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Sample records for burden risk factors

  1. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.S.; Vos, T.; Flaxman, A.D.; Danaei, G.; Shibuya, K.; Adair-Rohani, H.; Amann, M.; Anderson, H.R.; Andrews, K.G.; Aryee, M.; Atkinson, C.; Bacchus, L.J.; Bahalim, A.N.; Balakrishnan, K.; Balmes, J.; Barker-Collo, S.; Baxter, A.; Bell, M.L.; Blore, J.D.; Blyth, F.; Bonner, C.; Borges, G.; Bourne, R.; Boussinesq, M.; Brauer, M.; Brooks, P.; Bruce, N.G.; Brunekreef, B.; Bryan-Hancock, C.; Bucello, C.; Buchbinder, R.; Bull, F.; Burnett, R.T.; Byers, T.E.; Calabria, B.; Carapetis, J.; Carnahan, E.; Chafe, Z.; Charlson, F.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.S.; Cheng, A.T.; Child, J.C.; Cohen, A.; Colson, K.E.; Cowie, B.C.; Darby, S.; Darling, S.; Davis, A.; Degenhardt, L.; Dentener, F.; Des Jarlais, D.C.; Devries, K.; Dherani, M.; Ding, E.L.; Dorsey, E.R.; Driscoll, T.; Edmond, K.; Ali, S.E.; Engell, R.E.; Erwin, P.J.; Fahimi, S.; Falder, G.; Farzadfar, F.; Ferrari, A.; Finucane, M.M.; Flaxman, S.; Fowkes, F.G.R.; Freedman, G.; Freeman, M.K.; Gakidou, E.; Ghosh, S.; Giovannucci, E.; Gmel, G.; Graham, K.; Grainger, R.; Grant, B.; Gunnell, D.; Gutierrez, H.R.; Hall, W.; Hoek, H.W.; Hogan, A.; Hosgood, H.D.; Hoy, D.; Hu, H.; Hubbell, B.J.; Hutchings, S.J.; Ibeanusi, S.E.; Jacklyn, G.L.; Jasrasaria, R.; Jonas, J.B.; Kan, H.; Kanis, J.A.; Kassebaum, N.; Kawakami, N.; Khang, Y-H.; Khatibzadeh, S.; Khoo, J-P.; de Kok, C.; Laden, F.; Lalloo, R.; Lan, Q.; Lathlean, T.; Leasher, J.L.; Leigh, J.; Li, Y.; Lin, J.K.; Lipshultz, S.E.; London, S.; Lozano, R.; Lu, Y.; Mak, J.; Malekzadeh, R.; Mallinger, L.; Marcenes, W.; March, L.; Marks, R.; Martin, R.; McGale, P.; McGrath, J.; Mehta, S.; Mensah, G.A.; Merriman, T.R.; Micha, R.; Michaud, C.; Mishra, V.; Hanafiah, K.M.; Mokdad, A.A.; Morawska, L.; Mozaffarian, D.; Murphy, T.; Naghavi, M.; Neal, B.; Nelson, P.K.; Nolla, J.M.; Norman, R.; Olives, C.; Omer, S. B; Orchard, J.; Osborne, R.; Ostro, B.; Page, A.; Pandey, K.D.; Parry, C.D.H.; Passmore, E.; Patra, J.; Pearce, N.; Pelizzari, P.M.; Petzold, M.; Phillips, M.R.; Pope, D.; Pope, C.A.; Powles, J.; Rao, M.; Razavi, H.; Rehfuess, E.A.; Rehm, J.T.; Ritz, B.; Rivara, F.P.; Roberts, T.; Robinson, C.; Rodriguez-Portales, J.A.; Romieu, I.; Room, R.; Rosenfeld, L.C.; Roy, A.; Rushton, L.; Salomon, J.A.; Sampson, U.; Sanchez-Riera, L.; Sanman, E.; Sapkota, A.; Seedat, S.; Shi, P.; Shield, K.; Shivakoti, R.; Singh, G.M.; Sleet, D.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, K.R.; Stapelberg, N.J.C.; Steenland, K.; Stöckl, H.; Stovner, L.J.; Straif, K.; Straney, L.; Thurston, G.D.; Tran, J.H.; van Dingenen, R.; van Donkelaar, A.; Veerman, J.L.; Vijayakumar, L.; Weintraub, R.; Weissman, M.M.; White, R.A.; Whiteford, H.; Wiersma, S.T.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Williams, H.C.; Williams, W.; Wilson, N.; Woolf, A.D.; Yip, P.; Zielinski, J.M.; Lopez, A.D.; Murray, C.J.L.; Ezzati, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk

  2. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

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    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  3. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Peters, Sanne AE; Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (Indonesian population. PMID:27021286

  4. Characterizing the epidemiological transition in Mexico: national and subnational burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

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    Gretchen Stevens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index, high blood glucose, and alcohol use were the leading risk factors for disease burden, causing 5.1%, 5.0%, and 7.3% of total burden of disease, respectively. Mexico City had the lowest mortality rates (4.2 per 1,000 and the Southern region the highest (5.0 per 1,000; under-five mortality in the Southern region was nearly twice that of Mexico City. In the Southern region undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases caused 23% of DALYs; in Chiapas, they caused 29% of DALYs. At the same time, the absolute rates of noncommunicable disease and injury burdens were highest in the Southern region (105 DALYs per 1,000 population versus 97 nationally for noncommunicable diseases; 22 versus

  5. Risk burdens of modifiable risk factors incorporating lipoprotein (a) and low serum albumin concentrations for first incident acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; He, Yong-Ming; Cai, Dong-Ping; Yang, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Risk burdens of modifiable risk factors incorporating lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and low serum albumin (LSA) concentrations for first incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) haven’t been studied previously. Cross-sectional study of 1552 cases and 6125 controls was performed for identifying the association of risk factors with first incident AMI and their corresponding population attributable risks (PARs). Modifiable risk factors incorporating LSA and Lp(a) accounted for up to 92% of PAR for first incident AMI. Effects of these risk factors were different in different sexes across different age categories. Overall, smoking and LSA were the 2 strongest risk factors, together accounting for 64% of PAR for first incident AMI. After multivariable adjustment, Lp(a) and LSA accounted for 19% and 41%, respectively, and together for more than a half (54%) of PAR for first incident AMI. Modifiable risk factors incorporating LSA and Lp(a) have accounted for an overwhelmingly large proportion of the risk of first incident AMI, indicating most first incident AMI is preventable. The knowledge of risk burdens for first incident AMI incorporating Lp (a) and LSA may be beneficial for further reducing first incident AMI from a new angle. PMID:27748452

  6. Night work, total occupational burden and cancer/cardiovascular risk factors in physicians

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    Nedić Olesja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle-related risk factors: smoking, obesity, sedentariness and excess alcohol intake are among the most important known causes of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between these lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer/cardiovascular disease and working conditions among surgeons/anesthesiologists and other physicians. Material and Methods. The study was carried out among physicians aged 35 to 60, without diagnosed coronary heart disease or other structural heart disease, who were employed at the Novi Sad University Hospital. The participation rate was high (> 90%. The physicians completed the Occupational Stress Index. Low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk was defined as: not a current smoker, body mass index < 28, regular recreational physical activity and not consuming alcohol every day. Analysis of covariance was performed. Results. Of 191 physicians included in this study only 23 (12.0% had a low lifestyle- related cancer/cardiovascular risk. Surgeons/anesthesiologists faced a heavier total work stressor burden than physicians in other profiles (87.7±8.8 versus 74.1±10.5, p=0.000. Among the 56 surgeons/anesthesiologists, lower nightshift work scores were associated with low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk (F=4.19, p=0.046. A lower overall work stressor burden was associated with low risk among the other 135 physicians (F=4.06, p=0.046. Conclusion. Specific workplace intervention strategies are urgently needed. Among the surgeons/anesthesiologists these should include reduction in the frequency of night call and improvement of the overall conditions of nightshift work. Among other physicians, the total occupational burden needs to be diminished.

  7. Non-communicable diseases in Mozambique: risk factors, burden, response and outcomes to date

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    Silva-Matos Carla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mozambique is located on the East Coast of Africa bordering South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania and is one of the poorest countries in the world. Currently NCDs account for 28% of deaths in Mozambique. Risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol use and poor diet are present in both urban and rural settings. Diseases such as hypertension and diabetes affect large proportions of the population, but people are often unaware of their condition or poorly managed. Data from studies on diabetes highlight the financial burden for NCD management in Mozambique for both the individual and health system. The National Strategic Plan for the prevention and control of NCDs in Mozambique has as its aim to create a positive environment to minimise or eliminate the exposure to risk factors and guarantee access to care. The plan has as its overall objective to reduce exposure to risk factors and morbidity and mortality due to NCDs and has 4 areas of intervention: 1 Prevention and health education with regards to NCDs; 2 Access to quality care, treatment and follow-up; 3 Prevention of disability and premature mortality and 4 Surveillance, research, monitoring and evaluation and advocacy for NCDs. The Ministry of Health developed projects for diabetes and hypertension and used these as key lessons that could then be applied to other NCDs. Mozambique, through political commitment from the Ministry of Health and the dedication of local champions, has been able to garner international support to improve care for people with diabetes and then use this to develop its National Plan for NCDs. Despite this increase in attention resources available do not match the challenge of NCDs in Mozambique. Mozambique’s experience provides a practical example of actions that can be undertaken in a resource poor country to tackle the emerging burden of NCDs.

  8. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

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    McQueen RB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available R Brett McQueen,1 Vahram Ghushchyan,1,2 Temitope Olufade,3 John J Sheehan,4 Kavita V Nair,1 Joseph J Saseen1,5 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 2College of Business and Economics, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; 3AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, 4AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, 5Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Objective: Estimate the economic burden associated with incremental increases in the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs in the US. Methods: We used the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2010 to 2012 to create a retrospective cohort of people based on the number of CMRFs (one, two, and three or four, and a comparison cohort of people with zero CMRFs. CMRFs included abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and elevated glucose and were defined using diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, and survey responses. Adjusted regression analysis was developed to compare health expenditures, utilization, and lost-productivity differences between the cohorts. Generalized linear regression was used for health care expenditures, and negative binomial regression was used for utilization and productivity, controlling for individual characteristics. Results: The number of CMRFs was associated with significantly more annual utilization, health care expenditures, and reduced productivity. As compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.24, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.51, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.57 times higher expected rate of emergency room visits, respectively. Compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had increased incremental health care expenditures of US$417 (95

  9. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephen S; Vos, Theo; Flaxman, Abraham D; Danaei, Goodarz; Shibuya, Kenji; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus; Anderson, H Ross; Andrews, Kathryn G; Aryee, Martin; Atkinson, Charles; Bacchus, Loraine J; Bahalim, Adil N; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Baxter, Amanda; Bell, Michelle L; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona; Bonner, Carissa; Borges, Guilherme; Bourne, Rupert; Boussinesq, Michel; Brauer, Michael; Brooks, Peter; Bruce, Nigel G; Brunekreef, Bert; Bryan-Hancock, Claire; Bucello, Chiara; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bull, Fiona; Burnett, Richard T; Byers, Tim E; Calabria, Bianca; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carnahan, Emily; Chafe, Zoe; Charlson, Fiona; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jian Shen; Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann; Child, Jennifer Christine; Cohen, Aaron; Colson, K Ellicott; Cowie, Benjamin C; Darby, Sarah; Darling, Susan; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dentener, Frank; Des Jarlais, Don C; Devries, Karen; Dherani, Mukesh; Ding, Eric L; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim; Edmond, Karen; Ali, Suad Eltahir; Engell, Rebecca E; Erwin, Patricia J; Fahimi, Saman; Falder, Gail; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ferrari, Alize; Finucane, Mariel M; Flaxman, Seth; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R; Freedman, Greg; Freeman, Michael K; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ghosh, Santu; Giovannucci, Edward; Gmel, Gerhard; Graham, Kathryn; Grainger, Rebecca; Grant, Bridget; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Hialy R; Hall, Wayne; Hoek, Hans W; Hogan, Anthony; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian; Hu, Howard; Hubbell, Bryan J; Hutchings, Sally J; Ibeanusi, Sydney E; Jacklyn, Gemma L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Jonas, Jost B; Kan, Haidong; Kanis, John A; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kawakami, Norito; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khoo, Jon-Paul; Kok, Cindy; Laden, Francine; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lan, Qing; Lathlean, Tim; Leasher, Janet L; Leigh, James; Li, Yang; Lin, John Kent; Lipshultz, Steven E; London, Stephanie; Lozano, Rafael; Lu, Yuan; Mak, Joelle; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mallinger, Leslie; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn; Marks, Robin; Martin, Randall; McGale, Paul; McGrath, John; Mehta, Sumi; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Micha, Renata; Michaud, Catherine; Mishra, Vinod; Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd; Mokdad, Ali A; Morawska, Lidia; Mozaff arian, Dariush; Murphy, Tasha; Naghavi, Mohsen; Neal, Bruce; Nelson, Paul K; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Norman, Rosana; Olives, Casey; Omer, Saad B; Orchard, Jessica; Osborne, Richard; Ostro, Bart; Page, Andrew; Pandey, Kiran D; Parry, Charles D H; Passmore, Erin; Patra, Jayadeep; Pearce, Neil; Pelizzari, Pamela M; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Pope, Dan; Pope III, C Arden; Powles, John; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Rehfuess, Eva A; Rehm, Jürgen T; Ritz, Beate; Rivara, Frederick P; Roberts, Thomas; Robinson, Carolyn; Rodriguez-Portales, Jose A; Romieu, Isabelle; Room, Robin; Rosenfeld, Lisa C; Roy, Ananya; Rushton, Lesley; Salomon, Joshua A; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sanman, Ella; Sapkota, Amir; Seedat, Soraya; Shi, Peilin; Shield, Kevin; Shivakoti, Rupak; Singh, Gitanjali M; Sleet, David A; Smith, Emma; Smith, Kirk R; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Steenland, Kyle; Stöckl, Heidi; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Straif, Kurt; Straney, Lahn; Thurston, George D; Tran, Jimmy H; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Veerman, J Lennert; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Weintraub, Robert; Weissman, Myrna M; White, Richard A; Whiteford, Harvey; Wiersma, Steven T; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Warwick; Wilson, Nicholas; Woolf, Anthony D; Yip, Paul; Zielinski, Jan M; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed changes in burden attributable to risk factors over time. Methods We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent effects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. We estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specific deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden. Findings In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7·0% [95% uncertainty interval 6·2–7·7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·3% [5·5–7·0]), and alcohol use (5·5% [5·0–5·9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7·9% [6·8–9·4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7·0% [5·6–8·3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·1% [5·4–6·8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10·0% (95% UI 9·2–10·8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect

  10. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, R Brett; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Olufade, Temitope; Sheehan, John J; Nair, Kavita V; Saseen, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Estimate the economic burden associated with incremental increases in the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in the US. Methods We used the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2010 to 2012 to create a retrospective cohort of people based on the number of CMRFs (one, two, and three or four), and a comparison cohort of people with zero CMRFs. CMRFs included abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and elevated glucose and were defined using diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, and survey responses. Adjusted regression analysis was developed to compare health expenditures, utilization, and lost-productivity differences between the cohorts. Generalized linear regression was used for health care expenditures, and negative binomial regression was used for utilization and productivity, controlling for individual characteristics. Results The number of CMRFs was associated with significantly more annual utilization, health care expenditures, and reduced productivity. As compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.24), 1.37 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.51), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.57) times higher expected rate of emergency room visits, respectively. Compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had increased incremental health care expenditures of US$417 (95% CI: $70, $763), US$2,326 (95% CI: $1,864, $2,788), and US$4,117 (95% CI: $3,428, $4,807), respectively. Those with three or four CMRFs reported employment of 60%, compared with 80% in patients with zero CMRFs. People with three or four CMFRs had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.17) times higher expected rate of days missed at work due to illness, compared with people with zero CMRFs. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate a direct association between economic burden and number of CMRFs. Although this was expected, the increase in burden

  11. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Iran: Estimates Based on the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Poustchi, Hossein; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Shahraz, Saeid; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-07-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILD) constitute a noteworthy portion of causes of death and disability in Iran. However, data on their prevalence and burden is sparse in Iran. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2010 has provided invaluable comprehensive data on the burden of GILD in Iran. METHODS Estimations of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), disability-adjusted life years (DALY), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy have been reported for 291 diseases, 67 risk factors, 1160 sequelae, for both sexes and 19 age groups, form 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. In the current paper, 5 major categories of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases have been investigated as follows: GI infectious diseases, GI and liver cancers, liver infections, chronic end stage liver disease, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS Among women, 7.6% of all deaths and 3.9% of all DALYs were due to digestive and liver diseases in 2010. The respective figures in men were 7.8% of deaths and 4.6% of DALYs. The most important cause of death among children under 5 is diarrhea. Among adults between 15 to 49 years old, the main causes of death are GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis, while diarrhea still remains a major cause of DALY. Among adults 50 years and above, GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis are the main causes of both deaths and DALYs. Gastritis and duodenitis, diarrheal diseases, gall bladder and bile duct diseases, acute hepatitis A, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, and acute hepatitis A mainly cause disability rather than death. CONCLUSION GBD study provides invaluable source of data on burden of GILD in Iran. However, there exist limitations, namely overestimation of burden of liver cancer and underestimation of the burden of GI diseases that are usually diagnosed in outpatient settings. The collaboration of scientists across the world and specifically those from developing countries

  12. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

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    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  13. Estimation of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to modifiable risk factors and cost-effectiveness analysis of preventative interventions to reduce this burden in Argentina

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    Martí Sebastián

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Argentina representing 34.2% of deaths and 12.6% of potential years of life lost (PYLL. The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of acute coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke and the cost-effectiveness of preventative population-based and clinical interventions. Methods An epidemiological model was built incorporating prevalence and distribution of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity, obtained from the Argentine Survey of Risk Factors dataset. Population Attributable Fraction (PAF of each risk factor was estimated using relative risks from international sources. Total fatal and non-fatal events, PYLL and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY were estimated. Costs of event were calculated from local utilization databases and expressed in international dollars (I$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER were estimated for six interventions: reducing salt in bread, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation, pharmacological therapy of high blood pressure, pharmacological therapy of high cholesterol, tobacco cessation therapy with bupropion, and a multidrug strategy for people with an estimated absolute risk > 20% in 10 years. Results An estimated total of 611,635 DALY was lost due to acute CHD and stroke for 2005. Modifiable risk factors explained 71.1% of DALY and more than 80% of events. Two interventions were cost-saving: lowering salt intake in the population through reducing salt in bread and multidrug therapy targeted to persons with an absolute risk above 20% in 10 years; three interventions had very acceptable ICERs: drug therapy for high blood pressure in hypertensive patients not yet undergoing treatment (I$ 2,908 per DALY saved, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation amongst smokers (I$ 3,186 per DALY saved, and lowering cholesterol with

  14. Characterizing the epidemiological transition in Mexico: national and subnational burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Gretchen Stevens; Dias, Rodrigo H; Thomas, Kevin J A; Rivera, Juan A.; Natalie Carvalho; Simón Barquera; Kenneth Hill; Majid Ezzati

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The impact that a particular disease has upon a population is known as the “burden of disease.” This burden is estimated by considering how many deaths the disease causes and how much it disables those still living. The relative contributions of different diseases and injuries to the loss of healthy life from death and disability vary greatly among countries. Broadly speaking, in low-income countries (such as many African countries), infectious diseases and undern...

  15. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

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    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and

  16. The burden attributable to mental and substance use disorders as risk factors for suicide: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

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    Alize J Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010 identified mental and substance use disorders as the 5th leading contributor of burden in 2010, measured by disability adjusted life years (DALYs. This estimate was incomplete as it excluded burden resulting from the increased risk of suicide captured elsewhere in GBD 2010's mutually exclusive list of diseases and injuries. Here, we estimate suicide DALYs attributable to mental and substance use disorders. METHODS: Relative-risk estimates of suicide due to mental and substance use disorders and the global prevalence of each disorder were used to estimate population attributable fractions. These were adjusted for global differences in the proportion of suicide due to mental and substance use disorders compared to other causes then multiplied by suicide DALYs reported in GBD 2010 to estimate attributable DALYs (with 95% uncertainty. RESULTS: Mental and substance use disorders were responsible for 22.5 million (14.8-29.8 million of the 36.2 million (26.5-44.3 million DALYs allocated to suicide in 2010. Depression was responsible for the largest proportion of suicide DALYs (46.1% (28.0%-60.8% and anorexia nervosa the lowest (0.2% (0.02%-0.5%. DALYs occurred throughout the lifespan, with the largest proportion found in Eastern Europe and Asia, and males aged 20-30 years. The inclusion of attributable suicide DALYs would have increased the overall burden of mental and substance use disorders (assigned to them in GBD 2010 as a direct cause from 7.4% (6.2%-8.6% to 8.3% (7.1%-9.6% of global DALYs, and would have changed the global ranking from 5th to 3rd leading cause of burden. CONCLUSIONS: Capturing the suicide burden attributable to mental and substance use disorders allows for more accurate estimates of burden. More consideration needs to be given to interventions targeted to populations with, or at risk for, mental and substance use disorders as an effective strategy for suicide

  17. Double Burden, Non-Communicable Diseases And Risk Factors Evaluation In Sub-Saharan Africa: The Nigerian Experience

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    C. E Ekpenyong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the age and sex specific burden and associated risk factors ofNCDs in adult population of South-South Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional study conducted inUyo Metropolis, in 2009/2010; with 2780 participants (1447 males and 1333 females aged 18-60years. Instruments of survey were: a semi-structured questionnaire, anthropometric and nonanthropometric measures using standard procedures. The overall prevalence of NCDs was 32.8%.Disease specific prevalence was as follows: 25%, 14.4%, 12.7%, 20.1% and 10% for obesity,hypertension, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders and respiratory disorders respectively.Males’ vs females’ prevalence were: 20.7% vs 29.5%; 12.6% vs 12.2%; 9.7% vs 16.0%; 14.0% vs26.5% and 8.6% vs 7.6% for obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disordersand respiratory disorders respectively. Risk factors with increase odds for NCDs were: age, area ofresidence, work stress, triglyceride levels and positive family history. Physical inactivity, high totalcholesterol level, high general adiposity, high central adiposity and poor dietary habits were equallysignificantly associated. The high prevalence of NCDs in Nigeria was precipitated by modifiableand un-modifiable life style factors. Intervention programmes should focus on these factors toreverse the trend.

