwent ophthalmic interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained Australian ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses. This evaluation included anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, intraocular pressure recording, and direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. VI and SVI/BL were defined by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Six hundred fifty subjects were screened, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 20.6 years (range, 1–99. One hundred five patients (16.2% were children (ages 1–18. Five hundred thirty-one eyes of the total 1,300 eyes (39.5% had VI/SVI/BL, and 40 eyes of the children (38.1% (average age 15.3 ± 13.3 had VI/SVI/BL. The leading causes of VI/SVI/BL were cataract with 288 cases (54.2%, glaucoma with 84 cases (15.8%, and corneal pathology with 78 cases (14.7%. Of all the VI/SVI/BL cases, 8.4% were preventable, 81.9% were treatable, and total of 90.5% were avoidable.Conclusions: In the current study, cataracts were the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, and most of the ophthalmic pathology causing blindness is avoidable. These results highlight the lack of basic ophthalmologist eye care and optician resources in rural regions in Myanmar

  11. Modeling of GPS velocities across the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta - Burma Arc oblique subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Feng, L.; Gale, J.; Howe, M.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Burma Arc is the northward continuation of the Sumatra-Anadaman subduction zone that gave rise to the 2004 M9.3 earthquake and tsunami. Near its northern end, it is colliding with the thick sediments of the Bengal Basin. The sediments of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta are folded and faulted, creating a subaerial 250-km wide accretionary prism. The deformation front is blind and reaches ½ way across the delta. Whether subduction is still occurring at this highly oblique plate boundary has been hotly debated. To investigate this, we combined our 25 continuous GPS receivers in Bangladesh with the campaign network in Myanmar, processing them together with GAMIT/GLOBK. We combined this data with 28 mostly campaign GPS sites in India (Gahalaut et al., 2012) by processing using the same IGS sites and performing a Helmert transformation to place all the data in same reference frame within ITRF2008. Published Indian plate poles yield a systematic residual for Bangladeshi sites believed to be on stable India. We estimated a new pole by combining 13 Indian stations (Mahesh et al., 2013) with 2 of our stations. Due to the rapid growth of the accretionary prism and the overthrusting by the Shillong Plateau, the Burma Arc changes shape from the backstop to the front folds. To project the GPS velocities into a profile, we have experimented with several projections that vary across the foldbelt, using the arc of the earthquakes and the topography as a guide. Strike-slip is mostly absorbed by the Sagaing and CMF faults, and some additional shear is distributed over the region. The best fitting suite of models for the shortening component yield 13-15 mm/y of shortening across the arc on a shallow-dipping megathrust. Additional shortening of ~4 mm/y is absorbed in the vicinity of the Kabaw Fault, where coverage is sparse. The dip of the megathrust and the depth of its downdip end trade off with one another in the different projections. The low range of dips of 6-10° is consistent

  12. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kano

    Full Text Available Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more

  13. A longitudinal study of mental health in refugees from Burma: The impact of therapeutic interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sierra; Schweitzer, Robert; Brough, Mark; Vromans, Lyn; Murray, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study seeks to examine the impact of therapeutic interventions for refugees within a naturalistic setting. Method Sixty-two refugees from Burma were assessed soon after arriving in Australia. All participants received standard interventions provided by a resettlement organisation which included therapeutic interventions, assessment, social assistance, and referrals where appropriate. At the completion of service provision a follow-up assessment was conducted. Results Over the course of the intervention, participants experienced a significant decrease in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and somatisation. Pre-intervention symptoms predicted symptoms post-intervention for post-traumatic stress, anxiety, and somatisation. Post-migration living difficulties, the number of traumas experienced, and the number of contacts with the service agency were unrelated to all mental health outcomes. Conclusions In the first Australian study of its kind, reductions in mental health symptoms post-intervention were significantly linked to pre-intervention symptomatology and the number of therapy sessions predicted post-intervention symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Future studies need to include larger samples and control groups to verify findings. PMID:22431841

  14. The Impact of Sino-Indian Energy Security Ambitions on Burma’s Domestic and Foreign Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    India Strategic Rivalry in Asia and the Indian Ocean ,” Asian Survey 48, no.6 (2008): 937. 2 Egreteau, “Breakout of China-India Strategic Rivalry,” 937...need to invest a considerable amount in Burma in order to harness the natural gas reserves. Pipelines, port facilities, and deep water drilling... artic le&id=98:indian-companies-to-invest-more-in-myanmar-offshore-gas- projects&catid=39:featured-news&Itemid=74. Asia’s Rising Energy and Resource

  15. Paysages de l’hybridité en Birmanie Landscapes of Hybridity in Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Robinne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Du fait de la dimension composite, hétérogène, de tout paysage social, une nécessaire cohérence d’ensemble se dessine. À la croisée de populations d’origines diverses produisant une diversité sociale et linguistique aussi complexe qu’instable, la région de Nyaung-Shwé dans l’État Shan de Birmanie est fondamentalement structurée par l’évolution concomitante de la cérémonie processionnelle de cinq images de Bouddha et par le cycle économique de « cinq jours un marché ». L’articulation de ces deux sphères économiques et religieuses non seulement contribue à organiser les déplacements des biens et des personnes de part et d’autre du lac Inlé ; elle génère également une suprématie politique du paysage social au profit de ceux qui contrôlent – au moins symboliquement – leur évolution. Cet exemple pourrait être étendu à d’autres paysages sociaux où le bouddhisme opère comme fédérateur commun (comme dans la région de Thibaw, on le verra, où le christianisme pluriel est indissociable des revendications ethniques, et finalement partout où j’ai été conduit à faire des enquêtes de terrain en Birmanie, dans des régions reculées comme en milieu urbain. Dans tous les cas, la problématique consistant à mettre de côté, au moins dans un premier temps, l’habituel surdéterminant ethnique – voire même interethnique –, c’est-à-dire à centrer l’analyse sur les carrefours transethniques plutôt que sur les frontières culturelles et territoriales, une telle problématique contribuerait à démontrer la dynamique inclusive de tout paysage social et l’intérêt à prendre l’hybridité pour objet d’étude.Despite the composite dimensions of any social landscape, a necesserary social coherence has to be produced. At the crossroad of peoples of multiple origins producing a complex and unstable social and linguistic diversity, the Nyaung Shwe township in the Shan State of Burma

  16. On the frontline of eastern Burma's chronic conflict--listening to the voices of local health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footer, Katherine H A; Meyer, Sarah; Sherman, Susan G; Rubenstein, Leonard

    2014-11-01

    Globally, attacks on and interferences with health workers and healthcare delivery, including targeted violence towards providers, attacks on hospitals and delays and denial of health care, represent a serious humanitarian and human rights issue. However, gaps in research about these events persist, limiting the evidence base from which to understand and address the problem. This paper focuses on experiences of local health workers in eastern Burma's chronic conflict, including their strategies for addressing security and ensuring access to vulnerable ethnic communities in the region. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in June and August 2012 with 27 health workers from three health organizations that operate throughout eastern Burma, with their operational head quarters located in Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand. Qualitative analysis found that health workers in this setting experience violent and non-violent interferences with their work, and that the Burmese government's military activities in the region have severely impacted access to care, which remains restricted. Data show that innovative security strategies have emerged, including the important role of the community in ensuring securer access to health care. This study underscores health workers' concern for improved data collection to support the rights of health workers to provide health care, and the rights of community members to receive health care in conflict-affected settings. Findings will inform the development of an incident reporting form to improve systematic data collection and documentation of attacks on health in this setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinematic modelling of neotectonics in the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Bird, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We apply a new kinematic modelling technique (program NeoKinema) to estimate neotectonic flow in the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogen. The models fit geodetic benchmark velocities, geological fault slip rates and stress directions (seismic moment tensor orientations) using a weighted-least-squares method. Models predict long-term velocities, anelastic strain rates and preferred fault slip rates averaged over timescales of 104-106 yr. While we find a few regions of low anelastic strain rate, the mean continuum strain rate in the preferred model is 2.2 × 10-16 s-1 (0.7 per cent Ma-1), so the India-Eurasia collision should not be modelled as an interaction between rigid microplates. For most faults, preferred fault slip rates agree with geological slip rates within their uncertainty bounds; this suggests that deformation imaged by geodesy over tens of years is consistent with deformation over 104-106 yr (given appropriate elastic corrections). We also calculate maps of long-term-average seismicity rate based on model fault slip rates and anelastic strain rates in the continuum, using the seismicity parameters of most comparable type of plate boundary. The pattern is generally in agreement with actual m > 5.67 earthquakes in the CMT catalogue (1977-2002), except that the Himalayan front, High Zagros and Altyn Tagh zones have been quieter than predicted. The spatial integral of our forecast over the orogen is 371 m > 5.67 earthquakes/25.75 yr, versus 238 which actually occurred. If this discrepancy has high significance, it means that some step(s) in our forecast method are faulty (such as the assumption of equal coupled seismogenic thickness in all continental convergent boundaries). If it is only an artefact of stochastic time-dependence, then this may have occurred in the orogen, in the external calibration region, or in both. Independent evidence suggests that large earthquakes (with many aftershocks) will occur along the Himalayan front in the future, possibly reducing

  18. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-05-07 to 2007-06-14 (NCEI Accession 0155654)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155654 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX05RR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bay of Bengal...

  19. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Low

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in

  20. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin

    2014-01-01

    Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations' (EHOs) and community-based organizations' (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this report provides evidence of the substantive

  1. Investigation on the biotrophic interaction of Ustilago esculenta on Zizania latifolia found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0.05). Examination of various parts of infected plants using culture methods, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction revealed that Ustilago esculenta colonized Zizania latifolia in a non-systemic manner. Spores and fragmented hyphae of U. esculenta were present in the rhizome of infected plant throughout the year, but shoot interiors were without any fungal structures from April until September. The smut region of infected plants in early September to December were heavily sporulated with fragmented hyphae, while the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. Hyphae and spores were also absent in the internodes and membranes aboveground up to smut region of infected plants but were present in the old rhizomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating Art Therapy to Heal the Effects of Trauma Among Refugee Youth: The Burma Art Therapy Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Cassandra; Watson-Ormond, Rose; English, Lacey; Rubesin, Hillary; Marshall, Ashley; Linton, Kristin; Amolegbe, Andrew; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Eng, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Art therapy uses the creative process to encourage personal growth and alleviate symptoms of mental illness. The Art Therapy Institute provides programs for refugee adolescents from Burma to decrease their trauma-related symptoms. This article describes and discusses the methods and findings from an evaluation of this program. The challenges of assessing art therapy with this population and assessment tool gaps are explored and suggestions for future evaluations discussed. Four validated clinical assessment tools were administered to 30 participants at baseline and follow-up to measure symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavioral problems. Focus group discussions with clinicians were used to assess the evaluation. Nearly all participants had experienced one or more traumatic events. At baseline, results showed a higher prevalence of depression than national rates among adolescents. Follow-up results showed improvements in anxiety and self-concept. Qualitative findings suggest that specific benefits of art therapy were not adequately captured with the tools used. This evaluation showed some effects of art therapy; however, symptom-focused assessment tools are not adequate to capture clients' growth resulting from the traumatic experience and this unique intervention. Future evaluations will benefit by using an art-based assessment and measuring posttraumatic growth. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  4. Health and Human Rights in Chin State, Western Burma: A Population-Based Assessment Using Multistaged Household Cluster Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar) is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. Methods and Findings Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%–94.1%) reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project) definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21346799

  5. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

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    Jianxiong Ma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers. The political elites of the Five Buddha Districts, however, were monks who had escaped the strict orthodoxy of the Qing government to become local chieftains, or rebels, depending on political changes in southern Yunnan. As a centralized polity, the Five Buddha Districts system was attached to the frontier politics of the Qing state before the coming of European colonial powers. The Qing state provided a sociopolitical space for local groups to develop their political ideals between various powerful Dai-Shan chieftains. The negotiation, competition, and cooperation between the Five Buddha leadership and the Qing, Dai chieftains, and neighboring political powers had been thoroughly integrated into the frontier politics of this interdependent society for more than two hundred years. As the history of the Yunnan-Burma frontier formation shows that no mountain space existed to allow the natives to escape from the state through their shifting agriculture, and anarchism was not practiced by the mountain people who were separated from the state, the author argues that a stateless region like James Scott’s “Zomia” did not historically exist in this region.

  6. "In rape cases we can use this pill": a multimethods assessment of emergency contraception knowledge, access, and needs on the Thailand-Burma border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobstetter, Margaret; Sietstra, Cari; Walsh, Meredith; Leigh, Jennifer; Foster, Angel M

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate availability, service delivery, and barriers to access to emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) along the Thailand-Burma border. From June 2010 to May 2011 we undertook a multimethods qualitative assessment among cross-border populations, migrants, and refugees. We conducted 46 key informant interviews with representatives from 25 organizations, 18 focus group discussions with migrant adults, migrant adolescents, and healthcare workers, and a service mapping exercise with 22 stakeholders. We found low use of ECPs among the target populations. Structural barriers and lack of evidence-based reproductive health protocols, education, and information restrict access to the limited family planning resources available in this region. Misinformation about ECPs was widespread among health workers and organizational policies were often non-evidence based. Potential policy and program interventions to improve access to ECPs along the Thailand-Burma border include integrating evidence-based practices into community efforts, expanding training opportunities for health workers, and improving communication and coordination among organizations serving populations on both sides of the border. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Precipitation stable isotope records from the northern Hengduan Mountains in China capture signals of the winter India-Burma Trough and the Indian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wusheng; Tian, Lide; Yao, Tandong; Xu, Baiqing; Wei, Feili; Ma, Yaoming; Zhu, Haifeng; Luo, Lun; Qu, Dongmei

    2017-11-01

    This project reports results of the first precipitation stable isotope (δ18 O and δD) time series produced for Qamdo in the northern Hengduan Mountains in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The data showed that the fluctuations of precipitation stable isotopes at Qamdo during the different seasons revealed various moisture sources. The westerlies and local recycling moisture dominated at the study area before the pre-monsoon and after the post-monsoon seasons, which resulted in similar trends of both precipitation stable isotopes and temperature. The marine moisture was transported to the northern Hengduan Mountains by the winter India-Burma Trough combined with convection. Consequently, stable isotopes in subsequent precipitation were occasionally observed to decrease suddenly. However, δ18 O and δD values of precipitation at Qamdo were lower during the monsoon period and the duration of those low values was longer because of the effects of the Indian Summer Monsoon and the strengthening convection. Our findings indicate that the effects of seasonal precipitation differences caused by various climate systems, including the winter India-Burma Trough and Indian Summer Monsoon, need to be considered when attempting to interpret tree-ring and ice core records for the Hengduan Mountains.

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bali Sea and others from 2016-02-08 to 2016-09-22 (NCEI Accession 0160548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160548 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bali Sea,...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-21 (NODC Accession 0115589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115589 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay...

  10. Information Extraction and Interpretation Analysis of Mineral Potential Targets Based on ETM+ Data and GIS technology: A Case Study of Copper and Gold Mineralization in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhui, Du; Gongwen, Wang; Yongqing, Chen; Nana, Guo; Yinglong, Hao; Pengfei, Zhao

    2014-03-01

    Mineralization-alteration and structure information extraction plays important roles in mineral resource prospecting and assessment using remote sensing data and the Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Choosing copper and gold mines in Burma as example, the authors adopt band ratio, threshold segmentation and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the hydroxyl alteration information using ETM+ remote sensing images. Digital elevation model (DEM) (30m spatial resolution) and ETM+ data was used to extract linear and circular faults that are associated with copper and gold mineralization. Combining geological data and the above information, the weights of evidence method and the C-A fractal model was used to integrate and identify the ore-forming favourable zones in this area. Research results show that the high grade potential targets are located with the known copper and gold deposits, and the integrated information can be used to the next exploration for the mineral resource decision-making.

  11. Burma and Transnational Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-21

    treaties — the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , as amended; the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances; and the 1988 Convention against the...Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Burma’s official strategy to combat drugs aims to end all production and trafficking

  12. Burma, Prof. Debi Prosad

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Prof. Debi Prosad D.Phil. (Calcutta), FNA, FNASc, FAMS. Date of birth: 1 February 1925. Date of death: 4 February 2005. Specialization: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Last known address: CF 186, Sector I, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 ...

  13. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Murakami, Noriyuki; Lee, Catherine I; Leigh, Jen; Wirtz, Andrea L; Daniels, Brock; Mahn, Mahn; Maung, Cynthia; Beyrer, Chris

    2010-04-19

    Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT) to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during reconstruction efforts. Such issues remain unaddressed in official assessments

  14. Impact of community-based maternal health workers on coverage of essential maternal health interventions among internally displaced communities in eastern Burma: the MOM project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to essential maternal and reproductive health care is poor throughout Burma, but is particularly lacking among internally displaced communities in the eastern border regions. In such settings, innovative strategies for accessing vulnerable populations and delivering basic public health interventions are urgently needed. METHODS: Four ethnic health organizations from the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions collaborated on a pilot project between 2005 and 2008 to examine the feasibility of an innovative three-tiered network of community-based providers for delivery of maternal health interventions in the complex emergency setting of eastern Burma. Two-stage cluster-sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y conducted before and after program implementation enabled evaluation of changes in coverage of essential antenatal care interventions, attendance at birth by those trained to manage complications, postnatal care, and family planning services. RESULTS: Among 2,889 and 2,442 women of reproductive age in 2006 and 2008, respectively, population characteristics (age, marital status, ethnic distribution, literacy were similar. Compared to baseline, women whose most recent pregnancy occurred during the implementation period were substantially more likely to receive antenatal care (71.8% versus 39.3%, prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-2.04] and specific interventions such as urine testing (42.4% versus 15.7%, PRR = 2.69 [95% CI 2.69-3.54], malaria screening (55.9% versus 21.9%, PRR = 2.88 [95% CI 2.15-3.85], and deworming (58.2% versus 4.1%, PRR = 14.18 [95% CI 10.76-18.71]. Postnatal care visits within 7 d doubled. Use of modern methods to avoid pregnancy increased from 23.9% to 45.0% (PRR = 1.88 [95% CI 1.63-2.17], and unmet need for contraception was reduced from 61.7% to 40.5%, a relative reduction of 35% (95% CI 28%-40%. Attendance at birth by those trained to

  15. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahn Mahn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. Methods A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. Results One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Conclusions Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during

  16. The Impact of Health Service of the Community Hospital Located in Thailand’s Border: migrant from Burma, LAOS, and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orathai - Srithongtham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The denial of difficult, dangerous and dirty work done by the Thai People has been the major cause of migrant substitution in Thailand which triggered the urgent need for proper health care. This study was aim to explain the burden and impact of providing health service to the trans-national migrant in community hospital at border area of Laos, Burma and Cambodia. Therefore survey research and data collecting was used through quantitative and qualitative methods. Results: Khemarat and Klong Yai hospital: the financial burden was high however Mae Sai hospital has strong income with less expenditure. The impact of three hospitals was 1 the only way of solving the financial burden is by using the hospital’s money. 2 No data system about trans-nation’s migrant health services has been applied so far by any hospitals here in Thailand 3 Man power of hospital is depended on the Thai people which doesn’t include the migrant which is approximately 50% 4 The language and the cultural had generated several obstacles to health service 5 Problem of prevention and control of Communicable disease such as Malaria, Dengue Hemorrhagic fever, Tuberculosis, and Elephantiasis, 6 No Referral system between Thailand and neighboring countries.  Recommendations: it should be setting the strategy of AEC’s health system at nearby country, concern with the trans-national migrants, and develop the data system of health service of trans-national migrant.

  17. Phylogeny and taxonomical investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hot spot region with special reference to Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Th; Devi, S Indira; Sharma, K Chandradev; Kennedy, K

    2015-01-01

    Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice.

  18. Biomagnetic monitoring of particulate matter (PM through leaves of an invasive alien plant Lantana camara in an Indo-Burma hot spot region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India falling under an Indo-Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. Phyto-sociolology of invasive weeds has been performed and results revealed that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter (SPM as well as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM in ambient air of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India. Bio-magnetic monitoring through plant leaves has been recognised as recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter (PM science. We aimed to investigate that whether magnetic properties of Lantana camara leaves may act as proxy of PM pollution and hence an attempt towards it's sustainable management. Magnetic susceptibility (χ, Anhyste reticremanent magnetization (ARM and Saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM of Lantana camara plant leaves were assessed and concomitantly correlated these magnetic properties with ambient PM in order to screen this invasive plant which may act as proxy for ambient PM concentrations. Results revealed high χ, ARM, SIRM of Lantana camara leaves and moreover, these parameters were having significant and positive correlation with ambient SPM as well as RSPM. Therefore, present study recommended the use of Lantana camara as bio-magnetic monitor which may further have sustainable management implications of an invasive plant.

  19. Adapting to social and political transitions - the influence of history on health policy formation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Annear, Peter; Ahmed, Shakil; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2014-04-01

    The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action

  20. Tectonic evolution of the Mogok metamorphic belt, Burma (Myanmar) constrained by U-Th-Pb dating of metamorphic and magmatic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, M. P.; Noble, S. R.; Cottle, J. M.; Waters, D. J.; Mitchell, A. H. G.; Hlaing, Tin; Horstwood, M. S. A.

    2007-06-01

    The Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB) extends for over 1500 km along the western margin of the Shan-Thai block, from the Andaman Sea north to the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Previous geochronology has suggested that a long-lasting Jurassic-early Cretaceous subduction-related event resulted in emplacement of granodiorites and orthogneisses (171-120 Ma) and a poorly constrained Tertiary metamorphic event. On the basis of new U-Pb isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry and U-Th-Pb laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer geochronology presented here, we propose two Tertiary metamorphic events affected the MMB in Burma. The first was a Paleocene event that ended with intrusion of crosscutting postkinematic biotite granite dikes at ˜59 Ma. A second metamorphic event spanned late Eocene to Oligocene (at least from 37, possibly 47, to 29 Ma). This resulted in the growth of metamorphic monazite at sillimanite grade, growth of zircon rims at 47-43 Ma, sillimanite + muscovite replacing older andalusite, and synmetamorphic melting producing garnet and tourmaline bearing leucogranites at 45.5 ± 0.6 Ma and 24.5 ± 0.7 Ma. These data imply high-temperature sillimanite + muscovite metamorphism peaking at 680°C and 4.9 kbar between 45 and 33 Ma, to around 606-656°C and 4.4-4.8 kbar at 29.3 ± 0.5 Ma. The later metamorphic event is older than 24.5 ± 0.3 Ma, the age of leucogranites that crosscut all earlier fabrics. Our structural and geochronological data suggest that the MMB links north to the unexposed middle or lower crust rocks of the Lhasa terrane, south Tibet, and east to high-grade metamorphic core complexes in northwest Thailand.

  1. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of subaerial lava flows of Barren Island volcano and the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc, Burma Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Pande, Kanchan; Bhutani, Rajneesh

    2015-06-01

    Little was known about the nature and origin of the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc in spite of the fact that it formed part of the highly active Indonesian volcanic arc system, one of the important continental crust forming regions in Southeast Asia. This arc, formed as a result of subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Microplate (a sliver of the Eurasian Plate), contains only one active subaerial magmatic center, Barren Island volcano, whose evolutional timeline had remained uncertain. In this work, we present results of the first successful attempt to date crustal xenoliths and their host lava flows from the island, by incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar method, in an attempt to understand the evolutionary histories of the volcano and its basement. Based on concordant plateau and isochron ages, we establish that the oldest subaerial lava flows of the volcano are 1.58 ± 0.04 (2σ) Ma, and some of the plagioclase xenocrysts have been derived from crustal rocks of 106 ± 3 (2σ) Ma. Mineralogy (anorthite + Cr-rich diopside + minor olivine) and isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr 7.0) of xenoliths not only indicate their derivation from a lower (oceanic) crustal olivine gabbro but also suggest a genetic relationship between the arc crust and the ophiolitic basement of the Andaman accretionary prism. We speculate that the basements of the forearc and volcanic arc of the Andaman subduction zone belong to a single continuous unit that was once attached to the western margin of the Eurasian Plate.

  2. Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo–Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, north east India falling under an Indo–Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. The phytosociolology of invasive weeds has been studied, showing that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter as well as respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Aizawl. Biomonitoring through plant leaves has been recognized as a recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter science. We aimed to investigate whether L. camara leaves may act as a biomonitoring tool hence allowing its sustainable management. The quantity of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter at four different sites were much higher than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board of India during the summer and winter seasons. The dust deposition of L. camara leaves was 1.01 mg/cm2 and, pertaining to the biochemical parameters: pH was 7.49; relative water content 73.74%; total chlorophyll 1.91 mg/g; ascorbic acid 7.06 mg/g; sugar 0.16 mg/g; protein 0.67 mg/g; catalase 30.76 U/mg protein; peroxidase 0.16 U/mg protein; and air pollution tolerance index was 12.91. L. camara was observed in the good category in anticipated performance index, which shows the tolerant and conditioning capacity of air pollution. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of L. camara as biomonitor that may further have sustainable management implications for an invasive plant.

  3. Early Cretaceous wedge extrusion in the Indo-Burma Range accretionary complex: implications for the Mesozoic subduction of Neotethys in SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Cai, Fulong; Sein, Kyaing; Naing, Soe

    2017-06-01

    The Indo-Burma Range (IBR) of Myanmar, the eastern extension of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Neotethyan belt of Tibet in China, contains mélanges with serpentinite, greenschist facies basalt, chert, sericite schist, silty slate and unmetamorphosed Triassic sandstone, mudstone and siltstone interbedded with chert in the east, and farther north high-pressure blueschist and eclogite blocks in the Naga Hills mélange. Our detailed mapping of the Mindat and Magwe sections in the middle IBR revealed a major 18 km antiformal isocline in a mélange in which greenschist facies rocks in the core decrease in grade eastwards and westwards symmetrically `outwards' to lower grade sericite schist and silty slate, and at the margins to unmetamorphosed sediments, and these metamorphic rocks are structurally repeated in small-scale imbricated thrust stacks. In the Mindat section the lower western boundary of the isoclinal mélange is a thrust on which the metamorphic rocks have been transported over unmetamorphosed sediments of the Triassic Pane Chaung Group, and the upper eastern boundary is a normal fault. These relations demonstrate that the IBR metamorphic rocks were exhumed by wedge extrusion in a subduction-generated accretionary complex. Along strike to the north in the Naga Hills is a comparable isoclinal mélange in which central eclogite lenses are succeeded `outwards' by layers of glaucophane schist and glaucophanite, and to lower grade greenschist facies sericite schist and slate towards the margins. In the Natchaung area (from west to east) unmetamorphosed Triassic sediments overlie quartzites, sericite schists, actinolite schists and meta-volcanic amphibolites derived from MORB-type basalt, which are in fault contact with peridotite. Olivine in the peridotite has undulatory extinction suggesting deformation at 600-700 °C, similar to the peak temperature of the amphibolite; these relations suggest generation in a metamorphic sole. The amphibolites have U/Pb zircon ages of 119

  4. Health Data Publications No. 30. Burma (Union of Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Garcinia morella thamen-gut drastic cathartic, camboge (Gamboge tree) can cause death Camellia sinensis letpet (the tea plant) caffeine, ( tea plant...vesicant cardol, gum (cashew nut) substance Semecarpus che, chyai-beng highly vesicant non-volatile anacardium irritating oil (marking nut tree) Moringa

  5. Behind Japanese Lines in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    icular 1/ic� ii ç�or� 0/15/) a/lti-/apa/lese Kachi 1 peple u�c�re i/ic!! to the li/li! .c success B~ the ti/ic� ~?f its (lecicti �cit/Oil oil 12. / 94... killed 5. 42/,�/cif)anc�se and res cued 574 A /lk�cl percoil miel. The li/lit 5 ciccomplishiiie)it.c garmiemecl a I�reside;zt Ici! I iii! (,itatioi...yea i�s before the Japanese invasion, a native policeman in the execution of� his duties shot and killed a Kaclun of another family. Families in the

  6. Le métamorphisme Tardi-Crétacé à Éocène des zones internes de la chaîne Indo-Birmane (Myanmar occidental) : implications géodynamiquesLate Cretaceous to Eocene metamorphism of the internal zone of the Indo-Burma range (western Myanmar): geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socquet, Anne; Goffé, Bruno; Pubellier, Manuel; Rangin, Claude

    Metamorphic study on Triassic schists in the internal zone of the Indo-Burma range, essentially based on chlorite-mica equilibrium in metapelites, allows a P- T path to be quantified. During the prograde metamorphism, the geothermic gradient evolves from that of a 'normal' crust (30 °C km -1) to that of a thickened crust (18 °C km -1). The peak conditions are around 8 kbar and 450 °C. This thickening (25-30 km) is probably made in a wedge set up between the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene, in front of the obduction. The obtained cold retrograde path requires a mechanism allowing thermal re-equilibration, implying slow exhumation. It occurred along a shear zone that put into contact the micaschists of the core with the Triassic schists of the roof. To cite this article: A. Socquet et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 573-580.

  7. An Embryonic Border: Racial Discourses and Compulsory Vaccination for Indian Immigrants at Ports in Colonial Burma, 1870-1937 Une frontière embryonnaire : discours raciaux et vaccination obligatoire des immigrants indiens dans les ports de la Birmanie coloniale, 1870-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Osada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how an administrative border emerged between historically and culturally different and geographically separate regions which nevertheless had been integrated into one state under the colonial power. As a result of three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century, Burma was colonized by the British. During the course of its colonization, the country formally became a province of India. Hence no border had existed between Burma and the rest of India until 1937 when the former was separated from the latter. This connection with India brought Burma unrestricted labour supply from India which was necessary for the growth of the economy. But at the same time, such a vast flow of people included undesirable elements like criminals, beggars and people sick of infectious diseases which caused social problems in Burma. While the government of Burma attempted to deter or exclude those undesirable elements in order to maintain social order, these attempts were frustrated by several factors. In spite of these circumstances, the local government started taking more decisive policy for examinations of immigrants after the middle of the 1910s. No border existed yet, but port cities, especially Rangoon, gradually assumed function of checking people who came from “outside” into “inside”. I would like to call this phenomenon, tentatively, the emergence of an embryonic border. As a part of this phenomenon, this paper describes a history of sanitary regulations for Indian immigrant labourers in colonial Burma, by focusing on a case of implementation of compulsory vaccination at ports. And it points out that those regulations wereCet article montre comment une frontière administrative est apparue entre deux régions historiquement et culturellement différentes et géographiquement séparées réunies toutefois en un État par un pouvoir colonial. Après trois guerres anglo-birmanes au xixe siècle, la Birmanie devint une colonie

  8. Reforming Labour Markets in Burma (Myanmar) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increasing employment in key sectors One of the Burmese government's main goals is economic growth through private sector development and increased foreign direct investment. Creating jobs requires private sector expansion, especially in labour-intensive sectors where the country has a comparative advantage, such ...

  9. Rethinking U.S. Policy towards Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-09

    in 2003. While one can argue about the ethics behind the use of sanctions in influencing internal and political change, what is evident is the ease...Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Elting E. Morison, ed., (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954), vol. VIII, 824-5; quoted in Henry A. Kissinger

  10. What Lessons Does the Burma Campaign Hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-08

    for DRACULA decision passes 28Feb-4Mar - Meiktila taken by 14th Army Mar - NCAC achieves objectives, S"AC agrees to return remaining divisions to...China 4Mar - Manila cleared 20Mar - Mandalay captured 26Mar - LtGen Leese recommends an early, modified DRACULA (Rangoon) 29Apr - Monsoon rains start...early 2May - D-Day for DRACULA 3May - Rangoon captured 15Aug - End of offensive against Japan 36 CHAIN OF CComCAmI AIR~~~~m FOCS1J D 143 TAF call IS N a

  11. Defining ‘forced migration’ in Burma

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    Ashley South

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Burmese people fleeing their homes do so for a combination of reasons. The root causes for leaving, however,determine which ‘category’ they belong to: ‘internally displaced persons’ (IDPs or ‘economic migrants’. There issome discussion as to whether people leaving their homes due to exhaustion of livelihoods options are IDPsaccording to the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement1 – or not. Ashley South and Andrew Bosson presenttheir views below.By analogy, this debate can be extended to Burmese people in exile. Are Burmese people outside refugee camps‘economic migrants’ or ‘self-settled refugees’? The article ‘Invisible in Thailand’ (pp31-33 sheds more light on this.

  12. Area Handbook Series: Burma: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    set up in Ceylon in 1898, was established in Arakan in 1902 and in Rangoon in 1906. The YMBA maintained student hostels , emphasized la observance of...dispersing the traditionally Rangoon-centered student population; as of early 1983, campus unrest had not resurfaced. The government has long been worried...UNDER GEN- ERAL NE WIN- Student and Sangha Reactions-A-A Nationalized Economy-The Nationalities Issue and Insurgency-NeutraIsm and Seclusion-The

  13. Comment on “An alternative plate tectonic model for the Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Palaeotethyan evolution of Southeast Asia (Northern Thailand-Burma)” by O.M. Ferrari, C. Hochard & G.M. Stampfli, Tectonophysics 451, 346-365 (doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.11.065)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, I.

    2009-06-01

    Ferrari et al. [Ferrari, O.M., Hochard, C., Stampfli, G.M., 2008. An alternative plate tectonic model for the Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Palaeotethyan evolution of Southeast Asia (Northern Thailand-Burma). Tectonophysics 451, 346-365. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.11.065.] redefine the "Shan-Thai" terrane in Thailand as a Cathaysian Indochina-derived terrane when this has traditionally been defined and used as a Gondwana-derived continental block, hence introducing unnecessary confusion. In their definition of "Shan-Thai", they also inappropriately combine oceanic suture zone rocks (the Palaeo-Tethys Inthanon suture) and continental arc rocks (Sukhothai Island Arc system). The Mai Yuam Fault, identified by Ferrari et al. (2008) as the Palaeo-Tethys suture, is in fact a Cenozoic fault and the Palaeo-Tethys suture zone is represented by the Inthanon Suture zone in Thailand which is equivalent to the previously recognised Inthanon zone. The concept of derivation of "Orang Laut" terranes from South China-Indochina by back-arc spreading is innovative but the proposed Permo-Triassic back-arc along the Song Da/Song Ma zone in Vietnam is less convincing. There is little evidence to support the proposed southwards subduction of Palaeo-Tethys beneath eastern Gondwana in the Permian.