  18. Hypertension and diabetes in Africa: design and implementation of a large population-based study of burden and risk factors in rural and urban Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Crampin, AC; Kayuni, N.; Amberbir, A; Musicha, C; Koole, O.; Tafatatha, T; Branson, K.; Saul, J.; Mwaiyeghele, E.; Nkhwazi, L; Phiri, A; Price, AJ; Mwagomba, B.; Mwansambo, C; Jaffar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distribution of risk factors and outcomes in the region to inform an effective public health response. A comprehensive research programme is being developed aimed at accurately documenting the burden and drivers of NCDs in urban and rural Malawi; to design and test intervention stra...

  19. Estimating the avoidable burden of certain modifiable risk factors in osteoporotic hip fracture using Generalized Impact Fraction (GIF) model in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnazari, Banafsheh; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Soltani, Akbar; Aghamaleki, Aria; Mansour, Asieh; Matin, Bahar; Saghafi, Sharareh; Dini, Mahboubeh; Khashayar, Patricia; Bagher LARIJANI

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds The number of hip fractures, the most common complication of osteoporosis, has increased rapidly over the past decades. The goal of this study is to estimate the avoidable burden of certain modifiable risk factor of the condition using the Generalized Impact Fraction (GIF) model, which has been suggested and used by epidemiologists to overcome the drawbacks associated with the use of Attributable Fraction index. In addition to preventing a risk factor or the avoidable fraction of ...

  20. The burden and risk factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Reproductive Tract Infections among pregnant women in Zimbabwe

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    Munjoma Marshal W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and Reproductive tract infections (RTIs are responsible for high morbidity among women. We aim to quantify the magnitude of the burden and risk factors of STI/RTI s among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Methods A cross sectional study of pregnant women enrolled at 36 weeks of gestation from the national PMTCT program. Study was conducted from three peri-urban clinics around Harare Zimbabwe offering maternal and child health services. Results A total of 691 pregnant women were enrolled. Prevalence of HSV was (51.1%, HIV (25.6% syphilis (1.2%, Trichomonas vaginalis (11.8%, bacterial vaginosis (32.6% and Candidiasis (39.9%. Seven percent of the women had genital warts, 3% had genital ulcers and 28% had an abnormal vaginal discharge. Prevalence of serological STIs and vaginal infections were 51% and 64% respectively. Risk factors for a positive serologic STI were increasing age above 30 years, polygamy and multigravid; adjusted OR (95% CI 2.61(1.49-4.59, 2.16(1.06-4.39, 3.89(1.27-11.98 respectively, partner taking alcohol and number of lifetime sexual partners. For vaginal infections it was age at sexual debut; OR (95% CI 1.60(1.06-2.42. More than 25% of the women reported previous STI treatment. Fifty two percent reported ever use of condoms and 65% were on oral contraceptives. Mean age gap for sexual partners was 6.3 years older. Conclusions There is a high morbidity of STI/RTIs in this cohort. There is need to continuously screen, counsel, treat and monitor trends of STI/RTIs to assess if behaviour changes lead to reduction in infections and their sustainability.

  1. Healthcare Burden, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Mucosal Barrier Injury Laboratory-Confirmed Bloodstream Infections after Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoy, Christopher E; Haslam, David; Lane, Adam; Jodele, Sonata; Demmel, Kathy; El-Bietar, Javier; Flesch, Laura; Myers, Kasiani C; Pate, Abigail; Rotz, Seth; Daniels, Paulina; Wallace, Gregory; Nelson, Adam; Waters, Heather; Connelly, Beverly; Davies, Stella M

    2016-09-01

    Mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections (MBI-LCBIs) lead to significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare resource utilization in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. Determination of the healthcare burden of MBI-LCBIs and identification of patients at risk of MBI-LCBIs will allow researchers to identify strategies to reduce MBI-LCBI rates. The objective of our study was to describe the incidence, risk factors, timing, and outcomes of MBI-LCBIs in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 374 patients who underwent HSCT at a large free-standing academic children's hospital to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of patients that developed a bloodstream infection (BSI) including MBI-LCBI, central line-associated BSI (CLABSI), or secondary BSI in the first year after HSCT. Outcome measures included nonrelapse mortality (NRM), central venous catheter removal within 7 days of positive culture, shock, admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) within 48 hours of positive culture, and death within 10 days of positive culture. One hundred seventy BSIs were diagnosed in 100 patients (27%): 80 (47%) MBI-LCBIs, 68 (40%) CLABSIs, and 22 (13%) secondary infections. MBI-LCBIs were diagnosed at a significantly higher rate in allogeneic HSCT patients (18% versus 7%, P = .007). Reduced-intensity conditioning (OR, 1.96; P = .015) and transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (OR, 2.94; P = .0004) were associated with MBI-LCBI. Nearly 50% of all patients with a BSI developed septic shock, 10% died within 10 days of positive culture, and nearly 25% were transferred to the PICU. One-year NRM was significantly increased in patients with 1 (34%) and more than 1 (56%) BSIs in the first year post-HSCT compared with those who did not develop BSIs (14%) (P ≤ .0001). There was increased 1-year NRM in patients with at least 1 MBI-LCBI (OR, 1.94; P

  2. Diarrheal Disease in Rural Mozambique: Burden, Risk Factors and Etiology of Diarrheal Disease among Children Aged 0-59 Months Seeking Care at Health Facilities.

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    Tacilta Nhampossa

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of illness and death, particularly in low-income countries. Its burden, microbiological causes and risk factors were examined in children aged 0-59 months living in Manhiça, rural southern Mozambique.Trends of diarrhea-related burden of disease were estimated during the period 2001-2012. A prospective, age-stratified and matched (by age, gender and geographical origin, case-control study was conducted during 2007-2011. Clinical, epidemiology, anthropometric measurement and fecal samples obtained from recruited children were used to estimate moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD weighted attributable fractions.Over the last decade the incidence of acute diarrhea has dropped by about 80%. Incidence of MSD per 100 child years at risk for the period 2007-2011 was 9.85, 7.73 and 2.10 for children aged 0-11, 12-23 and 24-59 months respectively. By adjusted population attributable fractions, most cases of MSD were due to rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, ETEC ST (ST only or ST/LT, Shigella and Adenovirus 40/41. Washing hands and having facilities to dispose child's stools were associated with a reduced risk of MSD, while giving stored water to the child was associated with an increased risk of MSD.Despite the predominantly decreasing trends observed throughout the last decade, diarrheal diseases remain today a major cause of morbidity among children aged 0-59 months living in this rural Mozambican area. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella, ETEC ST and Adenovirus 40/41 were the most important aetiologies of MSD. Thus, well-known preventive strategies such as washing hands, improving the treatment of stored water, having facilities to dispose children stools, and accelerating the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine should be promoted on a wider scale to reduce the current burden of diarrheal diseases.

  3. The evolution of the Global Burden of Disease framework for disease, injury and risk factor quantification: developing the evidence base for national, regional and global public health action

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    Lopez Alan D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented and of uncertain reliability and comparability. Lack of a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and failure to systematically evaluate data quality have impeded comparative analyses of the true public health importance of various conditions and risk factors. As a consequence the impact of major conditions and hazards on population health has been poorly appreciated, often leading to a lack of public health investment. Global disease and risk factor quantification improved dramatically in the early 1990s with the completion of the first Global Burden of Disease Study. For the first time, the comparative importance of over 100 diseases and injuries, and ten major risk factors, for global and regional health status could be assessed using a common metric (Disability-Adjusted Life Years which simultaneously accounted for both premature mortality and the prevalence, duration and severity of the non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. As a consequence, mental health conditions and injuries, for which non-fatal outcomes are of particular significance, were identified as being among the leading causes of disease/injury burden worldwide, with clear implications for policy, particularly prevention. A major achievement of the Study was the complete global descriptive epidemiology, including incidence, prevalence and mortality, by age, sex and Region, of over 100 diseases and injuries. National applications, further methodological research and an increase in data availability have led to improved national, regional and global estimates

  4. The burden of selected chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Malawi: nationwide STEPS survey.

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    Kelias P Msyamboza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are becoming significant causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries, although local, high-quality data to inform evidence-based policies are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the magnitude of NCDs and their risk factors in Malawi. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2009 on participants aged 25-64 years. Socio-demographic and behaviour risk factors were collected in Step 1. Physical anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were documented in Step 2. Blood cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were measured in Step 3. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 5,206 adults (67% females were surveyed. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and raised blood pressure (BP were more frequent in males than females, 25% vs 3%, 30% vs 4% and 37% vs 29%. Overweight, physical inactivity and raised cholesterol were more common in females than males, 28% vs 16%, 13% vs 6% and 11% vs 6%. Tobacco smoking was more common in rural than urban areas 11% vs 7%, and overweight and physical inactivity more common in urban than rural areas 39% vs 22% and 24% vs 9%, all with p<0.05. Overall (both sexes prevalence of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity was 14%, 17%, 22%, 10% and prevalence of raised BP, fasting blood sugar and cholesterol was 33%, 6% and 9% respectively. These data could be useful in the formulation and advocacy of NCD policy and action plan in Malawi.

  5. The Burden and Determinants of Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors in Nepal: Findings from a Nationwide STEPS Survey.

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    Krishna Kumar Aryal

    Full Text Available World Health Organization (WHO estimates for deaths attributed to Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs in Nepal have risen from 51% in 2010 to 60% in 2014. This study assessed the distribution and determinants of NCD risk factors among the Nepalese adult population.A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted from Jan to June 2013 on the prevalence of NCD risk factors using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument. A multistage cluster sampling method was used to randomly select the 4,200 respondents. The adjusted prevalence ratio (APR was used to assess the determinants of NCD risk factors using a Poisson regression model. The prevalence of current smoking (last 30 days was 19% (95%CI:16.6-20.6, and harmful alcohol consumption (≥60 g of pure alcohol for men and ≥40 g of pure alcohol for women on an average day was 2% (95%CI:1.4-2.9. Almost all (99%, 95%CI:98.3-99.3 of the respondents consumed less than five servings of fruits and vegetables combined on an average day and 3% (95%CI:2.7-4.3 had low physical activity. Around 21% (95%CI:19.3-23.7 were overweight or obese (BMI≥25. The prevalence of raised blood pressure (SBP≥140 mm of Hg or DBP≥90 mm of Hg and raised blood glucose (fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl, including those on medication were 26% (95%CI:23.6-28.0 and 4% (95%CI:2.9-4.5 respectively. Almost one quarter of respondents, 23% (95%CI:20.5-24.9, had raised total cholesterol (total cholesterol ≥190 mg/dl or under current medication for raised cholesterol. he study revealed a lower prevalence of smoking among women than men (APR:0.30; 95%CI:0.25-0.36, and in those who had higher education levels compared to those with no formal education (APR:0.39; 95%CI:0.26-0.58. Harmful alcohol use was also lower in women than men (APR:0.26; 95%CI:0.14-0.48, and in Terai residents compared to hill residents (APR:0.16; 95%CI:0.07-0.36. Physical inactivity was lower among women than men (APR:0.55; 95%CI:0.38-0.80, however women were

  6. The contribution of leading diseases and risk factors to excess losses of healthy life in eastern Europe: burden of disease study

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    Vander Hoorn Stephen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The East/West gradient in health across Europe has been described often, but not using metrics as comprehensive and comparable as those of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 and Comparative Risk Assessment studies. Methods Comparisons are made across 3 epidemiological subregions of the WHO region for Europe – A (very low child and adult mortality, B (low child and low adult mortality and C (low child and high adult mortality – with populations in 2000 of 412, 218 and 243 millions respectively, and using the following measures: 1. Probabilities of death by sex and causal group across 7 age intervals; 2. Loss of healthy life (DALYs to diseases and injuries per thousand population; 3. Loss of healthy life (DALYs attributable to selected risk factors across 3 age ranges. Results Absolute differences in mortality are most marked in males and in younger adults, and for deaths from vascular diseases and from injuries. Dominant contributions to east-west differences come from the nutritional/physiological group of risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol concentration, body mass index, low fruit and vegetable consumption and inactivity contributing to vascular disease and from the legal drugs – tobacco and alcohol. Conclusion The main requirements for reducing excess health losses in the east of Europe are: 1 favorable shifts in all amenable vascular risk factors (irrespective of their current levels by population-wide and personal measures; 2 intensified tobacco control; 3 reduced alcohol consumption and injury control strategies (for example, for road traffic injuries. Cost effective strategies are broadly known but local institutional support for them needs strengthening.

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Burden: Evolving Knowledge of Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction and Stroke through Population-Based Research and Perspectives in Global Prevention

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    GUSTAVO B.F. OLIVEIRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge and research perspectives on the top ranking causes of mortality worldwide, i.e., ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases have developed rapidly. In fact, until recently, it was considered that only half of the myocardial infarctions were due to traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and diabetes. In addition, most of the available evidence of incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes, if not all of it, was derived from studies conducted in developed countries, which included lower proportion of female individuals and with low ethnic diversity. Recent reports by the WHO have provided striking public health information, i.e., the global burden of cardiovascular mortality for the next decades is expected to predominantly occur among developing countries. Therefore, multi-ethnic population-based research including prospective cohorts and, when appropriate, case-control studies, is warranted. These studies should be specifically designed to ascertain key public health measures such as geographic variations in noncommunicable diseases, diagnosis of traditional and potential newly discovered risk factors, causes of death and disability, and gaps for improvement in healthcare prevention (both primary and secondary and specific treatments. As an example, a multinational, multiethnic population-based cohort study is the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, which is the largest global initiative of 150,000 adults aged 35-70 yrs, looking at environmental, societal and biological influences on obesity and chronic health conditions such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and cancer among urban and rural communities in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, with national, community, household and individual-level data. Implementation of population-based strategies is crucial to optimizing limited health system resources while improving care and cardiovascular morbidity

  8. Distribution of major health risks: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study.

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    Anthony Rodgers

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most analyses of risks to health focus on the total burden of their aggregate effects. The distribution of risk-factor-attributable disease burden, for example by age or exposure level, can inform the selection and targeting of specific interventions and programs, and increase cost-effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups conducted comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor exposure and hazard for 14 epidemiological subregions of the world, by age and sex. Age-sex-subregion-population attributable fractions were estimated and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database. Where possible, exposure levels were assessed as continuous measures, or as multiple categories. The proportion of risk-factor-attributable burden in different population subgroups, defined by age, sex, and exposure level, was estimated. For major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index, and physical inactivity 43%-61% of attributable disease burden occurred between the ages of 15 and 59 y, and 87% of alcohol-attributable burden occurred in this age group. Most of the disease burden for continuous risks occurred in those with only moderately raised levels, not among those with levels above commonly used cut-points, such as those with hypertension or obesity. Of all disease burden attributable to being underweight during childhood, 55% occurred among children 1-3 standard deviations below the reference population median, and the remainder occurred among severely malnourished children, who were three or more standard deviations below median. CONCLUSIONS: Many major global risks are widely spread in a population, rather than restricted to a minority. Population-based strategies that seek to shift the whole distribution of risk factors often have the potential to

  9. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

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    Katherine eBangen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors, advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor. This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines.

  10. Analysis on risk factors of high thrombus formation burden in patients with acute myocardial infartion%急性心肌梗死高血栓负荷的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海; 金彦彦; 叶明

    2012-01-01

    .024), CRP( OR = 1.379, 95% CI 1.048 ~ 4.306, P = 0.015 ) are the independent risk factors for AMI patients. Conclusion The levels of smoking and CRP are independent risk factors for high thrombus formation burden in AMI patients.

  11. Burden of road traffic injuries and related risk factors in low and middle-income Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic review of the scientific literature (TRIP 5

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    Herman Josephine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pacific Island countries and territories, the burden of road traffic injuries and their attendant risks are considered significant but are poorly quantified. As with other low and middle-income countries, understanding the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Pacific countries is critical to informing sustainable research and policy initiatives aimed at reducing this burden. Methods We undertook a systematic review and critical appraisal of the relevant epidemiological literature between January 1980 and December 2010, using key search strings for incidence and aetiological studies focusing on RTIs in less resourced Pacific countries. Results Nineteen studies were identified. The majority were descriptive and were unable to provide population-based estimates of the burden of road crash injury, or reliable information on risk factors using well-designed aetiological research methods. All studies were published more than 10 years ago, and all but three reported on data from Papua New Guinea, thereby limiting the generalisability of findings to the current status in the region. Studies undertaken in Papua New Guinea suggested that RTIs were more frequent among young males, with head injuries the most common cause of death or hospital admission. Two thirds of fatalities occurred at the crash site or soon after admission. Most road crash victims were passengers or pedestrians. Factors postulated to influence the risk of RTIs were travel in open-back utility vehicles, utility vehicle overcrowding, and alcohol. Conclusions This review suggests that, despite increasing awareness of the importance of addressing road safety among stakeholders in less resourced Pacific Island countries, road traffic injuries have not been a research priority with little relevant current evidence from the region to inform policy. Robust epidemiological research that can assess the magnitude and key determinants of road traffic injuries in these

  12. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  13. Risk Factors and Prevention

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    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  14. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  15. Application of a Novel Method for Assessing Cumulative Risk Burden by County

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    Ken Sexton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to apply the Human Security Index (HSI as a tool to detect social and economic cumulative risk burden at a county-level in the state of Texas. The HSI is an index comprising a network of three sub-components or “fabrics”; the Economic, Environmental, and Social Fabrics. We hypothesized that the HSI will be a useful instrument for identifying and analyzing socioeconomic conditions that contribute to cumulative risk burden in vulnerable counties. We expected to identify statistical associations between cumulative risk burden and (a ethnic concentration and (b geographic proximity to the Texas-Mexico border. Findings from this study indicate that the Texas-Mexico border region did not have consistently higher total or individual fabric scores as would be suggested by the high disease burden and low income in this region. While the Economic, Environmental, Social Fabrics (including the Health subfabric were highly associated with Hispanic ethnic concentration, the overall HSI and the Crime subfabric were not. In addition, the Education, Health and Crime subfabrics were associated with African American racial composition, while Environment, Economic and Social Fabrics were not. Application of the HSI to Texas counties provides a fuller and more nuanced understanding of socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and increases awareness of the role played by environmental, economic, and social factors in observed health disparities by race/ethnicity and geographic region.

  16. Cardiovascular disease and hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: burden, risk and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccio, Francesco Paolo; Miller, Michelle Avril

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart failure and kidney disease, has been common in sub-Saharan Africa for many years, and rapid urbanization is causing an upsurge of ischaemic heart disease and metabolic disorders. At least two-thirds of cardiovascular deaths now occur in low- and middle-income countries, bringing a double burden of disease to poor and developing world economies. High blood pressure (or hypertension) is by far the commonest underlying risk factor for cardiovascula...

  17. Burden among care-givers of kidney transplant recipients and its associated factors

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    Einollahi Behzad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Burden among care-givers of chronically ill patients has been widely investigated. However, there is no study evaluating perceived pressure on care-givers of kidney transplant recipients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of care-giving to renal transplant recipients in Iranian Muslim population and to analyze factors associated with it. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 41 care-givers of renal recipients. The Care-giver Burden Scale (CB Scale was used to evaluate the care-giver′s perceived burden and its correlates. Statistical analysis was performed using software SPSS v.13.0. P < 0.05 was considered significant. We found that increased care-giver burden was related to being married (p< 0.02, having lower education level (p< 0.05, and being a parent or spouse to the patient (p< 0.05. We also found significant adverse effects of patients′ second transplantation and gender (male on care-givers′ burden. There was no significant relationship between care-giver burden score and patients′ marital status, education level, operation time, age, donor type (cadaveric or living, and dialysis history before and after transplantation. In conclusion, care-givers experience strain, which has implications for research and service provision. Service providers need to identify those care-givers at risk of greater strain and help them in situations that cannot be altered. Future research should be conducted to identify the effects of interventions, on care-givers′ burden perception.

  18. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H. Ross; Bachman, Victoria F.; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M.; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J.; Astha, K. C.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Aburto, Tania C.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Al Lami, Faris H.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K.; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O.; Ruvalcaba, Carolina Batis; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfi Qar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Broday, David M.; Brooks, Peter M.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N.; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G. J.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Campuzano, Julio C.; Cantoral, Alejandra J.; Caravanos, Jack; Cardenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben E.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Classen, Thomas K. D.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Contreras, Alejandra G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T.; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E. Filipa; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graca; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Devries, Karen M.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef M.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigin, Valery L.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco A.; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim A. M.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; Gonzalez-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Gugnani, Harish C.; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Man, Howard J. Hoff; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J.; Hubbell, Bryan J.; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L.; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jansen, Henrica A.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Roseline, Sidibe S. Kany; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine K.; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kissela, Brett M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M. Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O.; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M. P.; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C.; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J.; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Martin, Randall V.; Marzan, Melvin B.; Mashal, Mohammad T.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; Mckay, Abigail C.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio C. Montaez; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R.; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Arian, Dariush Mozaff; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newton, Charles R.; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nogueira, Jose R.; Nolla, Joan M.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S.; Pedroza, Andrea; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A. L.; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D.; Pope, C. Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Qato, Dima M.; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex A.; Racape, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K. Srinath; Refaat, Amany H.; Rehm, Juergen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sanchez-Pimienta, Tania G.; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E.; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I.; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schoettker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H.; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stapelberg, Nicolas J. C.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stephens, Natalie; Stoeckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Ao, Braden J. Te; Teixeira, Carolina M.; Rojo, Martha M. Tellez; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Texcalac-Sangrador, Jose Luis; Thackway, Sarah V.; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeff Rey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jeff Erson; Tran, Bach X.; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uzun, Selen B.; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; Van Gool, Coen H.; Van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Veerman, Lennert J.; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S.; Watts, Charlotte H.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Williams, Thomas N.; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wong, John Q.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L.; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentuer, Goekalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E.; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for preven

  19. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H Ross; Bachman, Victoria F; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J; Kc, Astha; Kyu, Hmwe H; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Aburto, Tania C; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Al Khabouri, Mazin J; Al Lami, Faris H; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Aleman, Alicia V; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Ruvalcaba, Carolina Batis; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref A Bin; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Başara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D M; Broday, David M; Brooks, Peter M; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G J; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Campuzano, Julio C; Cantoral, Alejandra J; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas Kd; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Contreras, Alejandra G; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E Filipa; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Jarlais, Don C Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Devries, Karen M; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M; Ebel, Beth E; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F J; Feigin, Valery L; Feigl, Andrea B; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Gansevoort, Ron T; García-Guerra, Francisco A; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B; Gillum, Richard F; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gugnani, Harish C; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Hubbell, Bryan J; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jansen, Henrica A; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Roseline, Sidibe S Kany; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kissela, Brett M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O; Lavados, Pablo M; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lindsay, M Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M P; MacIntyre, Michael F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B; Martin, Randall V; Marzan, Melvin B; Mashal, Mohammad T; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McKay, Abigail C; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio C Montañez; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, Km Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ngalesoni, Frida N; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nogueira, José R; Nolla, Joan M; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S; Pedroza, Andrea; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A L; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D; Pope, C Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Qato, Dima M; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex A; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany H; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Riccio, Patricia M; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Sanabria, Juan R; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Te Ao, Braden J; Teixeira, Carolina M; Téllez Rojo, Martha M; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen B; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N; Vavilala, Monica S; Veerman, Lennert J; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Waller, Stephen G; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S; Watts, Charlotte H; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Thomas N; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M; Wolfe, Charles D A; Wong, John Q; Woolf, Anthony D; Wright, Jonathan L; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for preve

  20. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H Ross; Bachman, Victoria F; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J; Kc, Astha; Kyu, Hmwe H; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Aburto, Tania C; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Al Khabouri, Mazin J; Al Lami, Faris H; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Aleman, Alicia V; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Ruvalcaba, Carolina Batis; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref A Bin; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Başara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D M; Broday, David M; Brooks, Peter M; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G J; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Campuzano, Julio C; Cantoral, Alejandra J; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas Kd; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Contreras, Alejandra G; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E Filipa; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Jarlais, Don C Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Devries, Karen M; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M; Ebel, Beth E; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F J; Feigin, Valery L; Feigl, Andrea B; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Gansevoort, Ron T; García-Guerra, Francisco A; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B; Gillum, Richard F; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gugnani, Harish C; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Hubbell, Bryan J; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jansen, Henrica A; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Roseline, Sidibe S Kany; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kissela, Brett M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O; Lavados, Pablo M; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lindsay, M Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M P; MacIntyre, Michael F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B; Martin, Randall V; Marzan, Melvin B; Mashal, Mohammad T; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McKay, Abigail C; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio C Montañez; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, Km Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ngalesoni, Frida N; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nogueira, José R; Nolla, Joan M; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S; Pedroza, Andrea; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A L; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D; Pope, C Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Qato, Dima M; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex A; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany H; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Riccio, Patricia M; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Sanabria, Juan R; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Te Ao, Braden J; Teixeira, Carolina M; Téllez Rojo, Martha M; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen B; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N; Vavilala, Monica S; Veerman, Lennert J; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Waller, Stephen G; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S; Watts, Charlotte H; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Thomas N; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M; Wolfe, Charles D A; Wong, John Q; Woolf, Anthony D; Wright, Jonathan L; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for preve

  1. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. Changing ...

  2. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tony T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd and creatinine-adjusted urine cadmium (CAUCd levels were measured for each participant. Statistical analyses measured the prostate cancer risk associated with BCd and CAUCd separately, controlling for age, smoking and institution. BCd and CAUCd levels within cases were compared in relation to the disease stage and the Gleason score. Results High family income, low beef intake, low dairy product consumption and positive family history were independently associated with the prostate carcinogenesis. There was no difference in BCd levels between cases and controls (median, 0.88 versus 0.87 μg/l, p = 0.45. Cases had lower CAUCd levels than controls (median, 0.94 versus 1.40 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.001. However, cases with higher BCd and CAUCd levels tended to be at more advanced stages and to have higher Gleason scores. The prostate cancer cases with Gleason scores of ≥ 8 had an odds ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.25-6.70, compared with patients with scores of 2-6. Conclusion Higher CAUCd and BCd levels may be associated with advanced cancer phenotypes, but there was only a tenuous association between cadmium and prostate cancer.

  3. Risk Factors for Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2002-01-01

    @@ Thrombotic disease is a multifactorial disease, multiple interactions between genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disease.This review summarized some risk factors reported for arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis in recent few years.

  4. Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Among Indian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Purohit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases account for a significant disease burden in the South East Asia region. India is facing an increased incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Socioeconomic and lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD have been under investigated in India. This study was designed to explore risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease among Indian males.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,235 males in the age group of 18-60 years across three states of India. A household survey was used to collect demographic and socioeconomic status information in addition to lifestyle-related attributes such as smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to identify the role of various factors that may be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in this population.Results: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease among the male respondents contacted through a household survey was reported to be 9.8%. Logistic regression revealed that males with higher education and higher income were more likely to report CVD. With age as a strong predictor of CVD, the risk of CVD was found to be five times higher in the older age group. Current smokers were 1.3 times more likely to have CVD compared to those who never smoked. Those who were engaged in physical activity were less likely to have CVD; however, the adverse effects of smoking and excessive consumption of red meat showed a stronger association with CVD than the protective effects of physical activity.Conclusion: In developing countries, where the increase in earning capacity and change in lifestyle has been found to be accompanied by substantial risk of heart disease for males, public health measures like health promotion programs need to be implemented to decrease CVD burden.

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  6. Regional pattern of cardiovascular risk burden in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    KERN, JOSIPA; Polašek, Ozren; Musić Milanović, Sanja; Džakula, Aleksandar; Fišter, Kristina; Strnad, Marija; Ivanković, Davor; Vuletić, Silvije

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate regional gradient of a synthetic cardiovascular burden (CVRB) in Croatia. Analysis was based on a multistage stratified sample representative of general adult population in six regions of Croatia (Croatian Adult Health Survey). Synthetic CVRB was defined by incidents (heart attack, stroke), blood pressure, overweight/obesity (BMI, waist circumference), and risky behaviours (smoking, physical inactivity, high alcohol consumption, inadequate nutrit...

  7. Review: Burden on Family Caregivers Caring for Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.

  8. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  9. The double burden of neoliberalism? Noncommunicable disease policies and the global political economy of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Sara; Schrecker, Ted

    2016-05-01

    The growing prevalence of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is now recognized as one of the major global health policy issues of the early 21st century. Current official approaches reflect ambivalence about how health policy should approach the social determinants of health identified by the WHO Commission on the topic that released its report in 2008, and in particular the role of macro-scale economic and social processes. Authoritative framing of options for NCD prevention in advance of the September, 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs arguably relied on a selective reading of the scientific (including social scientific) evidence, and foregrounded a limited number of risk factors defined in terms of individual behavior: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol (ab)use and physical inactivity. The effect was to reproduce at a transnational level the individualization of responsibility for health that characterizes most health promotion initiatives in high-income countries, ignoring both the limited control that many people have over their exposure to these risk factors and the contribution of macro-scale processes like trade liberalization and the marketing activities of transnational corporations to the global burden of NCDs. An alternative perspective focuses on "the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources" described by the WHO Commission, and the ways in which policies that address those inequities can avoid unintentional incorporation of neoliberal constructions of risk and responsibility. PMID:27132687

  10. Cardiovascular disease and hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: burden, risk and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Francesco Paolo; Miller, Michelle Avril

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart failure and kidney disease, has been common in sub-Saharan Africa for many years, and rapid urbanization is causing an upsurge of ischaemic heart disease and metabolic disorders. At least two-thirds of cardiovascular deaths now occur in low- and middle-income countries, bringing a double burden of disease to poor and developing world economies. High blood pressure (or hypertension) is by far the commonest underlying risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Its prevention, detection, treatment and control in sub-Saharan Africa are haphazard and suboptimal. This is due to a combination of lack of resources and health-care systems, non-existent effective preventive strategies at a population level, lack of sustainable drug therapy, and barriers to complete compliance with prescribed medications. The economic impact for loss of productive years of life and the need to divert scarce resources to tertiary care are substantial. PMID:27001886

  11. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do ...

  12. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger wome...

  13. Inhalation exposure or body burden? Better way of estimating risk--An application of PBPK model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Dipanjali; Dutta, Chirasree; Sen, Subha

    2016-01-01

    We aim to establish a new way for estimating the risk from internal dose or body burden due to exposure of benzene in human subject utilizing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. We also intend to verify its applicability on human subjects exposed to different levels of benzene. We estimated personal inhalation exposure of benzene for two occupational groups namely petrol pump workers and car drivers with respect to a control group, only environmentally exposed. Benzene in personal air was pre-concentrated on charcoal followed by chemical desorption and analysis by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). We selected urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) as biomarker of benzene exposure and measured its concentration using solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our estimated inhalation exposure of benzene was 137.5, 97.9 and 38.7 μg/m(3) for petrol pump workers, car drivers and environmentally exposed control groups respectively which resulted in urinary t,t-MA levels of 145.4±55.3, 112.6±63.5 and 60.0±34.9 μg g(-1) of creatinine, for the groups in the same order. We deduced a derivation for estimation of body burden from urinary metabolite concentration using PBPK model. Estimation of the internal dose or body burden of benzene in human subject has been made for the first time by the measurement of t,t-MA as a urinary metabolite using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model as a tool. The weight adjusted total body burden of benzene was estimated to be 17.6, 11.1 and 5.0 μg kg(-1) of body weight for petrol pump workers, drivers and the environmentally exposed control group, respectively using this method. We computed the carcinogenic risk using both the estimated internal benzene body burden and external exposure values using conventional method. Our study result shows that internal dose or body burden is not proportional to level of exposure rather have a

  14. Neonatal Stroke : Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal stroke refers to cerebrovascular events between 28 weeks of gestational age and 28 days postnatal and includes thromboembolic cerebral infarction and all kinds of intracranial haemorrhage. Neonatal stroke may contribute to severe neurological deficit, such as cerebral palsy and even death. International reports suggest the incidence to be approximately 1/4000 live births per year (1). There are several etiological hypothesises regarding risk factors, such as maternal, obstetrical...

  15. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  16. Epidemiological Investigation of Lifestyle Associated Modifiable Risk Factors among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Srivastava

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The study shows a high prevalence of NCD related risk factors in medical students. Primary prevention may be one way to lower the risk burden of NCDs. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 210-215

  17. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  18. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  19. Follicular lymphoma patients with a high FLIPI score and a high tumor burden: A risk stratification model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Boško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The widely accepted Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI divides patients into three risk groups based on the score of adverse prognostic factors. The estimated 5-year survival in patients with a high FLIPI score is around 50%. The aim of this study was to analyse the prognostic value of clinical and laboratory parameters that are not included in the FLIPI and the New Prognostic Index for Follicular Lymphoma developed by the International Follicular Lymphoma Prognostic Factor Project (FLIPI2 indices, in follicular lymphoma (FL patients with a high FLIPI score and high tumor burden. Methods. The retrospective analysis included 57 newly diagnosed patients with FL, a high FLIPI score and a high tumor burden. All the patients were diagnosed and treated between April 2000 and June 2007 at the Clinic for Hematology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. Results. The patients with a histological grade > 1, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia had a significantly worse overall survival (p = 0.015; p = 0.001; p = 0.008, respectively, while there was a tendency toward worse overall survival in the patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG > 1 (p = 0.075. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a histological grade > 1, ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia as independent risk factors for a poor outcome. Based on a cumulative score of unfavourable prognostic factors, patients who had 0 or 1 unfavourable factors had a significantly better 5-year overall survival compared to patients with 2 or 3 risk factors (75% vs 24.1%, p = 0.000. Conclusion. The obtained results suggest that from the examined prognostic parameters histological grade > 1, ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia can contribute in defining patients who need more aggressive initial treatment approach, if two or three of these parameters are present on presentation.

  20. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance.

  2. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  3. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali; Danaei, Goodarz; Sichieri, Rosely; Carlos A. Monteiro; Maria L C Louzada; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods: Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases...

  4. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Ashkan Afshin; Renata Micha; Shahab Khatibzadeh; Saman Fahimi; Gitanjali Singh; Goodarz Danaei; Rosely Sichieri; Carlos A. Monteiro; Maria L C Louzada; Majid Ezzati; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2016-01-01

    Background Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases a...

  5. Discordance between Risk Factors and Coronary Artery Calcium: Implications for Guiding Treatment Strategies in Primary Prevention Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parag H; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Preventive efforts including smoking cessation campaigns, increased awareness of healthy lifestyle habits, risk factor modification, and the appropriate use of statins have been successful in reducing cardiovascular mortality over the last decade. The coronary artery calcium (CAC) scan has reliably been an additive predictor to traditional risk estimation methods, partly because of the heterogeneity between risk factor burden and atherosclerotic burden. The focus of this review is to highlight this heterogeneity by focusing on groups in which risk factor burden and subclinical atherosclerosis burden, as measured by CAC, are discordant. In high-risk groups with 0 CAC, the event rates are consistently low; in low-risk groups with elevated CAC (CAC>100), the event rates are consistently high. We conclude with our clinical perspective of the considerable heterogeneity between risk factors and atherosclerotic burden in the context of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment and risk assessment guidelines. PMID:25982215

  6. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a ...

  7. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  8. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  9. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, differing patterns of stroke risk factor profiles have been noted in East Asian countries over the past decades. Even though the prevalence of vascular risk factors has changed, hypertension is still prevalent and the burden of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia will continue to increase. Asia remains a high tobacco-consuming area. Although indicators of awareness and management of vascular risk factors have increased in many East Asian countries, their rates still remain low. Here we review the burdens of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking in East Asia. We will also discuss the different associations between these vascular risk factors and stroke in Asian and non-Asian populations. PMID:27733028

  10. Risk Factors for Teenage Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study of urban youth (N=615) to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. Results show that teen fatherhood is related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. (RJM)

  11. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. ... Zora Brown's case, for example, if we had tamoxifen out -- would that have helped? She sure would ...

  12. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women who believe that having prophylactic mastectomy may prevent them from having breast cancer. I have a niece who's had prophylactic mastectomy. Announcer: Another preventative option for high-risk women is to take ...

  13. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  14. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  15. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, K., E-mail: kimmo.suominen@evira.fi [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland); Verta, M. [Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE), Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Marttinen, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  16. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... them and their health so much. I do worry that they are at risk and I wish they weren't. Announcer: For women who have the BRCA I gene, the most radical option is a prophylactic mastectomy, where healthy breasts are removed. This is effective in preventing ...

  17. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... having prophylactic mastectomy may prevent them from having breast cancer. I have a niece who's had prophylactic mastectomy. Announcer: Another preventative option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. Dewitty: In ...

  18. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  19. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors.

  20. Factors affecting burden on caregivers of stroke survivors: Population-based study in Mumbai (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caring for stroke patients leads to caregiver (CG strain. The aims of this study are to identify factors related to increased CG burden in stroke survivors in a census-defined population and to assess the relationship between patient characteristics and CG stress. Materials and Methods: In a prospective population-based study, 223 first ever stroke (FES were identified over a 1-year period. At 28 days, 127 (56.9% were alive and 79 (35% died, and 17 were lost to follow-up. One hundred and eleven CGs of 127 FES survivors agreed to participate. The level of stress was assessed by two scales: Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS and the Caregivers Strain Index (CSI in CGs of survivors with mild stroke Modified Rankin Scale (MRS 1-2 and in those with significant disability (MRS 3-5. Results: The mean age of CGs was 45.6 years, approximately 22 years younger than that of the patients (67.5 years. Eighty-nine (80% of the CGs were females and only 22 (20% were males. Urinary incontinence (P=0.000008, morbidity at 28 days by MRS (P=0.0051, female gender (P=0.0183 and moderate to severe neurological deficit by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS on admission (P=0.0254 were factors in FES cases leading to major CGs stress. CG factors responsible for major stress were long caregiving hours (P≤0.000001, anxiety (P≤0.000001, disturbed night sleep ( P≤0.000001, financial stress (P=0.0000108, younger age (P=0.0021 and CGs being daughter-in-laws (P=0.012. Conclusion: Similar studies using uniform methodologies would help to identify factors responsible for major CG stress. Integrated stroke rehabilitation services should address CG issues to local situations and include practical training in simple nursing skills and counseling sessions to help reduce CG burden.

  1. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  3. Factors that lessen the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgeway JL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Ridgeway,1,2 Jason S Egginton,1,2 Kristina Tiedje,3 Mark Linzer,4,5 Deborah Boehm,4 Sara Poplau,6 Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira,7 Laura Odell,8 Victor M Montori,2,9 David T Eton1,2 1The Mayo Clinic Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, 2Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Department of Anthropology, Université Lumière Lyon 2, Lyon, France; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, 5University of Minnesota Medical School, 6Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 7Department of Social Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; 8Pharmacy Services, 9Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity often require ongoing treatment and complex self-care. This workload and its impact on patient functioning and well-being are, together, known as treatment burden. This study reports on factors that patients with multimorbidity draw on to lessen perceptions of treatment burden. Patients and methods: Interviews (n=50 and focus groups (n=4 groups, five to eight participants per group were conducted with patients receiving care in a large academic medical center or an urban safety-net hospital. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative framework analysis methods, and themes and subthemes were used to identify factors that mitigate burden. Focus groups were held to confirm these findings and clarify any new issues. This study was part of a larger program to develop a patient-reported measure of treatment burden. Results: Five major themes emerged from the interview data. These included: 1 problem-focused strategies, like routinizing self-care, enlisting support of others, planning for the future, and using technology; 2 emotion-focused coping strategies, like

  4. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  5. Peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with prostate cancer risk and tumor burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zhou

    Full Text Available Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been associated with the risk of a number of human cancers; however, the relationship between mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa has not been investigated. In a case-control study of 196 PCa patients and 196 age-paired healthy controls in a Chinese Han population, the association between mtDNA copy number in PBLs and PCa risk was evaluated. The relative mtDNA copy number was measured using quantitative real-time PCR; samples from three cases and two controls could not be assayed, leaving 193 cases and 194 controls for analysis. PCa patients had significantly higher mtDNA copy numbers than controls (medians 0.91 and 0.82, respectively; P<0.001. Dichotomized at the median value of mtDNA copy number in the controls, high mtDNA copy number was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa (adjusted odds ratio= 1.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.83. A significant dose-response relationship was observed between mtDNA copy number and risk of PCa in quartile analysis (Ptrend = 0.011. Clinicopathological analysis showed that high mtDNA copy numbers in PCa patients were significantly associated with high Gleason score and advanced tumor stage, but not serum prostate-specific antigen level (P = 0.002, 0.012 and 0.544, respectively. These findings of the present study indicate that increased mtDNA copy number in PBLs is significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa and may be a reflection of tumor burden.

  6. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are ... high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and others. Heart Disease Risk Factors 09/30/2011 This video—presented ...

  7. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role. PMID:8373546

  8. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  9. Use of expansion factors to estimate the burden of dengue in Southeast Asia: a systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Undurraga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus infection is the most common arthropod-borne disease of humans and its geographical range and infection rates are increasing. Health policy decisions require information about the disease burden, but surveillance systems usually underreport the total number of cases. These may be estimated by multiplying reported cases by an expansion factor (EF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As a key step to estimate the economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia (SEA, we projected dengue cases from 2001 through 2010 using EFs. We conducted a systematic literature review (1995-2011 and identified 11 published articles reporting original, empirically derived EFs or the necessary data, and 11 additional relevant studies. To estimate EFs for total cases in countries where no empirical studies were available, we extrapolated data based on the statistically significant inverse relationship between an index of a country's health system quality and its observed reporting rate. We compiled an average 386,000 dengue episodes reported annually to surveillance systems in the region, and projected about 2.92 million dengue episodes. We conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, simultaneously varying the most important parameters in 20,000 Monte Carlo simulations, and derived 95% certainty level of 2.73-3.38 million dengue episodes. We estimated an overall EF in SEA of 7.6 (95% certainty level: 7.0-8.8 dengue cases for every case reported, with an EF range of 3.8 for Malaysia to 19.0 in East Timor. CONCLUSION: Studies that make no adjustment for underreporting would seriously understate the burden and cost of dengue in SEA and elsewhere. As the sites of the empirical studies we identified were not randomly chosen, the exact extent of underreporting remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the results reported here, based on a systematic analysis of the available literature, show general consistency and provide a reasonable empirical basis to

  10. Psychological distress as a risk factor for dementia death

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Tom C.; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Starr, John; Batty, G. David

    2011-01-01

    Current estimates suggest that neuropsychiatric disorders account for 28% of the global burden of disease.1 While depression and anxiety (commonly referred to as psychological distress) have been shown to be a consequence of dementia, the converse is less clear. The possibility that psychological distress might be a risk factor for dementia has major public health implications. However longitudinal studies—which are best placed to examine this relationship—have, with some exceptions,2,3 been ...

  11. Use of the lethal body burden in the risk quantification of field sediments: influence of temperature and salinity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, A.P.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene that is additionally required within an organism for lethality, after long-term exposure to sediments, is evaluated as an endpoint for risk assessment. This additionally required body burden for lethality after 2 months of exposure to sediments from differ

  12. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  13. Risk factors for eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305

  14. Factors associated with caregiver burden in a child and adolescent psychiatric facility in Lagos, Nigeria: a descriptive cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Mobolaji U

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Definitions of burden of care stress the effect of the patient's mental illness on the family. There are generally very few studies in this environment on caregiver burden in child/adolescent mental ill-health. This study aimed to identify patient and caregiver characteristics that are associated with caregiver burden. Method Caregivers of patients attending the Child and Adolescent Clinic of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos [n = 155] were consecutively recruited over a one-month period. The caregivers were administered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, Zarit Burden Interview, and the Columbia Impairment Scale. Scoring on the Children's Global Assessment Scale was done by clinicians. Results Most caregivers observed in this study were females (80.5%, with mothers of the patients accounting for 78% of all the caregivers. A higher percentage of the patients were males (52.8%. Moderate to severe/severe burden was recorded among 25.2% of caregivers. Factors associated with caregiver burden were patient's level of functioning [r = 0.489, p Conclusion The study reveals a high level of burden among the caregivers of children and adolescents with mental health problems.

  15. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  16. WHAT PROPORTION OF LUNG CANCER IN NEVER-SMOKERS CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO KNOWN RISK FACTORS?