  14. Sacred Networks and Struggles among the Karen Baptists across the Thailand-Burma Border Réseaux sacrés et conflits parmi les Baptistes karen de part et d’autre de la frontière birmano-thaïlandaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I provide a case study of a moving border between Thailand and Burma. Emphasizing the agency of people who become refugees, the article is concerned to point out the important role of religious networks in providing humanitarian assistance, shelter and mobility to stateless Karen refugees. I argue that Christian and Buddhist literate networks- realigned in political exile, develop competing visions of a Karen “homeland.” Arguing that membership in the network is crucial for survival, the article follows the social organization and religious practices in Baptist networks. I examine how the Baptist church network in close partnership with the Karen National Union is able or not able to mobilize refugees for proselytization. Karen refugee leaders and KNU-pastors find analogies in the bible to find an explanation to the suffering of the Karen civil population in the war. The article is interested in the nexus and overlap of humanitarian ideology, Christianity and nationalism in the transitional space between Thailand and Burma. Providing case-studies of individual refugees, the article gives ethnographic sketches from the refugee camp, the countryside and humanitarian assistance to the internally displaced.Cet article est une étude de cas d’une frontière mouvante entre la Thaïlande et la Birmanie. Insistant sur l’agency (action de personnes devenues des réfugiés, l’article souligne le rôle important des réseaux religieux qui apportent une assistance humanitaire, des abris et de la mobilité à des réfugiés karen dépourvus d’État. Je soutiens que les réseaux intellectuels chrétiens et bouddhistes, recomposés dans l’exil, développent des visions concurrentes d’une « mère-patrie » karen. Soutenant que la participation au réseau est cruciale pour la survie, l’article développe plus particulièrement l’organisation sociale et les pratiques religieuses en vigueur dans les réseaux baptistes. J

  15. Opportunities and Challenges of Doing Business in Burma's Special ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will use qualitative research methods to collect primary data through in-depth interviews and focus groups with stakeholders. They will also: - gather secondary data through a review of available literature; - incorporate photo reportage into field observations; - view results using the UN Guiding Principles on ...

  16. Toward a Networked Economy in Burma | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -more competent institutions for effective public policy-making. The project will also inform policies that help citizens take advantage of the social and economic opportunities resulting from an improved information and communication technology infrastructure. The Myanmar ICT Development Organization, government ...

  17. Involving men on the Thai-Burma border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Alvarado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmes to address gender-based violence (GBV must address and include all members of the community, including men. Implementing these initiatives, however, is an enormous challenge.

  18. ASEAN’s Constructive Engagement Policy Toward Myanmar (Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    ASEAN’s ability to influence Myanmar may have reached a culminating point. In a recent interview, the Dean of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public...During the regional security seminar in 2007, Singapore’s Prime Minister and current Chairman of ASEAN, Lee Hsien Loong, aptly summarized the...Minister Lee Hsien Loong gave the following analysis: 47 "First of all, this is a country which wants to isolate itself from the world, so

  19. Burma: Assessing Options for U.S. Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    time chosen by Burmese astrologers as the most propitious for the country’s new beginning.69 The AFPFL took power with U Nu accepting duties as the...kings”) in 2007, the junta built the new capital on the advice of astrologers and out of fear of attack (from the West) given Rangoon’s

  20. Learning English in the Periphery: A View from Myanmar (Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Tan Bee

    2014-01-01

    Although researchers have called for the investigation of local vernacular learning and teaching practices in various ELT (English language teaching) contexts, studies conducted in the Periphery are fewer in number. This study attempts to understand English learning experiences of a group of students from the Periphery, who were studying English…

  1. Bangladesh-Burma Accretionary Prism: Evolution and Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R.; Najman, Y.; Carter, A.; Willett, E.; Garzanti, E.; Wijbrans, J.; Bickle, M.; Vezzoli, G.; Ando, S.; Alexandre, P.; Uddin, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and the Indo-Burman Ranges (Arakan Yoma) of Myanmar constitute an accretionary prism which runs along the India-Asian subduction zone. It consists of Palaeogene as well as Neogene sedimentary rocks that may preserve a record of early Himalayan erosion, which is as yet inaccessible in the deeper parts of the Bengal Fan, or missing in other sediment repositories of the region (Curray et al. 1979, 2003 and Gani et al. 1999). However, a Burman provenance has also been suggested for these rocks (Mitchell, 1993; Pal et al. 2003). In order to characterise the provenance signature of the accretionary prism rocks and determine Himalayan or Burman source, we have used petrographic, heavy mineral, U-Pb, fission track, Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar analyses. We present results of the initial study, including new seismic data (obtained by Cairn Energy plc.) which provides a seismic stratigraphy of the Chittagong Hill Tracts calibrated to offshore well seismic data, as well as comprehensive palaeoshelf mapping of the Bengal Basin region during the Eocene to Pliocene, which documents source input direction.

  2. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  3. Cyclone Nargis and Burma’s Constitutional Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-09

    only seven townships in the Irrawaddy Division and 40 townships in Yangon Division were declared emergency disaster zones.3 Initial reports estimated...officials say that the storm left several hundred thousand people homeless.9 In the coastal islands along the Irrawaddy River , entire villages were...that about 1 million people living in the Irrawaddy River delta were directly affected by Cyclone Nargis. The IFRC is working with the Myanmar Red

  4. The Geology of Burma (Myanmar): An Annotated Bibliography of Burma’s Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    purification; Humans; Infant; Korea- ethnology ; Male; Middle Aged; Myanmar- epidemiology; Recurrence; Spirurida Infections- complications...epidemiology; Diarrhea- microbiology; Diarrhea- mortality; Female; Humans; Infant; Male; Myanmar- ethnology . Abstract: In 1978 almost 200,000 Burmese...Boundaries- Mekong River Region; Ethnology - Mekong River Region; Inland water transportation- Mekong River; Trade regulation- Laos; Trade regulation

  5. 75 FR 42164 - Notice of Final Determination Updating the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... labor: Product Countries Bamboo Burma. Beans (green, soy, yellow) Burma. Brazil Nuts/Chestnuts Bolivia. Bricks Burma, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Carpets Nepal, Pakistan. Charcoal Brazil. Coal Pakistan...

  6. Learning on the Move, OSS Detachment 101 Special Operations in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    64 Hymoff, The OSS in World War II, 47. 28 indigenous Arabs in a guerrilla warfare campaign.65 The State Department opposed this operation but...Peers described the numerous issues facing the detachment to include ignorance in the required ability to speak a particular dialect of language in the

  7. Relict faunal testimony for sea-level fluctuations off Myanmar (Burma)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Raviprasad, G.V.; Rajagopalan, G.; Ray, D.K.; Hla, U Ko Yi

    (Mazumder, 2005). Mazumder has suggested the occurrence of a palaeo-reef off the coast of Goa, dated to 11,000 years ago. He reinforces the postulation by Vora et al. (1996) who using East-West echo- sounding profiles along the length of the West coast con...) as used by the online version of the standard radiocarbon calibration program CALIB 5.0.2 (Stuiver and Reimer, 1993). The calibrated ages were plotted against the depth at which the samples were collected. Based on the average of the depth preference...

  8. Detachment 101 and North Burma: Historical Conditions for Future Unconventional Warfare Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    after the defeat of Germany were the security of Australia, New Zealand , and India; supporting the Chinese war effort; and securing points of “vantage...of the Assistant Secretary of War, War Report of the OSS (Office of Strategic Services) ( New York, NY: Walker & Company, 1976), 1. 3...it does not address all the conditions that affect operations. For the purposes of this study, the physical environment encompassed the geography

  9. Air Supply Operations in the China-Burma-India Theater between 1942 and 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Knight, Lifeline in the Sky: The Story of the U.S. Military Air Transport Service (New York: William Morrow, 1957), 27-45. 54Marcella Thum , Airlift! The...Tuchman, Barbara. Stilwell and the American Experience in China: 1941-1945. New York: Grove Press, 1971. Thum , Marcella. Airlift: The Story of the

  10. The socio-economic impacts of rice policies implementation in rural Burma/Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawnghmung, Ardeth Maung

    2003-01-01

    This paper, focusing on two rice-farming villages where the Burmese government has experimented with a variety of agricultural programmes, explores the problems associated with rice implementation processes. In particular it looks at the basic structure and operation of agricultural administration — salary and income of government officials, the predominance of military officers in civilian ministries and departments, the creation of departments with overlapping responsibilities, and the hierarchical structure of the Agricultural Ministry — and highlight their limitations. It provides another aspect to evaluating the roots of poverty among average rice farmers.

  11. Slim Chance: The Pivotal Role of Air Mobility in the Burma Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    diffi- culty of this task, Clausewitz further observes how many generals stop short of their objective from timidity , while others equally fail...joint force in a practice that supports continual process improvement. Additionally, Air Mobility Command in- cludes CRWs in company- grade officer

  12. Lead poisoning in United States-bound refugee children: Thailand-Burma border, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tarissa; Jentes, Emily; Ortega, Luis; Scalia Sucosky, Marissa; Jefferies, Taran; Bajcevic, Predrag; Parr, Valentina; Jones, Warren; Brown, Mary Jean; Painter, John

    2012-02-01

    Elevated blood lead levels lead to permanent neurocognitive sequelae in children. Resettled refugee children in the United States are considered at high risk for elevated blood lead levels, but the prevalence of and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels before resettlement have not been described. Blood samples from children aged 6 months to 14 years from refugee camps in Thailand were tested for lead and hemoglobin. Sixty-seven children with elevated blood lead levels (venous ≥10 µg/dL) or undetectable (capillary lead levels participated in a case-control study. Of 642 children, 33 (5.1%) had elevated blood lead levels. Children aged lead levels risk factors included hemoglobin lead levels among tested US-bound Burmese refugee children was higher than the current US prevalence, and was especially high among children lead levels. A population-specific understanding of preexisting lead exposures can enhance postarrival lead-poisoning prevention efforts, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for resettled refugee children, and can lead to remediation efforts overseas.

  13. Final RFI/RI Report Burma Road Rubble Pit (231-4F). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Savannah River Site is located in Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties, in South Carolina. Certain activities at the SRS require operating or post closure permits issued in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  14. Fueling the Future: Furthering Theater Security with Burma’s Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Worst Nightmare?” Financial Times, April 15, 2013. http://blogs.ft.com/beyond- brics /2013/04/15/myanmar-cleans-house-chinas-worst-nightmare/ 48 Ibid...Robinson, Gwen. “Myanmar Cleans House—China’s Worst Nightmare?” Financial Times, April 15, 2013. http://blogs.ft.com/beyond- brics /2013/04/15/myanmar

  15. 77 FR 41243 - Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International...)), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of... the peace process with ethnic minorities, military trade with North Korea, and human rights abuses in...

  16. The Deeds of Valiant Men: A Study in Leadership. The Marauders in North Burma, 1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-15

    kept and carpeted with a luxurious green grass that appeared not to grow beyond three inches in height and made sleeping on it a pleasure to our weary ...Calvert, Michael. Fighting Mad. New York: Bantam, 1990. Dunlop , Richard. Behind Japanese Lines. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1979. Ho, Yung-chi. The Big

  17. Doctor's Diary and Memoirs. Pond's Party, F Force, Thai-Burma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grasping and fine manipulative ability in the first years of both normal and brain damaged children. Further chapters examine in detail the acquisition of anticipatory control during the execution of complex movements, the maturation of feedback for the control of posture and gait, and the influence of visual cues on the.

  18. Truth in Reform: Reversing Fifty Years of Information Suppression in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    the security of the Union or the restoration of law and order.” 12 Following the 1962 military coup, the subtle undertones of control became an...photos,” “crimes committed by minors,” or “corruption, illegal drug production and trafficking, human traffic, forced labour or child soldiers” in a...responsible international engagement and human rights.” 59 Beginning in July 2012, the U. S. took steps to eliminate nearly all trade sanctions. 60

  19. In Search of Chin Identity. A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma, Lian H. Sakhong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Robinne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Les Chin, groupe tibéto-birman de Birmanie, ont le privilège d’avoir fait l’objet de publications de référence aux différentes époques de leur histoire mouvementée. On doit aux administrateurs britanniques quelques monographies de référence sur lesquelles s’appuie pour beaucoup l’auteur. Après la Seconde guerre mondiale et l’indépendance de Birmanie, F.K. Lehman publia, dans la ligne de Edmund Leach, un ouvrage qui continue de faire autorité. L’étude de Lian Sakhong, ancien Secrétaire général...

  20. The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    other than personnel or light 76 Robert T. Finney , US Department of the Air Force, Air Force...80 Ibid., 22-23. 81 Finney , History of the Air Corps Tactical School, 76-78. 82 Chennault, Way of a Fighter, 31. 83 Claire L. Chennault...Historical Division, Research Studies Institute. History of the Air Corps Tactical School: 1920-1940, by Robert T. Finney , October 1955. ———. Air

  1. Impact of schistosome infection on Plasmodium falciparum Malariometric indices and immune correlates in school age children in Burma Valley, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison T Sangweme

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A group of children aged 6-17 years was recruited and followed up for 12 months to study the impact of schistosome infection on malaria parasite prevalence, density, distribution and anemia. Levels of cytokines, malaria specific antibodies in plasma and parasite growth inhibition capacities were assessed. Baseline results suggested an increased prevalence of malaria parasites in children co-infected with schistosomiasis (31% compared to children infected with malaria only (25% (p = 0.064. Moreover, children co-infected with schistosomes and malaria had higher sexual stage geometric mean malaria parasite density (189 gametocytes/µl than children infected with malaria only (73/µl gametocytes (p = 0.043. In addition, a larger percentage of co-infected children (57% had gametocytes as observed by microscopy compared to the malaria only infected children (36% (p = 0.06. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the prevalence of anemia, which was approximately 64% in both groups (p = 0.9. Plasma from malaria-infected children exhibited higher malaria antibody activity compared to the controls (p = 0.001 but was not different between malaria and schistosome plus malaria infected groups (p = 0.44 and malaria parasite growth inhibition activity at baseline was higher in the malaria-only infected group of children than in the co-infected group though not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.5. Higher prevalence and higher mean gametocyte density in the peripheral blood may have implications in malaria transmission dynamics during co-infection with helminths.

  2. The New Burma Road(s): How a Networked System of Roads will Best Orient Myanmar towards Economic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Government of the Union of Myanmar, 2014, http://www.dica.gov.mm/includes/MSEZ%20Law%20PDF/MSEZ%20Law%20Eng%20PD F%20(24-6-14). pdf . 58 Ibid., 23-24...Zimbabwe Report, 2009, 9.1.1, http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Generic- Documents/11.%20Zimbabwe%20Report_Chapter%209. pdf (accessed on...expertise in … entrepreneurship and innovation.” 136 There are several centers of excellence within American universities that could provide education

  3. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh HB

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur. A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory, Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. Results We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur, involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-. The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal communities. Conclusions Considering the importance of wild wetland plants in local sustenance, it is suggested to protect their habitats, develop domestication protocols of selected species, and build programs for the long-term management of wetland areas by involving local people. Some medicinal plants may also be used to develop into modern medicines.

  4. Improving Outcomes for Refugee Children: A Case Study on the Impact of Montessori Education along the Thai-Burma Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Tierney; Boulmier, Prairie; Zhu, Wenyi; Hancock, Paul; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There are 25 million displaced children worldwide, and those receiving schooling are often educated in overcrowded classrooms. Montessori is a child-centred educational method that provides an alternative model to traditional educational approaches. In this model, students are able to direct their own learning and develop at their own pace,…

  5. Design at the Edge of the World: The Birth of American Air Intelligence in the China, Burma, India, and the Pacific Theaters during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    and Museums Program, 1996), 1. 3 Craven and Cate, Men & Planes, 481. 4 Fifth Air Force, South West Pacific Area Air Evaluation Board, 30 September...Mission to China, 74. 4 John F. Kreis, ed., Piercing the Fog (Washington DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1996), 307. 12 Changes in...managed the essential tasks of managing political challenges to open the door to improve air intelligence operations. Internal to Fourteenth Air Force

  6. United States Counter-narcotics Policies towards Burma, and How the Illegal Myanmar Regime is Manipulating Those Policies to Commit Ethnic Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    country189. Although Malaysia has maintained a strong economic relationship with the Myanmar regime, many Malaysian foreign ministers have established...Company funneled the 195 Greek for “ sleep inducing poppy.” 196 Chouvy – Golden Triangle article

  7. Convergences conceptuelles en Birmanie : la transition du xixe siècle Conceptual Convergences in Burma : the 19th Century Period of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Candier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les conceptions politiques birmanes ont évolué au fil des siècles, échafaudées sur des interprétations renouvelées d’emprunts conceptuels à l’étranger, afin de rester en phase avec une réalité sociopolitique changeante. Le contact avec l’Occident a été à l’origine de l’une des « greffes » conceptuelles des plus prolifiques. Entre 1820 et 1880, les rois birmans ont subi deux défaites contre les Anglais et ont dû céder plusieurs provinces avant l’annexion définitive de leur pays en 1886. Pendant cette période, les élites politiques et religieuses de la cour birmane ont été confrontées à la pénétration progressive des idées et des valeurs du vainqueur. L’analyse historique et linguistique d’ouvrages contemporains de l’époque révèle l’évolution de leurs représentations sociopolitiques. La pensée politique moderne a nettement influencé les lettrés à partir des années 1830. Ils ont dès lors commencé de rationaliser et d’adapter les concepts, qu’ils soient locaux ou empruntés au pāli, à une représentation du monde en transformation. Ces convergences conceptuelles n’ont véritablement donné corps à un nouveau système de pensée que dans les années 1870. L’idée de roi universel a été délaissée, alors que l’accent a été mis sur l’aspect social de la norme de conduite royale. La conception moderne de la réforme, portant les notions d’amélioration et de progrès, a fait son apparition dans les projets de loi. Les valeurs occidentales de classification raciale, de définition territoriale, de communauté de langue et de culture ont été adoptées. Mais ces emprunts n’ont pas fondamentalement altéré la conception birmane traditionnelle de l’humanité, sous-tendue par les lois du kamma, de l’impermanence et de l’interdépendance entre l’ordre social et cosmique.Burmese political conceptions have varied through centuries, borrowing and adapting certain foreign concepts according to the changing sociopolitical context. In this sense, the contact with the Western political thinking was very productive. Between 1820 and 1880, the Burmese kings lost two wars against the British and had to give away several territories before the final annexation of their country in 1886. During this period, the Burmese political and religious elites were confronted to the progressive penetration of British ideas and values. A historical and linguistic investigation of significant texts shows the gradual changes of their sociopolitical representations. Modern political thinking had a strong influence on the Burmese literati from the 1830’ onwards. They gradually rationalized and adapted concepts, whether local or borrowed from the pāli, to a changing conception of the world. These conceptual convergences gave shape to a new way of thinking in the 1870’. The idea of universal king was neglected, when the literati emphasized the social interpretation of the laws of kinship conduct. The modern conception of the reform, conveying the notion of progress, was used to draft new laws. Western notions of racial classification, territorial definition, linguistic and cultural communities, were adopted. But these borrowings did not dramatically alter the Burmese traditional conception of humanity, based on the laws of kamma and impermanence, and the interdependence between the social and the cosmic order as well.

  8. Cardiovascular Disease–related Health Beliefs and Lifestyle Issues Among Karen Refugees Resettled in the United States From the Thai-Myanmar (Burma Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Refugees resettled in the US may be at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, little is known about CVD-related issues among Karen refugees who have migrated to the US from the Thai-Myanmar border. The purpose of this study was to examine CVD-related health beliefs and lifestyle issues among Karen refugees resettled in the US. Methods Karen refugees resettled in the US from the Thai-Myanmar border (n=195 participated in a survey study on health beliefs related to CVD, salt intake, physical activity (PA, and smoking in the fall of 2016. Results A high-salt diet, physical inactivity, and smoking were major lifestyle problems. Participants who adhered to a low-salt diet considered themselves to be susceptible to CVD. Most participants did not engage in regular PA. Regular PA was associated with less perceived susceptibility to CVD and greater perceived benefits of a healthy lifestyle for decreasing the likelihood of CVD. Conclusions Each refugee population may require individualized strategies to promote PA and a healthy diet. Future studies should develop health education programs that are specifically designed for Karen refugees and evaluate such programs. In addition to health education programs on healthy lifestyle choices, tobacco cessation programs seem to be necessary for Karen refugees. At the same time, it is important to foster strategies to increase the utilization of preventive care among this population by promoting free or reduced-fee resources in the community to further promote their health.

  9. Cardiovascular Disease-related Health Beliefs and Lifestyle Issues Among Karen Refugees Resettled in the United States From the Thai-Myanmar (Burma) Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Sin, Kai; Pye, Mu; Meng, Hsien-Wen

    2017-11-01

    Refugees resettled in the US may be at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known about CVD-related issues among Karen refugees who have migrated to the US from the Thai-Myanmar border. The purpose of this study was to examine CVD-related health beliefs and lifestyle issues among Karen refugees resettled in the US. Karen refugees resettled in the US from the Thai-Myanmar border (n=195) participated in a survey study on health beliefs related to CVD, salt intake, physical activity (PA), and smoking in the fall of 2016. A high-salt diet, physical inactivity, and smoking were major lifestyle problems. Participants who adhered to a low-salt diet considered themselves to be susceptible to CVD. Most participants did not engage in regular PA. Regular PA was associated with less perceived susceptibility to CVD and greater perceived benefits of a healthy lifestyle for decreasing the likelihood of CVD. Each refugee population may require individualized strategies to promote PA and a healthy diet. Future studies should develop health education programs that are specifically designed for Karen refugees and evaluate such programs. In addition to health education programs on healthy lifestyle choices, tobacco cessation programs seem to be necessary for Karen refugees. At the same time, it is important to foster strategies to increase the utilization of preventive care among this population by promoting free or reduced-fee resources in the community to further promote their health.

  10. Anthropogenic activity-induced water quality degradation in the Loktak lake, a Ramsar site in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Kangabam, Rajiv; Govindaraju, Munisamy

    2017-10-11

    Wetland contributes to human well-being and poverty alleviation. The increase in human population leads to more demand for water and degradation of the water bodies around the globe, resulting in scarcity of water. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of anthropogenic activity on the water quality of the Loktak lake. Water samples were collected seasonally, namely, monsoon, post monsoon, winter and pre-monsoon, during 2013-2014 from 10 sites. For each water sample, 20 physicochemical parameters were analysed using the American Public Health Association method. Furthermore, 11 significant parameter values were used to develop the water quality index (WQI). The result shows high concentrations of nitrite (5.45-11.83 mg/l) and nitrate (93.67-177.75 mg/l) in rivers which is beyond the permissible limit and higher compared to the Loktak. Highest turbidity was observed at Langthabal with 21 NTU, which is above the permissible limit. The WQI of the Loktak ranged from 64 to 77, while for rivers they ranged from 53 to 95, which indicates that the water is in a very poor state. The WQI values of rivers are higher compared with those of the lake, and it was identified that water from the rivers is a major reason for increase in pollution in the lake water. The study suggests the need for long-term monitoring of the lake aquatic ecosystem and identification of pollution sites for proper management of the lake water. The WQI is an important tool to enable the public and decision makers to evaluate the water quality of the Loktak lake.

  11. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes along the Arakan subduction belt recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Min, Soe; Aung, Lin Thu; Than, Oo; Tun, Soe Thura

    2018-02-01

    Upper-plate structures that splay out from the megathrusts are common features along major convergent plate boundaries. However, their earthquake and tsunami hazard potentials have not yet received significant attention. In this study, we identified at least one earthquake event that may have been produced by an upper-plate splay fault offshore western Myanmar, based on U-Th ages of uplifted coral microatolls. This event is likely an earthquake that was documented historically in C.E. 1848, with an estimated magnitude between 6.8 and 7.2 based on regional structural characteristics. Such magnitude is consistent with the observed co-seismic uplift amount of ∼0.5 m. Although these events are smaller in magnitude than events produced by megathrusts, they may produce higher earthquake and tsunami hazards for local coastal communities due to their proximity. Our results also indicate that earthquake events with co-seismic uplift along the coast may not necessarily produce a flight of marine terraces. Therefore, using only records of uplifted marine terraces as megathrust earthquake proxies may overlook the importance of upper-plate splay fault ruptures, and underestimate the overall earthquake frequency for future seismic and tsunami hazards along major subduction zones of the world.

  12. The Philippines in a Changing Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Under the White Paper note: Burma is now Myanmar and the capital, Ran- goon, is now Yangon . of May 1945, it was the intention of the government to...two long reports the enclaves along the Moei River --part of the documenting these violations and continued to issue boundary between Burma and...land eastof the Salween River --produces Despite three years of spraying, the Burma crop nearly 50% of all the opium grown in Burma. has increased to

  13. A review of the studies on pteropods from the northern Indian Ocean A review of the studies on pteropods of the northern Indian Ocean region with a report on the pteropods of Irrawaddy continental shelf off Myanmar (Burma)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Riedel, F.; Janssen, A.W.; Hla, U Ko Yi

    in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, and northern Arabian Sea, along west coast of India and around the Andaman Nicobar Archipelago. Work has neither been attempted in the Bay of Bengal nor in the northern Andaman Sea. These aragonitic microfossils have proved...

  14. COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    from war to peace. The goal was to better understand how IDRC gathers and shares pertinent information to inform programming and decision- making. How was the Centre alerted to impending transition? How did it ... visited Burma for a first-hand look. Aiming mostly to learn more about Burma's research organizations ...

  15. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic Transition. For decades, it was very difficult to complete, share or access development research in Burma. However, in the past two years, the Burmese political landscape has seen far-reaching changes. The military junta has ...

  16. The conveniently forgotten human rights of the Rohingya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Brinham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As stateless Rohingya in Burma face containment in IDP camps andwithin their homes and communities in what is effectively segregation,their human rights are on the whole being ignored by countries keeneither to support reform in Burma or to return refugees who have fledto their shores.

  17. The Road to Mandalay: A Journey towards Cultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moult, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Rudyard Kipling wrote "The Road to Mandalay" in 1892 when Burma was a British colony and Queen Victoria was the Empress of India. In the poem, Mandalay is a city some 500 miles along the Irrawaddy River from the capital, Rangoon. British troops stationed in Burma were transported on the river by paddle steamers. The picture painted of…

  18. Geochemistry of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    geochemical and isotopic data are Indonesian volcanic arc, erosion of Crozet and Kerguelen Plateau, Indian sub-continent, Sri Lanka, West Burma, wind blown from Western Australia, Indus River and in situ weathering of Carlsberg and Central Indian Ridge systems...

  19. 75 FR 56660 - Removal of an Alias of an Existing Specially Designated National Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...), 330 Strand Rd., Latha Township, Rangoon, Burma; 61-62 Bahosi Development Housing, Wadan St., Lanmadaw...-01 Shenton House, Singapore 068805, Singapore; 8A Jalan Teliti, Singapore, Singapore; DOB 16 May 1958...

  20. Temperature and salinity profile data collected from XBT, CTD, MBT and Bottle casts from multiple platforms by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India, in the Bay of Bengal from August 28, 1976 to January 07, 2009 (NODC Accession 0055418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from Bottle, MBT, XBT, and CTD casts from the Andaman and Burma Seas, Bay of Bengal, Malacca Straits, and the Indian Ocean. Data were...

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-13 - Restrictions on Certain Foreign Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... most imports from Burma or North Korea, into the United States or its outlying areas. Lists of entities..., would prohibit such a transaction by a person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. (b...

  2. 48 CFR 25.701 - Restrictions administered by the Department of the Treasury on acquisitions of supplies or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., as are most imports from Burma or North Korea into the United States or its outlying areas. In... Chapter V, would prohibit such a transaction by a person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States...

  3. Mekong sub-region committed to ending trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Thatun

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In October 2004 six countries - Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar/Burma, Thailand and Vietnam – joined hands in the battle against human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS.

  4. Libraries in Wyoming: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/wyoming.html Libraries in Wyoming To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Gillette Campbell County Health Medical Library 501 S. Burma Ave. PO Box 3011 Gillette, WY ...

  5. Rebalancing Pacific Fleet: Operationalize U.S. Third Fleet and Move It into the Indo-Asia-Pacific in Support of the Defense Strategic Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Transnational Crime, Human Smuggling, Migration Issues, Maritime Security, and Resource Competition. 34 Joint doctrine describes the strategic...comprised of Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Kiribati, Laos, Maldives, Nauru, Nepal , New Zealand, Papua New

  6. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS BARBEY using BT and XBT casts in the Indian ocean and other seas from 07 January 1989 to 31 January 1989 (NODC Accession 8900034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS BARBEY in the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Burma Sea, and Malacca of...

  7. The Borderlands of Southeast Asia: Geopolitics, Terrorism, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    borders. Often depicted as noble ethnic groups rebelling against cruel central governments, in- surgent hill tribes in Laos and Burma often fund these...king was crowned .23 The Burmans established a kingdom with its capital in Pagan in central Burma in 849 CE and sought in succeeding centuries to...proper.”59 It also envisaged a Malayan Union of the peninsular Malay States and the former Straits Settlements of Penang and Melaka and Crown

  8. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-17

    attend Koo’s funeral in Taiwan. 56 According to a Vice Minister of Commerce, cited by AP in “China’s trade with Taiwan up 13 percent,” September 20, 2007...Indonesia, Laos , Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The United States maintains military alliances with...upper Mekong River in Yunnan Province with little thought to the resulting impact on Burma, Thailand, Laos , Cambodia, and Vietnam, the dams’ downstream

  9. Optimizing Transportation of Disaster Relief Material to Support U.S. Pacific Command Foreign Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    and the 6 largest Muslim-majority nation. More than one third of Asia-Pacific nations are smaller, island nations that include the smallest...Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, India, Madagascar , Sri Lanka and Guam) since 1998. Figure 6 shows the location and type of major disasters of...Bhutan[5] Maldives Singapore Brunei Marshall Islands Solomon Islands Burma Micronesia South Korea Cambodia Mongolia Sri Lanka China[6] Nauru Thailand

  10. Development, Stability and Legitimacy: Minority Education Reform in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    2012. Michaels, Samantha. “In Burma, a Debate over Mother - Tongue Teaching.” The Irrawaddy, 23 October 2013. Accessed 25 September 2014. http...www.irrawaddy.org/feature/burma- debate- mother - tongue -teaching.html. Myanmar Comprehensive Education Sector Review Organization, “Myanmar...fruit. Given the other challenges associated with minority education, “ mother - tongue ” education must be incorporated into a larger education regime to

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR, MAURICE EWING and others in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1983-10-10 to 1998-10-20 (NODC Accession 0115689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115689 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR, MAURICE EWING, METEOR, NATHANIEL B. PALMER and THOMAS G....

  12. Of baby ducklings and clay pots: method and metaphor in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian

    2013-11-01

    In this article, I report on my decision to undertake a process of elicitation, development, and examination of metaphors for experiences of HIV prevention work in Burma/Myanmar. I cover the theoretical basis to that decision, my rationale for using metaphor elicitation as method when researching the rhetoric and practice of HIV prevention in Burma/Myanmar, the process I used, and some of the resultant metaphors. I also demonstrate that this process resulted in the opening up of a space for talking about HIV prevention that avoided recourse to standard prevention rhetoric, thereby enabling a new and deeper understanding of the gap between this rhetoric and people's actual practice or experience.

  13. Kdo do Barmy nepatří? Skupinová identifikace členů občanské společnosti v Barmě

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lukášová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 135 ethnic groups live in Burma. Ethnic groups demand some level of self-governance from the central Burmese state. Ethnic identification is strong in Burma, and so is criticism of the authoritarian political regime. On the other hand, there is an ethnic group called Rohingya which seems to be unacceptable, even for people from other ethnic minorities. An analysis of interviews with civil society members shows that exclusion of Rohingya is due to the acceptance of their negative characteristics as presented by the government. However, this does not constitute any strong Burmese nationalist feeling on the part of respondents.

  14. Combined Operations a Commonwealth Caribbean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    be X accusations of territorial encroachments by both sides. More importantly however, has been Venezuelan efforts to rapidly colonise the areas...dictate warfare similar to that waged by the victorius Japanese in their mainland campaign through Malaysia and Burma which although anchored to the few

  15. All projects related to Myanmar | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As Burma (Myanmar) continues its transition toward multi-party democracy and a market economy, developing an efficient and equitable labour market will be essential. Topic: SOUTHEAST ASIA, PRIVATE SECTOR, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, Democracy, LABOUR LAW, FOOD PROCESSING, LABOUR MARKET, ...

  16. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537....311 New investment. (a) The term new investment means any of the following activities if such activity... located in Burma, without regard to the form of the participation. (b) The term new investment shall not...

  17. Military Review. Volume 73. June 1993, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    of these organizations, the Simpson discovers the queer realities of war in book avoids that aura of romance and mythology Vietnam. He moves from...logistical iel J. Levinaon’s seminal work on adult develop- flights of the China-Burma-India Theater. Thor - ment by focusing on the lives of US Army

  18. Poppies or Peace: The Relationship between Opium Production and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia GDP Gross Domestic Product ICC International Criminal Court INSCR International Narcotics Control Strategy Report...extermination, enslavement, deportation , forcible transfer of population, imprisonment, torture, rape and sexual violence. For purposes of this research, a mass...5Ibid., 4. Note that the authors specifically reference the ongoing Karen insurgency in Burma and civil conflict in Colombia ; both regions have

  19. U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    Estonia to Brazil are “Free.” Kenya to Russia are “Partly Free.” Iran to Cuba are “Not Free.” In Burma during the 2007 Saffron Revolution, YouTube...monitoring Internet freedom and reporting in its annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices the quality of Internet freedom in each country around

  20. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanvanichkij Voravit

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  1. All projects related to Myanmar | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 382,600.00. Una Hakika: Scaling Digital Solutions for Conflict Management in Kenya and Burma. Project. Reducing conflict through information IDRC-funded research in Kenya's Tana Delta pilot-tested Una Hakika, a mobile phone-based information service. Topic: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS, AFRICA, ...

  2. Res May 2017 Cover Tp 04.05.17

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    ... free ends of petals. Stamens 4, attached to the mouth of corollatube; anthers arrowhead-shaped, style exserted, stigmaintwo lobes, hairy. Fruitaberry,. 5-6 mm across, black when ripe. Flowers and fruits appear between November and June. This plantis distributed across the plains and Ghats - India, Sri Lanka and Burma.

  3. George Orwell (1903 -1950) - writer, socialist, eccentric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    George Orwell, born Eric Blair in India in 1903, the third generation of colonial service stock, joined the Indian. Imperial Police in Burma in 1922 after leaving school in. England. Rejecting the racial and cultural barriers of colonial rule he encountered there, he returned to England to become a writer. He became allied to ...

  4. On a false and a genuine Caddis-fly from Burmese amber (Insecta: Trichoptera, Homoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.

    1981-01-01

    Two specimens of fossil insects in amber from Burma (burmite), belonging to the B.M. (N.H.), London, were studied. The first one, described by Cockerell (1917) as a new genus and species of Trichoptera (Plecophlebus nebulosus) belongs, in fact, to the Homoptera Auchenorhyncha. The second one is the

  5. 49 CFR 26.5 - What do the terms used in this part mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-conscious measure or program is one that is focused specifically on assisting only DBEs, including women...,” which includes persons whose origins are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam..., Bangladesh, Bhutan, the Maldives Islands, Nepal or Sri Lanka; (vi) Women; (vii) Any additional groups whose...

  6. Kenya | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Una Hakika: Scaling Digital Solutions for Conflict Management in Kenya and Burma. Language English. Le CRDI est déterminé à soutenir la recherche de pointe menée par des experts des pays en développement en vue de produire un changement durable. L'établissement de partenariats solides avec ...

  7. Termitophilous Scarabs of the Tribe Corythoderini: A taxonomic review (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, I.R.M.; Krikken, J.

    1982-01-01

    The scarab tribe Corythoderini is reviewed. All its members appear associated with termites, probably in a symphilous way; the host records all pertain to Odontotermes species. The known range of the Corythoderini falls within the range of the host genus : Africa to Burma. The phylogeny of the

  8. LARGE-SCALE COMMERCIAL INVESTMENTS IN LAND: SEEKING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When food and energy prices rose sharply in 2007-2008, investment in agricultural land in land-rich, .... Sudan, Pakistan, Uganda, Madagascar, Mozambique, Brazil, Burma, Mali,. Indonesia, Colombia, Tanzania ... energy prices were shaken by the food and oil price hikes of 2007 and. 2008. Food security worries led ...

  9. Biomass loss as an index of pollution in various gradient of a crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bauhinia monandra is an agroforestry species in the FABACEAE plant family, an exotic species from Burma, easily available and accessible for ornamental and agro-forestry purposes, and more so abundantly distributed in tropical countries including oil producing areas in Nigeria. Its sensitivity to crude oil pollution has ...

  10. 78 FR 58855 - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ..., Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti.... The drop stemmed primarily from crop disease and poor conditions as some farmers growing illegal crops... centers. The United States supports a wide range of other illegal crop controls, alternative development...

  11. No evidence for shallow shear motion on the Mat Fault, a prominent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Res. Lett. 35 L18301, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035468. Bender F 1983 Geology of Burma; Beiträge zur regionalen geologie der erde. 16, Borntraeger, Stuttgart. Bhatt C M, Chopra R and Sharma P K 2007 Morphotectonic analysis in Anandpur Sahib area, Punjab (India) using remote sensing and GIS approach; J. Indian Soc.

  12. Combining Concepts: Operational Shock in Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Thompson, a British veteran of Burma and the campaign in Malaysia wrote Countering Communist Insurgency. Frank Kitson, another British officer whose...destroy the enemy forces are trademarks of this approach.47 There are few modern expressions of this approach, and fewer still where the

  13. Reconstructing Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-02

    usual-basis, asking for presents and privileges. It’s the same culture as under Saddam: Red tape, favouritism and wasta (connections). Nothing has...Somalia, Sudan, Uganda and Zimbabwe; in Asia, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Indonesia, Myanmar/Burma, Nepal, Pakistan , Tajikistan...Jahangir UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, former Chair Human Rights Commission of Pakistan Ellen Johnson

  14. 48 CFR 1852.213-70 - Offeror Representations and Certifications-Other Than Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan... black college or university” means an institution determined by the Secretary of Education to meet the... institution of higher education meeting the requirements of Section 1046(3) of the Higher Education Act of...

  15. 8 CFR 316.20 - American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false American institutions of research, public...: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF-USA). Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva...), Providence, RI. Buffalo Eye Bank and Research Society, Inc. Burma Office of Robert N. Nathan Associates, Inc...

  16. 49 CFR 23.3 - What do the terms used in this part mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Thailand... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What do the terms used in this part mean? 23.3... which are owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the recipient. The managing agent generally receives...

  17. Employment and Growth | Page 34 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With the exception of Thailand, all are overcoming legacies of authoritarian rule. Since the 1990s, foreign investment and a vast pool of workers have helped Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and more recently Burma connect with global value chains in fashion, electronics, food processing, and other industries. Read more about ...

  18. Indonesia | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our support helps. reduce disease transmission risks from animals and birds to humans. strengthen ecohealth research and practice in Southeast Asia. reduce socio-economic and geographic disparities in health care delivery. address impunity in post-conflict violence against women in Indonesia, Timor-Leste, and Burma.

  19. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    -enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community-based...

  20. Control and Elimination of Helminth Zoonoses in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will contribute evidence to help control and eliminate schistosomiasis and liver fluke infections in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This economic area is bound by the Mekong River, covering 2.6 million square kilometres, and includes a combined population of 326 million in Burma, Cambodia, China, Laos, ...

  1. TERROR 2000: The Future Face of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-24

    200,000 civilians have died under Indonesian rule since 1975. Myanmar, or Burma, is home to no fewer than twenty small separatist movements; the Karen...Soviet socialism to democratic capitalism. Many still believe in the Marxist ideals they were taught from grammar school onward. For them, the evils of

  2. Special Operations: Achieving Unified Direction in the Global War on Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    and included assisting French and Yugoslav resistance fighters against the Nazis , training and leading Kachin tribesmen in Burma, and fighting along...17 28 Ibid., V-9. 29 Ibid., V-10. 30 Ibid., V-1 – V2 . 31 Ibid. Subordinate unified commands (also called sub-unified commands) are standing

  3. Recidiverende, jeukende en zich verplaatsende huidafwijkingen bij (voormalige) tropenreizigers: strongyloidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buikhuisen, W. A.; Wetsteyn, J. C. F. M.; van Gool, T.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    Two patients, a woman aged 24 and a man aged 86, had suffered from recurrent, itchy, linear, creeping skin lesions, notably on the thighs, buttocks and lower abdomen, for 9 months and more than 50 years, respectively. The woman had been in South America, and the man had worked on the Burma railway

  4. The Iran Hostages: Efforts to Obtain Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    implementing the Algiers Accords extinguished any claim the plaintiff may have had. Despite having won the case, the U.S. government petitioned for...sanctions $217,000,000.00 12/22/2009 Credit Suisse of Zurich, Switzerland payments involving Iran, Sudan, Burma, Cuba, North Korea, and persons whose

  5. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project addresses the ongoing critical development challenge of changes in land use in Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), and India. It will generate knowledge and an evidence-driven intervention strategy to help people gain more security over the land and natural resources they rely on for their livelihoods and survival.

  6. Creating better jobs in ASEAN countries | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-07-30

    Jul 30, 2015 ... Since the 1990s, foreign investment and a vast pool of workers have helped Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and more recently Burma connect with global value ... while Vietnam needs to improve financing, education, and its commercial and regulatory infrastructure to support business startups and growth.

  7. The world heroin market : Can supply be cut?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paoli, L.; Greenfield, V.A.; Reuter, P.

    2009-01-01

    This book proceeds in three parts. The first part sets out basic facts. It reviews the historical development of the world opiate market. The second part explores market conditions in Afghanistan, Burma, India, Columbia and Tajikistan in greater detail. The fourth appendix (D) provides information

  8. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  9. United Nations - Divided States: Peacekeeping in the 1990S

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    such an abundant stockpile that the weapons flow has reversed and former Khmer Rouge weapons have been traced to insurgent forces in Burma. 59 The...country. UNTAC provides some important lessons learned in the area of logistcs for these types of operations in the future. Even though Cambodia was

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter · Simran Bhullar Suma Chakravarthy Deepak Pental Pradeep Kumar Burma · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Variations in transgene ...

  11. Publications | Page 157 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Doi Moi, (... Development research in South Africa. Ruled for decades by the systematic, violent injustice of apartheid, South Africa by the mid-1980s was subjected to international sanctions and near-universal condemnation. It was in this period — long before transition seemed likely —... Development research in Burma.

  12. A new species of the genus Helota from Thibet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1895-01-01

    Very closely allied to Helota Feae Rits. from Burma ¹), but distinguished by the coarser punctuation of the elytra, which have moreover their apices not produced into a point, by the less distinctly truncated apex of the last ventral segment, and by the narrow and ill-defined red streak along the

  13. Feminist Interventions for Southeast Asian Women Trauma Survivors: Deconstructing Gender-Based Violence and Developing Structures of Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.

    An analysis of structural and institutional violence against women in three cultures in Southeast Asia, Thailand, Cambodia, and among refugees of Burma, was generated by groups of women and men from these countries. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and…

  14. Education in Thailand: From Old to New. World Education Monograph Series, Number Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatamorn, Sirmsree

    The history of educational development in Thailand shows a transition from early concern for religious and moral training toward the present emphasis on the practical development of individuals and society. Thai culture may have originated in Mongolia and has been strongly affected by its present cultural neighbors, Malaya, Cambodia, Laos, Burma,…

  15. The Non-Western World: An Annotated Bibliography for Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probandt, Ruth

    This annotated bibliography on Asia, Africa, and Latin America contains sources primarily for elementary and secondary school students; also included are books for libraries and teachers. The bibliography on Asia is divided into curriculum materials and information books. Some of the countries covered are: Burma; Cambodia; China; India; Japan;…

  16. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  17. Biology, ecology, and control of the Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an economic pest of Ficus plant species in India, Burma and China. Severe infestations result in leaf dropping or shedding and defoliation. Since its initial US report in south Florida in 2007, the whitefly has expanded its ...

  18. 31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section... in Burma or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters, branches, and offices...

  19. Initiations in the Burmese Ritual Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Brac de la Perrière

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Buddhist Burma, a variety of ritual has been found pertaining to quite differentiated aspects of religion. This rich ritual landscape remains under-examined due partly to the Buddhist-studies bias of most of the scholars looking at religion in Burma. In this paper, I develop comparative analysis of a class of ritual, namely that of initiation, in three components of Burmese religion: Buddhist monasticism, Buddhist esotericism, and spirit worship. At least from the present analytic perspective, the three components considered could be taken as encompassing the entire Buddhist religious sphere in Burma. Looking at initiation rituals in these three ‘paths’ is a means of understanding how they frame contrasting kinds of differently valued religious practice, and of showing that, although not often discussed, rituals do matter in Burma because they help distinguish categories of action according to their relative religiosity. By doing so, I aim to give a sense of the real diversity of the Burmese ritual landscape, which until recently was rarely taken into account, and to contribute to the on-going debate in the field of Buddhist studies on what could be encapsulated as the question of Buddhism and spirit cults in Southeast Asian Theravada.

  20. 22 CFR 126.1 - Prohibited exports and sales to certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) General. It is the policy of the United States to deny licenses and other approvals for exports and... policy applies to Belarus, Cuba, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and Venezuela. This policy also applies to countries with respect to which the United States maintains an arms embargo (e.g., Burma, China...

  1. Far East Asia | Page 100 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Resistance to China's Internet controls comes from both grassroots activists and corporate giants such as Google. Meanwhile, similar struggles play out across the rest of the region, from India and Singapore to Thailand and Burma, although each national dynamic is unique. Read more about Access Contested: Security, ...

  2. South Asia | Page 105 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Resistance to China's Internet controls comes from both grassroots activists and corporate giants such as Google. Meanwhile, similar struggles play out across the rest of the region, from India and Singapore to Thailand and Burma, although each national dynamic is unique. Read more about Access Contested: Security, ...

  3. On a collection of birds from the Khwae Noi Valley, Western Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.; Kooiman, J.G.

    1951-01-01

    The present paper deals with a collection brought together by J. G. Kooiman in 1946. After the defeat of Japan, some Dutch biologists, who during the war had worked as prisoners of war on the notorious Burma railroad, biologically explored the Khwae Noi valley. Kooiman joined this party as an

  4. Engaging Karen Refugee Students in Science Learning through a Cross-Cultural Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    This research explored how Karen (first-generation refugees from Burma) elementary students engaged with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) practice of constructing scientific explanations based on evidence within the context of a cross-cultural learning community. In this action research, the researcher and a Karen parent served as…

  5. Collaborations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Collaborations. Dr. Arundhati Mukhopadhyay Prof. Akshay Pradhan. Dr. Vibha Gupta Dr. Pradeep Burma. Dr. Y. S. Sodhi Dr Atika Chandra. Dr. N. Arumugam Dr. Indira Sivaraman. Dr. Arun Jagannath Dr. Naveen Bisht. Dr. Arvinder Kaur Dr. Panchali Bandyopadhyay ...

  6. Insider Peace Builders in Societies in Transition | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite several decades of impressive economic growth, the South and Southeast Asia region continues to be marred by ethnic conflicts, sectarian violence, and the entrenched impunity of security forces for war crimes and sexual violence. Although protracted wars in Aceh, Nepal, Burma, and Sri Lanka have ended, the ...

  7. Chinese Dialects in Southeast Asia. Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 7 No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leok Har Chan

    This paper discusses the dialects of the Chinese people who have settled in various countries of Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Burma, Thailand, Laos, North and South Vietnam, and the Khmer Republic. Data are first given regarding the area in general. The data are then broken down according to individual…

  8. Academic Adjustment Issues in a Malaysian Research University: The Case of Cambodian, Laotian, Burmese, and Vietnamese Postgraduate Students' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Rany; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Bin Jamil, Hazri; Souriyavongsa, Thongma; Quyen, Le To Do

    2013-01-01

    The Malaysian government aims to help the bottom billion countries, which are its neighbouring countries in the South East Asian region, for their human capital development through providing university postgraduate scholarship projects. Those countries include Cambodia, Laos PDR, Burma or Myanmar, and Vietnam (CLMV), which are favourite countries…

  9. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  10. TOWARDS UNIFORM RULES FOR ARMED CONFLICTS Pieter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mexico and some socialist states such as the Soviet Union, Hungary, Romania,. Bulgaria and Byelorussia; ibid 116. 9 This group included Burma, the United Kingdom ..... terrorism, rape, enforced prostitution, indecent assault, slavery and pillage.52. While the extension of the humanitarian protections granted by APII is to be.

  11. Book review - Borderline justice: the fight for refugee and migrant rights by Frances Webber, London, Pluto Press, 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liempt, I.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Our leaders encourage and treat as heroes those people who are fighting for democracy and human rights, in Burma, in Libya, in Egypt and Syria…But as soon as these heroes seek sanctuary here in the ‘free world’, they are transformed into a hostile alien threat to our culture and our values, to be

  12. The Quiet Ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillue, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Using the story of George Orwell's experience with imperialism in Burma from the essay "Shooting the Elephant," one English-as-a-Second-Language teacher confronts her desire to "stand over" students in the language learning classroom as they try to negotiate meaning in English. (Author/VWL)

  13. Engaged Teaching and Learning with Adult Karen Refugees in a Service-Learning Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Lynn Atkinson; Zhang, Wei; Detwiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a service-learning project connected to a TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) teacher preparation program. The case study explored the teacher candidates' experiences teaching English to Karen refugees from Myanmar (Burma) in a midwestern city in the United States. The teacher candidates'…

  14. 76 FR 69290 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Act, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq. North Korea is subject to numerous restrictions, including... Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-386), as amended. Dated: November 2, 2011. Melvin F... prohibits assistance to the government of Burma until it makes progress on improving human rights and...

  15. 75 FR 52990 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... decree and also section 7086(c) of the FY10 SFOAA regarding budget transparency. 5. North Korea is... to the government of Burma until it makes progress on improving human rights and implementing... as a Tier III country under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, as amended, 22 U.S.C. sections...

  16. 77 FR 21111 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... deposed by military coup or decree and also section 7031(b) regarding budget transparency. North Korea is... government of Burma until it makes measurable and substantial progress in improving human rights practices... subject to restrictions due to its status as a Tier III country under the Trafficking Victims Protection...

  17. on the Cape Peninsula

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    London: Smith, Elder. SMITH, M A 1943. The FaUlUl of British India,. Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3. Serpentes. London: Taylor & Francis. WALL, F 1921. Snakes of Ceylon. Colombo: Gov. Printer. TABLE I. Details of specimens of Typhlops braminus collected in the vicinity of Cape Town. Length and diameter.

  18. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar (Burma). Papua New Guinea. Some small island states. Somalia.

  19. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar (Burma). Papua New Guinea. Some small island states. Somalia.

  20. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Andaman Islands, the central part of the Burma and. Java subduction complex; Geol. Mag. 140 289–307. Pal T, Chakraborty P P and Gosh R N 2003b PGE distri- bution in chromite placers from Andaman ophiolite and its boninitic parentage; J. Geol. Soc. India 62 671–680. Pal T 2011 Petrology and geochemistry of the ...

  1. Timber Entrepreneur, Cukong Kayu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    that is at once highly particular and general. They include the Muslim Television Preacher in Indonesia, Miss Beer Lao, the Rural DJ in Thailand, the Korean Soap Opera Junkie in Burma, the Filipino Seaman, and the Photo Retoucher in Vietnam. Figures of Southeast Asian Modernity brings together the fieldwork...

  2. The United States and Myanmar: From Antagonists to Security Partners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haacke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview both of the considerable makeover that relations between the United States and Myanmar have undergone since Naypyidaw ushered in a programme of wide-ranging reforms, and of the main policy areas in relation to which Washington remains keen to induce further change. The article also aims to explain why, notwithstanding the significant improvement in bilateral relations and the Obama administration’s interest in also pursuing military engagement, progress in this field has remained rather limited. Focusing on the politics of US policymaking on Burma, the article argues that while the Obama administration was able to take the initiative on recalibrating US Burma policy, congressional resistance in particular, amid wider concerns shared by non-governmental organisations, has so far constrained the administration vis-à-vis US–Myanmar military-to-military relations.

  3. Karen Resistance Poetry translated and introduced by Violet Cho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Cho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Karen Resistance Poetry translated and introduced by Violet Cho. Tee Noe was born as M. No Noe in a village called Thavorta, Karen State, Myanmar (Burma in 1952. After completing year 10 at a state high school in 1974, he worked as a junior clerk at a local government office in Karen State, eastern Myanmar. Later he joined the rebellion as a soldier for the Karen National Liberation Army and as a schoolteacher in Burmese refugee camps along Thai-Burma border. With no formal knowledge of the mechanics of poetry, Tee Noe has become a leading voice of the Karen diaspora. From a young age, Noe was drawn to poetry. He remembers singing a short hta (Karen oral poem to thank his cousin who gave him a woollen hat as a present when he turned six: 'To school I run when the bell rings, with a woollen hat today I went.' "

  4. Identifying orchid hotspots for biodiversity conservation in Laos: the limestone karst vegetation of Vang Vieng District, Vientiane Province

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Kumar; Stephan W. Gale; André Schuiteman; Somsanith Bouamanivong; Gunter A. Fischer

    2016-01-01

    A project to study the phytodiversity of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot (IBBH) was initiated by Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong, in 2011, with the aim of surveying primary forest fragments and identifying conservation priorities within this expansive but highly threatened ecoregion. Vang Vieng District of Vientiane Province, northern Laos, was chosen as a focus for a pilot expedition, since it features an extensive karst landscape that has barely been explored. Together with ...

  5. U.S. Foreign Aid to East and South Asia: Selected Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-27

    to manage regional and country-specific aid primarily in mainland Southeast Asia , administers the following programs: Vulnerable Populations ...unspecified account. Burma has significant foreign aid needs. It has the largest population of displaced persons in East Asia and one of the world’s...counterterrorism financing, the Southeast Asia Regional Counterterrorism Center, and export control and border security. Mongolia Table 10. U.S. Assistance to

  6. Cyber-Enabled Unconventional Warfare: The Convergence of Cyberspace, Social Mobilization, and Special Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    cyber warfare, cyber terrorism, DDoS attacks, department of defense, hackers, hacktivists, hybrid warfare, information warfare, insurgency...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CBI China, Burma, and India (theater in WWII) CIA Central Intelligence Agency DDoS ...as a distributed denial of service ( DDoS ) attack. By pushing too much data to a computer, site, or server, these types of attacks effectively

  7. International Coordination of and Contributions to Environmental Satellite Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Coast South Africa Brazil Japan South Yemen Bulgaria Jordan Spain Burma Kenya Sri Lanka %Cameroon Korea, Rep. of Sudan Canada Kuwait Surinam Canary...receiving capabilities as of July 1984: Bangladesh Indonesia Singapore Belgium Iran South Africa Brazil Italy South Yemen Canada Japan Sweden China...management of Indian natural resources in the areas of agriculture, forestry, geology , and hydrology. The IRS-lA will be a semioperational, three-axis

  8. Coercion, Cash-Crops and Culture: From Insurgency to Proto-State in Asia’s Opium Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Hodes and Sedra claim a more extensive Taliban extraction system that includes taxation of production, transportation, and processing,33 Turning to...33 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2007), 39. 34 Martin Smith, Burma...104 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2007), 26. 105 Giustozzi

  9. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. III. The Genus Aedes, Subgenus Neomacleaya Theobald in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    It is probable that there are still several unrecognized species within its geographical range. Very little information on adult bionomics is...skins, from about 4 mi. inland along Balsahan River (near Iwahig), Palawan, PHILIPPINES, in the U.S. National Museum. DISTRIBUTION. So far only known...same locality and date as type. DISTRIBUTION. Specimens examined: MALAYA: Selangor , 8 females, 2 males (USNM), 3 females (Bishop); BURMA: Rangoon

  10. Closing the Chasm: Preparing and Building Post-Conflict Civil Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    Lastly, I would like to recognize and personally thank my wife and kids for putting up with my domination of certain areas of the house as I laid my...ethnic and economic strife and restructuring of the governance and infrastructure in the Congo , Chad, Sudan, Somalia, Zimbabwe, Burma, or North Korea... Streets Have No Names: Looking Past Operation Iraqi Freedom to Future Urban Operations.‖ Joint Forces Quarterly, no. 43 (October 2006): pp. 40–42

  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei Data Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    was clinically isolated by Alfred Whitmore in Burma (Myanmar). Figure 1-1 illustrates the prevalence of melioidosis worldwide. Since the addition of B...probability of survival. Animals used in this research include mice, hamsters, rats, ferrets, guinea pigs , rabbits, pigs , and non-human primates...and approved vaccine there is no protective countermeasure against B. pseudomallei . Prophylaxis using antibiotics has been investigated in mice

  12. The Road to Success in Africa is Paved in Asphalt: Transportation Infrastructure Development in Emerging Economies as a Way to Achieve National Strategic Policy Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    later that slavery was abolished, followed by another 100 years of segregation and Jim Crow laws . Almost 200 years after independence and declaring...that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it...from Wanting in Burma to Kunming in China, a distance of roughly 717 miles, though only 320 miles as the crow flies. The road was constructed through

  13. The Growing Complexity of Sino-Indian Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    the Coco Islands and may be providing some limited technical assistance to Burma. Given that almost 80 percent of China’s oil passes through the...biased, mainly reliant on oil , and tends to privilege self-sufficiency.17 It is toward an aggressive pursuit of energy resources, particularly oil ...China and India are feeling the pressure of di- minishing oil discoveries and flat-lined oil production at a time when expansion of their domestic

  14. American Airborne Operations in the Pacific Theater: Extending Operational Reach and Creating Operational Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    soldier, regardless of branch, that rode a CG-4A Waco glider to the battlefield. The CG-4A Waco glider was constructed of steel tubes , plywood, and...Barbey, MacArthur’s Amphibious Navy (Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute, 1969), 10. 22William Slim , Defeat Into Victory, Battling Japan in...Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2010. Slim ,William. Defeat into Victory: Battling Japan in Burma and India 1942-1945. New York, NY Cooper Square Press

  15. Elephants for Mr. Lincoln: American Civil War-Era Diplomacy in Southeast Asia, William Strobridge & Anita Hibler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Baer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This curious book, which begins with events in the 1810s, emphasizes Burma and Siam but undervalues other parts of Southeast Asia. The title refers to the offer by the king of Siam to send elephants to the United States to help President Lincoln win the Civil War. The book rightly discusses commerce, diplomats, and military actions in Southeast Asia. Missionaries are, for unclear reasons, also given prominence; in fact, much of the authors’ information comes from Protestant missionary sources...

  16. Corruption in Myanmar - Holding a Country and its People from Economic Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    and the US grow, this may raise further Chinese fears of encirclement.” 48 While Western nations have begun relaxing the sanctions imposed as a...instill a culture of change. For example, in Malaysia, the government formed the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC), an independent watch...49 Naing Ko Ko, “Burma Must Declare War.” 50 Official Portal of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, accessed

  17. A System Description of the Heroin Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    is no a priori mason to expect that one method is a better representation of reality . In all our discussons of the HSP, we use the pecnae derived...shipped to the United States probably ineracts with Burma’s total production. By itself, the model does not take into account these possible interactions...Drug Control Strategy Report, January 1990, augmented by those classified by the FBI as Level I or H cities for drug trafficking activities. The next

  18. Improving U.S.-India HA/DR Coordination in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Burma, Mr. Bhaskar Kumar Mitra, handing over relief to Burma’s minister for social welfare, relief and resettlement , Major General Maung Maung Swe...classes:  Two indigenously built Brahmaputra-class guided-missile frig- ates were commissioned in 2004 and 2005, bringing the total number of...class.134  The indigenously built Shivalik-class ships are the newest frig- ates in the Indian Navy, with three ships commissioned be- tween 2010

  19. Lessons from DoD Disaster Relief Efforts in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Orientation & Review,” USARPAC briefing, undated; “USARPAC OSInt Support to Cyclone nargis Relief Efforts in Burma 2008,” USARPAC briefing, undated; phone...all organizations relied, to a large extent, on the staff and national partners they already had 71 “USARPAC OSINT Support to Cyclone Nargis Relief...undated. As of September 8, 2012: http://www.kadena.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-120426-002.pdf “USARPAC OSINT Support to Cyclone Nargis Relief

  20. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XV. Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Ayurakitia Thurman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    small hair- like spicules; proctiger long, paraproct pigmented and bluntly pointed at apex, cereal setae absent; phallosome with aedeagus divided into...Thailand. The range of the subgenus may well extend into the mountain ranges of eastern Burma and northern Malaysia since similar habitats and climates...large flattened, curved bristle at apex, proctiger with cereal setae, and gonostylus long, narrow with an apical gonostylar claw; pupae with abdominal

  1. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. V. Genus Aedes, Subgenus Diceromyia Theobald in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    cereal setae absent. PUPA. The pupae of the Oriental species do not, at this time, pre- sent any clear-cut subgeneric characters. They do, however, have...Northern Rhodesia) and from the Oriental Region: BURMA, CEYLON, INDIA(mainland and Nicobar Islands), INDONESIA, WEST MALAYSIA , PHILIPPINES...bearing several teeth and the absence of cereal setae on the paraproct (the characters of the terminalia fit into Section B, Subsec- tion 3 of the

  2. Small Wars in a Big Theater: Special Operations Air Component Integration with the Joint Air Component in Theater Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    the 1st Air Commando Group. —Gen Henry “Hap” Arnold Operation Thursday With the fall of Burma to the Japanese in 142, the British looked for a...10 April 1944. Subject: Summary of Operations of First Air Commando Group. GP-A-CMDO- 1-HI. Arnold, Gen Henry “Hap.” To Adm Lord Louis Mountbatten...Air Component in Theater Operations Air University Press Team Chief Editor Jerry L. Gantt Copy Editor Lula Barnes Cover Art, Book

  3. New species of Grossander Slater, 1976 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Drymini) from the Oriental Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosy, Előd; Fábics, Anita

    2015-01-05

    The previously known distribution area of the genus Grossander Slater, 1976 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae, Drymini) is broadened with the description of two new species: Grossander papuanus sp. nov. (New Guinea) and Grossander eylesi sp. nov. (Burma, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia). Grossander (Oculoander) subgen. nov. is created for these new taxa. Drawings of habitus and male genitalia are presented. Keys to the subgenera of Grossander, and to the species of the new subgenus are provided.

  4. Control Over the Nile: Implications across Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    framework. China pursued development of alternative river basins in its territory, for example, the Three Gorges Dam , while Burma for its part had no...White Nile at the dam . All three East African countries also practice lakeside agriculture around Lake Victoria. Moreover, fishing is an important...overwhelming economic and military might compared to the upstream countries’ lack of capital, limited capacity to build dams and waterworks, and internal

  5. The Role Of The Military In Myanmars Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    distribution of wealth.100 As a result, the control mechanisms of the planned economy intended to sustain the state monopoly erode, causing serious... entrepreneurship . In 1976, tax on business profit was 90 percent on profits of more than 300,000 kyat. The Union of Burma Bank, also established in 1976...to sustain the lavish lifestyles of senior Tatmadaw commanders.275 With vetted personal interests, it is unlikely that highly profitable SOEs will be

  6. Report on metric study tour to Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laner, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The modernized metric system, known universally as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI under the French name) was renamed in 1960 by the world body on standards. A map shows 98 percent of the world using or moving toward adoption of SI units. Only the countries of Burma, Liberia, Brunei, and Southern Yemen are nonmetric. The author describes a two-week session in Pretoria and Johannesburg on metrication, followed by additional meetings on metrication in Rhodesia. (MCW)

  7. Winston Churchill and the Third Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    offensive against Burma. Strategically, taking northern Sumatra would open the way for ’an immediate descent on Penang ,’ which could lead to the reconquest...the same forces could sustain combined operations against Malaya, Sumatra, or Java. But ’Trident’ was not the last time that Churchill proposed...8217Culverin’ would postpone a host of operations previously sanctioned by the Allies: i) the build up of a Pacific fleet until the spring of 1945. ii) the

  8. Cyber Infrastructure Protection. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    time communications via email, or instant messaging, or asynchronous methods like blogs and texts.12 As a con- sequence, researchers can mine these...Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana , Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad...Political Rights. science research may benefit from data mining online forums and websites to develop data sets.63 Such ef- forts may prove

  9. Analysis of the Dose Commitments Resulting from Atmospheric Transport and Deposition from Nuclear Risk Sites in the Russian Far East

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, K.G.; Compton, K.L.; Parker, F.; Mahura, A.; Novikov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the worst-case case dose commitments and potential consequences of accidental releases at nuclear risk sites in the Russian Far East. The nuclear risk sites of concern are near Petropavlovsk (52055'N & 158030'E) and Vladivostok (42055'N & 132025'E). The region of interest includes the territories of the Russian Far East, China, Japan, North and South Korea, State of Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Mongolia, Burma, Hong Kong, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, and ...

  10. Enhancing the Jamaica Defence Force Military Intelligence Unit’s Effectiveness to Conduct Counterdrug Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    include Amphetamine and Speed 3. Class C drugs include Cannabis , GHB (Gamma Hydroxybutyrate), Anabolic Steroids, and Tranquillizers 51 Persons brought...6 December 2005. 2The Golden Triangle refers to the mountainous area of Burma, Laos, and Thailand, just south of the Chinese border, where opium has...A country seizure of drugs proceeds--money, property, and conveyances etc. for conversion into state use. Cannabis . The scientific name for

  11. Evolutionary dynamics and biogeography of Musaceae reveal a correlation between the diversification of the banana family and the geological and climatic history of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Vandelook, Filip; De Langhe, Edmond; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik; Vandenhouwe, Ines; Swennen, Rony

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Southeast Asia, which harbors most of the Musaceae biodiversity, is one of the most species-rich regions in the world. Its high degree of endemism is shaped by the region's tectonic and climatic history, with large differences between northern Indo-Burma and the Malayan Archipelago. Here, we aim to find a link between the diversification and biogeography of Musaceae and geological history of the Southeast Asian subcontinent. The Musaceae family (including five Ensete, 45 Musa and one Musella species) was dated using a large phylogenetic framework encompassing 163 species from all Zingiberales families. Evolutionary patterns within Musaceae were inferred using ancestral area reconstruction and diversification rate analyses. All three Musaceae genera - Ensete, Musa and Musella - originated in northern Indo-Burma during the early Eocene. Musa species dispersed from 'northwest to southeast' into Southeast Asia with only few back-dispersals towards northern Indo-Burma. Musaceae colonization events of the Malayan Archipelago subcontinent are clearly linked to the geological and climatic history of the region. Musa species were only able to colonize the region east of Wallace's line after the availability of emergent land from the late Miocene onwards. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Burmese Attitude toward Chinese: Portrayal of the Chinese in Contemporary Cultural and Media Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that since at least the mid 1980s, there has been an observable negative attitude among the people of Burma against the Chinese. Such sentiment is not just transient public opinion, but an attitude. The author measures it by studying contemporary cultural and media works as found in legally published expressions, so as to exclude any material rejected by the regime’s censors. The causes of such sentiment are various: massive Chinese migration and purchases of real estate (especially in Upper Burma, Chinese money that is inflating the cost of everything, and cultural “intrusion.” The sentiment extends to the military, as well: the article examines a dozen memoirs of former military generals and finds that Burma’s generals do not trust the Chinese, a legacy of China’s interference in Burma’s civil war until the 1980s. The public outcry over the Myitsone dam issue, however, was the most significant expression of such sentiment since 1969, when anti-Chinese riots broke out in Burma. The relaxation of media restrictions under the new government has allowed this expression to gather steam and spread throughout the country, especially in private weekly journals that are becoming more outspoken and daring in pushing the boundaries of the state’s restrictions.