    OpenAIRE

    Sisti, Julia; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Though tobacco smoking is the primary risk factor for lung cancer, a significant fraction of lung cancer deaths occur in lifetime non-smokers. In this paper, we calculate the burden of lung cancer in never-smokers attributable to previously identified risk factors in North America, Europe, and China, using population-based estimates of exposure prevalence and estimates of relative risk derived from recently published meta-analyses. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for individual risk ...

  17. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress ... Return to top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart ...

  18. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease: Know your risk Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? ... overall health. Return to top More information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from ...

  19. Tumour burden in early stage Hodgkin's disease: the single most important prognostic factor for outcome after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nordentoft, A M; Cold, Søren;

    1987-01-01

    . Other known prognostic factors such as number of involved regions, mediastinal size, pathological stage, systemic symptoms, and ESR were related to tumour burden and lost their prognostic significance in a multivariate analysis. The only other factors of independent significance were histologic subtype...

  20. Use of Expansion Factors to Estimate the Burden of Dengue in Southeast Asia: a Systematic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S Shepard; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Halasa, Yara A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA). Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources--surveillance data, World Health Organiz...

  1. Use of Expansion Factors to Estimate the Burden of Dengue in Southeast Asia: a Systematic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Shepard; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Halasa, Yara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA). Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. Methods and Findings We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources—surveillance data, World Health Organizati...

  2. Diabetes Risk Factor Knowledge Varies Among Multiracial College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongiello, Lorraine Laccetti; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Jones, Hollie

    2016-10-01

    All racial/ethnic groups are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes compared to whites, but it is unknown if young adults recognize their risk. Risk knowledge and individual risk perception were examined in 1579 multiracial urban college students. Students have little knowledge of diabetes risk factors; identifying less than three of ten. Considerable variation exists in the understanding of risk; only .02 % of Asian, 14.0 % of Hispanic and 22.8 % of black students recognized that their race increased risk. Among those with ≥3 risk factors (n = 541) only 39 % perceived their risk. These under-estimators had lower knowledge scores (p = .03) than those who acknowledged their risk; indicating that the cause of under-estimating risk may be, at least, in part due to a lack of information. There is a pressing need to heighten understanding of type 2 diabetes risk among young adults to decrease the future burden of this disease. PMID:26169506

  3. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  4. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  5. The burden of stroke in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khealani, Bhojo A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiologic literature on stroke burden, patterns of stroke is almost non existent from Pakistan. However, several hospital-based case series on the subject are available, mainly published in local medical journals. Despite the fact that true stroke incidence and prevalence of stroke in Pakistan is not known, the burden is assumed to be high because of highly prevalent stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia and smoking) in the community. High burden of these conventional stroke risk factors is further compounded by lack of awareness, poor compliance hence poor control, and inappropriate management/treatment practices. In addition certain risk factors like rheumatic valvular heart disease may be more prevalent in Pakistan. We reviewed the existing literature on stroke risk factors in community, the risk factor prevalence among stroke patients, patterns of stroke, out come of stroke, availability of diagnostic services/facilities related to stroke and resources for stroke care in Pakistan. PMID:18811747

  6. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  7. Environmental risk factors for autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Janice M. Dietert; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  8. How to reduce the risk factors of osteoporosis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, P C; P'eng, F K

    1995-03-01

    Osteoporosis can be predicted to be a new burden to public health in Asia. Currently, the incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures is lower there than in most western communities. By the year 2050, however, 50% of the 6.3 million hip fractures which occur worldwide will be in Asians as a result of an aging population, a decrease in physical activity and westernization of lifestyles. The cost of treatment and cure of these patients will be enormous, a sufficient financial burden to consume current economic gain and cripple the future advancing development of Asian countries. Individual risk factors for osteoporosis have been identified by the extensive Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study (MEDOS). Fortunately, Asians, the rural population and farmers in particular, have the favorable lifestyle identified by the study, including high physical activity and exposure to sunlight. Strikingly, tea drinking, a daily habit in Asia, is also identified as a protective factor against osteoporosis. In addition, bioflavonoids and phytoestrogen-rich soybeans and vegetables are consumed in large quantities by Asians. A soy diet reduces mortality in breast and prostate cancer because it contains weak estrogens. The weakly estrogenic phytoestrogens require further study to demonstrate their pharmacological effect in reducing the rate of osteoporosis. Public health education, however, is needed to encourage the Asian population to maintain their traditionally good lifestyle and to reduce the risk factors for osteoporosis. In turn, these steps may reduce the public health burden by 2050.

  9. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG)

  10. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd

  11. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Martin J; Xavier, Denis; Liu, Lisheng;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of various risk factors to the burden of stroke worldwide is unknown, particularly in countries of low and middle income. We aimed to establish the association of known and emerging risk factors with stroke and its primary subtypes, assess the contribution of these risk...... factors to the burden of stroke, and explore the differences between risk factors for stroke and myocardial infarction. METHODS: We undertook a standardised case-control study in 22 countries worldwide between March 1, 2007, and April 23, 2010. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days...... an alternate definition of hypertension was used (history of hypertension or blood pressure >160/90 mm Hg), the combined PAR was 90.3% (85.3-93.7) for all stroke. These risk factors were all significant for ischaemic stroke, whereas hypertension, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio, diet, and alcohol intake were...

  12. Amyloid burden, neuronal function, and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Koscik, Rebecca; Jonaitis, Erin; Cleary, Caitlin A.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Bendlin, Barbara B.; LaRue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Howard A Rowley; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Gallagher, Catherine L; Asthana, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The relative influence of amyloid burden, neuronal structure and function, and prior cognitive performance on prospective memory decline among asymptomatic late middle-aged individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently unknown. We investigated this using longitudinal cognitive data from 122 middle-aged adults (21 “Decliners” and 101 “Stables”) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention who underwent multimodality neuroimaging (11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)...

  13. Predictive factors for latent tuberculosis infection among adolescents in a high-burden area in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mahomed; T. Hawkridge; S. Verver; L. Geiter; M. Hatherill; D.A. Abrahams; R. Ehrlich; W.A. Hanekom; G.D. Hussey

    2011-01-01

    SETTING: A high tuberculosis (TB) burden area in South Africa (notification rate for all TB cases 1400 per 100 000 population). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and predictive factors associated with latent TB infection in adolescents. DESIGN: Adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited fro

  14. Analysis of Risk and Burden of Dysentery Associated with Floods from 2004 to 2010 in Nanning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhidong; Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Xin; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery and to quantify the burden of dysentery due to floods in Nanning, China. A generalized additive mixed model was conducted to assess the relationship between monthly morbidity of dysentery and floods from 2004 to 2010. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of dysentery attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework of the burden of disease study for calculating the potential impact fraction. The relative risk (RR) of floods on the morbidity of dysentery was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-1.75). The models suggest that a potential 1-day rise in flood duration may lead to 8% (RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12) increase in the morbidity of dysentery. The average attributable YLD per 1,000 of dysentery caused by floods were 0.013 in males, 0.005 in females, and 0.009 in persons. Our study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risk and the burden of dysentery in the study area. Public health action should be taken to prevent and control the potential risk of dysentery after floods. Vulnerable groups such as males and children should be paid more attention. PMID:26416103

  15. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  16. [Risc factors for assisted suicide for cancer patients - mental burden of bereaved].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Caroline; Müller-Busch, H Christof

    2015-12-01

    Chronic and progressive disease represents a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior. Cancer patients have almost twice the rate of suicides compared to the general population. Based on a case report, the suicidal risk factors for cancer patients are presented. It is further investigated to what extent professional support by a mobile palliative care team can affect the wish for assisted suicide or the suicidal behavior generally among patients receiving palliative care. In addition, the mental impact on individuals, who were witnesses of assisted suicide of relatives or close friends are presented. The occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressions, anxiety disorders and complicated grief (CG) in close family members is shown. However, further research will be necessary to develop adequate support for patients (and their relatives), who plan an assisted suicide.

  17. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160227.html Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause 'Danger zone' for women earlier ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease risk factors -- such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood ...

  18. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  19. Atrial fibrillation burden and atrial fibrillation type: Clinical significance and impact on the risk of stroke and decision making for long-term anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Pettorelli, Daniele

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia increasing the risk of morbidity and adverse outcomes (stroke, heart failure, death). AF is found in 1-2% of the general population, with increasing prevalence with aging. Its exact epidemiological profile is incomplete and underestimated, because 10-40% of AF patients (particularly the elderly) can be asymptomatic ("clinically silent or subclinical AF"), with occasional electrocardiographic diagnosis. The research interest on silent AF has increased by the evidence that its outcome is no less severe, in terms of risks of stroke and death, than that for symptomatic patients. Data collected from more than 18,000 patients indicate that cardiac implantable electrical devices (CIEDs) are validated tools for detecting silent AF and measuring the time spent in AF, defined as "AF burden." A maximum daily AF burden of ≥5-6min, but particularly ≥1h, is associated with a significant increase in the risk of stroke, and may be clinically relevant to improve current risk stratification based on risk scores and for "personalizing" prescription of oral anticoagulants. An in-depth study of the temporal relationship between AF and ischemic stroke showed that data from CIEDs reveal a complex scenario, by which AF is certainly a risk factor for cardioembolic stroke, with a cause-effect relationship related to atrial thrombi, but can also be a simple "marker of risk," with a noncausal association with stroke. In such cases, stroke is possibly related to atheroemboli from the aorta, the carotid arteries, or other sources. PMID:27196706

  20. Posttransplant Erythrocytosis and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ERDEM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of posttransplant erythrocytosis (PTE. MATERIAL and METHODS: The study included 96 patients who received a renal allograft between 2005-2009 years. PTE was defined as an elevated hematocrit level greater than 51% after renal transplantation in patients receiving an allograft. RESULTS: Of the 96 adult kidney recipients, 15 (15,6% developed PTE. The mean time from transplantation to diagnosis was 7,3 ± 2,8 months ( range, 4,5-13 months . Mean serum creatinine was 1,12 ±0,3 mg/dl (0,8-1,99 mg/dl at the diagnosis of PTE. PTE was more frequent in male patients (p<0.05 and the patients with a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in patient age, donor source, donor age and immunosuppressive therapy on comparing the PTE group and non PTE groups. None of the patients with erythrocytosis experienced thromboembolic events during follow-up. CONCLUSION: PTE developed in the first year after transplantation. Male gender and a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation are risk factors of PTE.

  1. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi;

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  2. Risk Factors, Processes and Risk Management within a Public Health Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Szentes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides clinical medicine, which is in the process of constant and fast development, the focus is increasingly on public health services, which should be well prepared for reducing or keeping under control the dangers induced by the growing social burden of disease. Continuous risk management is represented by these services that are specially designed to prevent diseases and health damages. The grounds for the planning and implementation of public health services are constituted by risk factor management and assessment by means of adopting a unified approach.

  3. An Update on the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia with a Special Reference to Clinically Important Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Missiry, Ahmed; Aboraya, Ahmed Sayed; Manseur, Hader; Manchester, Johnna; France, Cheryl; Border, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness which poses a tremendous burden on the families, caregivers and the society. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of schizophrenia with a special attention to the clinically important risk factors such as drug abuse, hormonal factors and the new advances in genetic…

  4. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  5. HIV and COPD: a conspiracy of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Umesh G; Pillay, Sandy; Mngqibisa, Rosie; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabeer; Ambaram, Anish

    2016-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an under recognized complication of HIV infection. It is estimated that up to 25% of HIV infected people may have COPD. HIV is associated with COPD as a result of a complex interplay of multiple factors such as pulmonary inflammation, recurrent pulmonary infections especially tuberculosis (TB), increased cigarette smoking, socio-economic status, childhood respiratory illnesses and industrial and environmental exposures; each of which are risk factors for COPD in their own right. COPD presents at an earlier age in people with HIV infection. There are over 35 million people living with HIV, and most people infected with HIV live in developing regions of the world where they are faced with multiple risk factors for COPD and suboptimal access to health care. TB is the commonest infectious complication of HIV, and HIV infected persons often experience multiple episodes of TB. Cigarette smoking is increasing in developing countries where the greatest burden of TB and HIV is experienced. Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of TB and may be associated with acquisition of HIV infection and progression. It is not clear whether non-infectious pulmonary inflammation persists in the lung when immune reconstitution occurs. Prevention and control of HIV infection must be part of the multiple interventions to reduce the global burden of COPD. A multidisciplinary approach, including behavioural science is required to address this challenge. It presents research opportunities that should be driven by the pulmonology community. PMID:27237114

  6. Anemia and iron deficiency among school adolescents: burden, severity, and determinant factors in southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye M

    2015-12-01

    health problem in this population. School-based interventions on identified associated factors are important to reduce the burden of anemia among school adolescents. Keywords: anemia, school adolescents, associated factors, Bonga Town

  7. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation increases Pasteurella multocida burden and the expression of its major virulence factors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Shuping; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Fengmei; Li, Nengzhang; Yin, Jie; Peng, Yuanyi; Wu, Li; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of graded doses of L-glutamine supplementation on the replication and distribution of Pasteurella multocida, and the expression of its major virulence factors in mouse model. Mice were randomly assigned to the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 % glutamine. Pasteurella multocida burden was detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney after 12 h of P. multocida infection. The expression of major virulence factors, toll-like receptors (TLRs), proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and anti-oxidative factors (GPX1 and CuZnSOD) was analyzed in the lung and spleen. Dietary 0.5 % glutamine supplementation has little significant effect on these parameters, compared to those with basal diet. However, results showed that a high dose of glutamine supplementation increased the P. multocida burden (P glutamine supplementation inhibited the proinflammatory responses (P glutamine supplementation on different components in TLR signaling depends on glutamine concentration, and high dose of glutamine supplementation activated the proinflammatory response. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation increased P. multocida burden and the expression of its major virulence factors, while affecting the functions of the lung and spleen.

  8. 肺癌患者照料者护理负担的影响因素研究%Factors associated with caregiver burden of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶; 滕月娥; 金波; 赵明芳; 于萍; 王烈; 杨小湜; 刘云鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To assess the level of caregiver burden among lung cancer caregivers and to explore its in-dicators. And provide evidence and new ideas to improve the mental health of lung cancer caregivers. Methods; A cross -sectional study was conducted and data was collected by face -to -face interview. Zarit caregiver burden in-terview (ZBI) was used to access the level of caregiver burden. Results; The ZBI score of lung cancer caregiver was 29. 8 ± 16. 8, nearly 74. 29% of caregivers experienced the low level of caregiver burden. The extent of the impact of caregiving on the family caregivers'transportation and health were the risk factors, while sleeping hours and sense of coherence were the protective factors. Conclusion; Interventizons should be emphasized on increasing sleeping hours and establishing compensation mechanism for nursing care and enhancing the levels of sense of coherence - coping a-bility, so as to cope with caregiver burden.%目的:通过测量肺癌患者照料者的护理负担,了解照料者的照顾负担及心理健康状况及其影响因素.方法:以Zarit护理者负担量表(Zarit caregiver burden interview,ZBI)量表为测量工具,采用横断面抽样方法,面对面结构化访谈收集调查问卷,对肺癌患者主要照料者的护理负担进行测量.结果:肺癌患者照料者护理负担得分为29.8±16.8,74.29%照料者的护理负担在中等以下.交通帮助和健康帮助对护理负担有显著影响,而睡眠时间和心理一致感是护理负担的保护性因素.结论:改善措施应围绕保证照料者睡眠时间来减轻护理工作量或建立轮流护理的补偿机制以及增强照料者心理一致感等心理应对能力来应对护理负担.

  9. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment.

  10. Clinical Profile & Risk Factors in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Yadav, D Joseph, P Joshi, P Sakhi, RK Jha, J Gupta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is becoming a major cause of morbidity & mortality burden in the developing world. Indians have been associated with a more severe form of CAD that has its onset at a younger age group with a male predominance. A prospective study was carried out to identify the risk factors and to know the emerging clinical profile in acute coronary syndrome (ACS including S T elevation & Non S T elevation myocardial infarction. We enrolled 200 consecutive patients with typical ECG changes & clinical history, admitted in emergency department from January 2009 to December 2009. A predefined Performa was completed in every patient with a detailed clinical history, physical examinations, and investigation studies. The clinical history revealed information about age, gender, risk factors, and modes of presentation and duration of symptoms. The details of physical examination including anthropometric data, vital signs and complete systemic evaluation were recorded. The regions of infarction and rhythm disturbances were also documented. Our study showed a significant male predominance with mean age being 56 years. Tobacco was identified as major risk factors (65% & obesity (BMI more than 25 is least common risk factor (13%.Patients had typical chest pain (94% and ECG showed anterior wall changes in54%. Forty percent patients developed complications, majority being arrhythmias (60% and least common is mechanical complication (2.5% Thus we conclude that ACS is more common in adult male with tobacco being major risk factors in our population.

  11. Risks and Population Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases Associated with Diabetes in China: A Prospective Study of 0.5 Million Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Fiona; Li, Liming; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Dong, Caixia; Pan, Rong; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhengming

    2016-01-01

    Background In China, diabetes prevalence is rising rapidly, but little is known about the associated risks and population burden of cardiovascular diseases. We assess associations of diabetes with major cardiovascular diseases and the relevance of diabetes duration and other modifiable risk factors to these associations. Methods and Findings A nationwide prospective study recruited 512,891 men and women aged 30–79 y between 25 June 2004 and 15 July 2008 from ten diverse localities across China. During ~7 y of follow-up, 7,353 cardiovascular deaths and 25,451 non-fatal major cardiovascular events were recorded among 488,760 participants without prior cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing disease risks in individuals with diabetes to those without. Overall, 5.4% (n = 26,335) of participants had self-reported (2.7%) or screen-detected (2.7%) diabetes. Individuals with self-reported diabetes had an adjusted HR of 2.07 (95% CI 1.90–2.26) for cardiovascular mortality. There were significant excess risks of major coronary event (2.44, 95% CI 2.18–2.73), ischaemic stroke (1.68, 95% CI 1.60–1.77), and intracerebral haemorrhage (1.24, 95% CI 1.07–1.44). Screen-detected diabetes was also associated with significant, though more modest, excess cardiovascular risks, with corresponding HRs of 1.66 (95% CI 1.51–1.83), 1.62 (95% CI 1.40–1.86), 1.48 (95% CI 1.40–1.57), and 1.17 (95% CI 1.01–1.36), respectively. Misclassification of screen-detected diabetes may have caused these risk estimates to be underestimated, whilst lack of data on lipids may have resulted in residual confounding of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease risks. Among individuals with diabetes, cardiovascular risk increased progressively with duration of diabetes and number of other presenting modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Assuming a causal association, diabetes now accounts for ~0.5 million (489,676, 95% CI 335,777

  12. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-03-18

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  13. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  14. Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this iss...

  15. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor;

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so it...... draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps in...... data and research using structured, transparent methods. Such gaps are a significant challenge for global risk modeling. Experience with the WHO FERG expert elicitation shows that it is feasible to conduct an expert elicitation at a global scale, but that challenges do arise, including: defining an...

  16. Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Yoon, Eunkyung; Kropf, Nancy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care…

  17. Associations of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Fetuin-A With Coronary Plaque Burden and Plaque Composition in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Akın, F.; Ömer, C.; Ayça, B.; İbrahim, A.; Diker, V.; Covic, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The total burden of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) is significant among young adults. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and fetuin-A are established predictors of morbidity and mortality because of cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between subclinical CAD and serum FGF-23 and fetuin-A concentrations among a population of young adults. Methods A total of 241 subjects younger than 45 years who had undergone coron...

  18. Lead Burden as a Factor for Higher Complication Rate in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kolibash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lead revisions have increased over the last decade. Patients who do not undergo lead extraction face an increased lead burden. Consequences of increased lead burden have not been fully defined. We sought to characterize the complication rate and outcomes in patients with sterile redundant leads. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients [mean age 74 ± 12 years; 66.9% male] who underwent lead revision that resulted in an abandoned lead from January 2005 to June 2010. Patients were placed in a cohort based on number of leads after last recorded procedure (Group A: ≤2 [n=58]; Group B: 3-4 [n=168]; Group C: ≥5 [n=16]. Prespecified inhospital and long-term follow-up events were compared. Mortality rates were obtained from Social Security Death Index. Median follow-up was 2 years. Results: Baseline age, gender and race demographics were similar among the three groups. Increasing lead burden was associated with more adverse periprocedural events (A: 3.4%, B: 10.1%, C: 25.0%; P=0.031 and long-term device-related events (A: 1.7%, B: 13.0%, C: 18.8%; P=0.031. Device-related readmissions increased in frequency as lead burden increased (A: 3.5%, B: 18.5%, C: 37.5%; P=0.002. Combined periprocedural and late events also increased with more redundant leads (A: 5.2%, B: 23.2%, C: 44.0%; P=0.001. Total major events were infrequent (3.3%. There was no procedure-related mortality. Long-term all-cause mortality was not significantly different (A: 17.2%, B: 23.8%, C: 25.0%; P=0.567. Conclusions: Greater lead burden was associated with increased number of periprocedural and long-term minor events. It did not significantly impact major events or mortality.

  19. Cerebrovascular disease in South Asia – Part II: Risk factors and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Vibha, Deepti; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2012-01-01

    In South Asian countries, conventional vascular risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, smoking, obesity, atrial fibrillation are the dominant ones, while other aetiologies like rheumatic heart disease, infective meningitis-related infarcts and postpartum cerebral venous thrombosis also constitute a big fraction. This review discusses the evidence of prevalence of various risk factors in South Asian countries and possible measures to combat the rising burden of cer...