  13. ABNORMALITAS MORFOLOGIS BENIH IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus STRAIN MUTIARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan strain baru ikan lele Afrika (Clarias gariepinus hasil pemuliaan yang memiliki keunggulan-keunggulan karakteristik budidaya, terutama pertumbuhan. Selain karakteristik budidayanya, karakteristik morfologis ikan lele Mutiara juga perlu dieksplorasi. Salah satu aspek morfologi yang perlu dieksplorasi tersebut adalah abnormalitas morfologis benihnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui abnormalitas morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara dibandingkan dengan benih strain-strain ikan lele Afrika lain yang digunakan dalam kegiatan budidaya di Indonesia, yakni ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo. Karakteristik yang diamati adalah abnormalitas bentuk morfologis (deformitas dan fluktuasi asimetri sirip dada dan sirip perut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat deformitas (4,00% dan fluktuasi asimetri (sirip dada 0,14 dan sirip perut 0,02 benih ikan lele Mutiara lebih rendah daripada benih-benih ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo (deformitas berkisar 6,00-42,00%, fluktuasi asimetri sirip dada berkisar 0,30-0,68 dan sirip perut berkisar 0,12-0,62. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa bentuk morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara lebih normal daripada benih-benih ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa mutu dan keragaman genetis ikan lele Mutiara lebih tinggi daripada strain-strain ikan lele Afrika lain yang digunakan dalam kegiatan budidaya di Indonesia tersebut.

  14. Agility Into Victory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    This paper will investigate how the three core concepts of command and control agility can increase the chance for a successful outcome in military operations and what elements that should be strengthen within a military organization in order to achieve an agile approach to command and control....... This paper argues the concept was framed and tested during WWII in Burma and the Far East Asia campaign and that an agile approach to command and control is highly relevant for modern military organizations wishing to improve their warfighting capabilities....

  15. Tropical storm off Myanmar coast sweeps reefs in Ritchie's Archipelago, Andaman

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnan, P.; Grinson-George, G.; Vikas, N.; Titus-Immanuel, T.; Goutham-Bharathi, M.P.; Anand, A.; VinodKumar, K.; SenthilKumar, S.

    . Tropical storm . Surge . Geostrophic currents . Eddies Introduction Coral reefs across the world were affected by the elevated sea surface temperature (SST) during May 2010 and in Andaman the extent of damage was up to 70 % in some islands (Krishnan et al... and Moon State with wind speed up to 50 knots and wave height of 4– 6m during 14–16March, 2011. Around 4000 fishermen were swept into the Andaman Sea from the Pyapon region in Myanmar during the storm (http://www. mizzima.com/news/inside-burma/5054-up...

  16. The "Everyday Politics" of IDP Protection in Karen State Flüchtlingspolitik im Karen-Gebiet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hull

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available While international humanitarian access in Burma has opened up over the past decade and a half, the ongoing debate regarding the appropriate relationship between politics and humanitarian assistance remains unresolved. This debate has become especially limiting in regards to protection measures for internally displaced persons (IDPs which are increasingly seen to fall within the mandate of humanitarian agencies. Conventional IDP protection frameworks are biased towards a top-down model of politicallyaverse intervention which marginalises local initiatives to resist abuse and hinders local control over protection efforts. Yet such local resistance strategies remain the most effective IDP protection measures currently employed in Karen State and other parts of rural Burma. Addressing the protection needs and underlying humanitarian concerns of displaced and potentially displaced people is thus inseparable from engagement with the "everyday politics" of rural villagers. This article seeks to challenge conventional notions of IDP protection that prioritise a form of state-centric "neutrality" and marginalise the "everyday politics" through which local villagers continue to resist abuse and claim their rights. Obwohl der Zugang internationaler Hilfsorganisationen nach Burma sich in der vergangenen Dekade verbessert hat, bleibt die Debatte über die angemessene Beziehung zwischen Politik und humanitärer Hilfe ungelöst. Die Debatte ist insbesondere bei Fragen des Schutzes von Binnenflüchtlingen (IDPs sehr begrenzt, die mehr und mehr unter den Schutz humanitärer Hilfsorganisationen fallen. Der konventionelle Rahmen des Schutzes von IDPs basiert auf einem Top-Down-Modell, das sich gegen eine politische Einflussnahme ausspricht, lokale Initiativen zum Schutz gegen Missbrauch marginalisiert und lokale Kontrolle über Schutzmaßnahmen verhindert. Lokale Widerstandsstrategien bleiben aber im gegenwärtigen Karen-Staat und in anderen Teilen des l

  17. Screening and Identification of Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzhuo Fu; Frank X. Cid; Nat Dworkin; James Cocores; Gloria Shore

    2015-01-01

    Kratom is a tree planted in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma) and elsewhere in the region. A long history of usage and abuse of kratom has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the wide availability of kratom on the Internet and in the streets has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of misuse. With the increasing popular...

  18. First record of the family Pseudochiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from continental South America--a Pseudochiridium from a Brazilian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schimonsky, Diego Monteiro; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Mahnert, Volker

    2014-12-02

    The small pseudoscorpion family Pseudochiridiidae Chamberlin, 1923 comprises two genera and 12 extant species recorded from Asia (Burma, Christmas Island, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Nicobars and Sumba), eastern, central and southern Africa (Chad, D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania), Madagascar, Seychelles (Aldabra), North America (Florida) and the Caribbean Islands of Dominican Republic and Cuba (Harvey 2013, Barba & Barroso 2013); one unidentified species is mentioned for the fauna of Mexico (Ceballos 2004). A fossil species has been described from Dominican amber by Judson (2007), who predicted the presence of this family in South America. 

  19. Science Diplomacy in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neureiter, Norman P.

    2011-04-01

    For us at AAAS science diplomacy means the use of scientific cooperation as an active instrument of a foreign policy of engagement-particularly with countries where overall political relations are strained. Historic precedents are noted with Japan, the Soviet Union, and China. Recent experiences of our AAAS Center for Science Diplomacy are described-with Iran, Syria, Cuba, Burma (Myanmar), and North Korea. In this presentation I will explore cases and the key contributing factors that determine where it makes a difference, and where it is truly constructive.

  20. AHP 28: Review: Naga Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Fiskesjö

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This rich volume, with 464 pages packed with information on many aspects of the history and culture of the Naga peoples of Northeast India and Burma, and with a wealth of fascinating illustrations, was simultaneously published in German as Naga-Identitäten: Zeitenwende einer Lokalkultur im Nordosten Indiens. This English version was translated by a team of dedicated editors and proofreaders, resulting in a remarkably rich and well-produced book of great value to everyone concerned with the peoples of Asia's highlands. ...

  1. Redefinition of Acanthosoma and taxonomic corrections to its included species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jing-Fu; Rédei, Dávid

    2015-04-30

    , 1977, syn. nov. New combinations resulting from synonymization of Anaxandra with Acanthosoma: Acanthosoma sichuanense (Liu, 1980), comb. nov., A. montanum (Liu, 1987), comb. nov. Species transferred to Sastragala Amyot & Serville, 1843: Sastragala nigrolineata (Stål, 1876), comb. nov.; S. sigillata (Stål, 1876), comb. nov.; S. versicolor Distant, 1910, comb. restit.; S. yunnana (Hsiao & Liu, 1977), comb. nov.; to Elasmostethus Fieber, 1860: Elasmostethus singhalensis (Distant, 1902), comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Acanthosoma: A. difficile, A. distinctum, A. dubium, A. elongatum, A. forfex, A. proximum; Anaxandra: A. hamata, A. nigrocornuta Reuter, 1881, A. tauriformis; Sastragala: S. murreeana, S. rufispina. A neotype is designated for Anaxandra montana. New country records: Acanthosoma alaticorne and A. rufispinum: Nepal; A. forfex: Burma (Myanmar); A. labiduroides: Burma (Myanmar) and Vietnam; A. montanum: Laos and Vietnam; A. murreeanum: India, Thailand; A. nigricorne: Nepal, Burma (Myanmar) and Vietnam; A. rufescens: Pakistan, Nepal, Taiwan, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.

  2. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2001

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; DeSouza, F.P.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhosle, N.B.

    and Sri Lanka on the west and by the Andaman?Nicobar islands and Burma on the east. The uniqueness of the Bay is the reversing monsoons that cause seasonal changes in circulation and weather. Furthermore, the Bay receives large quantities of fresh water...) and reversed phase Shim-Pack HRC-ODS analytical column (4.6 mm ID, 15 cm length, 5?m particle size) was used. A binary solvent system consisting of 50mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 3% of tetrahydrofuran as solvent A and methanol as solvent B...

  3. From farm gate to food plate - energy in post-harvest food systems in south Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, J.K.

    1986-08-01

    This paper estimates energy consumed in the post-harvest food systems of India, Pakistan, Burma and Sri Lanka. The components of the post-harvest food system are: food processing, food transport, and cooking. It is shown that they represent a significant share of national energy consumption, and that variations among countries depend on variables such as urbanization, income, cropping patterns, and whether a country is a food importer or food exporter. The policies to reduce energy consumption would involve measures for increased energy efficiencies, reduced food losses, and careful consideration of markets vs food production areas for perishable commodities.

  4. Mobile computing in the humanitarian assistance setting: an introduction and some first steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanikio, Joel D; Kemmer, Teresa M; Bovill, Maria; Geisler, Karen

    2002-04-01

    We developed a Palm operating system-based handheld computer system for admin istering nutrition questionnaires and used it to gather nutritional information among the Burmese refugees in the Mae La refugee camp on the Thai-Burma border Our experience demonstrated that such technology can be easily adapted for such an austere setting and used to great advantage. Further, the technology showed tremendous potential to reduce both time required and errors commonly encountered when field staff collect information in the humanitarian setting. We also identified several areas needing further development.

  5. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  6. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. A.; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

    2005-03-01

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html), it is the second largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004, however, the two plates moved by a distance of several meters, releasing the stress accumulated over hundreds of years. The result was a devastating tsunami that hit coastlines across the Indian Ocean, killing about 300,000 people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Somalia, and other countries (Guardian, 29 January 2005, http://www.guardian.co.uk/tsunami/story/0,15671,1380895,00.html).

  7. The Rohingya people of Myanmar: health, human rights, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Syed S; Wroe, Emily; Fuller, Arlan; Leaning, Jennifer

    2017-05-06

    The Rohingya people of Myanmar (known as Burma before 1989) were stripped of citizenship in 1982, because they could not meet the requirement of proving their forefathers settled in Burma before 1823, and now account for one in seven of the global population of stateless people. Of the total 1·5 million Rohingya people living in Myanmar and across southeast Asia, only 82 000 have any legal protection obtained through UN-designated refugee status. Since 2012, more than 159 000 people, most of whom are Rohingya, have fled Myanmar in poorly constructed boats for journeys lasting several weeks to neighbouring nations, causing hundreds of deaths. We outline historical events preceding this complex emergency in health and human rights. The Rohingya people face a cycle of poor infant and child health, malnutrition, waterborne illness, and lack of obstetric care. In December, 2014, a UN resolution called for an end to the crisis. We discuss the Myanmar Government's ongoing treatment of Rohingya through the lens of international law, and the steps that the newly elected parliament must pursue for a durable solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shan women and girls and the sex industry in Southeast Asia; political causes and human rights implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, C

    2001-08-01

    The human rights abuses which occur during civil conflicts pose special threats to the health and lives of women. These can include rape, sexual violence, increased vulnerability to trafficking into prostitution, and exposure to HIV infection. The long-standing civil conflict in the Shan States of Burma is investigated as a contributing cause to the trafficking of ethnic Shan women and girls into the Southeast Asian sex industry, and to the subsequent high rates of HIV infection found among these women. The context of chronic human rights abuses in the Shan states is explored, as well as the effects of recent forced population transfers on the part of the Burmese Military Regime. Rights abuses specific to trafficked women may further increase their vulnerability to HIV and other STD. The need for a political resolution to the crisis in Burma is discussed, as are approaches aimed at preventing trafficking, empowering women already in the sex industry, and reducing the risks of HIV and other STD among these women and girls.

  9. Trading Activity and Ethnodomestication of Plants by Manipuri Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mustaque AHMED

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Long distance traveling and trading activity of Muslims from great antiquity brought plants into Manipur (Indo-Burma-China region. The indigenous traveling vehicles, horses needed poppy as their essential medicinal food as well as horse diet. Some words such as- Turushka, Pasha (Pasa, Pangal, Pathan, Mangal, Mughal, are found to be synonymous with the word Muslims and these words were associated with the plants. Ethno-domestication of 18 (eighteen plants in their kitchen garden, flower garden, courtyard, fields, orchards etc, was found. Survey of literature couples with field survey was carried out with an aim to understand the sustainable use of bio-resources. Uses of plants among Manipuri community in various purposes were known to this community. To this aspect, an approach of traditional plant stalk conservation is observed from time immemorial.

  10. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re......-enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  11. Exploring the mental health effects of political trauma with newly arrived refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J; Wieling, Elizabeth; McCleary, Jennifer Simmelink; Becher, Emily

    2015-04-01

    We explored the mental health effects of war trauma and torture as described by 111 refugees newly arrived in the United States. We used ethnocultural methodologies to inform 13 culture-specific focus groups with refugees from Bhutan (34), Burma (23), Ethiopia (27), and Somalia (27). Contrary to the belief that stigma prevents refugees from discussing mental health distress, participants readily described complex conceptualizations of degrees of mental health distress informed by political context, observation of symptoms, cultural idioms, and functional impairment. Recommendations for health care providers include assessment processes that inquire about symptoms in their political context, the degree of distress as it is culturally conceptualized, and its effect on functioning. Findings confirm the cross-cultural recognition of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; however, refugees described significant cultural variation in expressions of distress, indicating the need for more research on culture-bound disorders and idioms of distress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. AcEST: DK957732 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 81 4e-15 sp|O07529|AZR_BACSU FMN-dependent NADPH-azoreductase OS=Bacillus... 45 4e-04 sp|Q9FAW5|AZRB_BACOY NADPH azoreductase...0|Y517_MYCPN Uncharacterized protein MG342 homolog OS=My... 39 0.027 sp|Q63QG7|AZOR_BURPS FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase... OS=Burkhold... 38 0.045 sp|Q3JNA7|AZOR_BURP1 FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase OS=Burkhold... 38... 0.045 sp|Q62DD3|AZOR_BURMA FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase OS=Burkhold... 38 0.0...45 sp|Q8DA68|AZOR_VIBVU FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase OS=Vibrio v... 37 0.077 sp|Q2SUH7|AZOR_BURTA FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase

  13. Diversity, habitat preferences, and conservation of the primates of Southern Assam, India: The story of a primate paradise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Khairujjaman Mazumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern part of Assam in India, a part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, harbors a myriad number of wild plant and animal species. Although there is only one protected area, the Barail Wildlife Sanctuary (Cachar district and a few reserve forests (RFs, there are as many as eight primates inhabiting the region – a diversity hardly found elsewhere. In addition to the protected area and RFs, tea gardens and secondary forests also serve as habitats for animals. The border areas of the region with the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura are among the most important abodes of these primates. Unfortunately, these primates are under constant threat from multiple sources. The present article provides an extensive survey of the available literature on the primates of southern Assam with reference to their distribution, habitat preferences, threats, and conservation. Additionally, data from field observations of the author are also presented.

  14. Fake antimalarials in Southeast Asia are a major impediment to malaria control: multinational cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of fake antimalarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, A M; Newton, P N; Mayxay, M; Van Damme, W; Smithuis, F M; Yeung, S; Petit, A; Lynam, A J; Johnson, A; Hien, T T; McGready, R; Farrar, J J; Looareesuwan, S; Day, N P J; Green, M D; White, N J

    2004-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit antimalarial drugs in Southeast (SE) Asia. Cross-sectional survey. Pharmacies and shops selling antimalarial drugs in Myanmar (Burma), Lao PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. Proportion of artemisinin derivatives or mefloquine containing drugs of substandard quality. Of the 188 tablet packs purchased which were labelled as 'artesunate' 53% did not contain any artesunate. All counterfeit artesunate tablets were labelled as manufactured by 'Guilin Pharma', and refinements of the fake blisterpacks made them often hard to distinguish from their genuine counterparts. No other artemisinin derivatives were found to be counterfeited. Of the 44 mefloquine samples, 9% contained active ingredient. An alarmingly high proportion of antimalarial drugs bought in pharmacies and shops in mainland SE Asia are counterfeit, and the problem has increased significantly compared with our previous survey in 1999-2000. This is a serious threat to public health in the region.

  15. Fake artesunate in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, P; Proux, S; Green, M; Smithuis, F; Rozendaal, J; Prakongpan, S; Chotivanich, K; Mayxay, M; Looareesuwan, S; Farrar, J; Nosten, F; White, N J

    2001-06-16

    Artesunate is a key antimalarial drug in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. We investigated the distribution of counterfeit artesunate tablets by use of the validated, simple, and inexpensive Fast Red TR dye technique. We also aimed to identify distinguishing characteristics of the fake drugs. Of 104 shop-bought "artesunate" samples from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, 38% did not contain artesunate. Characteristics such as cost and physical appearance of the tablets and packaging reliably predicted authenticity. The illicit trade in counterfeit antimalarials is a great threat to the lives of patients with malaria. The dye test will assist national malaria control authorities in urgently needed campaigns to stop this murderous trade.

  16. The Naueti relationship terminology: A new instance of asymmetric prescription from East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hicks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship terminologies of an asymmetric prescriptive character are widespread throughout mainland and insular Southeast Asia. Their western limit is marked by the Kachin of northern Burma (Leach 1961:28-53 while their eastern limit is marked by the Mambai people of central East Timor (Figures 1 and 2. Between these limits are such other instances as occur, for example, among the Lamet of Cambodia (Needham 1960, the various Batak groups of Sumatra (Rodgers 1984, and the Rindi of eastern Sumba (Forth 1981. The principal intention of the present paper is to establish the existence of a new asymmetric prescriptive terminology in East Timor, and by doing so provide empirical justification for adjusting the easternmost limits of nomenclatures of this kind. A subsidiary intent is to offer a contribution to current speculations regarding the transformation of relationship terminologies in eastern Indonesia (Guermonprez 1998; Smedal 2002.

  17. Shuttle Earth Views, 1994. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In this third part of a four-part video compilation of Space Shuttle Earth views, various geographical areas are shown, including both land and water masses. The views cover South America, Asia (North Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, China, Malaysia, Thailand, Java, various islands, Burma, Philippines, Taiwan, Guam), New Guinea, Australia, Morocco, Southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, Algeria, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Former Republic of Yugoslavia, Tunisia), and parts of the Middle East (Libya, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Sinai, Cyprus, Lebanon, Iraq), the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean, Dead, Coral, Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, Ionian, Red, South China, Mindanao, Arafura, Sulu, Java, and China Seas. Each film clip has a heading that names the shuttle and the geographical location of the footage.

  18. Seismology: speed and size of the Sumatra earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Seth; Okal, Emile A

    2005-03-31

    Our seismological results reveal that Indonesia's devastating Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 26 December 2004 was 2.5 times larger than initial reports suggested--second only to the 1960 Chilean earthquake in recorded magnitude. They indicate that it slowly released its energy by slip along a 1,200-km fault, generating a long rupture that contributed to the subsequent tsunami. Now that the entire rupture zone has slipped, the strain accumulated from the subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Burma microplate has been released, and there is no immediate danger of a similar tsunami being generated on this part of the plate boundary, although large earthquakes on segments to the south still present a threat.

  19. The Work of Inscription: Antenatal Care, Birth Documents, and Shan Migrant Women in Chiang Mai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo Kyeong

    2017-12-01

    For transnational migrant populations, securing birth documents of newly born children has crucial importance in avoiding statelessness for new generations. Drawing on discussions of sovereignty and political subjectivization, I ask how the fact of birth is constituted in the context of transnational migration. Based on ethnographic data collected from an antenatal clinic in Thailand, this article describes how Shan migrant women from Myanmar (also known as Burma) utilize reproductive health services as a way of assuring a safe birth while acquiring identification documents. Paying close attention to technologies of inscription adopted for maternal care and birth registration, I argue that enacting bureaucratic documents offers a chance for migrant women to bridge the interstice between human and citizen. Birth certificates for migrant children, while embodying legal ambiguity and uncertainty, epitomize non-citizen subjects' assertion of their political relationship with the state. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  20. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  1. Electrical and Dielectric Properties of New Natural Cellulosic Fabric Grewia Tilifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYARAMUDU J.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the electrical and dielectric properties of new natural cellulosic fabric Grewia tilifolia. Grewia tilifolia is a tree found in India, Sri Lanka, Tropical Africa, Burma and Nepal. The fabric samples of Grewia tilifolia were extracted from the bark of the tree. The electrical (AC conductivity & Impedance and dielectric properties (Dielectric constant & dielectric loss were measured as a function of frequency in the range from 1 kHz to 500 kHz, temperature in the range from 30 °C to 210 °C. Using an LCR Meter (HIOKI 3532-50 LCR Hi Tester, Koizumi, Japan the electrical and dielectric properties were measured. Grewia tilifolia is a subtropical medicinal tree; the stem bark is widely used in traditional Indian medicines to cure pneumonia, bronchitis and urinary infectious disorders.

  2. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving.

  3. Admittance, Conductance, Reactance and Susceptance of New Natural Fabric Grewia Tilifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. RAMANA C. H.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the admittance, conductance, reactance and susceptance of new natural fabric Grewia tilifolia. Grewia tilifolia is a tree found in India, Sri Lanka, Tropical Africa, Burma and Nepal. The fabric samples of Grewia tilifolia were extracted from the bark of the tree. The admittance, conductance, reactance and susceptance were measured as a function of frequency in the range from 1 kHz to 500 kHz, temperature in the range from 30 °C to 210 °C. Using an LCR Meter (HIOKI 3532-50 LCR Hi Tester, Koizumi, Japan the above parameters were measured. Grewia tilifolia is a subtropical medicinal tree; the stem bark is widely used in traditional Indian medicines to cure pneumonia, bronchitis and urinary infectious disorders.

  4. Displaced mothers: birth and resettlement, gratitude and complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise

    2013-01-01

    In narratives of displaced Karen women from Burma, both before and after resettlement in Australia, women framed their birthing experiences with those of persecution and displacement. Although grateful for the security of resettlement in Australia, social inclusion was negligible and women's birthing experiences occurred in that context. Women described the impact of the lack of interpreting services in Australian hospitals and an absence of personal and communal care that they expected. Frequently, this made straightforward births confusing or difficult, and exacerbated the distress of more complicated births. Differences in individual responses related to women's histories, with younger women displaying more preparedness to complain and identify discrimination. The problems identified with health care, coupled with the inability of many of the women to complain requires attention, not just within the health care system, but more widely as part of social attitudes concerning Australia's obligations to those who seek asylum.

  5. A study of non-metric (qualitative) variation in Gujarati crania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, G P; Routal, R V; Bhagwat, S S

    1988-03-01

    Three hundred and seventy adult skulls (284 crania of unknown sex, 58 males and 28 females) from Gujarat State of India were examined for the incidence of non-metric variants and compared with other populations to establish the distance between them. In general the Gujarati incidences are of similar order to those in other series. The mean measures of divergence between Gujarati and other populations were all statistically significant (P less than 0.001). The Gujarati differed most from Australian Aborigines, but only slightly from the Burma, Punjab and Egypt samples. From the same material side and sex dimorphism was also tested to ascertain that how far sides and sexes can be pooled in Indian sample for making comparison between populations. In Gujarati population out of 22 cranial variants only four show sex difference and in case of bilateral traits, none of the variant has shown significant (P less than 0.05) side to side difference.

  6. Free amino acid pool of a sea anemone: exposure and recovery after an oil spill. [Sea Anemones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasschau, M.R.; Howard, C.L.

    1984-07-01

    A number of laboratory studies on marine invertebrates have shown changes in free amino acid (FAA) pools in response to various pollutants. During a nineteen-month field study to determine the effects of natural environmental parameters on the FAA pools to the Gulf Coast sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata, an oil tanker collision occurred about 8 miles off Galveston Island. The initial spill from the tanker Burma Agate occurred on November 1, 1979 with large leakages continuing for several weeks. There was no visible sign of oil on the first collection date 13 days after the spill, but 11 days later the anemones were covered with an oil sheen. As a result of this natural exposure to the oil, the authors decided to monitor the sea anemones for changes in the FAA pool during the oil exposure and recovery period.

  7. Terpenoid composition and botanical affinity of Cretaceous resins from India and Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay (India); Kumar, Kishor [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Uttarakhand (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungzentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere; Greenwood, Paul F. [John De Laeter Mass Spectrometry and WA Biogeochemistry Centres (M090), University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    Fossil resins from the Cretaceous sediments of Meghalaya, India and Kachin, Myanmar (Burma) were analysed using Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to help elucidate their botanical source. The major pyrolysis products and methyl-esterified thermochemolysis products of both the resins were abietane and labdane type diterpenoids with minor amount of sesquiterpenoids. The thermochemolysis products also included methyl-16,17-dinor callitrisate, methyl-16,17-dinor dehydroabietate and methyl-8-pimaren-18-oate - the latter two from just the Myanmarese resin. The exclusive presence of both labdane and abietane diterpenoids and the lack of phenolic terpenoids may suggest that the studied Cretaceous resins were derived from Pinaceae (pine family) conifers. (author)

  8. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration.

  9. AcEST: BP914027 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E=2 SV=1 30 7.5 sp|Q63WP4|KYNU_BURPS Kynureninase OS=Burkholderia pseudomallei G... 30 9.7 sp|A3N6H3|KYNU_BURP6 Kynurenina...se OS=Burkholderia pseudomallei (... 30 9.7 sp|Q3JVD7|KYNU_BURP1 Kynurenina...se OS=Burkholderia pseudomallei (... 30 9.7 sp|A3NS56|KYNU_BURP0 Kynureninase OS=Burkholderia pseudo...mallei (... 30 9.7 sp|A1V194|KYNU_BURMS Kynureninase OS=Burkholderia mallei (strain... 30 9.7 sp|Q62M98|KYNU_BURMA Kynurenina...se OS=Burkholderia mallei GN=kynU... 30 9.7 sp|A2S925|KYNU_BURM9 Kynureninase OS=Burkholder

  10. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar, we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations.

  11. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward J; Singh, Sonal

    2007-11-08

    Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar), we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations.

  12. First records of two flower bug genera from Myanmar (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae: Anthocorinae: Oriini), with description of a new species of Bilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Yamada, Kazutaka; Soe, Zayar; Naing, Shine Shane

    2016-08-31

    Two oriine flower bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) genera, Bilia Distant, 1904 and Wollastoniella Reuter, 1884 are reported from Myanmar for the first time, diagnosed, and discussed. A new species, Bilia burma Yasunaga & Yamada sp. nov., is described, with information on the immature form, habitat and assumed prey; its closest sister species, B. castanea (Carvalho, 1951), is also re-diagnosed. Wollastoniella rotunda Yasunaga & Miyamoto, 1993 originally described from northern Thailand, is also documented along with its immature form and new host association. Both of the anthocorids found in Myanmar co-occurred with lace bugs (Tingidae). A checklist of all current members of Bilia and Wollastoniella is provided. The phylogenic positions of Bilia and Wollastoniella in the tribe Oriini is discussed.

  13. Celebrities in International Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    Celebrity engagement in global “helping” is not a simple matter of highly photogenic caring for needy others across borders; it is a complex relationship of power that often produces contradictory functions in relation to the goals of humanitarianism, development, and advocacy. This article argues...... that celebrities are acting as other elite actors in international affairs: investing considerable capital into processes that are highly political. It traces the emergence and practices of the elite politics of celebrities in North-South relations, an evolution made possible by recent changes in aid practices......, media, and NGOs, then considers exemplary cases of Angelina Jolie in Burma, Ben Affleck in the Democractic Republic of Congo, and Madonna in Malawi. These celebrity practices as diplomats, experts, and humanitarians in international affairs illustrate the diverse and contradictory forms of engagement...

  14. George Orwell (1903-1950)--writer, socialist, eccentric and tuberculosis sufferer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovsky, H

    1995-10-01

    George Orwell, born Eric Blair in India in 1903, the third generation of colonial service stock, joined the Indian Imperial Police in Burma in 1922 after leaving school in England. Rejecting the racial and cultural barriers of colonial rule he encountered there, he returned to England to become a writer. He became allied to leftist and labour causes and, based on personal participation, documented the life and work of the underprivileged and working classes in England and Paris. He also fought with the leftist alliance in the Spanish Civil War against Franco's army revolt against the Republican Government. Although a fine essayist and master of English prose, he is best known for Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, two political satires on the Soviet system and totalitarianism respectively. These brought him fame and financial security shortly before his death of tuberculosis at the age of 47, after a life of recurrent ill health and economic hardship.

  15. The Global Youth Service Team: students applying science and technology in remote, developing region of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Doug

    2012-03-01

    Eh Kalu, director of the Karen Department of Health and Welfare along the border region between Thailand and Burma said, ``It is very difficult to attend to a medical emergency at night when all you have are candles for light.'' The Global Youth Service Team (GYST) provides high school and college students with the opportunity to apply science that they have learned in the performance of international humanitarian service. Volunteers with the GYST build solar powered electrical systems, ultraviolet water purifiers, provide training and education to people who are most in need due to energy poverty, lack access to resources, natural disasters or human rights violations. GYST volunteers train with photovoltaic materials and equipment to become solar energy technicians. They then travel to remote communities in developing countries where we are able to catalyze improvements in education and health care, promote sustainable energy initiatives and help communities develop the capacity to use their own resources by which to create opportunity.

  16. The 1994 Rwandan Genocide: The Religion/Genocide Nexus, Sexual Violence, and the Future of Genocide Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Temoney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent genocides and other conflicts—for example, the Sudan, Burma, and now Iraq—sexual violence and religion have received increasing but modest systematic treatment in genocide studies. This essay contributes to the nascent scholarship on the religious and sexual dimensions of genocide by providing a model for investigating the intersections among religion, genocide, and sexual violence. I treat the Rwandan genocide as a case study using secondary and primary sources and proffer the reinforcing typologies of “othering,” justification, and authorization as an investigatory tool. I further nuance the influences of religion on forms of sexual violation by arguing that religion indirectly (distally and directly (proximately furthers the aims of genocide by coding genocidal ideology and violence as “religious.” Ultimately, I contend that studying the religious and sexual aspects of genocide deepens our understanding of the complex dynamics of genocide and opens new lines of inquiry into genocide studies.

  17. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticerci among refugees resettled in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E; Townes, John M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Lee, Deborah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H; Stauffer, William M

    2012-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by central nervous system infection by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. In developing countries, NCC is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy. Case reports of NCC are increasing among refugees resettled to the United States and other nations, but the underlying prevalence among refugee groups is unknown. We tested stored serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Migrant Serum Bank for antibodies against T. solium cysts by using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Seroprevalence was high among all 4 populations tested: refugees from Burma (23.2%), Lao People's Democratic Republic (18.3%), Bhutan (22.8%), and Burundi (25.8%). Clinicians caring for refugee populations should suspect NCC in patients with seizure, chronic headache, or unexplained neurologic manifestations. Improved understanding of the prevalence of epilepsy and other associated diseases among refugees could guide recommendations for their evaluation and treatment before, during, and after resettlement.

  18. A microcosm investigation of fe (iron) removal using macrophytes of ramsar lake: A phytoremediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mayanglambam Muni; Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The present study deals with the microcosm study of Fe (Iron) phytoremediation using Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia cucullata species collected from the Loktak Lake, a Ramsar Site which exists in north-eastern India (an Indo-Burma hotspot region). Efficiency of these four macrophytes was compared using different Fe concentrations of 1 mg L(-1), 3 mg L(-1) and 5 mg L(-1) for 4 days, 8 days and 12 days, respectively. E. crassipes was the most efficient macrophyte whereas L. minor was the least efficient. E. crassipes removed the highest percentage of Fe, i.e. 89% from 1 mg L(-1), 81.3% from 3 mg L(-1) and 73.2% from 5 mg L(-1) in 12-day experiment.

  19. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  20. Observations of Quasi-Love Waves in Tibet Indicates Coherent Deformation of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Park, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The high uplift of the Tibet area is caused by the continental collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The style of deformation along with the collision is still being debated, particularly whether the deformation is vertically coherent or not, i.e., whether the upper mantle deforms coherently with the crust. In this work, we have used quasi-Love (QL) waves to constrain the anisotropy pattern around the Tibet region. The existence of anisotropy gradients has been identified with the observations of QL waves, which is a converted Rayleigh-wave motion that follows the arrival of the Love wave. Further, the locations of the anisotropy gradients have been pinned with the delay time between the Love wave and the QL wave, which is determined from cross-correlation. Our results show that the frequency content of Tibetan QL wave is centered around 10 mHz, indicating the depth range of anisotropy should be in the asthenosphere. Most of the scatterers of QL wave that we can detect lie outside the Tibet Plateau. Their distribution correlates well with the boundary of the Persia-Tibet- Burma orogeny, which has been identified from surface geologic data. This correlation, between surface geology and upper mantle anisotropy inferred from QL observations at the orogenic boundary, suggests that the crust and upper mantle of the orogeny are deforming coherently. Other scatterers that are off the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogenic boundary mostly cluster in two locations, the Tarim Basin, and the Bangong-Nujiang Suture, where there could exist contrasting anisotropy patterns in the upper mantle. The deformation in the Tibet region is complicated, yet our research suggests a vertically coherent deformation style of the upper mantle in Tibet.

  1. Japan’s Development Ambitions for Myanmar: The Problem of “Economics before Politics”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Seekins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the country’s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the “militarization” of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962–1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmar’s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmar’s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmar’s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmar’s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.

  2. RICE IN COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL SOUTHEAST ASIA: A FOOD REGIME ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Pradadimara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the ways in which rice, as a global commodity, has been produced and sold in various regions in Southeast Asia from the colonial era to the present days. This paper employs a food regime analysis first introduced by Harriet Friedmann (1982 and later developed together with Philip McMichael (1989 to look at the global political economy of rice. In this paper, it will be shown how various colonial and post colonial states in Southeast Asia (including Thailand who was never formally colonized through their policies have practically divided the region where Burma (now Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam in the mainland have become major rice producer and exporter, while Indonesia, Malaya (now Malaysia, and the Philippines in the archipelagic Southeast Asia have become major rice importers although at the same time producers and exporters of other agro-commodities (coffee, sugar, rubber.Keywords: rice history, food regime, Southeast Asia Artikel ini menelusuri cara di mana padi sebagai komoditas dunia diproduksi dan dijual di beberapa daerah di Asia Tenggara mulai zaman kolonial sampai sekarang. Artikel ini menggunakan analisis “food regime” yang pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Harrier Friedman (1982 dan kemudian dikembangkan bersama oleh Philip (1989 untuk mengetahui politik ekonomi global dari padi. Dalam artikel ini, akan dilihat mengenai bagaimana negara kolonial dan pasca-kolonial yanb berbeda di Asia Tenggara (termasuk Thailand yang tidak pernah dijajah sebelumnya melalui kebiakannya, yang hampir membagi wilayahnya, di mana Burma (Myanmar, Thailand, dan Vietnam telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir utama terbesar, sedangkan Indonesia dan Malaya (Malaysia dan Filipina di Asia Tenggara telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir komoditas pertanian lain (kopi, gula, karet dalam waktu yang bersamaan.Kata kunci: sejarah beras, food regime, Asia Tenggara. 

  3. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  4. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecific variation in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wei, Fuwen; Goossens, Benoît; Feng, Zuojian; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Bruford, Michael W; Funk, Stephan M

    2005-07-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species and its present distribution is restricted to isolated mountain ranges in western China (Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet provinces) and the Himalayan Mountains chain of Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Burma. To examine the evolutionary history across its current range, and to assess the genetic divergence among current subspecies and population structure among different geographic locations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the control region (CR) and cytochrome (cyt) b gene for 41 individuals in Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet of China, and Burma. 25 CR haplotypes (10 for cyt b) were identified from 11 geographic locations. Only three haplotypes were shared among sample localities, including one among current subspecies. Nine haplotypes were shared with the study of Su et al. [Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 (2001) 1070]. CR haplotype diversity was high (0.95+/-0.02) and nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes was relatively low (0.018+/-0.009). Phylogenetic confirmed trees show a shallow pattern with very little structure or statistical robustness. The application of two coalescent-based tests for population growth allowed us to interpret this phylogeny as the result of a recent population expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and nested clade analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure in both data sets. The lack of significant differentiation between subspecies does not indicate the presence of evolutionary significant units. We suggest that the present population structure has resulted from habitat fragmentation and expansion from glacial refugia. Due to its habitat requirements it is likely that the red panda has undergone bottlenecks and population expansions several times in the recent past. The present population may exhibit a pattern reminiscent of a relatively recent population expansion.

  5. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  6. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  7. West-directed thrusting south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis indicates clockwise crustal flow at the indenter corner during the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, Peter J.; Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2018-01-01

    Whether continental deformation is accommodated by microplate motion or continuum flow is a central issue regarding the nature of Cenozoic deformation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The microplate model predicts southeastward extrusion of rigid blocks along widely-spaced strike-slip faults, whereas the crustal-flow model requires clockwise crustal rotation along closely-spaced, semi-circular right-slip faults around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Although global positioning system (GPS) data support the crustal-flow model, the surface velocity field provides no information on the evolution of the India-Asia orogenic system at million-year scales. In this work, we present the results of systematic geologic mapping across the northernmost segment of the Indo-Burma Ranges, located directly southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Early research inferred the area to have experienced either right-slip faulting accommodating northward indentation of India or thrusting due to the eastward continuation of the Himalayan orogen in the Cenozoic. Our mapping supports the presence of dip-slip thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults. Specifically, the northern Indo-Burma Ranges exposes south- to west-directed ductile thrust shear zones in the hinterland and brittle fault zones in the foreland. The trends of ductile stretching lineations within thrust shear zones and thrust sheets rotate clockwise from the northeast direction in the northern part of the study area to the east direction in the southern part of the study area. This clockwise deflection pattern of lineations around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis mirrors the clockwise crustal-rotation pattern as suggested by the crustal-flow model and contemporary GPS velocity field. However, our finding is inconsistent with discrete strike-slip deformation in the area and the microplate model.

  8. Enhancing Floodplain Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin Using Vegetation and Water Cycle Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Spruce, J.; Wilson, R.; Strauch, K.; Doyle, T.; Srinivan, R.; Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River Basin shared by China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, is considered the lifeblood of Southeast Asia. The Mekong Basin is subject to large hydrological fluctuations on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. The basin remains prone to severe annual floods that continue to cause widespread damage and endanger food security and the livelihood of the millions who dwell in the region. Also the placement of newly planned dams primarily for hydropower in the Lower Mekong Basin may cause damaging social, agriculture and fisheries impacts to the region where we may now likely be at a critical 'tipping point'. The primary goal of this project is to apply NASA and USGS products, tools, and information for improved flood and water management in the Lower Mekong River Basin to help characterize, understand, and predict future changes on the basin. Specifically, we are providing and helping transfer to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the member countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam, and Burma the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using remotely sensed surface, ground water, and root zone soil moisture along with improved Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps. In order to estimate the flood potential and constrain the SWAT Available Water Capacity model parameter over the region, we are assimilated GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage observations into the Catchment Land Surface Model. In addition, a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) as been developed to work in concert with the output of the SWAT model parameterized for the Mekong Basin as an adjunct tool of the MRC Decision Support Framework. The project requires a close coordination of the development and assessment of the enhanced MRC SWAT with the guidance of MRC resource managers and technical advisors. This presentation will evaluate the skill of the enhanced SWAT model using qualitative (i.e., MODIS change detection) and quantitative (e.g., streamflow) metrics over one

  9. Modern Sedimentation along the SE Bangladesh Coast Reveal Surprisingly Low Accumulation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.; Mustaque, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent sediments recovered along the SE coast of Bangladesh, from Teknaf to Cox's Bazar and drainage basin analyses reveal sediment sources and very low sedimentation rates of 1mm/year. These low rates are surprisingly low given that this coast is adjacent to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta with a yearly discharge of 1GT. The Teknaf anticline (elevation 200 m), part of the western Burma fold-thrust belt dominates the topography extending across and along the Teknaf peninsula. It is thought to have begun evolving since the Miocene (Alam et al. 2003 & Allen et al. 2008). Presently the anticline foothills on the west are flanked by uplifted terraces, the youngest linked to coseismic displacement during the 1762 earthquake (Mondal et al. 2015), and a narrow beach 60-200 m in width. Petrography, semi-quantitative bulk mineralogy and SEM/EDX analyses were conducted on sediments recovered along the west coast from 1-4 m deep trenches and three 4-8 m deep drill holes. GIS mapping of drainage basins and quartz-feldspar-lithic (QFL) ternary plots based on grain counting show mixing of sediments from multiple sources: Himalayan provenance of metamorphic and igneous origin (garnet-mostly almandine, tourmaline, rutile, kyanite, zircon, sillimanite and clinopyroxene) similar to Uddin et al. (2007); Brahmaputra provenance of igneous and metamorphic origin (amphibole, epidote, plagioclase 40% Na and 60% Ca, apatite, ilmenite, magnetite, Cr-spinel and garnet-mostly grossular,) as indicated by Garzanti et al. (2010) & Rahman et al. (2016) and Burmese sources (cassiterite and wolframite) (Zaw 1990 & Searle et al. 2007). Low sedimentation rates are the result of two main factors: 1. Strong longshore currents from the south-east that interact with high tidal ranges as evidenced by the morphology of sand waves and ridge and runnel landforms along the beach. 2. Streams draining the Teknaf anticline are dry during the winter and during summer monsoon rains, the sediments bypass the narrow

  10. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  11. Seismic Sources Identification and Characterization for Myanmar: Towards Updating the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thant, M.; Kawase, H.

    2015-12-01

    Myanmar, lying in the Alpide earthquake belt, is quite earthquake-prone. There have been at least 16 major earthquakes (M 7.0 - 7.9) and a great earthquake (M 8.0, 1912) in the past 175 years, some of which were quite destructive, for example, 1839 Ava (Innwa) earthquake. With an objective of reducing earthquake risk in Myanmar, seismic zone maps have been constructed since 1959. The first-generation maps were mainly the intensity zoning maps using Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) Scales (Gorshkov, 1959; Maung Thein, 1985; Maung Thein, 2001). The second-generation maps were partly historical, and partly deterministic (Maung Thein et al., 2003; Maung Thein et al., 2005). In 2012, the third-generation maps, the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) maps were constructed for the whole country. Seismic hazards in these maps are represented by means of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and spectral acceleration (SA) in the periods of 0.2 s, 0.3 s and 1.0 s. The seismic hazards are calculated in 0.1° x 0.1° interval, assuming the firm rock site condition and all of the PSHA were carried out for 2% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Now, the seismic hazard maps of Myanmar,2012 are planned to update by remodeling the seismic sources. As the first step in updating the previous probabilistic seismic hazard maps developed in 2012 we re-identify the seismogenic sources for Indo-Burma Arc, Eastern Himalaya Arc and Andaman Rift Zone as the areal seismic sources. The major active faults which are seismically very hazardous for Myanmar: Sagaing fault, Kyaukkyan fault, Nan Pon fault, Kabaw fault, Myauk-U fault, Dawei fault, Gwegyo Thrust, major thrusts in north-west Myanmar, and the left-lateral strike-slip faults in the Eastern Highland are identified as the fault sources. The seismic source parameters for each source; the b-value, maximum earthquake potential, and annual rate of exceedance for the specific magnitude earthquake

  12. Petrogenetic implications of ophiolitic chromite from Rutland Island, Andaman—a boninitic parentage in supra-subduction setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Pal, Tapan; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Das, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Chromites occurring in different modes have been characterized from ophiolites of Rutland Island, a part of Burma-Andaman-Java subduction complex in the Bay of Bengal. Chromite mainly occurs as massive chromitite pods in mantle ultramafic tectonite and as thin massive chromitite bands together with minor disseminations in crustal ultramafic cumulate. Other than pods chromite also appears as: (a) anhedral restitic grains, (b) strings occurring as exsolved phases and as (c) symplectitic intergrowth with orthopyroxene in mantle tectonite. The chromites occurring as massive chromitite pods and bands contain high Cr (Cr#—73 to 80). Restitic chromite grains in mantle ultramafics are high-Mg (Mg#—58), high-Al (Al2O3—34 wt.%) and intermediate-Cr (Cr#—37) chromites. The bivariant plots of TiO2 wt.% vs 100Cr#, Mg# vs Cr# and Cr-Al-Fe3+ ternary discrimination diagram show that the massive and disseminated chromites fall in the boninitic field. The (Al2O3)melt and (FeO/MgO)melt values for the massive chromitites are estimated as 10 wt.% to 11 wt.% and 0.67-1.78 respectively, corroborating a boninitic parentage. Massive chromitite on Fe2+/Fe3+ vs Al2O3 wt.% and TiO2 wt.% vs Al2O3 wt.% plots occupy mainly the field of supra-subduction zone peridotites. High-Mg olivine (Fo91-93), high-Mg orthopyroxene (En˜90) and high-Cr chromites of Rutland ophiolite are all supportive of boninitic source at supra-subduction zone setting. 57Fe Mössbauer study of chromite of beach placer shows that chromites occur in partly inverse spinel structure with iron distribution as Fe3+(A)Fe2+(A)Fe2+(B) which might be a result of oxidation. The olivine-spinel geothermometry shows 650-700°C re-equilibration temperature which is much lower than near crystallization temperature (950-1,050°C) derived from orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene assemblage. At supra-subduction setting an oxidizing hydrous fluid derived from subducting slab might have a major influence during the formation of Rutland ophiolite

  13. Can Asia's population bomb be defused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, P

    1983-01-01

    The UN optimistically identifies an emerging trend in Asia and in much of the rest of the world in the form of determination by women to reduce their family size by resorting to birth control methods, often against the wishes of their husbands. The new trend also seems to parallel women's new desire to go out and work. Yet, it is also in Asia that such countries as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, and Burma are the cause of serious demographic concern. The overall Asian population increased to rise to 3.6 billion and by 2025 to 4.5 billion. In 2025 Asia's population will continue to constitute nearly 60% of the world's population. Experts predict that what happens in Asia will largely determine the overall trends in world population. The population experts usually divide Asia into 2 regions, East Asia, such as Japan and China, have engineered dramatic fertility declines. China's population control efforts are probably the world's most sensational. China more than halved its birthrate from 34/1000 in 1970 to 16 in 1983 and hopes to reach 5/1000 by 1985. Most countries of South and West Asia, such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma, have annual birthrates of 45/1000, and it is these countries that can least afford such population growth. According to the UN, the biggest population increase in Asia over the next decade--more than 220 million--will be in India and its immediate neighbors. The current performance of the majority of Asian states in controlling population growth is discouraging. Only a handful of countries--Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, South Korea, and China--have displayed the necessary energy, imagination, and determination and have committed funds to population projects. In a number of Asian countries various incentives and disincentives have been created to influence people's fertility decisions, and such things seem to work. Several factors, for example, account for Thailand's progress in population matters, including the availability

  14. Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers (Daboia siamensis and D. russelii) resembling Sheehan's syndrome: first case report from Sri Lanka, a review of the literature and recommendations for endocrine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonypillai, C N; Wass, J A H; Warrell, D A; Rajaratnam, H N

    2011-02-01

    Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii and D. siamensis) inhabit 10 South and South East Asian countries. People envenomed by these snakes suffer coagulopathy, bleeding, shock, neurotoxicity, acute kidney injury and local tissue damage leading to severe morbidity and mortality. An unusual complication of Russell's viper bite envenoming in Burma (D. siamensis) and southern India (D. russelii) is hypopituitarism but until now it has not been reported elsewhere. Here, we describe the first case of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite in Sri Lanka, review the literature on this subject and make recommendations for endocrine investigation and management. A 49-year-old man was bitten and seriously envenomed by D. russelii in 2005. He was treated with antivenom but although he recovered from the acute effects he remained feeling unwell. Hypopituitarism, with deficiencies of gonadal, steroid and thyroid axes, was diagnosed 3 years later. He showed marked improvement after replacement of anterior pituitary hormones. We attribute his hypopituitarism to D. russelii envenoming. Russell's viper bite is known to cause acute and chronic hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus, perhaps through deposition of fibrin microthrombi and haemorrhage in the pituitary gland resulting from the action of venom procoagulant enzymes and haemorrhagins. Forty nine cases of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite have been described in the English language literature. Patients with acute hypopituitarism may present with hypoglycaemia and hypotension during the acute phase of envenoming. Those with chronic hypopituitarism seem to have recovered from envenoming but present later with features of hypopituitarism. Over 85% of these patients had suffered acute kidney injury immediately after the bite. Steroid replacement in acute hypopituitarism is life saving. All 11 patients with chronic hypopituitarism in whom the outcome of treatment was reported, showed marked improvement with hormone

  15. Seroepidemiology of Plasmodium species infections in Zimbabwean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanfo, Seth A; Mduluza, Takafira; Midzi, Nicholas; Cavanagh, David R; Mutapi, Francisca

    2016-05-10

    Individuals living in malaria-endemic regions may be exposed to more than one Plasmodium species; there is paucity of data on the distribution of the different species of Plasmodium in affected populations, in part due to the diagnostic method of microscopy, which cannot easily differentiate between the species. Sero-epidemiological data can overcome some of the shortcomings of microscopy. The specificity of IgG antibodies to recombinant merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-119) derived from four human Plasmodium species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale) was investigated using competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, these antigens were used to determine the exposure prevalence to the different Plasmodium species in serum samples of participants. One-hundred individuals, aged five-18 years, from each of the three Plasmodium meso-endemic Zimbabwean villages (Burma Valley, Mutoko, Chiredzi) were recruited in the study. The study demonstrated that the host serum reactivity to MSP-119 antigens was species-specific and that no cross-reactivity occurred. The overall prevalence of antibody response to MSP-119 antigens was 61 % in Burma Valley, 31 % in Mutoko and 32 % in Chiredzi. Single species IgG responses to MSP-119 were most frequent against P. falciparum, followed by P. malariae and P. ovale, with responses to P. vivax being the least prevalent. Interestingly, 78-87 and 50 % of sera with IgG responses to P. malariae and P. ovale MSP-119, respectively, also had IgG specific response for P. falciparum MSP-119 antigens, indicating that exposure to these species is a common occurrence in these populations. Single species IgG responses to the non-falciparum species were at a very low frequency, ranging between 0 and 13 % for P. malariae. There is evidence of a higher exposure to the non-falciparum parasite species than previously reported in Zimbabwe. The recombinant MSP-119 antigens could be used as

  16. Reported wearing compliance of ready-made spectacles at 6 and 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jerry E; Netek, Satja; Parry, Amy; Mladenovich, Derek; Thein, Nyunt Naing; Amendola, Paul R

    2010-12-01

    Ready-made spectacles are often used in low-resource environments, but to date, there has been little evaluation of the continued use of these spectacles over time. The aim of this study was to assess wearing compliance of those who received ready-made spectacles. The International Rescue Committee trains refugee health workers to provide simple refractive services and dispense ready-made spherical lenses to residents of refugee camps on the Thailand-Burma border. We conducted follow-up interviews in five camps among all eligible and available spectacle recipients who had been examined either 6 (n = 230) or 12 months earlier (n = 187). Interviewers asked about continued use of spectacles and, among those who had discontinued spectacle use, asked the reason for discontinuing. Reported spectacle wear was significantly higher at 6 months compared with 12 months (73.9 vs. 55.6%, p spectacle wear was broken frames, followed by vision-related complaints, scratched lenses, lost spectacles, and appearance. Our findings suggest that spectacle wearing compliance studies will not be comparable unless a standard time frame is used to assess compliance. We found assessing self-reported compliance to be a useful tool in guiding our program. Understanding the reasons for non-compliance will help guide corrective action and planning of interventions designed to increase wearing rates.

  17. Possible Source Populations of the White-backed Planthopper in the Greater Mekong Subregion Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Chu, Dong; Yin, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Xue-Qing; Chen, Ai-Dong; Khay, Sathya; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Kyaw, Mu Mu; Kongchuensin, Manita; Ngo, Vien Vinh; Nguyen, Chung Huy

    2016-12-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. However, little is known regarding the migration of this pest insect from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, into China’s Yunnan Province. To determine the migration patterns of S. furcifera in the GMS and putative secondary immigration inside China’s Yunnan Province, we investigated the population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of 42 S. furcifera populations across the six countries in the GMS by intensive sampling using mitochondrial genes. Our study revealed the potential emigration of S. furcifera from the GMS consists primarily of three major sources: 1) the S. furcifera from Laos and Vietnam migrate into south and southeast Yunnan, where they proceed to further migrate into northeast and central Yunnan; 2) the S. furcifera from Myanmar migrate into west Yunnan, and/or central Yunnan, and/or northeast Yunnan; 3) the S. furcifera from Cambodia migrate into southwest Yunnan, where the populations can migrate further into central Yunnan. The new data will not only be helpful in predicting population dynamics of the planthopper, but will also aid in regional control programs for this economically important pest insect.

  18. The Praxis of Social Enterprise and Human Security: An Applied Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm David Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of social enterprise within development NGO work might lead one to suspect it has been irredeemably corrupted by neo-liberal capitalism. However, using the tools of capitalism is not the same as subscribing to the values of capitalism. This paper is situated at the intersection of five fields: human security, international development, social enterprise, social franchising, and left-wing anti-capitalist thought. It examines the relevance of social en­terprise to human security and to development, the relationship between social enterprise and the anti-capitalist values of the left, and it then focuses on social franchising—a subset of social enterprise that highlights the importance of cooperation—suggesting that it may be a useful methodology for NGOs carrying out educational work in parts of the developing world. It syn­thesises and extends ideas that I have presented elsewhere [1-3], it draws on ethnographic fieldwork on the Thai-Burma border, and it puts forward an agenda for further applied research that is rooted in a sociological analysis of civil society and contributes to the human security paradigm.

  19. Refugees' advice to physicians: how to ask about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J

    2014-08-01

    About 45.2 million people were displaced from their homes in 2012 due to persecution, political conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. Refugees who endure violence are at increased risk of developing chronic psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. The primary care visit may be the first opportunity to detect the devastating psychological effects of trauma. Physicians and refugees have identified communication barriers that inhibit discussions about mental health. In this study, refugees offer advice to physicians about how to assess the mental health effects of trauma. Ethnocultural methodology informed 13 focus groups with 111 refugees from Burma, Bhutan, Somali and Ethiopia. Refugees responded to questions concerning how physicians should ask about mental health in acceptable ways. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic categorization informed by Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence. Refugees recommended that physicians should take the time to make refugees comfortable, initiate direct conversations about mental health, inquire about the historical context of symptoms and provide psychoeducation about mental health and healing. Physicians may require specialized training to learn how to initiate conversations about mental health and provide direct education and appropriate mental health referrals in a brief medical appointment. To assist with making appropriate referrals, physicians may also benefit from education about evidence-based practices for treating symptoms of refugee trauma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old Burmese children following participation in a 2-year school-based toothbrushing programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, N A M; van Palenstein Helderman, W H; Van der Weijden, G A

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed whether gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old school children who participated in a SBTB programme for 2 years were lower than those of children who did not participate in the programme. The present study was performed using an examiner-blind, parallel group design and was performed in Burma (Myanmar) in 2006. Three of the five schools where daily SBTB programmes took place after lunch and which were performed under teacher supervision were randomly selected; three non-participating schools (non-SBTB) from the same area were assigned as controls. Twenty-five children per school were examined for gingivitis (bleeding on marginal probing) and plaque (Quigley & Hein). In total, 150 8- to 11-year-old children participated, with 75 children in either group. The test group (SBTB) exhibited an overall mean bleeding score of 0.76. For the control group (non-SBTB), this score was 0.83. With respect to the overall mean plaque scores, the test group exhibited a score of 2.93, whereas the control group exhibited a score of 2.91. No statistically significant differences between the test and the control group were observed. The present study did not reveal a statistically significant effect of daily SBTB programmes in 8- to 11-year-old school children with respect to gingivitis and plaque scores. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Trapped in Statelessness: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Mijanur; Hussain, Sumaira; Jindal, Charulata; Choudhury, Sushmita; Akter, Shahnaz; Ferdousi, Shahana; Mouly, Tafzila Akter; Hall, John; Efird, Jimmy T

    2017-08-21

    The Rohingya people are one of the most ill-treated and persecuted refugee groups in the world, having lived in a realm of statelessness for over six generations, and who are still doing so. In recent years, more than 500,000 Rohingyas fled from Myanmar (Burma) to neighboring countries. This article addresses the Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. We reviewed several documents on Rohingya refugees, visited a registered refugee camp (Teknaf), collected case reports, and conducted a series of meetings with stakeholders in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. A total of 33,131 registered Rohingya refugees are living in two registered camps in Cox's Bazar, and up to 80,000 additional refugees are housed in nearby makeshift camps. Overall, the living conditions of Rohingya refugees inside the overcrowded camps remain dismal. Mental health is poor, proper hygiene conditions are lacking, malnutrition is endemic, and physical/sexual abuse is high. A concerted diplomatic effort involving Bangladesh and Myanmar, and international mediators such as the Organization of Islamic Countries and the United Nations, is urgently required to effectively address this complex situation.

  2. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chie Ikeya, Refiguring women, colonialism, and modernity in Burma (Henk Schulte Nordholt Thomas J. Conners, Mason C. Hoadley, Frank Dhont, Kevin Ko (eds, Pancasila’s contemporary appeal: Relegitimizing Indonesia’s founding ethos (R.E. Elson I Nyoman Darma Putra, A literary mirror: Balinese reflections on modernity and identity in the twentieth century (Dick van der Meij Margaret Jolly. Serge Tcherkézoff and Darrell Tryon (eds, Oceanic encounters: Exchange, desire, violence (H.J.M. Claessen Rudolf Mrázek, A certain age: Colonial Jakarta through the memories of its intellectuals (Lutgard Mutsaers Jan Ovesen and Ing-Britt Trankell, Cambodians and their doctors: A medical anthropology of colonial and post-colonial Cambodia (Vivek Neelakantan Daromir Rudnyckyj, Spiritual economies: Islam, globalization and the afterlife of development (Gabrial Facal Claudine Salmon, Sastra Indonesia awal: Kontribusi orang Tionghoa (Melani Budianta Renate Sternagel, Der Humboldt von Java: Leben und Werk des Naturforschers Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn 1809-1864 (Andreas Weber Wynn Wilcox (ed., Vietnam and the West: New approaches (Hans Hägerdal Zheng Yangwen and Charles J.H Macdonald (eds, Personal names in Asia: History, culture and identity (Rosemary Gianno

  3. The identification of sites of biodiversity conservation significance: progress with the application of a global standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Foster

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As a global community, we have a responsibility to ensure the long-term future of our natural heritage. As part of this, it is incumbent upon us to do all that we can to reverse the current trend of biodiversity loss, using all available tools at our disposal. One effective mean is safeguarding of those sites that are highest global priority for the conservation of biodiversity, whether through formal protected areas, community managed reserves, multiple-use areas, or other means. This special issue of the Journal of Threatened Taxa examines the application of the Key Biodiversity Area (KBA approach to identifying such sites. Given the global mandate expressed through policy instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, the KBA approach can help countries meet obligations in an efficient and transparent manner. KBA methodology follows the well-established general principles of vulnerability and irreplaceability, and while it aims to be a globally standardized approach, it recognizes the fundamental need for the process to be led at local and national levels. In this series of papers the application of the KBA approach is explored in seven countries or regions: the Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Japan, Macedonia, Mediterranean Algeria, the Philippines and the Upper Guinea region of West Africa. This introductory article synthesizes some of the common main findings and provides a comparison of key summary statistics.

  4. Characterization of Active Compounds of Different Garlic (Allium sativum L. Cultivars

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    Szychowski Konrad A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has a reputation as a therapeutic agent for many different diseases such as microbial infections, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Health benefits of garlic depend on its content of biologically-active compounds, which differs between cultivars and geographical regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological activity of aqueous extracts from nine garlic varieties from different countries (Poland, Spain, China, Portugal, Burma, Thailand and Uzbekistan. Antioxidant properties were evaluated through free radical scavenging (DPPH•, ABTS•+ and ion chelation (Fe2+, Cu2+ activities. The cytotoxicity of garlic extracts was evaluated in vitro using Neutral Red Uptake assay in normal human skin fibroblasts. The obtained results revealed that garlic extracts contained the highest amount of syringic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids derivatives. The lowest IC50 values for DPPH•, ABTS•+ scavenging and Cu2+ chelating ability were determined in Chinese garlic extracts (4.63, 0.43 and 14.90 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts from Spanish cultivar Morado and Chinese garlic were highly cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts as they reduced cellular proliferation by 70–90%. We showed diverse contents of proteins and phenolic components in garlic bulbs from different varieties. The obtained results could help to choose the cultivars of garlic which contain significant amounts of active compounds, have important antioxidant properties and display low antiproliferative effect and/or low cytotoxicity against normal human skin fibroblast BJ.

  5. THE GENUS DURIO Adans. (Bombac.

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Durio comprises, as far as known, 27 species. The centre ofdistribution is Borneo with 19 species, followed by Malaya with 11 spe-cies and Sumatra with 7 species. It is likely, when Sumatra will be betterexplored, that this island will prove to have many more species. An exclave of the area of distribution is found in Burma, where one endemic species occurs. The common Durio zibethinus Murr. probably originated in Borneo or in Sumatra. It is now widely cultivated outside of its former area and in many places it has become spontaneous.The genus Durio is subdivided into two subgenera: Durio and BoschiaKosterm. & Soegeng, according to the way of dehiscence of the anthers(with a longitudinal slit in the former, with an apical pore in the latter.A key to the species is proposed. A map is added, to show distribution and endemism. Each species is amply described and provided with a drawing . Economic and ecological data are given.

  6. Revision of the Sundaland species of the genus Dysphaea Selys, 1853 using molecular and morphological methods, with notes on allied species (Odonata: Euphaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Matti; Dow, Rory A; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-04-29

    The Sundaland species of the genus Dysphaea were studied using molecular and morphological methods. Four species are recognized: D. dimidiata Selys, D. lugens Selys, D. ulu spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Borneo, Sarawak, Miri division, Upper Baram, Sungai Pejelai, Ulu Moh, 24 viii 2014; deposited in RMNH) and D. vanida spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Thailand, Ranong province, Khlong Nakha, Khlong Bang Man, 12-13 v 1999; deposited in RMNH). The four species are described and illustrated for both sexes, with keys provided. The type specimens of the four Dysphaea taxa named by E. de Selys Longchamps, i.e. dimidiata, limbata, semilimbata and lugens, were studied and their taxonomic status is discussed. Lectotypes are designated for D. dimidiata and D. limbata. D. dimidiata is recorded from Palawan (the Philippines) for the first time. A molecular analysis using three markers (COI, 16S and 28S) is presented. This includes specimens of three Sundaland species of the genus (D. lugens missing) and two congeners from other regions (D. basi-tincta and D. gloriosa). Notes and photographs of the male holotype of D. walli Fraser (from Maymyo, Burma) are provided.

  7. Efficiency of joint use of MRS and VES to characterize coastal aquifer in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J. M.; Chatenoux, B.; Mathieu, F.; Baltassat, J. M.; Legchenko, A.

    2007-02-01

    The productivity and the water quality of coastal aquifers can be highly heterogeneous in a complex environment. The characterization of these aquifers can be improved by hydrogeological and complementary geophysical surveys. Such an integrated approach is developed in a non-consolidated coastal aquifer in Myanmar (previously named Burma). A preliminary hydrogeological survey is conducted to know better the targeted aquifers. Then, 25 sites are selected to characterize aquifers through borehole drillings and pumping tests implementation. In the same sites, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) and vertical electrical soundings (VES) are carried out. Geophysical results are compared to hydrogeological data, and geophysical parameters are used to characterize aquifers using conversion equations. Finally, combining the analysis of technical and economical impacts of geophysics, a methodology is proposed to characterize non-consolidated coastal aquifers. Depth and thickness of saturated zone is determined by means of MRS in 68% of the sites (evaluated with 34 soundings). The average accuracy of confined storativity estimated with MRS is ± 6% (evaluated over 7 pumping tests) whereas the average accuracy of transmissivity estimation with MRS is ± 45% (evaluated using 15 pumping tests). To reduce uncertainty in VES interpretation, the aquifer geometry estimated with MRS is used as a fixed parameter in VES inversion. The accuracy of groundwater electrical conductivity evaluation from 15 VES is enough to estimate the risk of water salinity. In addition, the maximum depth of penetration of the MRS depends on the rocks' electrical resistivity and is between 20 and 80 m at the study area.

  8. Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of very long chain alkane derivatives from Cinnamomum obtusifolium, Elaeocarpus lanceifolius and Baccaurea sapida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Saikia, Surovi; Bordoloi, Prasanta K.; Kolita, Bhaskor; Dutta, Partha P.; Bhuyan, Purnajyoti D.; Dutta, Subhas C.; Rao, Paruchuri G.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bioactive secondary metabolites from the flora of the Indo-Burma biodiversity belt for controlling leaf blight disease of Solanum khasianum Clarke (Solanaceae) caused by Alternaria tenuissima and Alternaria alternata during commercial cultivation, the berries of which contains 1.80-3.45% solasodine, a major raw material for steroid drug industries. Three new and two white powdered compounds were extracted from Cinnamomum obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees (Lauraceae), Elaeocarpus lanceifolius (Roxb.) (Elaeocarpaceae) and Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). New compounds were characterized as Triacontanoic acid (1), octatriacontan-1-ol (2) and dotriacontane (3) isolated from C. obtusfolium and E. lanceofolius by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy respectively. Other two known compounds were palmitic acid (4) and oleic acid (5) and from B. sapida. Complete inhibition of pathogenic fungi A.tenuissima and A. alternata were observed for compound 2 and 3. Further, in-silico molecular binding analysis of these compounds towards endopolygalacturonase, β-isopropyl dehydrogenase, plasma membrane ATPase, calmodulin, ACR-toxin biosynthesis hydroxylase and synthatase peptide (transcription regulator of Amt-gene) of A. tenuissima and A.alternata revealed that they are effective in inhibiting multiple targets. The antifungal potential of three new isolated compounds from C. obtusifolium and E. lanceifolius is reported for the first time. The results indicate the possible use of triacontanoic acid, octatriacontan-1-ol and dotriacontane as potential antifungal agents.

  9. Molecular diversity in venom proteins of the Russell's viper (Daboia russellii russellii) and the Indian cobra (Naja naja) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mieko; Itoh, Takeshi; Anuruddhe, B M; Bandaranayake, I K; Shirani Ranasinghe, J G; Athauda, Seranath B P; Moriyama, Akihiko

    2010-02-01

    To examine the molecular diversity of the venom proteins of the Russell's viper (Daboia russellii russellii) and the Indian cobra (Naja naja) in Sri Lanka, we isolated 38 venom proteins through a combination of anion exchange chromatography followed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. From the venom of D. r. russellii we isolated 15 proteins: 5 isozymes of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), 4 serine proteases, 2 C-type lectin-like proteins, 2 L-amino acid oxidases, 1 cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), and 1 metalloproteinase. From the venom of N. naja we isolated 23 proteins: 10 isoforms of cytotoxins (CTX), 7 PLA(2) isozymes, 2 muscarinic toxinlike proteins, 2 CRISPs, 1 nerve growth factor, and 1 new thrombin-like serine protease. Most of these proteins contained new amino acid sequences for each species, indicating molecular diversity in venom proteins. The entire amino acid sequences of PLA(2)3 from D. r. russellii and CTX7 from N. naja were determined. Additionally, the polymorphic amino acid residues of PLA(2)3 were preferentially localized on the potential antigenic sites. While 2 types of PLA(2) (N and S types) were found in D. r. russellii (India) and D. r. siamensis (Java), all the PLA(2)s from D. r. siamensis (Burma) were N type, and those from D. r. russellii (Sri Lanka) were primarily S type.