  20. Risk factors for vascular disease and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breteler, M M; Bots, M L; Ott, A; Hofman, A

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that risk factors for vascular disease and stroke are associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. This paper reviews current knowledge on the relationship between risk factors for stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The focus will be on 'classical' risk factors, including age and gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, cholesterol, prior cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, cigarette smoking and alcohol use; as well as on factors that more recently have been recognized as putative risk factors, including APOE genotype, serum homocysteine concentration, relative abnormalities in the hemostatic and thrombotic systems, and inflammation.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  2. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  3. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  4. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  5. Attributable risk for radiation in the presence of other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologne, John; Cullings, Harry; Furukawa, Kyoji; Ross, Phillip

    2010-11-01

    Two motivations for studying radiation risk are (1) to quantify the magnitude of risk as an aid to setting radiation protection standards and (2) to understand causality as an aid to assigning compensation for radiation exposed individuals whose disease or death may have been related to radiation exposure. Although it has long been known that radiation risk is modified by factors such as sex, age, and time, it is now apparent that radiation risk may also be modified by other risk factors, such as smoking, inflammation, genotype, and certain pathogens. Even apart from considerations of etiological interaction, the relative contribution of radiation to total burden of disease or death may depend on the level of background (spontaneous) risk of disease or death owing to those other factors if the joint effects do not multiply. Therefore, ignoring those other factors in assessing probability of causation for radiation (attributable fraction in epidemiological data) involves making a strong assumption about the joint effects. The concepts are discussed in detail and illustrated using results from studies on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. PMID:20938230

  6. Risk factors for gastroenteritis in child day care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enserink, R; Mughini-Gras, L; Duizer, E; Kortbeek, T; Van Pelt, W

    2015-10-01

    The child day-care centre (DCC) is often considered as one risk factor for gastroenteritis (GE) rather than a complex setting in which the interplay of many factors may influence the epidemiology of GE. This study aimed to identify DCC-level risk factors for GE and major enteropathogen occurrence. A dynamic network of 100 and 43 DCCs participated in a syndromic and microbiological surveillance during 2010-2013. The weekly incidence of GE events and weekly prevalence of five major enteropathogens (rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum) were modelled per DCC using mixed-effects negative binomial/Poisson regression models. Sixteen hundred children were surveyed up to 3 years, during which 1829 GE episodes were reported and 5197 faecal samples were analysed. Identified risk factors were: large DCC capacity, crowding, having animals, nappy changing areas, sandpits, paddling pools, cleaning potties in normal sinks, cleaning vomit with paper towels (but without cleaner), mixing of staff between child groups, and staff members with multiple daily duties. Protective factors were: disinfecting fomites with chlorine, cleaning vomit with paper towels (and cleaner), daily cleaning of bed linen/toys, cohorting and exclusion policies for ill children and staff. Targeting these factors may reduce the burden of DCC-related GE. PMID:25592679

  7. Psychosocial factors of caregiver burden in child caregivers: results from the new national study of caregiving

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Steven A.; Cook, Sarah; Kelley, Lauren; Sando, Trisha; Bell, Allison E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 50 million informal caregivers in the United States provide care to an aging adult, saving the economy hundreds of billions of dollars annually from costly hospitalization or institutionalization. Despite the benefits associated with caregiving, caregiver stress can lead to negative physical and mental health consequences, or “caregiver burden”. Given these potential negative consequences of caregiver burden, it is important not only to understand the multidimensional componen...

  8. Breast cancer after radiotherapy: Risk factors and suggestion for breast delineation as an organ at risk in the prepubertal girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients who survive a cancer occurring during childhood or young adulthood, treated with radiation, are at a very high risk of chronic sequelae and secondary tumours. To reduce this radioinduced morbidity and mortality, efforts are put on reducing the burden of the treatments and a long-term monitoring of these patients is progressively organized. We present a general review of the literature about the risk factors for developing a secondary breast cancer, which is the most frequent secondary tumour in this population. We suggest that contouring the prepubescent breast as an organ at risk may help predict the risk and reduce the dose to the breasts using modern radiotherapy techniques. (authors)

  9. Farm-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A longitudinal study was conducted in Iceland to identify the means to decrease the frequency of broiler flock colonization with Campylobacter, thereby reducing the burden of foodborne illness associated with poultry consumption. Our objective in this study was to identify risk factors...

  10. Estimating health-adjusted life expectancy conditional on risk factors: results for smoking and obesity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baal, Pieter H M van; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Wit, G Ardine de; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Smoking and obesity are risk factors causing a large burden of disease. To help formulate and prioritize among smoking and obesity prevention activities, estimations of health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) for cohorts that differ solely in their lifestyle (e.g. smoking vs. no

  11. A new method for IVUS-based coronary artery disease risk stratification: A link between coronary & carotid ultrasound plaque burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Shukla, Devarshi; Londhe, Narendra D; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Banchhor, Sumit K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-02-01

    Interventional cardiologists have a deep interest in risk stratification prior to stenting and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is most commonly adapted for screening, but current tools lack the ability for risk stratification based on grayscale plaque morphology. Our hypothesis is based on the genetic makeup of the atherosclerosis disease, that there is evidence of a link between coronary atherosclerosis disease and carotid plaque built up. This novel idea is explored in this study for coronary risk assessment and its classification of patients between high risk and low risk. This paper presents a strategy for coronary risk assessment by combining the IVUS grayscale plaque morphology and carotid B-mode ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) - a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Support vector machine (SVM) learning paradigm is adapted for risk stratification, where both the learning and testing phases use tissue characteristics derived from six feature combinational spaces, which are then used by the SVM classifier with five different kernels sets. These six feature combinational spaces are designed using 56 novel feature sets. K-fold cross validation protocol with 10 trials per fold is used for optimization of best SVM-kernel and best feature combination set. IRB approved coronary IVUS and carotid B-mode ultrasound were jointly collected on 15 patients (2 days apart) via: (a) 40MHz catheter utilizing iMap (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA) with 2865 frames per patient (42,975 frames) and (b) linear probe B-mode carotid ultrasound (Toshiba scanner, Japan). Using the above protocol, the system shows the classification accuracy of 94.95% and AUC of 0.95 using optimized feature combination. This is the first system of its kind for risk stratification as a screening tool to prevent excessive cost burden and better patients' cardiovascular disease management, while validating our two hypotheses.

  12. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  13. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  14. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases(CVDs) is escalating,and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition.Contributory causes include:growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile,socio-economic factors,lifestyle changes due to urbanization.Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity.Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics,along with all form of tobacco use.The pace of health transition,however,varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs.A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial,primary and secondary prevention.Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives,enable nutritionbased preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  15. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy a

  16. Predictive Value of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Risk Assessment in Cohort of Shiraz Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk assessment for fast growing burden of cardiovascular diseases is very important and dif- ficult. As a response to this challenge, in particular, genetic risk factors which potentially modify risk, we conducted a survey of primary data registry of Shiraz Heart Study on integration and application of family history data in prevention of cardiovascular disorders.Method: This study is a longitudinal cohort project to be extended from subpopulations of different job groups to the community.Results: Parental family history of MI, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia (HPL, hypertension (HTN was reported more frequently among females than males. Histories of MI, DM, HPL, and HTN in both parents were respectively positive in 2.6%, 2%, 4.6%, and 7.9 % of the participants. Odd ratios (OR for risk of MI from family history of MI were 2.7; risk of DM from family history of DM 4.5; risk of HPL from family history of HPL 2.04; and risk of HTN from family history HTN 4.7. Also, family history of MI modifies risk of HPL (OR=1.7, P<0.0001; and family history of DM modifies risk of HPL (OR=2.04, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Our primary result shows potent application of family history data in risk assessment of cardiovascular outcome. In particular, HTN appears as a silent and leading risk modifier. In regard to the course of continuing Shiraz Heart Study integration of family history of risk factors crucial in public health we suggest to adopt a network of electronic health records from the “Health House” to the “Heart House”.

  17. Emergence agitation in children: risk factors, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Akihiro

    2016-04-01

    Emergence agitation (EA) in children is a major postoperative issue that increases the risk of patient self-harm, places a burden on nursing staff, and reduces parent satisfaction with treatment. Risk factors for EA include age, preoperative anxiety, patient personality, pain, anesthesia method, and surgical procedure. Sevoflurane and desflurane are widely used anesthetics due to their low blood/gas partition coefficients, but they have recently been posited as a cause of EA in children. The perioperative administration of opioids, midazolam, ketamine, alpha-2 agonist sedatives, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has demonstrated efficacy in the prevention and treatment of EA. Maintenance of anesthesia using propofol has also been shown to prevent EA. In children, anesthesia methods that are unlikely to cause EA should be selected, with the prompt adminstration of appropriate treatment in cases of EA. PMID:26601849

  18. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  19. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors....... This traditional risk factor analysis led to two borderline significant results: duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's alcohol intake during the 3rd trimester. Since these possible two risk factors could neither be rejected nor accepted, we decided to do two in-depth studies, further investigating these...

  20. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  1. Napping in older people 'at risk' of dementia: relationships with depression, cognition, medical burden and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Nathan; Terpening, Zoe; Rogers, Naomi L; Duffy, Shantel L; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-10-01

    Sleep disturbance is prevalent in older adults, particularly so in those at a greater risk of dementia. However, so far the clinical, medical and neuropsychological correlates of daytime sleep have not been examined. The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics and effects of napping using actigraphy in older people, particularly in those 'at risk' of dementia. The study used actigraphy and sleep diaries to measure napping habits in 133 older adults 'at risk' of dementia (mean age = 65.5 years, SD = 8.4 years), who also underwent comprehensive medical, psychiatric and neuropsychological assessment. When defined by actigraphy, napping was present in 83.5% (111/133) of participants; however, duration and timing varied significantly among subjects. Nappers had significantly greater medical burden and body mass index, and higher rates of mild cognitive impairment. Longer and more frequent naps were associated with poorer cognitive functioning, as well as higher levels of depressive symptoms, while the timing of naps was associated with poorer nocturnal sleep quality (i.e. sleep latency and wake after sleep onset). This study highlights that in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, napping is associated with underlying neurobiological changes such as depression and cognition. Napping characteristics should be more routinely monitored in older individuals to elucidate their relationship with psychological and cognitive outcomes. PMID:26096839

  2. Predicted burden of venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun Huw

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition with clinical signs and symptoms ranging from spider veins, to varicose veins, to active venous ulceration. Both superficial and deep venous dysfunction may be implicated in the development of this disease. Socio-economic factors are shaping our population, with increasing age and body mass index resulting in significant pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. These risk factors also lead to an increased risk of developing superficial and/or deep venous insufficiency, increasing disease prevalence and morbidity. In this chapter, the authors review the current and future burden of chronic venous disease from an epidemiological, quality of life and economic perspective. PMID:26916773

  3. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  4. Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing world and 80% of global burden is reported from these nations. Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer. Risk factor of cervical cancer may in itself be the reason for non-viability of cervical cancer vaccine program in this part of the world. Interventions to address these risk fac...

  5. CVD risk factors and ethnicity--a homogeneous relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sattar, Naveed

    2006-04-01

    Current understanding of cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) is derived largely from studies of Caucasians of European origin. However, people of certain ethnic groups experience a disproportionately greater burden of CVD including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Adoption of a Westernised lifestyle has different effects on metabolic and vascular dysfunction across populations, e.g. South Asians have a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality compared with Europeans. African-Americans demonstrate higher rates of CHD and stroke while African/Caribbeans in the UK have lower CHD rates and higher stroke rates than British Europeans. Other non-European groups such as the Chinese and Japanese exhibit consistently high rates of stroke but not CHD, while Mexican Americans have a higher prevalence of both stroke and CHD, and North American native Indians also have high rates of CHD. While conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol predict risk within these ethnic groups, they do not fully account for the differences in risk between ethnic groups, suggesting that alternative explanations might exist. Ethnic groups show differences in levels of visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and novel risk markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin and plasma homocysteine. The marked differences across racial and ethnic groups in disease risk are likely due in part to each of genetic, host susceptibility and environmental factors, and can provide valuable aetiological clues to differences in patterns of disease presentation, therapeutic needs and response to treatment. Ongoing studies should increase understanding of ethnicity as a potential independent risk factor, thus enabling better identification of treatment targets and selection of therapy in specific populations.

  6. The Importance of Behavioral Risk Factors for Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the cause for almost 60.0% of the deaths in the world is chronic diseases. In the word each year, due to die 5.1 million people from tobacco use, 3.2 million people from physical inactivity, 2.8 million people from overweight or obesity, and 2.7 million people from inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables. The relationships between environmental, socio-economic, cultural and individual characteristics of the risk factors were multi-dimensional and complex. Today, socio-economic burden of disease and risk factors they bring to society are calculated and determined according to this policy. According to World Health Organization (WHO Global Health Risks report, tobacco use, being overweight or obese, insufficient physical activity, alcohol consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption were responsible one-third of deaths (34.4%, and 19.3% (excluded inadequate e fruits and vegetables consumption of the burden of DALYs in middle-income countries. According to Turkey the National Burden of Disease (NBD and WHO is preparing the Global Burden of Disease 2005, which is fundamental in the prevention of chronic diseases is life style risks that can be prevented, controlled, and changed. According to the NBD 2004 study, 79% of deaths were due to non-communicable diseases in our country. The primary risk factor for DALY is high blood pressure, and following 6 risk factors were related to behavior in our country. Smoking, being overweight or obese, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, inactive life, and high dietary fat and salt intake which are considered to be significant risk factors for chronic diseases are lifestyle behaviors. When adults visited to health facilities for any reason, their risky behavior can be evaluated. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 735-740

  7. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  8. Hypertension and its risk factors among postmenopausal women in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder, posing a major public health challenge to population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age and is more common in men as compared to women. But women loose this advantage after menopause due to estrogen deficiency. Objectives: 1. To assess the prevalence of hypertension and risk factors for hypertension among postmenopausal women in an urban community in Delhi. 2. To study association of risk factors with hypertension. Methodology: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted at Palam, an urbanized village in Delhi. A total 416 postmenopausal women were interviewed, examined and investigated. Results: Majority (78% of postmenopausal women were in the age group of 45-65 years. More than three fourth 342 (82.4% of women belonged to lower middle and upper lower socio-economic status. The prevalence of hypertension in these women was 39.6%, another one third (37% were pre-hypertensive. All women had one or more than one risk factor for hypertension. The most common risk factors were high salt intake (82.7%, low vegetable and fruit intake (64.2%, stress (53.2% and truncal obesity (36.1%. Risk factors like diabetes, obesity, smoking and physical inactivity were significantly more common in hypertensive as compared to non-hypertensive. Conclusion: Burden of hypertension among postmenopausal women in the present study was found to be high. Interventions integrating promotive, preventive and curative care for postmenopausal women should be provided to them.

  9. Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Exploring the Relationship between Rent Burden and Risk Behaviors for Single Room Occupancy Building Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of health determinants research recognizes that housing and health are intimately linked. This study explores the relationship between rent burden (the ratio of rent to income) and health risk behaviors among a sample of single room occupancy (SRO) building residents. Cross-sectional data were gathered from a sample of 162 residents living in privately owned, for-profit SROs in Chicago. Findings indicated that participants who had full rental subsidies and thus were designated in a no-rent-burden category were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including illicit drug use, having multiple sexual partners, and having sex without a condom, in comparison to participants with moderate or high-rent burdens. These findings suggest that interventions to increase housing stability and affordability and bolster reliable income sources (in addition to rental subsidies) may be key in reducing risk behaviors and improving health for vulnerably housed populations such as SRO residents. PMID:27167535

  10. Poor stroke-related risk factor control even after stroke: an opportunity for rehabilitation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charles; Breland, Hazel L

    2014-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease worldwide is substantial. Unfortunately, risk factor control for most chronic diseases remains poor even after diagnoses. This is a major concern because poor risk factor control often leads to secondary consequences of the disease and the development of co-existing diseases. Stroke is a chronic condition that frequently requires the services of rehabilitation professionals who can also play an important role in risk factor management to reduce recurrent stroke. Approaches to the management of stroke risk factors in stroke survivors vary greatly and consequently outcomes vary in a similar fashion. The current literature suggests that uniform offering of structured risk factor control programs over time to individuals with chronic disease can improve knowledge of stroke risk factors, knowledge of action to control risk factors and in turn facilitate self-management practices that reduce the negative consequences of chronic diseases. Rehabilitation professionals can play a vital role in the management and secondary prevention of chronic diseases during the rehabilitation process via patient education and training. Implications for Rehabilitation Evidence suggests that risk factor control remains poor in many individuals with chronic conditions such as stroke. Rehabilitation professionals can play a key role in programs designed to improve risk factor control in chronic conditions. Future risk factor control programs can be structured and implemented over time to include rehabilitation professionals.

  11. Carrying the (paper) burden: A portfolio view of systemic risk and optimal bank size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.W.B.; Lamers, M.; Purice, V.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between bank size and financial stability by viewing the supervisor of a banking system as an ‘investor’ holding a portfolio of banks. Based on this view, we investigate the role of large banks in determining the systemic risk in this portfolio. Our results, based on book

  12. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors. PMID:27618375

  13. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  14. Uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk : uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk management.

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, P.

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty factors (also known as extrapolation or safety factors) are widely used in lower tier ecotoxicological risk management in order to allow for sources of variability and uncertainty for which there is only limited information. From the point of view of probabilistic risk assessment, the rationale underlying both the use of uncertainty factors and the specific values chosen is often unclear. On the other hand, uncertainty factors are a convenient approach to lower tier risk assessme...

  15. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on Wes

  16. Modifiable risk factors for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Gianoulakis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death after cardiac disease and cancer in the developed countries. In patients older than 65 years old, ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of disability. They are also responsible for approximately 4.5 million deaths each year globally.The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.The method οf this study included bibliographic research from both reviews and researches from literature, mainly of the last 8 years. The words used in pub med data base, referred to the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.Results: In the majority of research studies, responsible risk factors for ischemic stroke are classified according to their ability of modification, in modifiable and non–modifiable risk factors. Some of the modifiable risk factors have been fully documented whereas some others need further research. The main modifiable risk factor is hypertension because on the one hand it promotes atherosclerosis and, on the other hand, leads to deteriorative changes and constrictions of small brain vessels. Atrial fibrillation is the most significant risk factor for ischemic stroke, since it is responsible for more than 50% of thromboembolic cases. Also, patients with diabetes mellitus are in higher risk for developing ischemic stroke compared to healthy population, whereas the danger is increasing in insuline-depented individuals. Increase of lipids in blood and disorders of cholesterol are responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary vessels and carotid. More in detail, carotid stenosis >50% in individuals over than 65 years old consist a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke. Though, the relation of smoking to ischemic stroke is still not fully understood, however smokers are in high risk for developing ischemic stroke for the reason that smoking is significantly related to

  17. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  18. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...

  19. Facility siting and health questions: the burden of health risk uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, J.M.; Costello, R.J.; Kominsky, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted several evaluations of occupational health problems at or near hazardous waste disposal facilities. Several examples illustrate the variety of public health concerns, including contamination of water supplies, airborne exposure to toxic substances for nearby residential areas, fires affecting nearby residents and local firefighters, and occupational health hazards for workers at these sites. Most of the potential health problems can be prevented with appropriate planning, orientation, and monitoring of the facility. The most difficult part is assuring the community that the design and operation will minimize risks.

  20. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to dr

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk f

  2. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment h...

  3. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.

  4. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption of awkward postures. Another category of work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) includes psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demands, job control and social supp...

  5. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at...

  6. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Knopman, David S; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular deme...

  7. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained fi...

  8. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  9. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  10. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  11. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    . Rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 2.4) and chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.5) was associated with site-specific osteoporosis by DXA at the total hip. Current use of loop diuretics (OR = 1.7) and glucocorticoid use (OR = 1.04-1.06) were associated with both total hip and femoral neck T-score ... confirms an independent negative association with BMD of many established risk factors, certain comorbidities, and medications. Exercise level, use of loop diuretics, and prevalent chronic pulmonary disease, risk factors not included in fracture risk calculators were associated with osteoporosis by DXA...

  12. On Language Acquisition Amongst Children and on Maternal Sensitivity in Families Subject to Risk Factors and those Free of Risk Factors. A Study in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Abarca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors can lead to disturbance of all areas of a child's development, and thus also of language acquisition and to problems in early relationships between parent and child. In the event of multiple risk factors, as it is often the case amongst people living in poverty, the burden of risks and therefore the probability of developmental disturbance rises (Laucht, Esser & Schmidt, 1998; Wustmann, 2004.In the present study a sample amongst families living in poverty (San Pedro, Ecuador was compared with a sample taken from middle-class families (Quito, Ecuador. An examination was carried out whether there was a varying number of risk factors and whether there were differences in the language competence of the child as well as in the mother's sensitivity. There was a further examination of whether there was a correlation between maternal sensitivity and communicative competences. The results indicate a negative influence of risk conditions on the language acquisition of the children and on the intuitive and sensitive maternal competences. In the risk group, the results showed a preponderance of delays and disturbances in language development of the children. The mothers from the risk sample group displayed less sensitivity than the control group. There was also a correlation between maternal sensitivity and individual areas of competence. This study shows that it is necessary to ascertain the delays in children's language acquisition and mother-child interaction, particularly amongst families with serious burdens and multiple risk factors. Ascertaining these developmental risks can be used for prevention or intervention which can reduce the risk of negative consequences and aid positive adaptation.

  13. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections: associated risk factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacek, Martin; Baddour, Larry M

    2015-01-01

    Infections of cardiovascular implantable electric devices (CIED) are a burden on patients and healthcare systems and should be prevented. The most frequent pathogens are coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus. The most important risk factors for CIED infections are diabetes mellitus, renal and heart failure, corticosteroid use, oral anticoagulation, fever within 24 hours before the procedure and leucocytosis, implantable cardioverter defibrillator compared with pacemaker, especially in the case of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, lack of antibiotic prophylaxis, and postoperative haematoma and other wound complications. Other important risk factors are history of prior procedures and previous CIED infections, number of leads, use of povidone-iodine compared with chlorhexidine-alcohol, and centres and operators with a low volume of implants. To prevent CIED infections, patients undergoing CIED procedures and appropriate devices should be carefully selected, and interventions should be performed by trained operators. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered, and skin antisepsis should be done with chlorhexidine-alcohol. Oral anticoagulation should be continued during CIED procedures in high-risk patients for thromboembolism, instead of bridging with heparin. Early reintervention in cases of haematoma or lead dislodgement should be avoided. The implementation of infection prevention programmes reduces infection rates. More randomised controlled studies are needed to evaluate prevention strategies, especially skin preparation and antibiotic prophylaxis with glycopeptides. PMID:26230056

  14. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  15. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  16. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 par...