  10. Differentiating between dengue fever and malaria using hematological parameters in endemic areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil; Uthaisar, Kwuntida

    2017-03-02

    Dengue fever (DF) and malaria are the two major public health concerns in tropical countries such as Thailand. Early differentiation between dengue and malaria could help clinicians to identify patients who should be closely monitored for signs of dengue hemorrhagic fever or severe malaria. This study aims to build knowledge on diagnostic markers that are used to discriminate between the infections, which frequently occur in malaria-endemic areas, such as the ones in Thailand. A retrospective study was conducted in Phop Phra Hospital, a hospital located in the Thailand-Burma border area, a malaria-endemic area, between 2013 and 2015. In brief, data on 336 patients infected with malaria were compared to data on 347 patients infected with DF. White blood cells, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio were significantly lower in patients with DF compared to patients with malaria (P dengue and malaria infection. This study concluded that several hematological parameters were different for diagnosing DF and malaria. A decision tree model revealed that using neutrophils, lymphocyte, MCHC, and gender was guided to discriminate patients with dengue and malaria infection. In addition, using these markers will thus lead to early detection, diagnosis, and prompt treatment of these tropical diseases.

  11. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowarah, J.; Boruah, H.P.D.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A.K. [CSIR, Jorhat (India). North East Institute of Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  12. Presentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIBR. Consejo de Redacción

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos complace presentar esta edición de AIBR, compuesta de una nueva selección de contenidos escritos por antropólogos de diversos países iberoamericanos y europeos. De forma especial, destaca en el presente volumen la sección de entrevistas, que en esta ocasión está dedicada a Fredrik Barth. Gracias a la ayuda y colaboración de los profesores Alan Mcfarlane (University of Cambridge y Robert Anderson (Simon Fraser University, podemos ofrecer de forma abierta la excelente entrevista realizada por este último al antropólogo noruego, precursor de conceptos que han sido fundamentales para la antropología, como los de “fronteras étnicas” o “transaccionalismo”. Esta entrevista forma parte de la investigación que el profesor Anderson está actualmente llevando a cabo sobre los orígenes biográficos de la obra Political Systems of Highland Burma, de Edmund Leach. Desde estas líneas nos gustaría expresar nuestro agradecimiento al autor, tanto por su generosidad para permitirnos desinteresadamente publicar dicha entrevista como por por su excelente disposición y ayuda en el montaje y adaptación a la edición escrita.

  13. Integrating habitat status, human population pressure, and protection status into biodiversity conservation priority setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Singh, A.; Kant, S.; Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2005-01-01

    Priority setting is an essential component of biodiversity conservation. Existing methods to identify priority areas for conservation have focused almost entirely on biological factors. We suggest a new relative ranking method for identifying priority conservation areas that integrates both biological and social aspects. It is based on the following criteria: the habitat's status, human population pressure, human efforts to protect habitat, and number of endemic plant and vertebrate species. We used this method to rank 25 hotspots, 17 megadiverse countries, and the hotspots within each megadiverse country. We used consistent, comprehensive, georeferenced, and multiband data sets and analytical remote sensing and geographic information system tools to quantify habitat status, human population pressure, and protection status. The ranking suggests that the Philippines, Atlantic Forest, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean Islands, Caucasus, and Indo-Burma are the hottest hotspots and that China, the Philippines, and India are the hottest megadiverse countries. The great variation in terms of habitat, protected areas, and population pressure among the hotspots, the megadiverse countries, and the hotspots within the same country suggests the need for hotspot- and country-specific conservation policies.

  14. Footprints, Imprints: Seeing Environmentalist and Buddhist Marie Byles as an Eastern Australian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Jane Cadzow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the Australian author, traveller, conservationist and Buddhist Marie Byles (1900-1979 as “eastern” and Australian at once. It investigates the influence of Buddhist spirituality and travel on her approach to the environment and explores some possibilities arising from looking at her work as part of a broader transnational humanitarian and intellectual identification, moving beyond ethnicity based boundaries. Thinking about eastern Australian identities can encourage consideration of Australia in Asia, Australia as Asian, connections across seas, and links and differences within Australia. The paper explores Marie Byles as an eastern Australian by considering her travel in Sydney and the region (in Australia, China, Vietnam, India and Burma from the 1930s to the 1960s, the design and use of her home as a hub for early Buddhist meetings, her publication of texts discussing Eastern philosophy, and her environmental activism. Throughout the discussion Byles’s understanding of power relations, derived from an entwining of feminist and socialist ideas, a pacifist and Buddhist/spiritualist revaluation of environments emerges. From these influences she provided challenges to her fellow walkers, environmentalists, and society at large to rethink relationships with nature and each other, insights that have yet to be adequately explored and recognised.

  15. Origin and tectonic evolution of upper Triassic Turbidites in the Indo-Burman ranges, West Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Lin; Cai, Fulong; Wang, Houqi; Xu, Qiang; Zaw, Than

    2017-11-01

    The Pane Chaung Formation is exposed in the Indo-Burman Ranges, and has been involved in collision between the Indian Plate and West Burma Block. However, controversies exist over the provenance and paleogeographic reconstruction of the Pane Chaung Formation. This study presents new petrographical and detrital zircon Usbnd Pb ages and Hf isotopic data from the Pane Chaung Formation in Rakhine Yoma and Chin Hills, west Myanmar. The depositional age of the Pane Chaung Formation is Late Triassic, indicated by the Carnian-Norian Halobia fossils and maximum depositional ages between 233.0 ± 2.5 Ma and 206.2 ± 1.8 Ma. Upper Triassic sandstones contain 290-200 Ma detrital zircons, εHf(t) values of - 6 to 11 and TDMC of 1.6 to 0.6 Ga, interpreted to be derived from West Papua region. The most abundant zircon age population of 750-450 Ma is derived from Pan-African orogenic belts in Australia. Zircons of 1250-900 Ma age were derived from the Grenvillian orogen in Australia. Archean zircons are interpreted to be derived from the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons in Western Australia. Detrital zircon ages of the Pane Chaung Formation are distinct from similar aged strata in Indochina and Sibumasu, but comparable to NW Australia (Carnarvon Basin) and Greater India (Langjiexue Formation). It is suggested that the Pane Chaung Formation was deposited in a Late Triassic submarine fan along the northern margin of Australia.

  16. Tricks of the Trade: Debt and Imposed Sovereignty in Southernmost Kham in the Nineteenth to Twentieth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Gros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Southernmost Kham, which borders Burma and Yunnan Province, remained at the juncture of several mutually competing political centers until the first half of the twentieth century. On the fringes of Tibetan, Naxi, and Chinese expansion and increasing political control, several Tibeto-Burman­–speaking groups such as the Drung and Nung gradually became integrated into their neighbors’ polities. Their political dependency often arose from trading with and accepting loans from commercial agents and from the intermediaries of local rulers, Naxi and Tibetans alike. This article addresses this practice of providing credit, which was developed at the expense of impoverished groups who were often obliged to accept the terms of the transaction. The author particularly emphasizes the connections between this system of debt dependency, the relationship between creditors and debtors that has to be considered in terms of exchange and reciprocity, and the question of political legitimacy. Within this broader context of regional interethnic relations, the article provides a detailed analysis of the concrete terms of the political relationship that existed between Drung communities and Tibetan chiefs of Tsawarong, which contributes to an understanding of the workings of this relationship and its economic, territorial, and even ritual components.

  17. Age, Gender, and Fine-Grained Ethnicity Prediction using Convolutional Neural Networks for the East Asian Face Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, Nisha [ORNL; Rose, Derek C [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahalingam, Gayathri [ORNL; Atwal, Harleen [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.

  18. NATURAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF SW MYANMAR - A CONTRIBUTION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS TO THE DETECTION OF AREAS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMI / CYCLONE FLOODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar, formerly Burma, is vulnerable to several natural hazards, such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis and landslides. The present study focuses on geomorphologic and geologic investigations of the south-western region of the country, based on satellite data (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-SRTM, MODIS and LANDSAT. The main objective is to detect areas vulnerable to inundation by tsunami waves and cyclone surges. Since the region is also vulnerable to earthquake hazards, it is also important to identify seismotectonic patterns, the location of major active faults, and local site conditions that may enhance ground motions and earthquake intensities. As illustrated by this study, linear, topographic features related to subsurface tectonic features become clearly visible on SRTM-derived morphometric maps and on LANDSAT imagery. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and SRTM data helps identify areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by tsunamis and storm surges. Additionally, land elevation maps help identify sites greater than 10 m in elevation height, that would be suitable for the building of protective tsunami/cyclone shelters.

  19. Geographical markers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins domesticated for rice-based ethnic fermented beverages production in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia

    2011-11-01

    Autochthonous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from traditional starters used for the production of rice-based ethnic fermented beverage in North East India were examined for their genetic polymorphism using mitochondrial DNA-RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Mitochondrial DNA-RFLP analysis of S. cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins from hamei starter of Manipur and marcha starter of Sikkim revealed widely separated clusters based on their geographical origin. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed high polymorphism amongst the hamei strains within similar mitochondrial DNA-RFLP cluster and one unique karyotype of marcha strain was widely distributed in the Sikkim-Himalayan region. We conceptualized the possibility of separate domestication events for hamei strains in Manipur (located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot) and marcha strains in Sikkim (located in Himalayan biodiversity hotspot), as a consequence of less homogeneity in the genomic structure between these two groups, their clear separation being based on geographical origin, but not on technological origin and low strain level diversity within each group. The molecular markers developed based on HinfI-mtDNA-RFLP profile and the chromosomal doublets in chromosome VIII position of Sikkim-Himalayan strains could be effectively used as geographical markers for authenticating the above starter strains and differentiating them from other commercial strains.

  20. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar (Burma constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharis flava with 2n = 20, Sagittaria trifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae, and Potamogeton distinctus × P. nodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae; the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  1. Cultural safety and belonging for refugee background women attending group pregnancy care: An Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Elisha; Muyeen, Sumaiya; Brown, Stephanie; Dawson, Wendy; Petschel, Pauline; Tardiff, Waan; Norman, Fiona; Vanpraag, Dannielle; Szwarc, Jo; Yelland, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Refugee women experience higher incidence of childbirth complications and poor pregnancy outcomes. Resettled refugee women often face multiple barriers accessing pregnancy care and navigating health systems in high income countries. A community-based model of group pregnancy care for Karen women from Burma was co-designed by health services in consultation with Karen families in Melbourne, Australia. Focus groups were conducted with women who had participated to explore their experiences of using the program, and whether it had helped them feel prepared for childbirth and going home with a new baby. Nineteen women (average time in Australia 4.3 years) participated in two focus groups. Women reported feeling empowered and confident through learning about pregnancy and childbirth in the group setting. The collective sharing of stories in the facilitated environment allowed women to feel prepared, confident and reassured, with the greatest benefits coming from storytelling with peers, and developing trusting relationships with a team of professionals, with whom women were able to communicate in their own language. Women also discussed the pivotal role of the bicultural worker in the multidisciplinary care team. Challenges in the hospital during labor and birth were reported and included lack of professional interpreters and a lack of privacy. Group pregnancy care has the potential to increase refugee background women's access to pregnancy care and information, sense of belonging, cultural safety using services, preparation for labor and birth, and care of a newborn. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Begonia wuzhishanensis (sect. Diploclinium, Begoniaceae), a new species from Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Jin, Xiao-Hua; Ku, Shin-Ming; Kono, Yoshiko; Huang, Han-Yau; Yang, Hsun-An

    2014-12-01

    Hainan is the largest island of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot and has the best preserved and most extensive tropical forests in China. A recent study on distribution of endangered species in China identifies southern Hainan as one of eight hotspots for plant conservation in the country. In continuation of our studies of Asian Begonia, we report the discovery of an attractive undescribed species, B. wuzhishanensis C.-I Peng, X.H. Jin & S.M. Ku, from Hainan Island. Living plant of the new species, Begonia wuzhishanensis, was collected in 2009 and cultivated in the experimental greenhouse for morphological and cytological studies. It flowered consecutively in 2012 and 2013 in the experimental greenhouse, Academia Sinica. It was assigned to the large, heterogeneous sect. Diploclinium. The chromosome number of this new species was determined to be 2n = 26. A careful study of literature, herbarium specimens and living plants, both in the wild and in cultivation, support the recognition of the new species Begonia wuzhishanensis, which is described in this paper. Begonia wuzhishanensis is currently known only from Fanyang, Wuzhishan Mountain in the center of the island. A line drawing, color plate, and a distribution map are provided to aid in identification.

  3. Vertical transmission of dengue viruses by mosquitoes of the Aedes scutellaris group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, J E; Rosen, L

    1987-11-01

    Seventeen strains of mosquitoes belonging to 12 species in the Aedes scutellaris subgroup were tested for an ability to transmit one or more dengue virus serotype(s) vertically. Strains of virus employed for dengue types 1, 2, 3, and 4 were from Fiji, Bangkok, Burma, and Medan, respectively. After parental females were infected by intrathoracic inoculation, F1 larval and pupal progeny were tested for the presence of virus by inoculating aliquots of triturated suspensions into Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes. Dengue type 1 was transmitted vertically by 11 strains of mosquitoes representing 8 species with the highest filial infection rates observed for Ae. cooki (1.2%). Vertical transmission of the other dengue virus serotypes was observed for fewer species of mosquitoes, however the filial infection rates of those demonstrating vertical transmission were between 1%-2% for types 2 and 3, and about 0.5% for type 4. Tests with the progeny of individual Ae. cooki and Ae. polynesiensis infected with dengue virus types 1 and 3, respectively, showed that approximately greater than or equal to 50% of the parental females transmitted virus to their progeny. Highest filial infection rates were 6.7% for Ae. cooki and 4.6% for Ae. polynesiensis.

  4. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  5. Charles Bachman Moore (1920-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, William; Krehbiel, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Charles B. Moore passed away 2 March 2010 at the age of 89, following a long and varied scientific career in meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. He will be remembered best for his substantial contributions in the field of atmospheric electricity and for the students and faculty he guided as chairman of Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and professor of physics at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. He possessed a unique sense of humor and an excellent memory that served as a reservoir of scientific and historical knowledge. Like many of his generation, Charlie's career was profoundly influenced by the Second World War. Following Pearl Harbor, he interrupted his undergraduate studies in chemical engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology to enlist in the Army Air Corps, where he became the chief weather equipment officer in the 10th Weather Squadron, setting up and operating remote meteorological stations behind enemy lines in the China-Burma-India theater. He served with distinction alongside Athelstan Spilhaus Sr., who had been one of Charlie's instructors in the Army meteorology program.

  6. Deforestation and fragmentation of natural forests in the upper Changhua watershed, Hainan, China: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Jian-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The Changhua watershed is a center of endemism for plants and birds and the cradle of Hainan's main rivers. However, this area has experienced recent and ongoing deforestation and habitat fragmentation. To quantify habitat loss and fragmentation of natural forests, as well as the land-cover changes in the Changhua watershed, we analyzed Landsat images obtained in 1988, 1995, and 2005. Land-cover dynamics analysis showed that natural forests increased in area (97,909 to 104,023 ha) from 1988 to 1995 but decreased rapidly to 76,306 ha over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily throughout the study period while pulp plantations rapidly expanded after 1995. Similar patterns of land cover change were observed in protected areas, indicating a lack of enforcement. Natural forests conversion to rubber and pulp plantations has a general negative effect on biodiversity, primarily through habitat fragmentation. The fragmentation analysis showed that natural forests area was reduced and patch number increased, while patch size and connectivity decreased. These land-cover changes threatened local biodiversity, especially island endemic species. Both natural forests losses and fragmentation should be stopped by strict enforcement to prevent further damage. Preserving the remaining natural forests and enforcing the status of protected areas should be a management priority to maximize the watershed's biodiversity conservation value.

  7. Macrobothriotaenia ficta (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of sunbeam snake (Xenopeltis unicolor): example of convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; De Chambrier, Alain; Kuchta, Roman; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The poorly known proteocephalidean cestode Macrobothriotaenia ficta (Meggitt, 1931) from the sunbeam snake Xenopeltis unicolor (Ophidia: Xenopeltidae) is redescribed on the basis of re-examination of its type specimens from Burma (Myanmar), and vouchers from Thailand and Vietnam. The peculiar morphology of the scolex, which is formed by four pedunculate lobe-bearing pincer-shaped suckers, is described for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. In scolex morphology, M. ficta closely resembles phyllobothriidean cestodes, parasites of elasmobranchs. However, this similarity does not reflect phylogenetic relatedness of these cestodes but instead presents an example of convergent morphological evolution of attachment organs of unrelated groups of cestodes that parasitize different groups of vertebrates. Besides scolex morphology, the genus is characterised by the possession of a very large cirrus-sac, which may reach up to the midline of proglottides, few testes (less than 60), vitelline follicles limited to the dorsal side of proglottides, a large vaginal sphincter, and eggs with a three-layered embryophore covered with rounded projections. Numerous errors in the diagnosis of M. ficta, which appeared in the literature as a result of uncritical compilation of data without examination of original material, are corrected. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsr-DNA and mitochondrial genes rrnL and cox1 place this species among other snake-parasitizing proteocephalideans of the genus Ophiotaenia. The convergent evolution of scolex morphology across distantly related taxa is discussed.

  8. Predicting Tropical Cyclogenesis with a Global Mesoscale Model: Hierarchical Multiscale Interactions During the Formation of Tropical Cyclone Nargis(2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B.-W.; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, W. K.; Atlas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Very severe cyclonic storm Nargis devastated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, caused tremendous damage and numerous fatalities, and became one of the 10 deadliest tropical cyclones (TCs) of all time. To increase the warning time in order to save lives and reduce economic damage, it is important to extend the lead time in the prediction of TCs like Nargis. As recent advances in high-resolution global models and supercomputing technology have shown the potential for improving TC track and intensity forecasts, the ability of a global mesoscale model to predict TC genesis in the Indian Ocean is examined in this study with the aim of improving simulations of TC climate. High-resolution global simulations with real data show that the initial formation and intensity variations of TC Nargis can be realistically predicted up to 5 days in advance. Preliminary analysis suggests that improved representations of the following environmental conditions and their hierarchical multiscale interactions were the key to achieving this lead time: (1) a westerly wind burst and equatorial trough, (2) an enhanced monsoon circulation with a zero wind shear line, (3) good upper-level outflow with anti-cyclonic wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, and (4) low-level moisture convergence.

  9. Saras Cranes in Palwal District in Southern Haryana are Asking for Immediate Attention for Their Last Rescue Effort

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    Tirshem Kumar Kaushik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Saras Cranes Grus antigone are endangered birds of open wetlands with highly worrying depletion trends being witnessed related with disappearance of marshy and shallow perennial, expansive wetlands throughout northern India. Alongside, massive hunting in 18th, 19th and 20th centuries and even today is another serious cause for their worrisome deterioration. Also, destruction of nests, eggs, fledglings and adults by aboriginals indeliberately or deliberately is causing these cranes to perish sooner than latter, completely. Now, Saras Cranes are found in limited number and domain as four populations in the entire world including India, China, Burma, South East Asia and northern Australia. The population of Indian Saras Crane is pitiably restricted to Etawa and Mainpuri districts of Uttar Pradesh. Stray birds of this species are restricted to Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh and in some parts of Gujarat and Assam. It is interesting to note that few pairs have been seen in Faridabad and Palwal districts in southern Haryana, India. These need to be protected and conserved.

  10. New filarial nematode from Japanese serows (Naemorhedus crispus: Bovidae close to parasites from elephants

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    Uni S.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new onchocercid species, Loxodontofilaria caprini n. sp. (Filarioidea: Nematoda, found in subcutaneous tissues of 37 (33% of 112 serows (Naemorhedus crispus examined in Japan, is described. The female worm had the characteristics of Loxodontofilaria, e.g., the large body size, well-developed esophagus with a shallow buccal cavity, and the long tail with three caudal lappets. The male worm of the new species, which was first described in the genus, had unequal length of spicules, 10 pairs of pre- and post-caudal papillae, and three terminal caudal lappets. Deirids were present in both sexes. Among four species of the genus Loxodontofilaria: one from the hippopotamus and three from the Elepantidae, L. caprini n. sp. appears close to L. asiatica Bain, Baker & Chabaud, 1982, a subcutaneous parasite of Elephas indicus in Myanmar (Burma. However, L. caprini n. sp. is distinct from L. asiatica in that the Japanese female worm has an esophagus half as long and the microfilariae also half as long with a coiled posterior. The microfilariae were found in the skin of serows. The new parasite appears to clearly illustrate a major event in the evolution of onchocercids: the host-switching. This might have occurred on the Eurasian continent, where elephantids and the lineage of rupicaprines diversified during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, or in Japan, into which some of these hosts migrated.

  11. Characterization of dengue epidemics in mainland China over the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Ning, Wenyan; Lu, Liang; Zhuang, Dafang; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-09-27

    Dengue is an important public health concern in developing countries. As it is increasingly serious in mainland China, its spatiotemporal variations in this region must be further understood. On the basis of the data on dengue cases in 2004-2013 collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, examinations of spatiotemporal variations of local, imported, and total dengue cases were conducted to characterize this epidemic at the city scale in China. Local cases in September and October accounted for more than half of the total cases in each year. The cities with more than 50 accumulative local cases were mainly distributed along the southeast coastal areas and southwest border regions of China. In 2004-2013, local dengue transmission (indicated by the number of local cases and the locally infected cities) increased yearly and was closely associated with epidemics (represented by the amount of imported cases and the cities with imported cases). At the city level, local transmission tended to be spatially clustered in the Zhejiang-Fujian coastal area, the Pearl River Delta, and Yunnan-Burma border region, especially in 2005, 2010, 2012, and 2013. The results showed that China's local dengue transmission is spatially and temporally featured, and that the prevalence of this epidemic is mostly related to imported cases from overseas epidemic areas. This study provides useful support for hygiene authorities of central and local governments to take effective measures to prevent and control this disease.

  12. A Common Elements Treatment Approach for Adult Mental Health Problems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura K; Dorsey, Shannon; Haroz, Emily; Lee, Catherine; Alsiary, Maytham M; Haydary, Amir; Weiss, William M; Bolton, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) for adults presenting with mood or anxiety problems developed specifically for use with lay counselors in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Details of the intervention development, training, supervision, and decision-making process are presented. Case vignettes are used as examples throughout. Preliminary findings are presented on counselor/supervisor performance and client outcomes from practice cases completed prior to randomized controlled trials (RCT) conducted at two sites for adult survivors of torture and/or systematic violence in (a) southern Iraq and (b) Thailand-Burma border. Data suggest that local supervisors and lay counselors with little prior mental health training or experience maintained fidelity to the model. The majority of pilot clients were retained in treatment, suggesting acceptability. Using the Reliable Change Index (RCI) for each individual we examined the number of clients above a minimal threshold ( z > 1.96) for each outcome. In Iraq 100% of clients had RCIs above the threshold for depression and posttraumatic stress, and 81.8% for impaired function. In Thailand, 81.3% of clients had RCIs above minimum threshold for depression, 68.8% for posttraumatic stress, and 37.5% for impaired function. Implementation of CETA is discussed in relation to cultural issues within LMIC. These findings, combined with US-based evidence, suggest that a common elements approach warrants further development and testing as a means for addressing the treatment gap for mental health problems in LMIC.

  13. Morpho-anatomical and physiological responses to waterlogging of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenliang; Li, Donghua; Wang, Linhai; Ding, Xia; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xiurong

    2013-07-01

    Waterlogging threatens severely to the sesame production in China, India and Burma, which are the top three sesame producers of the world. It was of great importance to explore the dynamics and mechanisms of action of anaerobic proteins and antioxidant enzymes together with the morph-anatomic adaptions in waterlogged sesame. The sesame accessions ZZM2541 and Ezhi-2 respond to waterlogging in considerably different performance. The stress induced wilting and leaf chlorosis in both accessions, but symptom occurred earlier in the susceptive Ezhi-2. In the more tolerant ZZM2541, adventitious roots formed above the flooding level, and plentiful of aerenchyma developed in the root and stem. However, it was discovered no apparent intercellular spaces existing in the spongy mesophyll in leaves of both accessions. The activities of ADH, PDC and LDH increased in roots of both accessions after suffering of the stress. The increase of ADH and PDC activity was more pronounced in ZZM2541, while a significantly higher LDH activity appeared in Ezhi-2. All the activities of SOD, APX and CAT were higher in the leaves of ZZM2541 than in Ezhi-2, and the leaves of Ezhi-2 showed a higher content of MDA throughout the duration of waterlogging. It was suggested that the tolerance to waterlogging of ZZM2541 appears to depend on a combination of metabolic and morpho-anatomical adaptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Melaka and Enyan anak Usen, Iban art; Sexual selection and severed heads: weaving, sculpture, tattooing and other arts of the Iban of Borneo (Viktor T. King John Roosa; Pretext for mass murder; The September 30th Movement and Suharto’s coup d’état in Indonesia (Gerry van Klinken Vladimir Braginsky; The heritage of traditional Malay literature; A historical survey of genres, writings and literary views (Dick van der Meij Joel Robbins, Holly Wardlow (eds; The making of global and local modernities in Melanesia; Humiliation, transformation and the nature of cultural change (Toon van Meijl Kwee Hui Kian; The political economy of Java’s northeast coast c. 1740-1800; Elite synergy (Luc Nagtegaal Charles A. Coppel (ed.; Violent conflicts in Indonesia; Analysis, representation, resolution (Gerben Nooteboom Tom Therik; Wehali: the female land; Traditions of a Timorese ritual centre (Dianne van Oosterhout Patricio N. Abinales, Donna J. Amoroso; State and society in the Philippines (Portia L. Reyes Han ten Brummelhuis; King of the waters; Homan van der Heide and the origin of modern irrigation in Siam (Jeroen Rikkerink Hotze Lont; Juggling money; Financial self-help organizations and social security in Yogyakarta (Dirk Steinwand Henk Maier; We are playing relatives; A survey of Malay writing (Maya Sutedja-Liem Hjorleifur Jonsson; Mien relations; Mountain people and state control in Thailand (Nicholas Tapp Lee Hock Guan (ed.; Civil society in Southeast Asia (Bryan S. Turner Jan Mrázek; Phenomenology of a puppet theatre; Contemplations on the art of Javanese wayang kulit (Sarah Weiss Janet Steele; Wars within; The story of Tempo, an independent magazine in Soeharto’s Indonesia (Robert Wessing REVIEW ESSAY Sean Turnell; Burma today Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Robert Taylor, Tin Maung Maung Than (eds; Myanmar; Beyond politics to societal imperatives Monique Skidmore (ed.; Burma at the turn of the 21st century Mya Than; Myanmar in ASEAN

  15. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Newton

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75, Cambodia (48, Lao PDR (115, Myanmar (Burma (137 and the Thai/Myanmar border (16, were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9% on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to approximately 50 mg per genuine tablet. Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy'. Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures.An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross

  16. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2016-12-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  17. Economic feasibility of a new method to estimate mortality in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard Roberts

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mortality data provide essential evidence on the health status of populations in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings and to guide and assess relief operations. Retrospective surveys are commonly used to collect mortality data in such populations, but require substantial resources and have important methodological limitations. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative method for rapidly quantifying mortality (the informant method. The study objective was to assess the economic feasibility of the informant method. METHODS: The informant method captures deaths through an exhaustive search for all deaths occurring in a population over a defined and recent recall period, using key community informants and next-of-kin of decedents. Between July and October 2008, we implemented and evaluated the informant method in: Kabul, Afghanistan; Mae La camp for Karen refugees, Thai-Burma border; Chiradzulu District, Malawi; and Lugufu and Mtabila refugee camps, Tanzania. We documented the time and cost inputs for the informant method in each site, and compared these with projections for hypothetical retrospective mortality surveys implemented in the same site with a 6 month recall period and with a 30 day recall period. FINDINGS: The informant method was estimated to require an average of 29% less time inputs and 33% less monetary inputs across all four study sites when compared with retrospective surveys with a 6 month recall period, and 88% less time inputs and 86% less monetary inputs when compared with retrospective surveys with a 1 month recall period. Verbal autopsy questionnaires were feasible and efficient, constituting only 4% of total person-time for the informant method's implementation in Chiradzulu District. CONCLUSIONS: The informant method requires fewer resources and incurs less respondent burden. The method's generally impressive feasibility and the near real-time mortality data it provides warrant further work to

  18. Structure elucidation and biological activity of antibacterial compound from Micromonospora auratinigra, a soil Actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, M; Bordoloi, M; Dutta, P P; Saikia, S; Kolita, B; Talukdar, S; Nath, S; Yadav, A; Saikia, R; Jha, D K; Bora, T C

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the bioactive compound of Micromonospora auratinigra, HK-10 and its antibacterial inhibitory mechanism. An oily bioactive compound was extracted from HK-10 (GenBank accession no. JN381554) and found to have promising antibacterial activity. The compound was characterized as 2-methylheptylisonicotinate (1) by (1) H, (13) C NMR and mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this molecule was tested by micro broth dilution method and was found to be 70, 40, 80, 60, 60 and 50 μg for Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Echerichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium abscessus respectively. The effects of compound 1 were studied on bacterial membrane structure using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated a membrane-disrupting mechanism, resulting in the dysfunction of the cytoplasmic membrane structure and cell death of the pathogenic bacterial strains. Kinetics of growth of the test organisms was also analysed and indicated 2-methylheptylisonicotinate 1 as a bactericidal agent. Furthermore, we have studied the binding affinity of 1 towards different membrane proteins of pathogenic bacteria by in silico analysis. 2-methylheptylisonicotinate was isolated from M. auratinigra, a rare actinobacterial strain possessing antibacterial activity through a membrane-disrupting mechanism, and has MICs similar to standard antibiotic neomycin sulphate. It is the first report about a strain of M. auratinigra, isolated from Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot of North-east India with new antimicrobial activities. In silico studies have also supported these results performed on various membrane targets of pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial potential of M. auratinigra is reported for the first time. The results indicate the possible use of 2-methylheptylisonicotinate as a source of antibacterial agent against dreaded human pathogens. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  19. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C W Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-02-01

    Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to approximately 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross

  20. Population genetic correlates of declining transmission in a human pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Standwell C; Nair, Shalini; Al-Saai, Salma; Ashley, Elizabeth; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung P; Nosten, François; Anderson, Tim J C

    2013-01-01

    Pathogen control programs provide a valuable, but rarely exploited, opportunity to directly examine the relationship between population decline and population genetics. We investigated the impact of an ~12-fold decline in transmission on the population genetics of Plasmodium falciparum infections (n = 1731) sampled from four clinics on the Thai-Burma border over 10 years and genotyped using 96 genome-wide SNPs. The most striking associated genetic change was a reduction in the frequency of infections containing multiple parasite genotypes from 63% in 2001 to 14% in 2010 (P = 3 × 10(-15)). Two measures of the clonal composition of populations (genotypic richness and the β-parameter of the Pareto distribution) declined over time as more people were infected by parasites with identical multilocus genotypes, consistent with increased selfing and a reduction in the rate at which multilocus genotypes are broken apart by recombination. We predicted that the reduction in transmission, multiple clone carriage and outbreeding would be mirrored by an increased influence of genetic drift. However, geographical differentiation and expected heterozygosity remained stable across the sampling period. Furthermore, N(e) estimates derived from allele frequencies fluctuation between years remained high (582 to ∞) and showed no downward trend. These results demonstrate how genetic data can compliment epidemiological assessments of infectious disease control programs. The temporal changes in a single declining population parallel to those seen in comparisons of parasite genetics in regions of differing endemicity, strongly supporting the notion that reduced opportunity for outbreeding is the key driver of these patterns. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Screening and Identification of Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzhuo Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kratom is a tree planted in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma and elsewhere in the region. A long history of usage and abuse of kratom has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the wide availability of kratom on the Internet and in the streets has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of misuse. With the increasing popularity of kratom, efficient protocols are needed to detect kratom use. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of kratom compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in human urine has been developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The chromatographic system employed a 2.6-μm 100 mm × 2.1 mm phenyl-hexyl analytical column and gradient elution with a 0.4-mL/min flow rate of water and acetonitrile as mobile phases. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used as the detector for data acquisition. The analyst was the quantification software. The established method demonstrated linearity of >0.99 for both analytes, and low detection limits were obtained down to 0.002581 ng/mL for mitragynine and 0.06910 ng/mL for 7-hydroxymitragynine. The validated method has been utilized for clinical analysis of urine for the purpose of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine detection.

  2. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Vision Defects among Muslim Males and Females of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ahsana; Hussain, Ruqaiya; Fareed, Mohd; Afzal, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Color blindness is a common X-linked genetic disorder. However, most of color blinds remain undetected due to absence of proper screening. Our study was to determine the prevalence of red-green color vision defects among Manipuri Muslim males and females. The study could help in decreasing birth of children with this disorder as Muslims commonly perform consanguineous marriage among themselves. Unrelated individuals of both sexes (Male-1352, Female-1302) belonging to six different populations were randomly selected and screened for red-green color vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates) test from the area of Imphal East and Imphal west districts of Manipur, which is a small hilly state, situated in the north eastern extreme corner of India sharing an international boundary with Myanmar (Burma). About 8.73% of males and 1.69% of females were found to be color blind. Among six different populations studied the males of Meitei population shows the highest frequency i.e. 14.93% while Naga population shows the least frequency of 3.75%. Among females, Meitei population again shows the highest frequency of 2.5% and least frequency is shown by Mughal and Naga populations 0.00% as not a single female color blind was found. Present study shows higher prevalence rate of color blindness as compared to other reported rates of India. Deuteranomaly cases occur in higher percentage than other types of color blindness. The higher prevalence rate observed in Muslims may be due to the hidden effect of consanguineous marriages.