  17. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors probably play an important role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). However, not many environmental factors have been identified for which unequivocal evidence is available for a relation with PD risk. The main focus of the research described in this thesis was on studyi

  18. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  19. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD among a sample in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Melvin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD is increasing in India. Several modifiable risk factors contribute directly to this disease burden. Public knowledge of such risk factors among the urban Indian population is largely unknown. This investigation attempts to quantify knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD as sampled among an Indian population at a large metropolitan hospital. Methods A hospital-based, cross sectional study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, a major tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Participants (n = 217 recruited from patient waiting areas in the emergency room were provided with standardized questionnaires to assess their knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD. The risk factors specifically included smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Identifying 3 or less risk factors was regarded as a poor knowledge level, whereas identifying 4 or more risk factors was regarded as a good knowledge level. A multiple logistic regression model was used to isolate independent demographic markers predictive of a participant's level of knowledge. Results 41% of the sample surveyed had a good level of knowledge. 68%, 72%, 73% and 57% of the population identified smoking, obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol correctly, respectively. 30% identified diabetes mellitus as a modifiable risk factor of CASHD. In multiple logistic regression analysis independent demographic predictors of a good knowledge level with a statistically significant (p Conclusion An Indian population in a hospital setting shows a lack of knowledge pertaining to modifiable risk factors of CASHD. By isolating demographic predictors of poor knowledge, such as current smokers and persons who do not exercise regularly, educational interventions can be effectively targeted and implemented as primary and secondary prevention strategies

  20. Knowledge of heart disease risk factors among workers in a Nigerian University: A call for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the commonest cause of mortality worldwide. Many risk factors predate the development of cardiovascular diseases. Adequate knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases is the first step towards effective preventive strategies to combat the cardiovascular diseases burden in any population. This study aims to determine the knowledge of workers in a Nigerian University on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 206 academic and non-academic staff of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria using the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ. Demographic data were taken. The lipid profile and random blood sugar were taken. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 45.3 ΁ 7.9 years. There were 96 males (46.6%. The mean HDFQ score was 48.6%. Only 41 (19.9% of participants were assessed to have good knowledge of heart disease risk factors. Majority, 101 (49.0% had poor knowledge while 64 (31.2% had fair knowledge of heart disease risk factors. There was no significant difference between prevalence of CV risk factors between those with good or fair or low level of knowledge. Most participants did not have a good level of knowledge about risk factors, prevention, treatment and association with diabetes as it relates to heart diseases. Conclusion: Knowledge of heart disease risk factors is low among University workers in Nigeria. Effective education on heart disease risk factors and appropriate preventive strategies are indeed important to reduce cardiovascular disease burden in Nigerian University communities.

  1. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma. We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glaucoma (by standard protocols of diagnosis and basic procedures on tertiary level at Clinic of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia.. The authors analyzed epidemiological characteristics: sex, age groups, positive/negative family history and personal history with chronic risk factors (one and/or two of ocular hypertension. The data obtained from this study were statistically analyzed in SPSS program, version 20.00. Results: As for the patients, 69 of them (57.02% were male and 52 female (42.98%. Dominant age group was between 40-49 (42.15% and then group between 50-59 (40.50% years of age. Anamnesis data indicated the absence of family anamnesis 71 (58.68%. Risk factors for ocular hypertension were presented in 103 (85.13% patients, 18 of them (14.87% did not respond. One risk factor - cardiovascular disease was noted in 83 (68.59%, with two risk factors - cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in 20 patients (16.53% and with PEX syndroma at other respondents. Conclusion: Ocular hypertension is not a common disease, but with risk factors, such as older age, positive family history, and chronic risk factors syndicated, represents a serious clinical and social problem, so the question remains for ophthalmologists - pro or against therapy? Those in favor of therapy would state the safety and protection from conversion/progression of glaucoma; but those against therapy would only mention adequate monitoring of patients.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  3. Periodontal inflamed surface area : quantifying inflammatory burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Abbas, Frank; van der Ploeg, Ids; Spijkervet, Frederik Karst Lucien; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Currently, a large variety of classifications is used for periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases. None of these classifications quantifies the amount of inflamed periodontal tissue, while this information is needed to assess the inflammatory burden posed by periodontitis. Aim:

  4. SEAFARER FATIGUE: A REVIEW OF RISK FACTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Zhao, Zhiwei; Tu, Mingshan;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The widespread occurrence of fatigue in the maritime industry and the consequences for the health and safety of seafarers have caused concern, and indicates the importance of research into risk factors at sea. This review gives an overview of the currently recognized key determinants...... of seafarer fatigue. Methods: A literature study was conducted aiming to collect publications that address work-related risk factors for fatigue. Due to the limited number of publications that deals with seafarers, experiences from other populations sharing the same exposures (e.g. shift work) were also...... included when appropriate. Results: Work at sea involves multiple external risk factors for fatigue such as work stress, irregular work, sleep quantity and quality, workload, and physical factors such as noise and vessel movements. Vulnerability varies between individuals. Conclusions: Taking into account...

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  6. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  7. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijailović Željko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination, histological examination of the liver, radiological examination, serological analysis and viral analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe general data on patients of the study group, risk factor analysis and follow-up results. Results The most prominent risk factor in our study group was intravenous use of drugs in 37 patients (37%, and blood transfusion in 13 patients (13%. Less important risk factors of viral hepatitis C infection included: promiscuity (8%, sexual contact with hepatitis C carriers (5%, surgical intervention (5%, haemodialysis (3%, intranasal use of cocaine (2%. Discussion Hepatitis C viral infection has become the illness of young and middle-aged population. This is due to the epidemic profile of this illness, due to intravenous use of drugs as the most prominent risk factor. Conclusion Due to the number of infected, numerous risk factors and complications of viral hepatitis C, hepatitis C virus has become the most prominent hepatotrophic virus.

  8. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  9. Safety Factors in Pesticide Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

    Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation...... to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account for the uncertainty when · extrapolating from the results of test with a single species in the laboratory...... factors used in pesticide risk assessment: the variability in species sensitivities, and the relationship between acute LC50's and chronic NOEC's....

  10. Amyloid burden, neuronal function, and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Koscik, Rebecca; Jonaitis, Erin; Cleary, Caitlin A.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Bendlin, Barbara B.; LaRue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Rowley, Howard A.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Christian, Brad T.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    The relative influence of amyloid burden, neuronal structure and function, and prior cognitive performance on prospective memory decline among asymptomatic late middle-aged individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently unknown. We investigated this using longitudinal cognitive data from 122 middle-aged adults (21 “Decliners” and 101 “Stables”) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention who underwent multimodality neuroimaging (11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and structural/functional MRI) 5.7±1.4 years (range=2.9–8.9) after their baseline cognitive assessment. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses revealed that the only imaging measure that significantly distinguished Decliners from Stables (p=.027) was a Neuronal Function composite derived from FDG and fMRI. In contrast, several cognitive measures, especially those that tap episodic memory, significantly distinguished the groups (p’s < .05). Complementary receiver operating characteristic curve analyses identified the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) Total (.82±.05, p<.001), the BVMT-R Delayed Recall (.73±.06, p=.001), and the Reading subtest from the Wide-Range Achievement Test-III (.72±.06, p=.002) as the top three measures that best discriminated the groups. These findings suggest that early memory test performance might serve a more clinically-pivotal role in forecasting future cognitive course than is currently presumed. PMID:24621494

  11. Amyloid burden, neuronal function, and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Oh, Jennifer M; Koscik, Rebecca; Jonaitis, Erin; Cleary, Caitlin A; Dowling, N Maritza; Bendlin, Barbara B; Larue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P; Barnhart, Todd E; Murali, Dhanabalan; Rowley, Howard A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Christian, Brad T; Johnson, Sterling C

    2014-04-01

    The relative influence of amyloid burden, neuronal structure and function, and prior cognitive performance on prospective memory decline among asymptomatic late middle-aged individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently unknown. We investigated this using longitudinal cognitive data from 122 middle-aged adults (21 "Decliners" and 101 "Stables") enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention who underwent multimodality neuroimaging [11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] 5.7 ± 1.4 years (range = 2.9-8.9) after their baseline cognitive assessment. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses revealed that the only imaging measure that significantly distinguished Decliners from Stables (p = .027) was a Neuronal Function composite derived from FDG and fMRI. In contrast, several cognitive measures, especially those that tap episodic memory, significantly distinguished the groups (p's<.05). Complementary receiver operating characteristic curve analyses identified the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) Total (.82 ± .05, p < .001), the BVMT-R Delayed Recall (.73 ± .06, p = .001), and the Reading subtest from the Wide-Range Achievement Test-III (.72 ± .06, p = .002) as the top three measures that best discriminated the groups. These findings suggest that early memory test performance might serve a more clinically pivotal role in forecasting future cognitive course than is currently presumed.

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting ... is a risk factor for a number of cancers. But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk ...

  13. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  14. Lung cancer risk factors among women

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...

  15. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B;

    2010-01-01

    patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...... regression analysis identified four risk factors for PPP: preoperative AAS score, preoperative pain to tonic heat stimulation, 30-day postoperative pain intensity, and sensory dysfunction in the groin at 6 months (nerve damage) (all P

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  17. Atherogenic risk factors and hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from...... children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models....... Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed...

  18. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  19. RISK FACTORS OF MORTALITY IN NEONATAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infant Mortality Rate (IMR is high in India. Identification of risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness is essential to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR and ultimately the IMR. AIM To identify the risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. SETTING AND DESIGN It was a nested case control study done at the sick neonatal unit of urban tertiary referral centre. METHODS AND MATERIALS After obtaining ethical committee approval, retrospective analysis of 150 out born neonatal case records of babies admitted during the period from October 2015 to December 2015 was done. Data such as demographic features, maternal details, referral details, perinatal events, clinical features, laboratory reports and outcome were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS These risk factors were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and P value calculated for the same to find out significant risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. RESULTS Neonatal mortality rate was 22%. Male-to-female ratio was 2:1, death occurred more commonly in female neonates (23.1%. Home deliveries carried more risk of mortality. Birth order 4 and above had 25% mortality. Neonates of mother who had primary education and below had higher mortality. Perinatal asphyxia and sepsis were the most common causes of neonatal mortality. By univariate analysis, preterms had 4.9 times increased risk of mortality than term babies. Apnoeic spells, chest retractions and shock had 8 times, 3 times and 3.6 times increased risk of mortality respectively. By multivariate analysis, birth weight below 2 kilograms (kg carried 11.8 times more risk of mortality with a p value 0.00 (95% C.I 3.2, 30.4 and poor maternal intake of iron and folic acid tablets was 3.9 times more risk p value 0.003 (95% C.I 1.6, 9.6, apnoeic spells were 5.8 times more risk of mortality with p value 0.02 (95% C.I 1.3, 26.2. CONCLUSION Birth weight below 2 kg, poor maternal intake of iron and folic

  20. Risk Factors for Wound Complications Following Abdominoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K. Jabaiti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient’s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately

  1. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Avanzo, B.; La Vecchia, C

    1995-01-01

    Risk factors for male breast cancer were investigated in a case-control study of 21 cases and 82 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases in the Greater Milan area between 1988 and 1994. More educated men tended to be at higher risk of breast cancer, with a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-9.4]. The OR was 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.6) for those in the higher social class. Men with no offspring were at higher risk than f...

  2. Early-Life Factors and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bojing; Chen, Honglei; Fang, Fang; Tillander, Annika; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) may take decades to develop and early life exposures such as infection may be important. However, few epidemiological studies have evaluated early life risk factors in relation to PD risk. We therefore examined such associations in a prospective analysis of 3 545 612 individuals born in Sweden between 1932 and 1970 without PD on January 1, 2002. Incident PD cases were identified using the Swedish Patient Register during 2002-2010. Information on sibship size, number of older and younger siblings, multiple births, parental age, birth month and season was obtained from the Swedish Multi-Generation Register. Monthly data on national burden of influenza-like illness during 1932-1970 were obtained from the Swedish Public Health Agency. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During the follow-up, 8779 incident PD cases were identified. As expected, older age, male sex, parental occupation as farmers, and family history of PD were associated with higher PD risk. Overall, early life factors, including flu burden in the year of birth, were not associated with PD risk, although we did find a lower PD risk among participants with older siblings than those without (HR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.98). Our study therefore provided little support for important etiological contributions of early life factors to the PD risk late in life. The finding of a lower PD risk among individuals with older siblings will need confirmation and further investigation. PMID:27082111

  3. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  4. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harmesh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking, asthma in the family seasonal variation etc. Statistical analysis: percentages

  5. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  6. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  7. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the...

  8. Factors associated with caregiver burden in a child and adolescent psychiatric facility in Lagos, Nigeria: a descriptive cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dada Mobolaji U; Okewole Niran O; Ogun Oluyemi C; Bello-Mojeed Mashudat A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Definitions of burden of care stress the effect of the patient's mental illness on the family. There are generally very few studies in this environment on caregiver burden in child/adolescent mental ill-health. This study aimed to identify patient and caregiver characteristics that are associated with caregiver burden. Method Caregivers of patients attending the Child and Adolescent Clinic of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos [n = 155] were consecutively recruited...

  9. Factors associated with caregiver burden in a child and adolescent psychiatric facility in Lagos, Nigeria: a descriptive cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mobolaji U Dada; Okewole, Niran O; Ogun, Oluyemi C; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Definitions of burden of care stress the effect of the patient's mental illness on the family. There are generally very few studies in this environment on caregiver burden in child/adolescent mental ill-health. This study aimed to identify patient and caregiver characteristics that are associated with caregiver burden. Method Caregivers of patients attending the Child and Adolescent Clinic of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos [n = 155] were consecutively recruited over a o...

  10. Calcific aortic valve damage as a risk factor for cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common disease of the elderly. It is a progressive disease ranging from mild valve thickening to severe calcification with aortic valve stenosis. Risk factors for AVC are similar to those for atherosclerosis: age, gender, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and renal failure. AVC shares many similarities to atherosclerosis, including inflammatory cells and calcium deposits, and correlates with coronary plaque burden. Presence of AVC is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The objective for this review is to discuss the clinical features, natural history and prognostic significance of aortic valve calcifications, including mechanical and hemodynamic factors of flow distribution

  11. A community based study of NCD risk factors among adult population in Dehradun, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Agarwal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Non-Communicable disease (NCD is one which is non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. NCDs account for leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. To decrease the burden of NCDs experts stress on the importance of prevention and control with respect to modifiable risk factors. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs.(1  Aims & Objectives: 1. To know the prevalence of risk factors leading to NCDs in the study population. 2. To know the socio-demographic correlates associated with risk factors of NCDs. 3. To suggest appropriate recommendations regarding modifiable risk factors of NCDs in study population. Material & Methods: A Cross-sectional study, Community-based study among 18+ population in field practice areas of Community Medicine Department, SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun. Sample Size: 300 each in urban and rural, total 60. Results: The prevalence of Smoking was 11.3%, Smokeless tobacco use 10.5%, Alcohol use 13.2%, Unhealthy diet 99.5%, Low physical activity 0.8%, High BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2 51.2%, above normal waist-hip ratio 57.0%, Raised blood pressure 58.5% and raised blood sugar 25.2%. Conclusion: Smoking is significantly associated with age, sex and occupation. Raised blood pressure is significantly associated with age, sex and social class.

  12. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  13. Interpersonal violence: an important risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahams Naeemah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. Methods The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Results Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5% in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. Conclusions The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring

  14. A high burden of hypertension in the urban black population of Cape Town: the cardiovascular risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA study.

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    Nasheeta Peer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, associations and management of hypertension in the 25-74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the change between 1990 and 2008/09 in 25-64-year-olds. METHODS: In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined by administered questionnaires, clinical measurements and fasting biochemical analyses. Logistic regression models evaluated the associations with hypertension. RESULTS: There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86% in 2008/09. Age-standardised hypertension prevalence was 38.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 35.6-42.3 with similar rates in men and women. Among 25-64-year-olds, hypertension prevalence was significantly higher in 2008/09 (35.6%, 95% CI: 32.3-39.0 than in 1990 (21.6%, 95% CI: 18.6-24.9. In 2008/09, hypertension odds increased with older age, family history of hypertension, higher body mass index, problematic alcohol intake, physical inactivity and urbanisation. Among hypertensive participants, significantly more women than men were detected (69.5% vs. 32.7%, treated (55.7% vs. 21.9% and controlled (32.4% vs. 10.4% in 2008/09. There were minimal changes from 1990 except for improved control in 25-64-year-old women (1990∶14.1% vs. 2008/09∶31.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The high and rising hypertension burden in this population, its association with modifiable risk factors and the sub-optimal care provided highlight the urgent need to prioritise hypertension management. Innovative solutions with efficient and cost-effective healthcare delivery as well as population-based strategies are required.

  15. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

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    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  16. The Prevalence Of Hypertension And Its Associated Risk Factors In Two Rural Communities In Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Syer Ree Tee; Xin Yun Teoh; Wan Abdul Rahman Wan Mohd Aiman; Ahmad Aiful; Calvin Siu Yee Har; Zi Fu Tan; Abdul Rashid Khan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is estimated to cause4.5% of the global disease burden. The prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia is 32.2%.Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in two rural communities in Penang, Malaysia.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among all consenting residents aged 18 years and above from two villages in Penang. Besides the baseline demographic information, blood pressure was measured using a manual sphygmoma...

  17. Incidence, Characteristics and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury among Dengue Patients: A Retrospective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi; Amer Hayat Khan; Azreen Syazril Adnan; Azmi Sarriff; Yusra Habib Khan; Fauziah Jummaat

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue induced acute kidney injury (AKI) imposes heavy burden of illness in terms of morbidity and mortality. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate incidence, characteristics, risk factors and clinical outcomes of AKI among dengue patients. Methodology A total 667 dengue patients (2008–2013) were retrospectively evaluated and were stratified into AKI and non-AKI groups by using AKIN criteria. Two groups were compared by using appropriate statistical methods. Results Th...

  18. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  19. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular...

  20. The need to increase awareness of the risk factors of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    COPD is a heterogeneous disease responsible for a major burden on public and individual health. A wide variety of intrinsic and environmental risk factors are involved, and exert their influence at various time points during the life span of individuals. Knowledge of these factors is of utmost importance to develop appropriate screening and prevention programs, and may help improving the pathophysiological knowledge of the disease. Accordingly, there are multiple targets of information and education on risk factors for COPD, including the general population and patients, workers and employers, doctors and other healthcare professionals, researchers, policy-makers, payers, etc. Gender and socioeconomic factors need to be specifically considered. Importantly, it is likely that increasing the specific knowledge of COPD risk factors among the above-mentioned targets cannot not be obtained without increasing the general knowledge of COPD in the population, which at present is dramatically low. PMID:27137098

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  2. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  3. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  4. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  5. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  6. Risk Factors of γ-Hydroxybutyrate Overdosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Korf; T. Nabben; A. Benschop; K. Ribbink; J.G.C. van Amsterdam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat

  7. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  8. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  9. Epidemiology and risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameez, Mohammed H; Mayberry, John F

    2015-03-01

    The highest incidence and prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus is in western countries. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and hiatus hernia, increasing age and use of oral bisphosphonates. This article discusses the significance of these findings. PMID:25761802

  10. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  11. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  12. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  13. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  14. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for pl

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  16. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  17. Modifiable etiological factors and the burden of stroke from the Rotterdam study: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J Bos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke prevention requires effective treatment of its causes. Many etiological factors for stroke have been identified, but the potential gain of effective intervention on these factors in terms of numbers of actually prevented strokes remains unclear because of the lack of data from cohort studies. We assessed the impact of currently known potentially modifiable etiological factors on the occurrence of stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This population-based cohort study was based on 6,844 participants of the Rotterdam Study who were aged ≥55 y and free from stroke at baseline (1990-1993. We computed population attributable risks (PARs for individual risk factors and for risk factors in combination to estimate the proportion of strokes that could theoretically be prevented by the elimination of etiological factors from the population. The mean age at baseline was 69.4 y (standard deviation 6.3 y. During follow-up (mean follow-up 12.9 y, standard deviation 6.3 y, 1,020 strokes occurred. The age- and sex-adjusted combined PAR of prehypertension/hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, coronary disease, and overweight/obesity was 0.51 (95% CI 0.41-0.62 for any stroke; hypertension and smoking were the most important etiological factors. C-reactive protein, fruit and vegetable consumption, and carotid intima-media thickness in combination raised the total PAR by 0.06. The PAR was 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.68 for ischemic stroke and 0.70 (95% CI 0.45-0.87 for hemorrhagic stroke. The main limitations of our study are that our study population comprises almost exclusively Caucasians who live in a middle and high income area, and that risk factor awareness is higher in a study cohort than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: About half of all strokes are attributable to established causal and modifiable factors. This finding encourages not only intervention on established etiological factors, but also further study of less

  18. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  19. Risk factors for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a form of pulmonary hypertension caused by obstruction and vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries following pulmonary embolism. Risk factors that predispose patients to CTEPH include the size of the initial thrombus and numerous associated host or medical conditions. Haemostatic risk factors include elevated levels of factor VIII and phospholipid antibodies or intrinsic abnormalities in fibrinogen. Medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk of CTEPH include a history of splenectomy, cancer, ventriculoatrial shunt, chronic inflammatory disease, antiphospholipid antibodies and hypothyroidism. Although CTEPH is potentially curable by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA, up to 40% of patients evaluated for PEA may be denied surgery depending on the level of surgical experience and disease accessibility after pre-operative assessment. Furthermore, an estimated 10–15% of patients are at risk for residual pulmonary hypertension following PEA surgery, due to significant concomitant small-vessel disease. However, pre-operative identification of small-vessel involvement remains a challenge. The current medications effective in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension have not demonstrated efficacy in CTEPH. Accordingly, identification of CTEPH, followed by early referral for evaluation and treatment by an experienced PEA centre, is recommended.

  20. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  1. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  2. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  3. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  4. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  5. Cerebrovascular Risk Factors - In View of Stroke Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Angela K.; Haberl, Roman L.

    2001-01-01

    Stroke risk factors can be divided into those with evidence-based relationship and those with supposed relationship to ischemic stroke, and into potentially treatable risk factors and risk factors with no therapeutic options. Age, gender and race are risk factors with no therapeutic options, while among treatable stroke risk factors most important are high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, patent foramen ovale, cardiac disorders, diabetes mellitus, hiperhomocysteinemia, hiperlipidemia, and...