  3. Validation of a brief mental health screener for Karen refugees in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Darin R; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A

    2016-02-01

    Karen refugees from Burma are one of the largest refugee groups currently resettling in the USA. Karen people have endured decades of civil war and human rights violations, leaving them more likely to develop serious mental health disorders. There is a noted lack of brief, culturally validated tools present in primary care settings for detecting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Karen refugees. To create the Karen Mental Health Screener, a five-question screening tool used to identify depression and PTSD and to validate it against a clinical reference standard. This validation study was conducted during a primary care visit. Participants completed a 20-item questionnaire using a 4-point visual aid and the PTSD and MDD portions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-CV for DSM-IV) as the reference standard. Both the questionnaire and the relevant sections of the SCID-IV were rigorously translated and administered by trained researchers along with a trained Karen interpreter. Logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine a subset of items that could be used to construct a screener to identify Karen patients who were most likely to have PTSD and/or MDD. A final five-question screener was created with very strong performance characteristics. With a clinical cut score of 4, these items displayed very strong performance characteristics with sensitivity = 0.96, specificity = 0.97, positive predicted value = 0.83 and negative predicted value = 0.99. The Karen Mental Health Screener is a valid measure for detecting PTSD and major depression in Karen people from refugee backgrounds presenting in a primary care setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Die Rohingyas: Konstruktion, De-Konstruktion und Re-Konstruktion einer ethnisch-religiösen Identität [The Rohingyas in Myanmar: Construction, De-construction and Re-construction of an Ethnic Identity

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    Hans-Bernd Zöllner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Rohingyas, die im Staat Rakhine (Arakan im Westen des heutigen Myanmar leben, bilden eine große geschlossene muslimische Bevölkerungsgruppe an der Grenze zu Bangladesh. In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten gab es mehrere Fluchtbewegungen über die Grenze und Aktionen der Rückführung. Bei alledem ist der Status der Rohingyas umstritten. Die Organisationen, die ihre Interessen vertreten, sehen sie als indigene Bewohner des Landes, die sich auf eine mehr als 1000jährige Geschichte berufen können. Von Seiten buddhistischer Arakanesen und der Zentralregierung Myanmars werden sie als Ausländer angesehen und behandelt. Das Papier untersucht die historische Genese der Konstruktion einer ethnischen Nationalität der Rohingyas vis à vis der buddhistischen Bevölkerung in Arakan und Gesamtbirma sowie die Bestreitung dieses Anspruchs und gibt dabei einen Überblick über die muslimische Einflüsse auf die Geschichte und Kultur des über Jahrhunderte unabhängigen Königreichs Arakan.The Rohingyas living in the state of Rakhine (Arakan in western Myanmar form a great en bloc community Muslim community on the border to Bangladesh. In the past decades, great numbers of people fled the country and were repatriated later. The status of the Rohingyas is a controversial issue. The organisations representing their interest consider them as indigenous people of Myanmar looking back at a history of 1000 years in Arakan. Buddhist Arakanese as well as the central government of Myanmar, however, regard and treat them as foreigners. The paper examines the historical genesis of the construction of a national Rohingya identity vis-à-vis the Buddhist population of Rakhine and the whole of Burma/Myanmar as well as its contradiction. In addition, an overview on the Muslim influences on history and culture of the kingdom of Arakan will be given.

  5. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

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    Suerialoasan Navanesan

    Full Text Available Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae, locally known as 'Senna makki' is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1 were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299 using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death.

  6. Velocity structure of the mantle transition zone beneath the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

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    Li, Guohui; Bai, Ling; Zhou, Yuanze; Wang, Xiaoran; Cui, Qinghui

    2017-11-01

    P-wave triplications related to the 410 km discontinuity (the 410) were clearly observed from the vertical component seismograms of three intermediate-depth earthquakes that occurred in the Indo-Burma Subduction Zone (IBSZ) and were recorded by the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). By matching the observed P-wave triplications with synthetics through a grid search, we obtained the best-fit models for four azimuthal profiles (I-IV from north to south) to constrain the P-wave velocity structure near the 410 beneath the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A ubiquitous low-velocity layer (LVL) resides atop the mantle transition zone (MTZ). The LVL is 25 to 40 km thick, with a P-wave velocity decrement ranging from approximately - 5.3% to - 3.6% related to the standard Earth model IASP91. An abrupt transition in the velocity decrement of the LVL was observed between profiles II and III. We postulate that the mantle structure beneath the southeastern margin of the TP is primarily controlled by the southeastern extrusion of the TP to the north combined with the eastward subduction of the Indian plate to the south, but not affected by the Emeishan mantle plume. We attribute the LVL to the partial melting induced by water and/or other volatiles released from the subducted Indian plate and the stagnant Pacific plate, but not from the upwelling or the remnants of the Emeishan mantle plume. A high-velocity anomaly ranging from approximately 1.0% to 1.5% was also detected at a depth of 542 to 600 km, providing additional evidence for the remnants of the subducted Pacific plate within the MTZ.

  7. Identifying orchid hotspots for biodiversity conservation in Laos: the limestone karst vegetation of Vang Vieng District, Vientiane Province

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    Pankaj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A project to study the phytodiversity of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot (IBBH was initiated by Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong, in 2011, with the aim of surveying primary forest fragments and identifying conservation priorities within this expansive but highly threatened ecoregion. Vang Vieng District of Vientiane Province, northern Laos, was chosen as a focus for a pilot expedition, since it features an extensive karst landscape that has barely been explored. Together with officials from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Lao PDR, surveys of three sites were conducted in April 2012, at the end of the dry northeast monsoon season. Emphasis was placed on Orchidaceae because it is among the most species-rich and commercially exploited flowering plant families in the region. A total of 179 specimens were collected, of which approximately 135 were unique taxa accounting for 29.6% of the orchids found in Laos and 5.8% of those found in IBBH as a whole, and equivalent to 0.27 species/hectare within the area surveyed, substantially higher than published figures for other limestone areas in the region, such as Cuc Phuong National Park in Vietnam (0.0055 species/hectare and Perlis State in Peninsular Malaysia (0.0036 species/hectare.  At least one is a species new to science, nine represent new distributional records for Laos and a further nine are new records for Vientiane Province. A list of the species encountered during the study is presented and the significance of the findings is discussed. Major threats to the natural environment in northern Laos are highlighted.

  8. Burmese Refugee Transnationalism: What Is the Effect? Die Auswirkungen der transnationalen Verbindungen von birmanischen Flüchtlingen

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    Inge Brees

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Burmese refugees in Thailand maintain economic, social and political links with their country of origin, but these transnational activities are influenced by the politics and level of development of the country of origin and the host country. Through transnational activities, refugees can have a positive impact on the home country by contributing to peace-building and development or they can enhance conflict, as the discussion on community engagement and political transnationalism will illustrate. Clearly, the increased capacity and networks of the Burmese diaspora have bestowed it with a large (future potential to influence peace-building, development and conflict. Therefore, it is argued here that the various civil, political and military groups in exile should be included in the peace-building process initiated by international actors, next to stakeholders inside the country. Birmanische Flüchtlinge in Thailand haben ökonomische, soziale und politische Verbindungen zu ihrem Herkunftsland. Diese transnationalen Aktivitäten sind von der Politik und Entwicklungsstufe ihres Ursprungs- und ihres Gastlandes abhängig. Mit Hilfe transnationaler Aktivitäten können Flüchtlinge eine positive Wirkung auf ihr Heimatland haben, indem sie zur Friedenserhaltung und Entwicklung beitragen. Sie können jedoch auch den Konflikt weiter verschärfen, wie die Diskussion über Gemeinschaftsengagement und politischen Transnationalismus zeigt. Die wachsenden Fähigkeiten und Netzwerke der burmesischen Diaspora haben sie mit einem großen zukünftigen Potenzial ausgestattet, Friedensinitiativen, Entwicklungen und Konflikte zu beeinflussen. Der Artikel behauptet deshalb, dass die unterschiedlichen zivilen, politischen und militärischen Gruppen im Exil in einen Friedensprozess eingeschlossen werden sollen, der von internationalen Akteuren und nationalen Stakeholders im Land angestoßen werden sollte. Schlüsselwörter: Burma/ Myanmar, Flüchtlinge, Diaspora

  9. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Changes Antigenicity of ORF2-Encoded Proteins of Hepatitis E Virus

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    Ji-Hong Meng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive genomic diversity has been observed among hepatitis E virus (HEV strains. However, the implication of the genetic heterogeneity on HEV antigenic properties is uncertain. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (Mabs against truncated ORF2-encoded proteins (aa452‑617, designated p166 proteins derived from HEV strains of Burma (genotype 1a, p166Bur, Pakistan (1b, p166Pak and Morocco (1c, p166Mor were raised and used for identification of HEV antigenic diversity. Six Mabs reacted to these 3 p166 proteins as well as p166 proteins constructed from strains derived from Mexico (genotype 2, US (genotype 3 and China (genotype 4, indicating the existence of pan‑genotypic epitopes. Two Mabs, 1B5 and 6C7, reacted with p166Bur and p166Mor, but not p166Pak or p166s derived from genotypes 2, 3, and 4, indicating that these 2 Mabs recognized strain-specific HEV epitopes. Both the common and specific epitopes could not be mapped by 23 synthetic peptides spanning the p166Bur sequence, suggesting that they are confirmation‑dependent. Comparative sequence analysis showed that p166Bur and p166Mor shared an identical aa sequence along their entire lengths, whereas for p166Pak the aas occupying positions 606 and 614 are different from aas at corresponding positions of p166Bur and p166Mor. Reactivity between 1B5 and p166Bur was abrogated with mutation of p166Bur/A606V, whereas p166Pak acquired the reactivity to 1B5 with mutation of p166Pak/V606A. However, mutations of p166Bur/L614M and P166Pak/M614L did not affect the immunoreactivity. Therefore, the aa occupying position 606 plays a critical role in maintaining the antigenicity of the HEV p166 proteins.

  10. The aesthetic interpretation on Wooden Drum Dancing of Wa people

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    Youfeng Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wa nationality, a typical ethnic group in Yunnan province, is an ancient one lives across Yunnan. The main residences of it are border area beside northern Yunnan and the Wa States in Burma. Among all the Wa dances, Wooden Drum Dancing leads a vital position, and it is also a symbolic dancing in the culture of Wa people. The feature of Wooden Drum Dancing is that every action expending by the beats of wooden drum, namely, first the wooden drum, then the Wooden Drum Dancing. Dancing is an important content in the life of Wa people, and the aesthetics of life comes from dancing, so they present their value on worship by the form of dancing. This article is going to interpret the aesthetic standard on Wa people’s Wooden Drum Dancing by the view of aesthetics, and come into a conclude that the inspiration of such dancing came from practice and their worship to nature and ancestor. The Wooden Drum Dancing displays totally the tough air and solidarity of Wa people, which also presents the fair society of them. The Wooden Drum Dancing is an enriched art that Wa People took from particle life, so dancing of Wa is often classified into the aesthetic area of plain. The information of people’s living situation displayed by Wa dancing also conveys their rich emotions. The sense of beauty within Wooden Drum Dancing will give others a solemn feeling. The formal beauty is displayed by the rhythm of upper part of body, and the power beauty is displayed by the rhythm of the lower part of body.

  11. [Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofang; Yang, Mingdong; Jiang, Jinyong; Li, Huachang; Zhu, Chongge; Gui, Qin; Bu, Liqun; Zhou, Hongning

    2016-03-01

    To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention. Semi-nested RTPCR was conducted to detect the capsid premembrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township, Gengma county, Yunnan province in July, 2015. Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene. The positive PCR products were directly sequenced. Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank, including the representative strains from different countries and regions. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software. Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1. Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus. A total of 13 strains with E gene (1485 bp), including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains, were sequenced, which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype I of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage. This outbreak was caused by genotype I of DENV-1, which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area. Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.

  12. Use of Oral Cholera Vaccine and Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in a Long-Standing Refugee Camp, Thailand, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather M; Phares, Christina R; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Nyangoma, Edith; Taylor, Eboni M; Fulton, Anna; Wongjindanon, Nuttapong; Aung, Naw Rody; Travers, Phillipe; Date, Kashmira

    2016-12-01

    Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are relatively new public health interventions, and limited data exist on the potential impact of OCV use on traditional cholera prevention and control measures-safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH). To assess OCV acceptability and knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding cholera and WaSH, we conducted cross-sectional surveys, 1 month before (baseline) and 3 and 12 months after (first and second follow-up) a preemptive OCV campaign in Maela, a long-standing refugee camp on the Thailand-Burma border. We randomly selected households for the surveys, and administered questionnaires to female heads of households. In total, 271 (77%), 187 (81%), and 199 (85%) households were included in the baseline, first and second follow-up surveys, respectively. Anticipated OCV acceptability was 97% at baseline, and 91% and 85% of household members were reported to have received 1 and 2 OCV doses at first follow-up. Compared with baseline, statistically significant differences (95% Wald confidence interval not overlapping zero) were noted at first and second follow-up among the proportions of respondents who correctly identified two or more means of cholera prevention (62% versus 78% and 80%), reported boiling or treating drinking water (19% versus 44% and 69%), and washing hands with soap (66% versus 77% and 85%); a significant difference was also observed in the proportion of households with soap available at handwashing areas (84% versus 90% and 95%), consistent with reported behaviors. No significant difference was noted in the proportion of households testing positive for Escherichia coli in stored household drinking water at second follow-up (39% versus 49% and 34%). Overall, we observed some positive, and no negative changes in cholera- and WaSH-related KAPs after an OCV campaign in Maela refugee camp. OCV campaigns may provide opportunities to reinforce beneficial WaSH-related KAPs for comprehensive cholera prevention and control.

  13. Fungi in Thailand: a case study of the efficacy of an ITS barcode for automatically identifying species within the Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon genera.

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    Nuttika Suwannasai

    Full Text Available Thailand, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, has many endemic animals and plants. Some of its fungal species are difficult to recognize and separate, complicating assessments of biodiversity. We assessed species diversity within the fungal genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, which produce biologically active and potentially therapeutic compounds, by applying classical taxonomic methods to 552 teleomorphs collected from across Thailand. Using probability of correct identification (PCI, we also assessed the efficacy of automated species identification with a fungal barcode marker, ITS, in the model system of Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon. The 552 teleomorphs yielded 137 ITS sequences; in addition, we examined 128 GenBank ITS sequences, to assess biases in evaluating a DNA barcode with GenBank data. The use of multiple sequence alignment in a barcode database like BOLD raises some concerns about non-protein barcode markers like ITS, so we also compared species identification using different alignment methods. Our results suggest the following. (1 Multiple sequence alignment of ITS sequences is competitive with pairwise alignment when identifying species, so BOLD should be able to preserve its present bioinformatics workflow for species identification for ITS, and possibly therefore with at least some other non-protein barcode markers. (2 Automated species identification is insensitive to a specific choice of evolutionary distance, contributing to resolution of a current debate in DNA barcoding. (3 Statistical methods are available to address, at least partially, the possibility of expert misidentification of species. Phylogenetic trees discovered a cryptic species and strongly supported monophyletic clades for many Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon species, suggesting that ITS can contribute usefully to a barcode for these fungi. The PCIs here, derived solely from ITS, suggest that a fungal barcode will require secondary markers in

  14. Mental health status among Burmese adolescent students living in boarding houses in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

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    Akiyama, Takeshi; Win, Thar; Maung, Cynthia; Ray, Paw; Sakisaka, Kayako; Tanabe, Aya; Kobayashi, Jun; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-04-12

    In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students. This cross-sectional study surveyed 428 students, aged 12-18 years, who lived in boarding houses. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-37 A, Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaires were used to assess participants' mental health status and experience of traumatic events. The Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Scale was used to measure their perceived level of social support. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, trauma experiences, and mental health status. Further, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between such characteristics and participants' mental health status. In total, 771 students were invited to participate in the study and 428 students chose to take part. Of these students, 304 completed the questionnaire. A large proportion (62.8%) indicated that both of their parents lived in Myanmar, while only 11.8% answered that both of their parents lived in Thailand. The mean total number of traumatic events experienced was 5.7 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9), mean total score on the HSCL-37A was 63.1 (SD 11.4), and mean total score on the RATS was 41.4 (SD 9.9). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher number of traumatic events was associated with more mental health problems. Many students residing in boarding houses suffered from poor mental health in Thailand's Tak province. The number of traumatic experiences reported was higher than expected. Furthermore, these traumatic experiences were associated with poorer mental health status. Rather than making a generalized assumption on the mental health status of

  15. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ∼ 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation

  16. Simulation of the Indian and East-Asian summer monsoon in the ECMWF model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperber, K.R.; Potter, G.L.; Boyle, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hameed, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Inst. for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres

    1993-11-01

    The ability of the ECMWF model (Cycle 33) to simulate the Indian and East Asian summer monsoon is evaluated at four different horizontal resolutions: T21, T42, T63, and T106. Generally, with respect to the large scale features of the circulation, the largest differences among the simulations occur at T42 relative to T21. However, on regional scales, important differences among the high frequency temporal variabilitY serve as a further critical test of the model`s ability to simulate the monsoon. More generally, the results indicate the importance of evaluating high frequency time scales as a component of the climate system. T106 best captures both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Indian and East Asian Monsoon, while T42 fails to correctly simulate the sequence and development of synoptic scale milestones that characterize the monsoon flow. In particular, T106 is superior at simulating the development and migration of the monsoon trough over the Bay of Bengal. In the T42 simulation, the development of the monsoon occurs one month earlier than typically observed. At this time the trough is incorrectly located adjacent to the east coast of India which results in an underestimate of precipitation over the Burma/Thailand region. This early establishment of the monsoon trough affects the evolution of the East-Asian monsoon and yields excessive preseason rainfall over the Mei-yu region. EOF analysis of precipitation over China indicates that T106 best simulates the Mei-yu mode of variability associated with an oscillation of the rainband that gives rise to periods of enhanced rainfall over the Yangize River Valley. The coarse resolution of T21 precludes simulation of the aforementioned regional scale monsoon flows.

  17. Pushing the Limits: The Pattern and Dynamics of Rubber Monoculture Expansion in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

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    Huafang Chen

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing car industry in China has led to an equally rapid expansion of monoculture rubber in many regions of South East Asia. Xishuangbanna, the second largest rubber planting area in China, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, supplies about 37% of the domestic natural rubber production. There, high income possibilities from rubber drive a dramatic expansion of monoculture plantations which poses a threat to natural forests. For the first time we mapped rubber plantations in and outside protected areas and their net present value for the years 1988, 2002 (Landsat, 30 m resolution and 2010 (RapidEye, 5 m resolution. The purpose of our study was to better understand the pattern and dynamics of the expansion of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna, as well as its economic prospects and conservation impacts. We found that 1 the area of rubber plantations was 4.5% of the total area of Xishuangbanna in 1988, 9.9% in 2002, and 22.2% in 2010; 2 rubber monoculture expanded to higher elevations and onto steeper slopes between 1988 and 2010; 3 the proportion of rubber plantations with medium economic potential dropped from 57% between 1988 and 2002 to 47% in 2010, while the proportion of plantations with lower economic potential had increased from 30% to 40%; and 4 nearly 10% of the total area of nature reserves within Xishuangbanna has been converted to rubber monoculture by 2010. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the rapid expansion of rubber plantations into higher elevations, steeper terrain, and into nature reserves (where most of the remaining forests of Xishuangbanna are located poses a serious threat to biodiversity and environmental services while not producing the expected economic returns. Therefore, it is essential that local governments develop long-term land use strategies for balancing economic benefits with environmental sustainability, as well as for assisting farmers with the selection of land suitable

  18. Constraining the timing of exhumation of the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis, from a study of the palaeo-Brahmaputra deposits, Siwalik Group, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govin, Gwladys; Najman, Yani; van der Beek, Peter; Millar, Ian; Bernet, Matthias; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Wijbrans, Jan; Gemignani, Lorenzo; Vögeli, Natalie; Huyghe, Pascale

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of Himalayan syntaxes is debated: they have been subjected to anomalously young (controlling influences, from lithospheric channel flow, to tectonic-surface process interactions. Ductile extrusion of weak lower crust from beneath Tibet by "channel flow" 5 is a process that has been proposed to account for the outward growth of the plateau to the east 6, exhumation of the Higher Himalaya in the Miocene when coupled with high erosion rates, and could be responsible for rapid exhumation of the syntaxis 7. Ehlers and Bendick 8 propose that initiation of rapid and localised exhumation at subduction arc terminations may result from the 3D geometry imposed by subducting curved shells at such locations. Clark and Bilham 9 evoke a change in regional stress along the India-Asia-Burma plate boundary, perhaps due to the introduction of denser (oceanic and transitional crust) material into the eastern part of the boundary late in the orogen's history. Zeitler et al 10 consider that exhumation of the syntaxis is driven by surface processes. In order to understand how and why the syntaxis formed, this project aims to better constrain the onset of exhumation of the Namche Barwa using the proximal detrital record of material eroded from the syntaxis by the paleo-Brahmaputra. We analyse the sedimentary record to have access to earlier erosion products than preserved in the bedrock itself, in a proximal location. The Remi River section, in the Siwalik Group, is located directly downstream of the syntaxis and therefore is the most likely location to contain these sediments. Sediment provenance is characterized by U-Pb dating on detrital zircons, which allows specifically documenting an Indus-Yarlung suture-zone (and therefore paleo-Brahmaputra) provenance. Detrital U-Pb rutile, zircon fission track and Ar/Ar mica dating is used to document rapid exhumation. When ages of the youngest population for all analysis types are essentially the same (stacked thermochronological

  19. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

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    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  20. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  1. Feature Detection Systems Enhance Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1963, during the ninth orbit of the Faith 7 capsule, astronaut Gordon Cooper skipped his nap and took some photos of the Earth below using a Hasselblad camera. The sole flier on the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, Cooper took 24 photos - never-before-seen images including the Tibetan plateau, the crinkled heights of the Himalayas, and the jagged coast of Burma. From his lofty perch over 100 miles above the Earth, Cooper noted villages, roads, rivers, and even, on occasion, individual houses. In 1965, encouraged by the effectiveness of NASA s orbital photography experiments during the Mercury and subsequent Gemini manned space flight missions, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) director William Pecora put forward a plan for a remote sensing satellite program that would collect information about the planet never before attainable. By 1972, NASA had built and launched Landsat 1, the first in a series of Landsat sensors that have combined to provide the longest continuous collection of space-based Earth imagery. The archived Landsat data - 37 years worth and counting - has provided a vast library of information allowing not only the extensive mapping of Earth s surface but also the study of its environmental changes, from receding glaciers and tropical deforestation to urban growth and crop harvests. Developed and launched by NASA with data collection operated at various times by the Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT, a private sector partnership that became Space Imaging Corporation in 1996), and USGS, Landsat sensors have recorded flooding from Hurricane Katrina, the building boom in Dubai, and the extinction of the Aral Sea, offering scientists invaluable insights into the natural and manmade changes that shape the world. Of the seven Landsat sensors launched since 1972, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 are still operational. Though both are in use well beyond their intended lifespans, the mid

  2. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grihalakshmi D. Nongthombam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG, cassava aerial parts (CS, ficus fruits (Ficus cunia (FF, “phumdi” (floating biomass, rice straw (RS, and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64% was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%. Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  3. Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion: Tectonic and palaeogeographic evolution of eastern Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, I.

    2013-04-01

    Present-day Asia comprises a heterogeneous collage of continental blocks, derived from the Indian-west Australian margin of eastern Gondwana, and subduction related volcanic arcs assembled by the closure of multiple Tethyan and back-arc ocean basins now represented by suture zones containing ophiolites, accretionary complexes and remnants of ocean island arcs. The Phanerozoic evolution of the region is the result of more than 400 million years of continental dispersion from Gondwana and plate tectonic convergence, collision and accretion. This involved successive dispersion of continental blocks, the northwards translation of these, and their amalgamation and accretion to form present-day Asia. Separation and northwards migration of the various continental terranes/blocks from Gondwana occurred in three phases linked with the successive opening and closure of three intervening Tethyan oceans, the Palaeo-Tethys (Devonian-Triassic), Meso-Tethys (late Early Permian-Late Cretaceous) and Ceno-Tethys (Late Triassic-Late Cretaceous). The first group of continental blocks dispersed from Gondwana in the Devonian, opening the Palaeo-Tethys behind them, and included the North China, Tarim, South China and Indochina blocks (including West Sumatra and West Burma). Remnants of the main Palaeo-Tethys ocean are now preserved within the Longmu Co-Shuanghu, Changning-Menglian, Chiang Mai/Inthanon and Bentong-Raub Suture Zones. During northwards subduction of the Palaeo-Tethys, the Sukhothai Arc was constructed on the margin of South China-Indochina and separated from those terranes by a short-lived back-arc basin now represented by the Jinghong, Nan-Uttaradit and Sra Kaeo Sutures. Concurrently, a second continental sliver or collage of blocks (Cimmerian continent) rifted and separated from northern Gondwana and the Meso-Tethys opened in the late Early Permian between these separating blocks and Gondwana. The eastern Cimmerian continent, including the South Qiangtang block and

  4. Are there any changes in burden and management of communicable diseases in areas affected by Cyclone Nargis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Pichit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the situation of communicable diseases under national surveillance in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas in Myanmar (Burma before and after the incident. Methods Monthly data during 2007, 2008 and 2009 from the routine reporting system for disease surveillance of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH were reviewed and compared with weekly reporting from the Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR system. Data from some UN agencies, NGOs and Tri-Partite Core Group (TCG periodic reviews were also extracted for comparisons with indicators from Sphere and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Results Compared to 2007 and 2009, large and atypical increases in diarrheal disease and especially dysentery cases occurred in 2008 following Cyclone Nargis. A seasonal increase in ARI reached levels higher than usual in the months of 2008 post-Nargis. The number of malaria cases post-Nargis also increased, but it was less clear if this reflected normal seasonal patterns or was specifically associated with the disaster event. There was no significant change in the occurrence of other communicable diseases in Nargis-affected areas. Except for a small decrease in mortality for diarrheal diseases and ARI in 2008 in Nargis-affected areas, population-based mortality rates for all other communicable diseases showed no significant change in 2008 in these areas, compared to 2007 and 2009. Tuberculosis control programs reached their targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates in 2007 and 2008. Vaccination coverage rates for DPT 3rd dose and measles remained at high though measles coverage still did not reach the Sphere target of 95% even by 2009. Sanitary latrine coverage in the Nargis-affected area dropped sharply to 50% in the months of 2008 following the incident but then rose to 72% in 2009. Conclusion While the incidence of diarrhea, dysentery and ARI increased post-Nargis in areas affected by the

  5. InSAR measurements for the 2014 Mw 6.0 Jinggu, Yunnan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun; Feng, Wanpeng; Sergey, Samsonov; Mahdi, Motagh; Li, Zhenhong; Clarke, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An earthquake occurred in the southwest of Yunnan, China on 7 October 2014 at 21:49 local time, measured as Mw 6.0 by the United States Geological Survey and Mw 6.1 by the European Alert System. Strong earthquakes are common in this region because of the continental collision between the India and Eurasia plates with a relative convergence rate of 40-50 mm/yr. A detailed study of this earthquake will therefore allow better understanding of regional fault properties. For the first time, Radarsat-2 (RS2) data was employed to investigate co-seismic surface movements of this event. Two ascending RS2 images acquired on 2 October 2014 and 19 November 2014 were used to generate an interferogram, revealing line-of-sight (LOS) displacements with a maximum value of 0.13 m (towards the satellite) in the NW sector. We use PSOKINV to determine fault geometric parameters and slip distribution. First, fault parameters are determined using improved particle swarm optimization. Second, slip distribution over the fault plane is retrieved using an iterative strategy for estimating optimal dip angle and smoothing factors [Feng et al., 2013]. The comparison between the modelled LOS changes and the measured ones shows a good fit, with residuals smaller than 0.02 m. The best-fitting model suggests that the rupture occurred on a left-lateral strike-slip fault with a strike of 323°. The total released moment is equivalent to Mw 6.1 and the main slip zone is confined between depths of 2-8 km. A maximum slip of 1.1 m appears at a depth of 4.3 km, with a rupture length of about 10km. Reference: Feng, W., Z. Li, J. R. Elliott, Y. Fukushima, T. Hoey, A. Singleton, R. Cook, and Z. Xu (2013), The 2011 MW 6.8 Burma earthquake: fault constraints provided by multiple SAR techniques, Geophysical Journal International, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt254.

  6. Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  7. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: heterogeneity and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2012-03-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by 'border malaria' and 'forest malaria' with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. 'Border malaria' is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is severely

  8. An updated digital model of plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A global set of present plate boundaries on the Earth is presented in digital form. Most come from sources in the literature. A few boundaries are newly interpreted from topography, volcanism, and/or seismicity, taking into account relative plate velocities from magnetic anomalies, moment tensor solutions, and/or geodesy. In addition to the 14 large plates whose motion was described by the NUVEL-1A poles (Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australia, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasia, India, Juan de Fuca, Nazca, North America, Pacific, Philippine Sea, South America), model PB2002 includes 38 small plates (Okhotsk, Amur, Yangtze, Okinawa, Sunda, Burma, Molucca Sea, Banda Sea, Timor, Birds Head, Maoke, Caroline, Mariana, North Bismarck, Manus, South Bismarck, Solomon Sea, Woodlark, New Hebrides, Conway Reef, Balmoral Reef, Futuna, Niuafo'ou, Tonga, Kermadec, Rivera, Galapagos, Easter, Juan Fernandez, Panama, North Andes, Altiplano, Shetland, Scotia, Sandwich, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Somalia), for a total of 52 plates. No attempt is made to divide the Alps-Persia-Tibet mountain belt, the Philippine Islands, the Peruvian Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, or the California-Nevada zone of dextral transtension into plates; instead, they are designated as "orogens" in which this plate model is not expected to be accurate. The cumulative-number/area distribution for this model follows a power law for plates with areas between 0.002 and 1 steradian. Departure from this scaling at the small-plate end suggests that future work is very likely to define more very small plates within the orogens. The model is presented in four digital files: a set of plate boundary segments; a set of plate outlines; a set of outlines of the orogens; and a table of characteristics of each digitization step along plate boundaries, including estimated relative velocity vector and classification into one of 7 types (continental convergence zone, continental transform fault, continental rift, oceanic spreading ridge

  9. The Mekong Fish Network: expanding the capacity of the people and institutions of the Mekong River Basin to share information and conduct standardized fisheries monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, Harmony C.; Ainsley, Shaara M.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Beeman, John W.; Hewitt, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River is one of the most biologically diverse rivers in the world, and it supports the most productive freshwater fisheries in the world. Millions of people in the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMB) countries of the Union of Myanmar (Burma), Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Kingdom of Thailand, the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam rely on the fisheries of the basin to provide a source of protein. The Mekong Fish Network Workshop was convened in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 2012 to discuss the potential for coordinating fisheries monitoring among nations and the utility of establishing standard methods for short- and long-term monitoring and data sharing throughout the LMB. The concept for this network developed out of a frequently cited need for fisheries researchers in the LMB to share their knowledge with other scientists and decisionmakers. A fish monitoring network could be a valuable forum for researchers to exchange ideas, store data, or access general information regarding fisheries studies in the LMB region. At the workshop, representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, and universities, as well as participating foreign technical experts, cited a great need for more international cooperation and technical support among them. Given the limited staff and resources of many institutions in the LMB, the success of the proposed network would depend on whether it could offer tools that would provide benefits to network participants. A potential tool discussed at the workshop was a user-friendly, Web-accessible portal and database that could help streamline data entry and storage at the institutional level, as well as facilitate communication and data sharing among institutions. The workshop provided a consensus to establish pilot standardized data collection and database efforts that will be further reviewed by the workshop participants. Overall, workshop participants agreed that this is the type of

  10. Hydrocarbon Emissions Constrained By Formaldehyde Column Measurements from Gome-2 and OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Maziere, M.; Vigouroux, C.

    2014-12-01

    , Centrafrique and Burma. In contrast with these underestimations, the emissions due with agricultural fires in Northeastern China are strongly increased by the inversion (>50% in June according to OMI). Complex, and conflicting responses are found over Siberia and Alaska, possibly due to larger uncertainties associated to retrievals at those latitudes.

  11. 5140 ÇELİGİNİN KÜRESELLEŞTİRl\\'IE ISIL İŞLEMİ VE MEKANİK ÖZELLİKLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAŞAR ADALI

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışn1ada 870°(�'ye kadar ısıtılıp, daha sonra tavlama ve su verme işlemlerine tabi tutulan AISI/S.t:\\E 5140 kalite ıslah çeliği numunelerine 720 + 5 °C' da 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 saat süreyl e kürcselleştirme işlemi uygulanımştır. Bu i�lcmlcr sonucu ınikı-oyapı ve mekanik özelliiderden sertlik, çekıne, hurma değerlerindeki değişn1cler irdelenmiştir. Yapılan meta l ografik incelemeler sonunda su ve r il miş ve küreselleştirilmiş nun 1u nelerdc küreselleşıne 2. saatte başlamaktadır. 4. saatte yapı tamamen küresel haldedir. Daha yüksek sü rel er de yapının bozulma ya başladığı görülmektedir. Tavianmış ve küreselleştirilmiş numunelerde ise küreselleşme 8. saatte başl amak t adır . Gerç ekleşti rilen mekanik testler sonucunda, en yüksek sertlik değe ri işlem görn1eıniş nu ınunede görülnıüştür. En yüksek çekme n1ukavemet değeri ısıl işlenı görn1emiş malzernede elde edilmiştir. Burma testinde görülen en yüksek ınoment değeri ısıl işlem görmen1iş nun1unede görülmüştür.

  12. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    within the border of Jinjiang City, and counties in Putian City, in Longxi City, and in Xiamen Prefecture. Guangdong immigrants came from cities, places in the Pearl River Delta area and the Tan River Valley, counties in Xingmei hakka area, and Hainan Island. 90% of immigrants settled in southeast Asia (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Burma, Vietnam, Kampuchea, and Laos), and 8% came to North America and Latin America. Most were men, young, not well educated, and unemployed.

  13. Croissance économique des pays émergents et géographie mondiale des pierres précieuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Canavesio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution mondiale des activités extractives est de plus en plus dépendante de la demande des pays émergents. Les conséquences de la croissance de ces pays sur les exploitations de pierres précieuses sont complexes car le marché des gemmes a de nombreuses particularités. La demande est étroitement liée aux matrices socioculturelles de chaque pays. Par ailleurs, l’enrichissement des populations a également un impact sur la production de pierres telles que les saphirs ou les rubis. En effet, ces gemmes sont principalement extraites dans des exploitations informelles et cette activité est de moins en moins attractive pour une population dont le niveau de vie s’élève peu à peu. Dans les vastes gisements sri lankais et birmans, l’épuisement de la ressource est une autre menace. Finalement, si la croissance du marché du diamant est assurée par le Canada, la Russie et l’Australie, pour les autres gemmes, l’Afrique de l’Est est devenue le nouvel « Eldorado ». Dans ces pays, les contextes géologiques, économiques, politiques et sociaux sont très favorables au développement des exploitations artisanales de gemmes.Extraction activities evolution is more and more dependent on the increase of demand in the emerging countries. The consequences of this growth on the gemstone mining activities are complex. The gemstone market is very special and the demand depends on the historic and cultural situation of every country. Moreover, for precious stones like rubby and sapphire, the supply coming from this emerging country is also affected by the social and economic changes. As the small scale mining is widely held in this activity, people that are becoming richer are less interested in that kind of job. In Sri Lanka and Burma, the depletion of many deposits is an other challenge. Finally, if new diamonds deposits of Canada, Russia and Australia are supplying the growth of the diamond market, Est Africa looks like the new

  14. The greater black krait (Bungarus niger), a newly recognized cause of neuro-myotoxic snake bite envenoming in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Abul; Ghose, Aniruddha; Ahsan, Farid; Rahman, Ridwanur; Amin, Robed; Hassan, Mahtab Uddin; Chowdhury, A Wahed; Kuch, Ulrich; Rocha, Thalita; Harris, John B; Theakston, R David G; Warrell, David A

    2010-11-01

    Prospective studies of snake bite patients in Chittagong, Bangladesh, included five cases of bites by greater black kraits (Bungarus niger), proven by examination of the snakes that had been responsible. This species was previously known only from India, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma. The index case presented with descending flaccid paralysis typical of neurotoxic envenoming by all Bungarus species, but later developed generalized rhabdomyolysis (peak serum creatine kinase concentration 29,960 units/l) with myoglobinuria and acute renal failure from which he succumbed. Among the other four patients, one died of respiratory paralysis in a peripheral hospital and three recovered after developing paralysis, requiring mechanical ventilation in one patient. One patient suffered severe generalized myalgia and odynophagia associated with a modest increase in serum creatine kinase concentration. These are the first cases of Bungarus niger envenoming to be reported from any country. Generalized rhabdomyolysis has not been previously recognized as a feature of envenoming by any terrestrial Asian elapid snake, but a review of the literature suggests that venoms of some populations of Bungarus candidus and Bungarus multicinctus in Thailand and Vietnam may also have this effect in human victims. To investigate this unexpected property of Bungarus niger venom, venom from the snake responsible for one of the human cases of neuro-myotoxic envenoming was injected into one hind limb of rats and saline into the other under buprenorphine analgesia. All animals developed paralysis of the venom-injected limb within two hours. Twenty-four hours later, the soleus muscles were compared histopathologically and cytochemically. Results indicated a predominantly pre-synaptic action (β-bungarotoxins) of Bungarus niger venom at neuromuscular junctions, causing loss of synaptophysin and the degeneration of the terminal components of the motor innervation of rat skeletal muscle. There was oedema and

  15. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jänisch Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of ongoing local malaria transmission, identified though local surveillance and reported to regional WHO offices, by S-E Asian countries, forms the basis of national and international chemoprophylaxis recommendations in western countries. The study was designed to examine whether the strategy of using malaria transmission in a local population was an accurate estimate of the malaria threat faced by travellers and a correlate of malaria in returning travellers. Methods Malaria endemicity was described from distribution and intensity in the local populations of ten S-E Asian destination countries over the period 2003-2008 from regionally reported cases to WHO offices. Travel acquired malaria was collated from malaria surveillance reports from the USA and 12 European countries over the same period. The numbers of travellers visiting the destination countries was based on immigration and tourism statistics collected on entry of tourists to the destination countries. Results In the destination countries, mean malaria rates in endemic countries ranged between 0.01 in Korea to 4:1000 population per year in Lao PDR, with higher regional rates in a number of countries. Malaria cases imported into the 13 countries declined by 47% from 140 cases in 2003 to 66 in 2008. A total of 608 cases (27.3% Plasmodium falciparum (Pf were reported over the six years, the largest number acquired in Indonesia, Thailand and Korea. Four countries had an incidence > 1 case per 100,000 traveller visits; Burma (Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia and Laos (range 1 to 11.8-case per 100,000 visits. The remaining six countries rates were Conclusion The intensity of malaria transmission particularly sub-national activity did not correlate with the risk of travellers acquiring malaria in the large numbers of arriving visitors. It is proposed to use a threshold incidence of > 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis

  16. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  17. Disease surveillance among newly arriving refugees and immigrants--Electronic Disease Notification System, United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Philen, Rossanne; Wang, Zanju; McSpadden, Pamela; Posey, Drew L; Ortega, Luis S; Weinberg, Michelle S; Brown, Clive; Zhou, Weigong; Painter, John A

    2013-11-15

    state health departments in all 50 states and the District of Columbia about the arrival of these persons in the United States. In 2009, the EDN system notified U.S. state and local health departments of 104,954 newly arriving refugees and immigrants, of whom 78,899 (75.2%) were refugees (with or without medical conditions), 19,358 (18.4%) were immigrants with medical conditions, and 6,697 (6.4%) were persons with other visa types. Of the 78,899 refugees, 21,319 (27%) had a medical condition. The majority (93.4%) of immigrants with medical conditions had tuberculosis classifications (i.e., either had evidence of latent tuberculosis infection or chest radiograph findings interpreted by the overseas panel physician as consistent with tuberculosis). Of the 41,415 refugees and immigrants with Class A or Class B medical conditions, 405 (1%) had Class A conditions, and 40,994 (99%) had Class B conditions. The majority of refugees and immigrants with suspected Class B tuberculosis were born in the Philippines (41.3%), Mexico (12.1%), Burma (8.7%), Vietnam (7.8%), and the Dominican Republic (5.8%). The majority of refugee notifications were for persons born in Iraq (23.9%), Burma (18.9%), and Bhutan (15.1%). Approximately one third of the tuberculosis notifications were sent to health departments in California (20.5%), Texas (9.8%), and New York (6.3%), and the national reporting rate for tuberculosis follow-up was 75.4% within 30 days of arrival. The findings in this report suggest that 1) overseas medical screening results in a low frequency (0.4%) of inadmissible medical conditions in the United States, 2) the EDN system provides more direct notifications to health departments than the previous paper-based system about newly arriving immigrants and refugees who need medical follow-up, and 3) approximately 75% of follow-up occurs among persons with suspected tuberculosis who are reported to EDN by states receiving newly arriving refugees and immigrants. The data in this

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chris Ballard, Paula Brown, R. Michael Bourke, Tracy Harwood (eds; The sweet potato in Oceania; A reappraisal (Peter Boomgaard Caroline Hughes; The political economy of Cambodia’s transition, 1991-2001 (Han Ten Brummelhuis Richard Robison, Vedi Hadiz; Reorganising power in Indonesia; The politics of oligarchy in an age of markets (Marleen Dieleman Michael W. Charney; Southeast Asian warfare, 1300-1900 (Hans Hägerdal Daniel Perret, Amara Srisuchat, Sombun Thanasuk (eds; Études sur l´histoire du sultanat de Patani (Mary Somers Heidhues Joel Robbins; Becoming sinners; Christianity and moral torment in a Papua New Guinea society (Menno Hekker Mujiburrahman; Feeling threatened; Muslim-Christian relations in Indonesia’s New Order (Gerry van Klinken Marie-Odette Scalliet; De Collectie-Galestin in de Leidse Universiteitsbibliotheek (Dick van der Meij James Neil Sneddon; Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian (Don van Minde James Leach; Creative land; Place and procreation on the Rai coast of Papua New Guinea (Dianne van Oosterhout Stanley J. Ulijaszek (ed.; Population, reproduction and fertility in Melanesia (Dianne van Oosterhout Angela Hobart; Healing performances of Bali; Between darkness and light (Nathan Porath Leo Suryadinata (ed.; Admiral Zheng He and Southeast Asia (Roderich Ptak Ruth Barnes; Ostindonesien im 20. Jahrhundert; Auf den Spuren der Sammlung Ernst Vatter (Reimar Schefold Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een missionarisleven in brieven; Willem van Bekkum, Indië 1936-1998 (Karel Steenbrink Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een pionier op Flores; Jilis Verheijen (1908-1997, missionaris en onderzoeker (Karel Steenbrink Akitoshi Shimizu, Jan van Bremen (eds; Wartime Japanese anthropology in Asia and the Pacific (Fridus Steijlen Lilie Roosman; Phonetic experiments on the word and sentence prosody of Betawi Malay and Toba Batak (Uri Tadmor Jamie D. Saul; The Naga of Burma; Their festivals, customs

  19. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  20. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Bryant

    1999-04-01

    Analyse der Yupno in Papua New Guinea. Berlin: Reimer, 1993, xiii + 246 pp. - Nico Kaptein, Masykuri Abdillah, Responses of Indonesian Muslim intellectuals to the concept of democracy (1966-1993. Hamburg: Abera, 1997, iv + 304 pp. - Niels Mulder, Ivan A. Hadar, Bildung in Indonesia; Krise und kontinuitat; Das Beispiel Pesantren. Frankfurt: IKO-Verlag fur Interkulturelle Kommunikation, 1999, 207 pp. - Niels Mulder, Jim Schiller, Imagining Indonesia: Cultural politics and political culture. Athens: Ohio University, 1997, xxiii + 351 pp. [Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 97.], Barbara Martin-Schiller (eds. - J.W. Nibbering, Raymond L. Bryant, The political ecology of forestry in Burma 1824-1994. London: Hurst, 1997, xiii + 257 pp. - Hetty Nooy-Palm, Douglas W. Hollan, Contentment and suffering; Culture and experience in Toraja. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994, xiii + 276 pp., Jane C. Wellenkamp (eds. - Anton Ploeg, Bill Gammage, The sky travellers; Journeys in New Guinea, 1938-1939. Carlton South, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1998. x + 292 pp. - Anton Ploeg, Jurg Wassmann, Pacific answers to Western hegemony; Cultural practices of identity construction. Oxford: Berg, 1998, vii + 449 pp. - John Villiers, Abdul Kohar Rony, Bibliography; The Portugese in Southeast Asia: Malacca, Moluccas, East Timor. Hamburg: Abera Verlag, 1997, 138 pp. [Abera Bibliographies 1.], Ieda Siqueira Wiarda (eds. - Lourens de Vries, Ulrike Mosel, Saliba. Munchen/Newcastle: Lincom Europa, 1994, 48 pp. [Languages of the World/Materials 31.

  2. Developing an Erosion Rate Map for Myanmar Using USLE, GIS and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtehani, Sobhan; Rutten, Martine

    2017-04-01

    factor; and the satellite images from Landsat 8 were used for calculation of C factor. Due to lack of spatial distributed data, the P factor was set to 1. This procedure provides a good estimate of erosion rates, but certainly field verification is required. This methodology can be used in regions where there is low density of weather stations. It can be used by policy makers to identify the areas with high risk of erosion and to mitigate the erosion effects. Htwe, T. N. (2016). Changes of traditional farming systems and their effects on land degradation and socio-economic conditions in the Inle Lake region, Myanmar, Kassel, Univ., Diss., 2015. Htwe, T. N., et al. (2015). "Spatio-temporal assessment of soil erosion risk in different agricultural zones of the Inle Lake region, southern Shan State, Myanmar." Environmental monitoring and assessment 187(10): 1-14. Mann, Z. (2013). "River Bank Erosion Forces Hundreds of Families to Relocate." from http://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/first-japanese-newspaper-becomes-available-in-rangoon.html.

  3. New xanthones and cytotoxic constituents from Garcinia mangostana fruit hulls against human hepatocellular, breast, and colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; El-Halawany, Ali M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M

    2017-02-23

    Cancer has proceeded to surpass one of the most chronic illnesses to be the major cause of mortality in both the developing and developed world. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, family Guttiferae) known as the queen of fruits, is one of the most popular tropical fruits. It is cultivated in Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Philippines. Traditionally, numerous parts of G. mangostana have been utilized to treat various ailments such as abdominal pain, haemorrhoids, food allergies, arthritis, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, wound infection, suppuration, and chronic ulcer. Although anticancer activity has been reported for the plant, the goal of the study was designed to isolate and characterize the active metabolites from G. mangostana and measure their cytotoxic properties. In this research, the mechanism of antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of the tested compounds was investigated. The CHCl 3 fraction of the air-dried fruit hulls was repeatedly chromatographed on SiO 2 , RP 18 , Diaion HP-20, and polyamide columns to furnish fourteen compounds. The structures of these metabolites were proven by UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR measurements and HRESIMS. Additionally, the cytotoxic potential of all compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG2 cell lines using SRB-U assay. Antiproliferative and cell cycle interference effects of potentially potent compounds were tested using DNA content flow cytometry. The mechanism of cell death induction was also studied using annexin-V/PI differential staining coupled with flow cytometry. The CHCl 3 soluble fraction afforded two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones V (1) and VI (2), along with twelve known compounds: mangostanaxanthone IV (3), β-mangostin (4), garcinone E (5), α-mangostin (6), nor-mangostin (7), garcimangosone D (8), aromadendrin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene (10), 2,4,3`-trihydroxybenzophenone-6-O-β-glucopyranoside (11

  4. Rupture process of the December 26th 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake inferred from the far field body waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Koketsu, K.

    2005-12-01

    The December 26th 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake occurred on the interface between the India plate and the Burma plate. This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900. The heavy damage and casualties caused by the tsunami of this earthquake shocked the whole world. Simulation of tsunami propagation requires a detailed rupture process. Several studies on the source rupture process using the far field body waves are available now. On the basis of the aftershock distribution, the rupture area probably extended more than 1000km. Assuming a physically reasonable rupture propagation velocity of 2.5km/s, we expect the rupture duration as long as 400 seconds. Since the P-wave train from this earthquake includes sveral phases such as P, PP and PcP, we calculated the Green's functions for rupture process inversion considering the P, PP (including PPP, PPPP and so on) and PcP phases. The previous studies (e.g. Fukao et al., 2003) showed that the observed travel time difference (Tpp-Tp) varies from region to region because of the anomaly of P-wave velicity in the upper and middle mantle. In this study, we select four earthquakes before the main shock in this area to correct the calculated PP travel time. Since the PP wave shows a 90-degree phase shift compared with the P phase, the observed PP arrival times are hence determined by searching the maximum correlation of the Hilbert transformation of P phase with the observed PP phase. Following the trench trace in this area, we divide the fault plane into three segments. The southernmost 350 km segment has a strike direction of 320 degree; the middle segment (630 km long) rotates 20.5 degree clockwise, whereas the northernmost segment (420 km long) further rotates 30 degree clockwise. This fault plane is continuous and the dip angle varies from the south to the north. We then distribute the 120 grids on the fault plane. The grid spacing in the strike direction is 70km and about 40km in the dip direction

  5. An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Nirod

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile population groups are at high risk for contracting HIV infection. Many factors contribute to this risk including high prevalence of risky behavior and increased risk of violence due to conflict and war. The Naf River serves as the primary border crossing point between Teknaf, Bangladesh and Mynamar [Burma] for both official and unofficial travel of people and goods. Little is known about the risk behavior of boatmen who travel back and forth between Teknaf and Myanmar. However, we hypothesize that boatmen may act as a bridging population for HIV/AIDS between the high-prevalence country of Myanmar and the low-prevalence country of Bangladesh. Methods Methods included initial rapport building with community members, mapping of boatmen communities, and in-depth qualitative interviews with key informants and members from other vulnerable groups such as spouses of boatmen, commercial female sex workers, and injecting drug users. Information from the first three stages was used to create a cross-sectional survey that was administered to 433 boatmen. Results Over 40% of the boatmen had visited Myanmar during the course of their work. 17% of these boatmen had sex with CSW while abroad. There was a significant correlation found between the number of nights spent in Myanmar and sex with commercial sex workers. In the past year, 19% of all boatmen surveyed had sex with another man. 14% of boatmen had participated in group sex, with groups ranging in size from three to fourteen people. Condom use was rare {0 to 4.7% during the last month}, irrespective of types of sex partners. Regression analysis showed that boatmen who were 25 years and older were statistically less likely to have sexual intercourse with non- marital female partners in the last year compared to the boatmen aged less than 25 years. Similarly deep-sea fishing boatmen and non-fishing boatmen were statistically less likely to have sexual intercourse with non

  6. February 2012 workshop jumpstarts the Mekong Fish Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Matthew E.; Ainsley, Shaara M.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River in Southeast Asia travels through a basin rich in natural resources. The river originates on the northern slope of the world's tallest mountains, the Himalaya Range, and then drops elevation quickly through steep mountain gorges, tumbling out of China into Myanmar (Burma) and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). The precipitous terrain of Lao PDR and Thailand generates interest in the river and its tributaries for hydropower development. The terrain, soils, water, and climate make it one of the world's most biologically rich regions. The Mekong's bounty is again on display in the Mekong River Delta, where rice production has successfully been increased to high levels making Vietnam second only to Thailand as the world's largest rice exporters. At least 800 fish species contribute to the natural resource bounty of the Mekong River and are the basis for one of the world's most productive fisheries that provide the primary protein source to more than 50 million people. Against this backdrop of rich natural resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the consulting firm FISHBIO, colleagues from the international Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) Institute, and a broad contingent of Southeast Asian representatives and partners from abroad to increase knowledge of the Mekong River fisheries and to develop the capacity of permanent residents to investigate and understand these fisheries resources. With the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) region facing the likelihood of significant environmental changes as a result of both human activities and global climate change, enhancing environmental understanding is critical. To encourage cooperation among the LMB scientists and managers in the study of the Mekong River's fisheries, FISHBIO and the USGS, with generous support from the U.S. State Department, hosted a workshop in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 2012. Workshop participants were from Lao PDR, Thailand

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Waterson

    1993-01-01

    fashioning of Leviathan: The beginnings of British rule in Burma, edited by Gehan Wijeyewardene. Canberra: Occasional paper of the department of Anthropology, Research school of Pacific studies, The Australian National University, 1991, ii+178 p. - Joke van Reenen, Wim van Zanten, Across the boundaries: Women’s perspectives; Papers read at the symposium in honour of Els Postel-Coster. Leiden: VENA, 1991. - Reimar Schefold, Roxana Waterson, The living house; An anthropology of architecture in South-East Asia. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1990, xx + 263 pp. - Gunter Senft, Jürg Wassmann, The song to the flying fox. Translated by Dennis Q. Stephenson. Apwitihiri:L Studies in Papua New Guinea musics, 2. Cultural studies division, Boroko: The National Research Institute , 1991, xxi + 313 pp. - A. Teeuw, Thomas John Hudak, The indigenization of Pali meters in Thai poetry. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International studies, Monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series number 87, 1990, x + 237 pp. - A. Teeuw, George Quinn, The novel in Javanese: Aspects of its social and literary character. Leiden: KITLV press, (VKI 148, 1992, ix + 330 pp. - Gerard Termorshuizen, Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf, Persgeschiedenis van Indonesië tot 1942. Geannoteerde bibliografie. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1990, xv + 249 pp. - A. Veldhuisen-Djajasoebrata, Daniele C. Geirnaert, The AÉDTA batik collection. Paris, 1989, p. 81, diagrams and colour ill., Sold out. (Paris Avenue de Breteuil, 75007., Rens Heringa (eds.

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    Universiteit Leiden. Leiden: Opleiding Talen en Culturen van Zuidoost-Azië en Oceanië, Universiteit Leiden, 2002, xviii + 328 pp. [Semaian 22.], Willem van der Molen (eds -Dick van der Meij, Renato Rosaldo, Cultural citizenship in island Southeast Asia; Nation and belonging in the hinterlands. Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 2003, x + 228 pp. -Lisa Migo, Sjoerd R. Jaarsma, Handle with care; Ownership and control of ethnographic materials. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2002, x + 264 pp. [ASAO monograph series 20.] -Jonathan H. Ping, Priyambudi Sulistiyanto, Thailand, Indonesia and Burma in comparative perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002, xiv + 308 pp. [The international political economy of new regionalisms series.] -Anthony L. Smith, Amitav Acharya, Constructing a security community in Southeast Asia; ASEAN and the problem of regional order. London: Routledge, 2001, xx + 234 pp. -Achmad Sunjayadi, Elsbeth Locher-Scholten ,Hof en handel; Aziatische vorsten en de VOC 1620-1720. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2004, x + 350 pp. [Verhandelingen 223.], Peter Rietbergen (eds -Gerard Termorshuizen, Marieke Bloembergen, De koloniale vertoning; Nederland en Indië op de wereldtentoonstellingen (1880-1931. Amsterdam: Wereld-bibliotheek, 2002, 463 pp.''Koloniale inspiratie; Frankrijk, Nederland, Indië en de wereldtentoonstellingen 1883-1931. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2004, 256 pp. -Jojanneke van der Toorn, Philip Taylor, Goddess on the rise; Pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004, x + 332 pp. -Holger Warnk, Azyumardi Azra, The origins of Islamic reformism in Southeast Asia; Networks of Malay-Indonesian and Middle Eastern 'ulama' in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2004, ix + 253 pp. -Robert Wessing, Gregory Forth, Beneath the volcano; Religion, cosmology and spirit classification among the Nage of eastern Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998, xi + 369 pp. [Verhandelingen 117.] -Edwin

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    . Translated and annotated by Felicia Brichoux (Nicole Revel Joos van Vugt, José Eijt, Marjet Derks (eds; Tempo doeloe, tempo sekarang; Het proces van Indonesianisering in Nederlandse orden en congregaties (Karel Steenbrink Nancy Eberhardt; Imagining the course of life; Self-transformation in a Shan Buddhist community (Nicholas Tapp J.C. Smelik, C.M. Hogenstijn, W.J.M. Janssen; A.J. Duymaer van Twist; Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indi? (1851-1856 (Gerard Termorshuizen David Steinberg; Turmoil in Burma; Contested legitimacies in Myanmar (Sean Turnell Carl A. Trocki; Singapore; Wealth, power and the culture of control (Bryan S. Turner Matthew Isaac Cohen; The Komedie Stamboel; Popular theatre in colonial Indonesia, 1891-1903 (Holger Warnk Jörgen Hellman; Ritual fasting on West Java (Robert Wessing Waruno Mahdi; Malay words and Malay things; Lexical souvenirs from an exotic archipelago in German publications before 1700 (Edwin Wieringa RECENT PUBLICATIONS Russell Jones, C.D. Grijns, J.W. de Vries, M. Siegers (eds; Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay VERHANDELINGEN 249 Peter Carey: The power of prophecy. Prince Dipanagara and the end of an old order in Java, 1785-1855

  10. Precision Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Two C-Rich Hydrated Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; Keller, L. P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Messenger, S.

    2016-01-01

    -independent fractionation. The composition of the 16O-rich reservoir is well constrained but material representing the 17O,18O-rich end-member is rare. Self-shielding models predict that cometary water, presumed to represent this reservoir, should be enriched in 17O and 18O by greater than 200 per mille. The high-carbon hydrated IDPs may be among the best materials available to search for preserved "cometary" H2O signatures. In order to better understand the origin and evolution of these particles, we have obtained 10 hydrated interplanetary dust particles for coordinated mineralogical, isotopic and organic analyses. We have previously reported the results of mineralogical and O isotopic measurements of two hydrated IDPs; here we present results of O isotopic measurements of three additional IDPs. Samples and Methods: Three interplanetary dust particles (L2079C35, L2083D46 and L2083E46) were embedded in S and partially ultramicrotomed into approximately 70 nanometer sections for analysis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The remainders of the unsliced particles were removed from S and pressed into high purity Au foil that was cleaned with HF acid and annealed at 800 degrees Centigrade. The pressed IDPs were analyzed via electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) for quantitative bulk chemical analysis. After EPMA analysis, the IDPs were subjected to precision O isotope analysis with the UCLA Cameca IMS-1270 ion probe. A 20 kiloelectronvolt, 0.5 nanoangstrom Cs+ primary beam of approximately 15 micrometers diameter was used for each measurement. Small particles of San Carlos olivine and Burma spinel were pressed into the Au foil for use as standards to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. The detection system was configured for multicollection, with 16O measured on a Faraday cup, and 17O and 18O measured on electron multipliers (EMs). Individual analyses consisted of 15 cycles of 10 seconds per cycle. Additionally, two microtome thin sections were measured for H isotopic

  11. Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Carlin, James F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. The major uses of tin today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder. The predominant ore mineral of tin, by far, is cassiterite (SnO2).In 2015, the world’s total estimated mine production of tin was 289,000 metric tons of contained tin. Total world reserves at the end of 2016 were estimated to be 4,700,000 metric tons. China held about 24 percent of the world’s tin reserves and accounted for 38 percent of the world’s 2015 production of tin.The proportion of scrap used in tin production is between 10 and 25 percent. Unlike many metals, tin recycling is relatively efficient, and the fraction of tin in discarded products that get recycled is greater than 50 percent.Only about 20 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as primary hydrothermal hard-rock veins, or lodes. These lodes contain predominantly high-temperature minerals and almost invariably occur in close association with silicic, peraluminous granites. About 80 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as unconsolidated secondary or placer deposits in riverbeds and valleys or on the sea floor. The largest concentration of both onshore and offshore placers is in the extensive tin belt of Southeast Asia, which stretches from China in the north, through Thailand, Burma (also referred to as Myanmar), and Malaysia, to the islands of Indonesia in the south. Furthermore, tin placers are almost always found closely allied to the granites from which they originate. Other countries with significant tin resources are Australia, Bolivia, and Brazil.Most hydrothermal tin deposits belong to what can be thought of as a superclass of porphyry-greisen deposits. The hydrothermal tin deposits are all characterized by a close spatial

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Nancy Lee Peluso, Rich Forests, Poor people; Resource control and resistance in Java. Berkeley, etc.: University of California Press, 1992, 321 pp. - N. A. Bootsma, H.W. Brands, Bound to empire; The United States and the Philippines. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992, 356 pp. - Martin van Bruinessen, Jan Schmidt, Through the Legation Window, 1876-1926; Four essays on Dutch, Dutch-Indian and Ottoman history. Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut, 1992, 250 pp. - Freek Colombijn, Manuelle Franck, Quand la rizière recontre l ásphalte; Semis urbain et processus d úrbanisation à Java-est. Paris: École des hautes études en sciences sociales (Études insulindiennes: Archipel 10, 1993, 282 pp. Maps, tables, graphs, bibliography. - Kees Groeneboer, G.M.J.M. Koolen, Een seer bequaem middel; Onderwijs en Kerk onder de 17e eeuwse VOC. Kampen: Kok, 1993, xiii + 287 pp. - R. Hagesteijn, Janice Stargardt, The Ancient Pyu of Burma; Volume I: Early Pyu cities in a man-made landscape. Cambridge: PACSEA, Singapore: ISEAS, 1991. - Barbara Harrisson, Rolf B. Roth, Die ‘Heiligen Töpfe der Ngadju-Dayak (Zentral-Kalimantan, Indonesien; Eine Untersuchung über die rezeption von importkeramik bei einer altindonesischen Ethnie. Bonn (Mundus reihe ethnologie band 51, 1992, xv + 492 pp. - Ernst Heins, Raymond Firth, Tikopia songs; Poetic and musical art of a Polynesian people of the Solomon Islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge studies in oral and literate culture no. 20, 1990, 307 pp., Mervyn McLean (eds. - Ernst Heins, R. Anderson Sutton, Traditions of gamelan music in Java; Musical pluralism and regional identity.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge studies in ethnomusicology, 1991, 291 pp., glossary, biblio- and discography, photographs, tables, music. - H.A.J. Klooster, Jaap Vogel, De opkomst van het indocentrische geschiedbeeld; Leven en werken van B.J.O. Schrieke en J.C. van

  13. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Sutherland

    2000-10-01

    Vogel (eds. - David Henley, Robert W. Hefner, Market cultures; Society and morality in the new Asian capitalisms. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998, viii + 328 pp. - David Henley, James F. Warren, The Sulu zone; The world capitalist economy and the historical imagination. Amsterdam: VU University Press for the Centre for Asian Studies, Amsterdam (CASA, 1998, 71 pp. [Comparative Asian Studies 20.] - Huub de Jonge, Laurence Husson, La migration maduraise vers l’Est de Java; ‘Manger le vent ou gratter la terre’? Paris: L’Harmattan/Association Archipel, 1995, 414 pp. [Cahier d’Archipel 26.] - Nico Kaptein, Mark R. Woodward, Toward a new paradigm; Recent developments in Indonesian Islamic thought. Tempe: Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies, 1996, x + 380 pp. - Catharina van Klinken, Gunter Senft, Referring to space; Studies in Austronesian and Papuan languages. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, xi + 324 pp. - W. Mahdi, J.G. de Casparis, Sanskrit loan-words in Indonesian; An annotated check-list of words from Sanskrit in Indonesian and Traditional Malay. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1997, viii + 59 pp. [NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 41.] - Henk Maier, David Smyth, The canon in Southeast Asian literatures; Literatures of Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Richmond: Curzon, 2000, x + 273 pp. - Toon van Meijl, Robert J. Foster, Social reproduction and history in Melanesia; Mortuary ritual, gift exchange, and custom in the Tanga islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xxii + 288 pp. - J.A. de Moor, Douglas Kammen, A tour of duty; Changing patterns of military politics in Indonesia in the 1990’s. Ithaca, New York: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1999, 98 pp., Siddharth Chandra (eds. - Joke van Reenen, Audrey Kahin, Rebellion to integration; West Sumatra and the Indonesian

  14. PHAMIT: A program on hiv/aids prevention among migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thongphit Pinyosinwat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand – or “PHAMIT,” which in Thai means “friendly skies”.  The program led by the Raks Thai Foundation with seven NGO partners and one government agency focuses on HIV prevention and health services for migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia in the fisheries, seafood and related industries.  The program demonstrates the complexity of working with undocumented migrant workers and the need to address barriers to the access to health services, migrant rights and policy. The trained migrant health assistants play a significant role in implementation of the program at migrant communities and their workplaces.  Migrant health volunteers distribute information, education and communication materials, as well as condoms.  To increase migrant access to health and reproductive health care, all participating partners support the Department of Health Service Supports in organizing migrant-friendly health services at government health facilities.  These activities include sexual transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing.  The services are based on the rights of migrant workers to basic services and migrants becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. Over a five year period beginning in October 2003, the program has reached 442,000 migrants and more than 20,800 entertainment workers with information about HIV and reproductive health. A total of 6,878,500 condoms has been distributed.  In addition, over 155,080 migrant workers received information on health and labor rights, including regular updates about migrant registration policy. At the same time, through PHAMIT activities, over 13,330 government officials, employers and journalists attended sensitization workshops on issues of migrants’ rights and policies.Le programme PHAMIT (Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand, qui signifie « cieux amicaux » en thaï, est

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Salmon

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available - G.W.J. Drewes, Taufik Abdullah, Islam and society in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore, 1986, XII and 348 pp., Sharon Siddique (eds. - Th. van den End, T.Valentino Sitoy, A history of Christianity in the Philippines. The initial encounter , Vol. I, Quezon City (Philippines: New day publishers, 1985. - R. Hagesteijn, David G. Marr, Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th centuries, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies and the research school of Pacific studies of the Australian National University, 1986, 416 pp., A.C. Milner (eds. - R. Hagesteijn, Constance M. Wilson, The Burma-Thai frontier over sixteen decades - Three descriptive documents, Ohio University monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series No. 70, 1985,120 pp., Lucien M. Hanks (eds. - Barbara Harrisson, John S. Guy, Oriental trade ceramics in South-east Asia, ninth to sixteenth century, Oxford University Press, Singapore, 1986. [Revised, updated version of an exhibition catalogue issued in Australia in 1980, in the enlarged format of the Oxford in Asia studies of ceramic series.] 161 pp. with figs. and maps, 197 catalogue ills., numerous thereof in colour, extensive bibliography, chronol. tables, glossary, index. - V.J.H. Houben, G.D. Larson, Prelude to revolution. Palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942. VKI 124, Dordrecht/Providence: Foris publications 1987. - Marijke J. Klokke, Stephanie Morgan, Aesthetic tradition and cultural transition in Java and Bali. University of Wisconsin, Center for Southeast Asian studies, Monograph 2, 1984., Laurie Jo Sears (eds. - Liaw Yock Fang, Mohamad Jajuli, The undang-undang; A mid-eighteenth century law text, Center for South-East Asian studies, University of Kent at Canterbury, Occasional paper No. 6, 1986, VIII + 104 + 16 pp. - S.D.G. de Lima, A.B. Adam, The vernacular press and the emergence of modern Indonesian consciousness (1855-1913, unpublished Ph. D. thesis, School of

  16. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P. H.

    2004-09-01

    There is a new tradition in England called Apple Day which is held on some day in October. The actual day varies from place to place. For instance, in 2003, 23 October was Apple Day at Woolsthorpe Manor, the house where Isaac Newton was born and where, during the Plague, he is said to have developed the theory of gravity. (For information on future Apple Days see, for example, http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/thingstodo.) Last year in our garden we picked an apple which weighed one pound, thirteen and a half ounces (1 lb 13 1/2 oz or 29 1/2 oz). The following day we went to an Apple Day event where there were many exotic apples on display, varieties which are not sold in shops. One of the varieties there was called 'Twenty Ounce'. By now you may be wondering what all this has to do with the book being reviewed. We shall return to this later. This entertaining book is ostensibly about units, in particular about Imperial and metric units, but there are numerous informative digressions. The author reminds us that almost every country 'with the exception of the United States, North and South Yemen, Burma and Brunei' has gone metric. He points out that the United States (US) became officially metric in 1893. However, as early as 1866, the US legal definition of the metre was 39.370000 inches. He tells us that after World War II the (US) inch was rounded down (from 25.400051) to 25.4 mm. There is no mention that the Imperial (British) inch was simultaneously rounded up from 25.399956 mm to 25.4 mm. The author frequently digresses, covering such matters as the trisection of angles and Eratosthenes' graphic solution for duplicating the cube. There is an informative discussion on the length of the day: appropriately 25 December, which lasts for 24 h and 30 s, is the longest day. He shows how with cycles and epicycles one can construct an ellipse. Ptolemy did not realize the importance of the focus of the ellipse. The author discusses various topics in the development of