  6. Double burden: a cross-sectional survey assessing factors associated with underweight and overweight status in Danang, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Kiet A; Ton, Thanh GN; Ngo, Quang V; Vo, Tung T; Annette L Fitzpatrick

    2013-01-01

    Background Many low- to middle-income countries are faced with an increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity while that for underweight remains high, a duality termed “double burden”; both are key risk factors for chronic diseases. This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and factors for underweight and overweight/obesity among adults in Danang, Vietnam, using WHO standard and suggested Asian-specific BMI cut-offs. Methods In 2010, 1713 residents age ≥35 years from 900 households i...

  7. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  8. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...

  9. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  10. Psychological Risk Factors in Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouva M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several theoretical models have been occasionally proposed to account for the involvement of psychological factors in cancer genesis. Family environment and relations as well as certain personality traits were correlated to cancer onset. However, little is known in the case of acute leukemia. The present study examined family environment, state-trait anxiety, hostility and the direction of hostility as well as alexithymia in 41 acute leukemia patients and their first degree relatives (70. In accordance with previous findings, the present results showed that family cohesion, conflict and organization as well as guilt, state anxiety and alexithymia were significant risk factors for the development of the disease.

  11. Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death : Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N. Niemeijer (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSCD is a common cause of death, with around four to five million cases annually worldwide. Determining which persons are at high risk for SCD remains difficult, due to lack of knowledge on individual risk factors and because in the majority of cases, SCD is the first manifestation of

  12. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingFan Xu; ChaoZhao Liang; Julia Lipianskaya; XianGuo Chen; Song Fan; Li Zhang; Jun Zhou; Sheng Tai; ChangQin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This case‑controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid‑eastern China. Aquestionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The ifnal database included 193cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism(9.8%). Ten patients(5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including ifve families(2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers>35 (odds ratio[OR] =1.47) and<18(OR=2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol(OR=2.67), used drugs(OR=1.53) and had an infection(OR=1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers(OR=1.68) and fathers(OR=1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.

  13. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    OpenAIRE

    Janicijevic Katarina; Kocic Sanja; Todorovic Dusan; Sarenac Vulovic Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma). We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glauc...

  14. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  15. Maternal Risk Factors for Congenital Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Streja, Elani

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. In spite of major advances in medical technology, the etiology of CP is still not well understood. There is growing evidence that brain damage leading to CP development occurs during pregnancy and that maternal phenotype contributes to this intrauterine environment. We hypothesized that maternal factors such as infections, smoking, comorbidities and genetics can increase the risk of CP in children. Additionally...

  16. Domestic violence. Risk factors, diagnostic & psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Degtyaryov A.V.

    2012-01-01

    In this article theme of domestic violence & sexual abuse against children is being considered from the cultural-historical, social-economic & psychological paradigms. Foreign authors approaches specialized on the work with children’s abuse & their practical results are presented herein. The risk factors of impact of cruel treatment & different forms of child’s mental development abuse are analyzed. The examples of prevention & psychotherapy work with the abused children are given. The articl...

  17. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  18. Burden of Primary Caregivers of Patient with Liver Cirrhosis and Its Influence Factors%肝硬化患者主要照顾者的负担现况及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓璐; 赵俐杰; 邢琳琳; 李小寒

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the burden of the primary caregivers of patients with liver cirrhosis and its influence factors. Methods With convenience sampling, 242 patients with liver cirrhosis patients investigated by Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI), Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA), and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) then multivariate analysis by non-conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted for its influence factors. Results The score of the burden of caregivers of cirrhosis patients was 31.91±13.40. Of the total, 15.3% of the interviewees had no burden of care giving, while 80.2% of them had burden of mediate level and 4.5% of them serious burden. Compensation, time of care giving, disrupted schedule (SP) were the risk factors for caregivers' burden while self-esteem was the protective factor. Conclusion Most primary caregivers of patients with liver cirrhosis have burden of mediate level and more attention should be paid to caregivers of patients with cirrhosis decompensation, those with a long-term of care giving, those with disrupted schedule and those with low self-esteem. Personalized, comprehensive and multi-factor intervention will benefit the decrease of burden of caregivers and the improvement of their quality of life.%目的 调查肝硬化患者主要照顾者的负担现况,并探讨其影响因素.方法 采用便利抽样法,使用照顾者负担量表、照顾者反应评估量表、领悟社会支持量表,对242名肝硬化患者主要照顾者的负担现况进行问卷调查,对影响因素进行多因素非条件Logistic回归分析.结果 肝硬化患者主要照顾者负担得分为(31.91±13.40)分,15.3%无照顾负担,其中80.2%为中度负担,4.5%为重度负担.患者肝功能失代偿期、已照顾时间长、时间安排受打扰是照顾者负担的危险因素,而自尊是保护性因素.结论肝硬化患者主要照顾者存在中度的负担,尤其应关注肝功能失代偿期患者的照顾者、已照

  19. Social risk factors in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are social risk factors that can rebound negatively in the functional capacity of elder people thus they associate to an enchancement of the vulnerability to have them develop a state of fragility and necessity. A descriptive investigation was done with the objective of determinig the social risk factors of elder people in the dispensaries 28 of policlinic ll from Jatibonico municipality from january 1 st to december 31 st, 2009 .The sample was conformed by 103 older people. Different variables were used like: age, sex, marital status, associated desease and basic components of the family functions disminished or null. It prevailed the 60-64 and 70-74 year old group (24.3%, female sex (60.2%, the elder widow women (20,3 %, the hypertension (60,2% and family comprehension about conduct and elderly points of view (50,4%. There was a high incidence of the social risk factors associated to the presence of old women, alone and widows, the lessen of economic resources, the retirement, the incomprehension of elder people by their families and the presence of non transmisible chronic desease.

  20. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  1. Age as a Risk factor for Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Bhave MD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 3 million people in the United States and creates a huge burden on the health care system, both in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost.1 The prevalence of atrial fibrillation rises sharply with increases in age. It is estimated that 8% of people above 70 years of age have atrial fibrillation.2-4 Atrial fibrillation has long been recognized as a powerful risk factor for stroke,5 heart failure,6 and mortality.7 Advancing age amplifies the risk of all of these sequelae of atrial fibrillation.

  2. Age as a Risk factor for Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Bhave MD; Rod Passman MD, MSCE

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 3 million people in the United States and creates a huge burden on the health care system, both in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost.1 The prevalence of atrial fibrillation rises sharply with increases in age. It is estimated that 8% of people above 70 years of age have atrial fibrillation.2-4 Atrial fibrillation has long been recognized as a powerful risk factor for stroke,5 heart failure,6 and mortality.7 Advancing age amplifies the risk of al...

  3. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  4. Study on Influencing Factors Associated with Nursing Burden of Caregivers of Leukemia Patients%白血病患者照料者护理负担的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小湜; 郝一鸣; 杨莹; 朱珂; 刘卓刚; 王烈

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过测量白血病患者照料者的护理负担,以了解照料者的照顾负担及心理健康状况,探讨照料者护理负担的影响因素,为改善其心理健康状况提供依据. 方法 以Zarit护理负担量表为测量工具,采用横断面调查方便抽样的方法,面对面结构化访谈收集调查问卷,对白血病患者家属的主要照料者的护理负担进行测量. 结果 照料者护理负担得分为(33.2±17.6).照料者的慢性病对护理负担有显著性影响,经济影响是护理负担的危险因素,而睡眠时间,自尊和心理一致感是护理负担的保护性因素. 结论 白血病患者照料者护理负担的改善措施应当围绕改善照料者自身的健康状况以及增强照料者应对能力等措施来缓解护理负担的发生.%Objective To assess the level of nursing burden and psychological health status among caregivers of leukemia patients, to explore the impact factors of nursing burden, and to provide the evidence for improving the mental health of caregivers of leukemia patients. Methods A cross - sectional study was conducted through the convenience sampling, and the data were collected by face- to- face interview. Zarit caregiver burden interview (ZBI) was used to access the level of nursing burden of caregivers of leukemia patients. Results The score of ZBI was (33.2 ± 17.6). Caregivers' chronic diseases and economic impact were the risk factors for nursing burden, while sleeping hours, self- esteem and sense of coherence were the protective factors. Conclusions Interventions should be emphasized on increasing physical health status of caregivers and enhancing the levels of coping ability to attenuate caregiver burden.

  5. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva;

    2012-01-01

    the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants.......002) and younger women (P = 0.02). Persons with high vital exhaustion gained approximately 2 kg more during follow-up compared to those with no vital exhaustion. Women with high vital exhaustion were also more likely to become obese during follow-up (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14-5.03). There were no clear patterns...... in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk...

  6. Associations and Risk Factors of Diabetic Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Ali, M; Naher, Z U; Akhanda, A H; Motaleb, M A; Uddin, M S; Islam, M R

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic maculopathy is characterised by increased capillary leakage in the main retinal vessels and by alterations in the microcirculation of the macula. Maculopathy occurs frequently in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Prevalence is higher in type 2 than in type 1 diabetic patients. Factors associated with the development of maculopathy are mostly unknown. As maculopathy is the main cause of vision deprivation in diabetic patients it is essential to know the associations and risk factors of diabetic maculopathy so that appropriate measures can be taken to prevent as well as treat diabetic maculopathy. We started the research work to find out the relation between diabetic maculopathy and various associated factors and risk factors for patients with diabetic retinopathy with maculopathy. This cross-sectional observational study done at the Department of Ophthalmology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka & National Institute of Ophthalmology & Hospital (NIO & H), Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2006 to June 2006. In this study out of 50 patients, diabetes was controlled in 20(40%) patients and uncontrolled in 30(60%). A significant percentage of patients (40%) had elevated blood pressure. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was observed in 24% cases and polyneuropathy was observed in 36% cases. It is evident that diabetic maculopathy has association with dyslipidaemia, abnormal renal function due to nephropathy. This study lighted on the association of diabetic maculopathy with diabetic nephropathy, cardiac abnormalities and diabetic neuropathy. PMID:27277354

  7. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P < 0.001), with peak risk among persons born in winter. Relative to persons born in summer (June-August), incidence rate ratios for AML were 1.72 (95 % CI 1.25-2.38; P = 0.001) for winter (December-February), 1.37 (95 % CI 0.99-1.90; P = 0.06) for spring (March-May), and 1.27 (95 % CI 0.90-1.80; P = 0.17) for fall (September-November). Other risk factors for AML included high fetal growth, high gestational age at birth, and low maternal education level. These findings did not vary by sex or age at diagnosis. Sex, birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML.

  8. Integrating information from novel risk factors with calculated risks : the critical impact of risk factor prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, A.J.; Kostende, P.J.; Groenewold, J.; Thijs, A.; Sattar, N.; Smulders, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Case vignette: a 60-year-old man visits his physician for assessment of his 10-year cardiovascular risk. On the basis of his systolic blood pressure, lipid profile, smoking status, and the fact that he is nondiabetic, the Framingham risk score estimates his risk to be 8%. The physician wonders if he

  9. Determinants of Risk Factors for Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Busse

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of risk factors for the development of asthma, including genetic and environmental components. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that a variety of genes are associated with the features of asthma, such as persistent wheezing, airway responsiveness and chronic bronchial inflammation. However, for expression of these features, other factors must also come into play. This paper focuses on the importance of environmental factors in the development of asthma, including allergens and respiratory infections. From current evidence, it appears that in subjects with the appropriate genetic make-up, infections and allergens induce a proinflammatory cytokine response that causes airway inflammation and that in turn leads to the initiation and persistence of altered airway function.

  10. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  11. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  12. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. PMID:26873277

  13. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings—opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Zumla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360 000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events.

  14. Risk factors of γ-hydroxybutyrate overdosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Dirk J; Nabben, Ton; Benschop, Annemieke; Ribbink, Kim; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat OD group scored highest on many risk factors regarding GHB use, the occasional OD group scored intermediate, and the never OD group scored lowest. Participants, whether or not they had overdosed on GHB, most often perceived GHB use (e.g. using more GHB than usual, using GHB doses too closely together) as the main reason for GHB OD, and many participants who had overdosed on GHB reported that they had taken more GHB than usual at their most recent occasion of GHB OD. No significant differences in co-use of GHB with other substances were found between the three groups. Our findings indicate that using GHB in the company of groups of friends probably reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of OD. PMID:24080792

  15. Risk factors of peri-implant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ≥ 2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. PMID:25894059

  16. Risk factors in various subtypes of ischemic stroke according to toast criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the frequency of risk factors in various subtypes of acute ischemic stroke according to TOAST criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2007. Methodology: Patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. Studied variables included demographic profile, history of risk factors, physical and neurological examination, and investigations relevant with the objectives of the study. Findings were described as frequency percentages. Proportions of risk factors against subtypes was compared using chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Out of the 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke, mean age at presentation was 63.5 years. Risk factor distribution was hypertension in 85%, Diabetes mellitus in 49%, ischemic heart disease in 30%, dyslipedemia in 22%, smoking in 9%, atrial fibrillation in 5%, and previous history of stroke in 29%. The various subtypes of acute ischemic stroke were lacunar infarct in 43%, large artery atherosclerosis in 31%, cardioembolic type in 8%, stroke of other determined etiology in 1% and stroke of undetermined etiology in 18%. Hypertension and Diabetes were the most important risk factors in both large and small artery atherosclerosis. In patients with cardio-embolic stroke significant association was found with ischemic heart disease (p=0.01). Conclusion: Importance and relevance of risk factors evaluated for subtypes rather than ischemic stroke as a whole should be reflected in preventive efforts against the burden of ischemic stroke. (author)

  17. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  18. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  19. Preventing delirium in dementia: Managing risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common, disabling medical condition that is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. A number of inter-related factors, including pre-existing cognitive impairment, usually contribute to the development of delirium in a particular susceptible individual. Non-pharmacological approaches to prevention typically target multiple risk factors in a systematic manner (multicomponent interventions). There is generally good evidence that multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital populations but there are limited data in people with dementia and those living in the community. It is likely that there is a differential effect of specific interventions in those with cognitive impairment (e.g. people with dementia may respond better to simpler, more pragmatic interventions rather than complex procedures) but this cannot be determined from the existing data. Targeted interventions focussed on hydration, medication rationalization and sleep promotion may also be effective in reducing the incidence of delirium, as well as the active involvement of family members in the care of the elderly hospitalized patient. Hospitalization itself is a potential risk factor for delirium and promising data are emerging of the benefits of home-based care as an alternative to hospitalization but this is restricted to specific sub-populations of patients and is reliant on these services being available. PMID:27621236

  20. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  1. [Risk factors of ischemic heart disease in various occupational groups. II. Complex analysis of risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałuszka, Z; Kolarzyk, E; Stepniewski, M; Salwińska-Ciećkiewicz, B; Szpak, D

    1991-01-01

    Four hundred four men aged 30 to 59 years, belonging to one of 4 occupational groups were investigated in a standard clinical conditions. Two from those groups were characteristic for steel mill professions: 121 blast furnace workers; exerting strenuous physical effort and working in hot microclimate. 131 operators (the second group) performed work in comfort microclimate conditions not demanding much effort. The third group comprised 73 executives of industry. The fourth group consisted of 79 monks. For all subjects of investigations 8 selected risk factors of ischemic heart disease were evaluated. They included: age, sex, family history, habit of smoking, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood cholesterol level, obesity index and professional physical activity. The level of each risk factor had numerical value in a span from "0" to "8". The sum of all points was decisive to which of 3 groups of risk given man should be accounted. Those 3 groups were arbitrary divided into "low, intermediate and high risk". The highest risk was found for the executives group, and the lowest for blast furnace workers. From the risk factors under investigation highest overall influence on incidence of ischemic heart disease had habit of smoking and obesity. Described here point classification system seems to be very simple and useful for estimation of risk of ischemic heart disease in a given population. PMID:1845321

  2. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  3. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosewell Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

  4. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P arthritis, ASO, and CIC may be associated with higher rates of uveitis in AS. The results of this comprehensive analysis suggest that the possible occurrence of uveitis in AS should not be neglected if the patients have those concomitant risk factors. PMID:27428230

  5. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pociot, Flemming; Lernmark, Åke

    2016-01-01

    that the β-cell autoantibodies are pathogenic, but rather that they represent reproducible biomarkers of the pathogenesis. The primary risk factor for β-cell autoimmunity is genetic, mainly occurring in individuals with either HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, or both, but a trigger from the environment...... of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis....

  6. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  7. Risk factors associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Rong; Guo Yuna; Chen Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of an emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) as a lifesaving measure to manage intractable postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) appears to be increasing recently around the world,and the indications for EPH have changed.The object of this study is to identify risk factors associated with EPH.Methods We conducted a case-control study of 21 patients who underwent EPH because of intractable PPH between January 1,2005 and June 30,2013,at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University,School of Medicine (IPMCH).The parametric t-test,chi-square tests and Logistic regression models were used for analysis to identify the risk factors.The results were considered statistically significant when P<0.05.Results There were 89 178 deliveries during the study period.Twenty-one women had an EPH,with an incidence of 24 per 100 000 deliveries.The loss of blood during postpartum hemorrhage of the EPH group was (5 060.7±3 032.6)ml,and that of the control group was (2 040.8±723.5) ml.There was a significant difference of PHH between the EHP group and the control group (P=0.001).Independent risk factors for EPH from a logistic regression model were:disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (OR:9.9,95% CI 2.8-34,P=0.003),previous cesarean section (OR:5.27;95% CI:1.48-17.9,P=0.009),placenta previa (OR:6.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.9,P=0.008),the loss of PPH (OR:1.001; 95% CI 1.001-1.002,P=0.002),placenta accreta (OR:68; 95% CI 10-456,P=0.004),the use of tocolytic agents prenatally (OR:6.55,95%CI 1.34-32.1,P=0.049),and fetal macrosomia (OR:6.9,95% CI 1.25-38,P=0.049).Conclusion Significant risk factors of EPH are DIC,placenta previa,PPH,previous cesarean delivery,and placenta accrete,the use of tocolytic agents prenatally,and fetal macrosomia.

  8. Risk factors in stage III breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five-year follow-up data of 100 patients with stage III breast cancer treated by primary irradiation from 1977 to 1981 are presented. The 5-year overall survival rate for the entire group was 38% with a median survival time of 33 months. The data were analysed to determine factors associated with prognosis. Patients with shorter premedical history and premenopausal status had a modest survival advantage. Response to radiation therapy, primary tumor status, regional lymph node condition, postirradiation histologic findings in axillary lymph nodes proved to have a prognostic value. Disease which was not controlled by radiotherapy also tended to be resistant to chemotherapy and the 5-year survival in this group was zero. Risk factors have to be taken into consideration for the combined modality treatment for stage III breast cancer. However, further studies are needed to define the indication and appropriate sequence of systemic treatment in this stage of the disease. (orig.)

  9. The developmental 'risk factor' model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R M; Fearon, P

    1999-01-01

    There is no single cause for schizophrenia. We believe that, as with other common chronic diseases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease, the appropriate aetiological model is one involving multiple genes and environmental risk factors; the latter can be divided into (a) predisposing and (b) precipitating. Our model is that genetic and/or early environmental factors cause the development of anomalous neural networks. We postulate that these interact in the growing child with inherited schizotypal traits to establish a trajectory towards an increasingly solitary and deviant life style. This ultimately projects the individual across the threshold for expression of schizophrenia, sometimes by causing the drug abuse and social adversity that appear to precipitate the psychosis. PMID:10628525

  10. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  11. Osteoporosis risk factors and early life-style modifications to decrease disease burden in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Margaret J; Nazem, Taraneh G; Nachtigall, Richard H; Goldstein, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    Prevention of osteoporosis should begin in childhood and continue throughout adulthood. Although genetic determinants of muscle and bone mass may offer other therapeutic options in the future, currently, counseling should primarily focus on lifestyle modification including healthy dietary practices and regular exercise. Vitamin supplementation, particularly vitamin D, should be considered to enhance diet based on patient's need. Attention to estrogen status is also important. In addition, patients should be counseled regularly about cigarette cessation and avoiding moderate alcohol intake.

  12. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

    OpenAIRE

    McQueen, Robert; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Olufade,Tope; Sheehan, Jack; Nair, Kavita; Saseen, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    R Brett McQueen,1 Vahram Ghushchyan,1,2 Temitope Olufade,3 John J Sheehan,4 Kavita V Nair,1 Joseph J Saseen1,5 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 2College of Business and Economics, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; 3AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, 4AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, 5Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, A...

  13. Risk factors of thyroid cancer in Babol, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.

  14. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  15. Patient risk factors for pressure ulcer development: Systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, S.; Gorecki, C.; Nelson, E.A.; Closs, S.J.; Defloor, T.; Halfens, R.; Farrin, A.; Brown, J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Nixon, J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors independently predictive of pressure ulcer development in adult patient populations? DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research was undertaken, based upon methods recommended for effectiveness questions but adapted to identify observational risk factor studie

  16. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-01-01

    This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for proje...

  17. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML. PMID:26113060

  18. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)

  19. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Joachim Raabe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.

  20. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  1. Post biopsy pneumothorax: Risk factors and course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The was to study the natural course of pneumothorax produced after aspiration biopsy in the attempt to differentiate those cases that will resolve spontaneously from those that will require drainage, and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the development of this entity. Eighty-nine CT-guided aspiration biopsies were performed in 80 patients. Control CT was done immediately after the procedure and 24 hours later. When pneumothorax persisted, CT was repeated at 48 h, 72 h, day 5 and day 7 or until a drainage tube was introduced. The cases of pneumothorax were classified as minimal, anterior or anterolateral. Seven variables were assessed as possible risk factors for its occurrence. Pneumothorax developed on 29 occasions (32.5%), requiring drainage in 12 cases (13.5%). In 20 patients (22%), pneumothorax occurred immediately, while in the remaining 9 (10%) it was detected in the 24 h CT scan. When studied according to type, drainage was required in 3 of the 19 cases of minimal or anterior pneumothorax (15%) and in 9 or the 10 cases of anterolateral location (90%) (p<0.0005). The mean thickness of the parenchyma punctured was 3.4 cm +- 2.2. cm when pneumothorax developed and 1.3 cm+- 2 cm when it did not (p<0.0001). There is a statistically significant association between the development of anterolateral pneumothorax and the need for chest drainage. The thickness of the punctured parenchyma is associated with the production of pneumothorax. 16 refs

  2. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: risk factors and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alikari V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritonitis is the most frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis. It is the main cause of failure of the method and inclusion of patients in hemodialysis Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the risk factors of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis as well as the acute and long-term effects of peritonitis on peritoneal membrane function and success of the method. Methods: Literature review of relevant articles in the database Pubmed as well as the official website of the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD was carried out. The search included articles published during the period 1986 -2012.Results: Lack of patient compliance with the peritoneal changes protocol, lack of social support, systemic diseases and connection systems are risk factors of peritonitis. Peritonitis causes transient increase of peritoneum permeability, loss of the ability of the peritoneum for ultrafiltration and, consequently, overhydration. Long-term, recurrent episodes of peritonitis resulting in permanent loss of peritoneum capacity for ultrafiltration even fibrosis that leads to failure of the method. Finally, its effect on the reduction of the residual renal function seems to be remarkable. Conclusions: Peritonitis is the most common infectious complication of peritoneal dialysis and the main cause of morbidity associated with the method. Moreover, it is the major cause of failure of the method and patients accession in hemodialysis. Any attempt to prevent peritonitis passes through the careful patient selection and effective patient education on compliance with the rules of asepsis during peritoneal changes.

  3. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

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    ÁKOS NÉMETH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.

  4. Sexting; your definition, risk factors and consecuences

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    Cinthia Tomasa Mercado Contreras

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advance of the technology in communications has led to social networking sites fulfill an important role in society. Among the most used and known is Facebook, that social network allows to make public certain information and provides the opportunity to hold private conversations. This new trend of talks, and the natural desire to explore sexuality has led young people interested at phenomenon known as sexting. This phenomenon, from some of the negative consequences became public, has attracted the interest from parents, teachers, researchers and health workers, however, have not been universally well defined. This lack of unanimous conceptualization has led to confusion within the psychological, social and legal area. That is why in the present article presents results of a systematic review of articles that speak about sexting. The select articles were those that were published from 2009 to 2014, in which work was focused to adolescents and speak about risk factors and consequences of the phenomenon. The articles were analyzed by looking at the similarities and differences in their definition of sexting and their results, identifying risk factors and consequences related considered. With the analysis was possible to categorize their limitations and finally offer a possible definition of sexting.

  5. Adolescent fatherhood: Risk factor or resilience?

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    Denise Benatuil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing. 

  6. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  7. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Karoline Kragelund Nielsen; Peter Damm; Anil Kapur; Vijayam Balaji; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Veerasamy Seshiah; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP...

  8. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    James Martinez; Jeremy Tost; Larry Hilgert; Tracy Woodard-Meyers

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood...

  9. Extent and pattern of burden of care and its associated factors among Eritrean families of persons living with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Osman, Mohammed Hamid; Lolokote, Sainyugu; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the caregiving burden and its associated factors among Eritrean families of persons living with schizophrenia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted for 146 caregivers with their respective known patients with schizophrenia of Saint Mary's Neuropsychiatric National Referral Hospital (SMNNRH). Data were collected using Pai and Kapur's Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and self-prepared sociodemographic sheet. Data were analysed using SPSS V.21. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. Results In this study, 84 (57.5%) were males and 62 (42.5%) were females. The mean age was 33.96+10.37 (median=31) for the patients and 46.76+13.96 (median=48) for the caregivers. Total mean objective score was 29.47+6.67. Family caregivers who were single (F=3.224, pCaregiver's age (β=0.156; pcaregiving (β=0.131; pcaregivers of a person living with schizophrenia experience a significant burden of care. Our findings highlight that there is a need of strengthening social and psychological support to reduce the caregiving burden. PMID:27683516

  10. Risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Mo Yang; Xiao-Dong Tian; Yan Zhuang; Wei-Min Wang; Yuan-Lian Wan; Yan-Ting Huang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk factors for pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to evaluate whether duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy could reduce the risk of pancreatic leakage.METHODS: Sixty-two patients who underwent PD at our hospital between January 2000 and November 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The primary diseases of the patients included pancreas cancer, ampullary cancer, bile duct cancer, islet cell cancer, duodenal cancer, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cystadenoma, and gastric cancer.Standard PD was performed for 25 cases, PD with extended lymphadenectomy for 27 cases, pylorus-preserving PD for 10 cases. A duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy was performed for patients with a hard pancreas and a dilated pancreatic duct, and a traditional end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy for patients with a soft pancreas and a non-dilated duct. Patients were divided into two groups according to the incidence of postoperative pancreaticojejunal anastomotic leakage: 10 cases with leakage and 52 cases without leakage. Seven preoperative and six intraoperative risk factors with the potential to affect the incidence of pancreatic leakage were analyzed with SPSS10.0 software. Logistic regression was then used to determine the effect of multiple factors on pancreatic leakage.RESULTS: Of the 62 patients, 10 (16.13%) were identified as having pancreatic leakage after operation. Other major postoperative complications included delayed gastric emptying (eight patients), abdominal bleeding (four patients), abdominal abscess (three patients) and wound infection (two patients). The overall surgical morbidity was 43.5% (27/62). The hospital mortality in this series was 4.84% (3/62), and the mortality associated with pancreatic fistula was 10% (1/10). Sixteen cases underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy and 1 case (1/16, 6.25%) devel-oped postoperative pancreatic leakage, 46 cases underwent invagination pancreaticojejunostomy and 9

  11. Associations Between Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Bertoia, Monica L.; Rimm, Eric B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Mittleman, Murray A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Previous studies have examined the associations of individual clinical risk factors with risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD), but the combined effects of these risk factors are largely unknown. Objective To estimate the degree to which the 4 conventional cardiovascular risk factors of sm

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency: Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, M.H.; de Boer, R.A.; Stolk, Ronald; Slaets, J.P J; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Navis, Ger Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the pre

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for gallbladder cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency : Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan

    2011-01-01

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the pre

  17. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia da Silva Leroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.

  18. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  19. Environmental risk factors of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Isabelle; Gehanno, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a complex pathogenesis. Although, there is a growing evidence that environmental factors have an impact on alterations and modulation of epigenetic determinants, resulting in SSc onset and progression. A marked correlation has thus been found between SSc onset and occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the following organic solvents: white spirit, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene, and ketones; the risk associated with high cumulative exposure to silica and organic solvents further appears to be strongly increased in SSc. Altogether, occupational exposure should be systematically checked in all SSc patients at diagnosis, as (1) exposed patients seem to develop more severe forms of SSc and (2) the identification of the occupational agents will allow its interruption, which may lead to potential improvement of SSc outcome. By contrast, based on current published data, there is insufficient evidence that exposure to other chemical agents (including notably pesticides as well as personal care such as silicone and hair dye), physical agents (ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, electric and magnetic fields), and biological agents (infections and diet, foods, and dietary contaminants) is a causative factor of SSc. Further investigations are still warranted to identify other environmental factors that may be associated with SSc onset and progression. PMID:26141606

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron

  1. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  2. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-03-26

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  3. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  4. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  5. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  6. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  7. Risk Factors for and Barriers to Control Type-2 Diabetes among Saudi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alneami, Yahya Mari; Coleman, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Type-2 Diabetes is dramatically increasing in urban areas within Saudi Arabia. Hence, Type-2 Diabetes has now become the most common public health problem. Understanding the major risk factors for and barriers to control Type-2 Diabetes may lead to strategies to prevent, control, and reduce in the burden of disease cases. Objective: To describe risk factors for and barriers to control Type- 2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The literature search was conducted on risk factors for and barriers to control Type- 2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia using the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar (2007-2015). The literature search yielded 80 articles, of which 70 articles were included in this review after excluding non-relevant articles. Results: The literature review revealed that obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, smoking, and aging are the major risk factors for Type-2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Further, the review allocated a complex set of barriers including, lack of education, social support, and healthy environment. These barriers may hinder Saudis with Type-2 Diabetes from controlling their disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of Type-2 Diabetes is high among the Saudi population and represents a major public health problem. Effective research programs are needed to address the modifiable risk factors for and barriers to control Type-2 Diabetes among Saudi population. PMID:27157156

  8. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERTENSION IN RURAL AREAS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivel Rajan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemic of hypertension is increasing at an alarming rate. Knowledge about the existing risk factors of hypertension helps in developing prevention programs. Therefore, the present study was designed with the objectives of identifying the prevalence of systemic hypertension in rural area, Tamil Nadu and to identify the risk factors contributing to it. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out over a period of one year from August 20007 to July 2008 in the field practice area of PSG Rural Health Centre, Neelambur attached to the Department of Community Medicine, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore. A two stage random sampling method was used to select the households of respondents. The WHO STEPS approach questionnaire which is recommended for eliciting non - communicable disease risk factors (Core and Expanded version 2.0 was used for data collection. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 26.9%. Among the hypertensive subjects, Odd’s Ratio (OR was f ound to be more in those taking extra salt (7.73, inadequate fruit intake (1.41, taking non - vegetarian diet (1.39, moderate physical activity (1.24 and BMI ≥30(12.13. CONCLUSION: The burden of hypertension in our study was found to be similar to those in developed countries. For an in - depth analysis of the risk factors of hypertension, a prospective longitudinal follow - up study is required on the true risk factors.

  9. Risk factors of post renal transplant hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognized that patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) have hyper-plastic parathyroid glands. In most patients, a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) occurs by about 1 year after renal transplantation. However, some renal transplant recipients continue to have elevated level of PTH. We prospectively evaluated 121 patients undergoing renal transplantation between August 2000 and 2002. The duration of dialysis, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), albumin, creatinine and iPTH levels were recorded prior to transplantation and three months and one year after transplantation. These 121 patients were on dialysis for an average period of 17.4 months prior to transplantation. An increase in the serum Ca and a decrease in serum P and iPTH level was seen in the patients after transplantation (P< 0.001). Hyperparathyroidism was in 12 (9.9%) and 7 (5.7%) patients three months and one year after transplantation respectively. Elderly patients and patients with longer duration on dialysis had an increased risk of developing post transplant hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in the first year post transplant (P< 0.05). In conclusion age and duration on dialysis before transplantation seems to be important risk factors for post transplant hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  10. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  11. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  12. Behavioural Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases among Nepalese Urban Poor: A Descriptive Study from a Slum Area of Kathmandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Oli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid rise in the burden of noncommunicable diseases in low-income countries like Nepal. Political and economical instability leading to internal migration give rise to haphazard urbanization in Nepal. This, coupled with negative effects of globalization, is largely responsible for changing lifestyle and developing risky behaviour among the urban poor that put them at high risk of developing noncommunicable diseases. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from September to December 2012 in an urban slum of Kathmandu to explore the prevalence of four major behaviour risk factors namely physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and tobacco and alcohol use and to measure the burden of obesity and hypertension in the population. We used WHO NCDs Risk Factor steps 1 and 2 questionnaires in all the 689 households of the slum. The major behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases were very common with at least a quarter of the population having the major risk factors. The results may serve to form a framework to future planning, policy-making, implementation, and evaluation of any measures undertaken to reduce these risk factors, especially as the government is planning to unveil the National Urban Health Policy soon.

  13. Beyond Attributable Burden: Estimating the Avoidable Burden of Disease Associated with Household Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Kuhn

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD studies have transformed global understanding of health risks by producing comprehensive estimates of attributable disease burden, or the current disease that would be eliminated if a risk factor did not exist. Yet many have noted the greater policy significance of avoidable burden, or the future disease that could actually be eliminated if a risk factor were eliminated today. Avoidable risk may be considerably lower than attributable risk if baseline levels of exposure or disease are declining, or if a risk factor carries lagged effects on disease. As global efforts to deliver clean cookstoves accelerate, a temporal estimation of avoidable risk due to household air pollution (HAP becomes increasingly important, particularly in light of the rapid uptake of modern stoves and ongoing epidemiologic transitions in regions like South and Southeast Asia.We estimate the avoidable burden associated with HAP using International Futures (IFs, an integrated forecasting system that has been used to model future global disease burdens and risk factors. Building on GBD and other estimates, we integrated a detailed HAP exposure estimation and exposure-response model into IFs. We then conducted a counterfactual experiment in which HAP exposure is reduced to theoretical minimum levels in 2015. We evaluated avoidable mortality and DALY reductions for the years 2015 to 2024 relative to a Base Case scenario in which only endogenous changes occurred. We present results by cause and region, looking at impacts on acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. We found that just 2.6% of global DALYs would be averted between 2015 and 2024, compared to 4.5% of global DALYs attributed to HAP in the 2010 GBD study, due in large part to the endogenous tendency towards declining traditional stove usage in the IFs base case forecast. The extent of diminished impact was comparable for ALRI and affected NCDs

  14. Familial Recurrence of Cerebral Palsy with Multiple Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence P. Richer; Dower, Nancy A.; Norma Leonard; Chan, Alicia K. J.; Robertson, Charlene M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The recurrence of cerebral palsy in the same family is uncommon. We, however, report on two families with two or more affected siblings. In both families, numerous potential risk factors were identified including environmental, obstetric, and possible maternal effects. We hypothesize that multiple risk factors may lead to the increased risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy in families. Intrinsic and maternal risk factors should be investigated in all cases of cerebral palsy to properly counsel...

  15. Nocardiosis: Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Darazam, Ilad; Shamaei, Masoud; Mobarhan, Mandana; Ghasemi, Shahin; Tabarsi, Payam; Motavasseli, Masoud; Mansouri, Davood

    2013-01-01

    Nocardiosis has been reported increasingly in recent two decades, probably due to improvement in isolation of the organism and increased burden of immune compromised patients. Nocardia occasionally has been reported in healthy people. A case series of definitive Nocardiosis (2002 to 2010), clinical characteristics, underlying diseases, immune status and in-patient outcome were studied in a tertiary referral center. Twenty one patients with definite diagnosis of Nocardiosis were studied. 17 ca...

  16. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K;

    2014-01-01

    The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has...... increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms...

  17. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  18. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shian Lin

    Full Text Available AIM: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD and the associated risk factors for patients with COPD. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 427 COPD patients (mean age: 70.0 years without PAD symptoms consecutively. Demographic data, lung function and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. The ankle-brachial index (ABI was used to detect PAD (ABI<0.90. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in the COPD patients was 8% (2.5% in the younger participants (<65 years of age, n = 118 and 10% in the elderly participants (≥65 years of age, n = 309. The COPD patients with asymptomatic PAD had a significantly higher rate of hyperlipidemia (47.1% vs. 10.4% and hypertension (79.4% vs. 45.8% than those without asymptomatic PAD (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in lung function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second between the two groups. In multivariate logistic regression, hyperlipidemia was the strongest independent factor for PAD (odds ratio (OR: 6.89, p<0.005, followed by old age (OR: 4.80, hypertension (OR: 3.39 and smoking burden (pack-years, OR: 1.02. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asymptomatic PAD among COPD patients in Taiwan is lower than in Western countries. Hyperlipidemia, old age, hypertension, and smoking burden were the associated cardiovascular risk factors. However, there was no association between lung function and PAD in the COPD patients.

  20. Non-communicable disease risk factor patterns among mining industry workers in Papua, Indonesia: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Papuan Population and Estimation of Risk (COPPER) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Viliani, Francesca; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Rachel M Amiya; Bangs, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute an increasing slice of the global burden of disease, with the South-East Asia region projected to see the highest increase in NCD-related deaths over the next decade. Mining industry employees may be exposed to various factors potentially elevating their NCD risk. This study aimed to assess the distribution and 5-year longitudinal trends of key metabolic NCD risk factors in a cohort of copper–gold mining company workers in Papua, Indonesi...

  1. Addition of a novel, protective family history category allows better profiling of cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. The Asklepios Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Van daele

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Whereas the importance of family history (FH is widely recognized in cardiovascular risk assessment, its full potential could be underutilized, when applied with its current simple guidelines-based definition (cFH: presence of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD in a first-degree relative. We tested the added value of a new, extended family history definition (eFH, also taking into account later onset of disease, second-degree relatives and number of affected relatives, on profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. DESIGN: Longitudinal population study. SETTING: Random, representative population sample from Erpe-Mere and Nieuwerkerken (Belgium, primary care. SUBJECTS: 2524 male/female volunteers, aged 35-55 years, free from overt CVD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects were extensively phenotyped including presence of atherosclerosis (ultrasound and a newly developed FH questionnaire (4 generations. RESULTS: Compared to cFH, eFH was superior in predicting an adverse risk profile (glycemic state, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, presence of metabolic syndrome components and presence of atherosclerosis (all age & sex-adjusted p<0.05. Unlike cFH, eFH remained a significant predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for confounders. Most relations with eFH were not graded but showed clear informational breakpoints, with absence of CVD (including late onset in any first-degree relative being a negative predictor of atherosclerosis, and a particularly interesting phenotype for further study. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, extended FH definition is superior to the conventional definition in profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. There remain clear opportunities to refine and increase the performance and informational content of this simple, readily-available inexpensive tool.

  2. Pharmacological undertreatment of coronary risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis have increased prevalence of coronary risk factors and limited recent results have suggested that these risk factors are undertreated in patients with psoriasis. This may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases observed in patients with psoriasis....

  3. Risk Factors of Entry in Out-of-Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Ejrnæs, Niels Morten; Frederiksen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    . The mother’s characteristics are more important risk factors than the corresponding risk factors of the father. The results, the applied method and the epidemiological inspired analysis make an opportunity to discuss the central concepts and methods of calculation of statistical association, risk, prediction...

  4. Risk of aspiration in care home residents and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Visschere, L.M. De; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Baat, C. de; Schols, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five experi

  5. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2014-01-01

    consumption, lifting of >20 kg daily, and night work. We estimated that 25.2% of the miscarriages might be prevented by reduction of all these risk factors to low risk levels. Modification of risk factors acting before and during pregnancy could lead to prevention of 14.7 and 12.5%, respectively...

  6. Analyzing Risk and Performance Using the Multi-Factor Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Vermeulen (Erik); J. Spronk (Jaap); N. van der Wijst (Nico)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we present a new model to analyze the risk and the expected level of firm performance. This model is based on the multi-factor approach to risk, in which unexpected performance is explained through sensitivities to unexpected changes of risk factors. Instead of using the m

  7. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  8. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  9. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  10. Differences in characteristics of patients with and without known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jon D Dorfman; Richard Schulick; Michael A Choti; Jean-Francois H Geschwind; Ihab Kamel; Michael Torbenson; Paul J Thuluvath

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the clinical characteristics of a subgroup of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and compare them to those with known risk factors.METHODS: We used the HCC database of 306 patients seen at our institution from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2001. Of the 306 patients, 63 (20%, group 1) had no known risk factors (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus,alcohol, hemochromatosis or cirrhosis from any cause)and 243 (group 2) had one or more risk factors.RESULTS: The median age was similar in both groups,but there were disproportionate numbers of younger (< 30 years old), older (> 80 years) patients, women (33% vs 18%), and Caucasians (81% vs 52%) in group 1 as compared to group 2. There were fewer Asians (2%vs 111%) and African Americans (113% vs 27%) in group 11. Abdominal pain (70% vs 37%) was more commonwhile gastrointestinal bleeding (0% vs 1111%) and ascites (4% vs 117%) were less common in group 11 compared to group 2. Group 11 had larger tumor burden (median size 9.4 cm vs 5.7 cm) at the time of presentation, but there were no differences in the site (right, left or bilateral lesions), or number of tumors between the two groups.CONCLUSION: HCC patients without identifiable risk factors have different characteristics and clinical presentation compared to those with known risk factors.Absence of cirrhosis and larger tumor burden may explain the differences in the presenting symptoms.

  11. PROFILE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014. AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SETTING: Community through home visit. STUDY DESIGN: Community based Cross sectional survey. STUDY DURATION: The study was conducted from July 2008 to September 2010. STUDY POPULATION: Through multistage sampling 3500 persons were studied in 12 villages of Wardha district (MH. STUDY INSTRUMENTS: Step-1(core of WHOs STEP-wise approach (2002. was used to study physical activity by home visit using a pretested structured schedule in English/Marathi. Step 1 contains Core or “minimum set”, self-report measures for all countries. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: The total physical activity is the sum of physical activity at work, transport and leisure time. Individuals were divided into physically inactive, moderately active and highly active according to MET minutes of exertion. CONSENT: Informed consent from participants and ethical clearance from Institutional Ethical Committee was obtained. RESULTS: 3500 individuals (Male 54.86% and Female 45.14% were studied. Prevalence of physical inactivity was 26.88% in all, 18.75% in male and 35.44% in female; more in 15-24 years and 55-64 years, more in female than male in each age group. CONCLUSIONS: Physical inactivity is widely prevalent even in rural population but a preventable and modifiable NCD RF through organized multispectral efforts

  12. FEBRILE SEIZURE: RECURRENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TALEBIAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Febrile Convulsion is the most common convulsive disorder in children,occurring in 2 to 4% of the pediatric population and recurring in 30-50% of cases. Considering the varying recurrence rates reported, thisstudy was conducted at the pediatric ward of the Shaheed BeheshtiGeneral Hospital, between 2000-2001 to determine the frequencyof recurrence and related risk factors in children presenting with theirfirst episode of febrile convulsionMaterials & Methods:A two–year cohort study was performed on 50 children presentingwith the first attack of febrile convulsion. Patient demographic dataincluding age, sex, type and duration of seizure, family history offebrile seizure or epilepsy and the interval between fever onset andoccurrence of seizure were recorded in questionnaires. Those patients,for whom prophylactic medication was not administered, werefollowed at three–month intervals for up to one year. Findings werestatistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact testResults:Recurrence was observed in twelve children (24% out of the fifty,being most common in patients aged less than one year (54.4%.Recurrence rates among children with a positive family history offebrile convulsion, presence of complex febrile seizure and positivefamily history of epilepsy were 42.1%, 42.8% and 25% respectively.From among those children with a “less than one hour” intervalbetween fever onset and occurrence of seizure, recurrence occurredin 43-7% of cases, while in those with a “more than one hourinterval”, 14.7% experienced recurrence.Conclusion:Recurrence rates are increased by certain factors including age-belowone year-, positive family history of febrile convulsion, and a “lessthan one hour” interval between time of fever onset and seizureoccurrence.

  13. Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomon, Joshua A; Haagsma, Juanita A; Davis, Adrian; de Noordhout, Charline Maertens; Polinder, Suzanne; Havelaar, Arie H; Cassini, Alessandro; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Kretzschmar, MEE; Speybroeck, Niko; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study assesses health losses from diseases, injuries, and risk factors using disability-adjusted life-years, which need a set of disability weights to quantify health levels associated with non-fatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to estimate

  14. Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomon, Joshua A.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Davis, Adrian; de Noordhout, Charline Maertens; Polinder, Suzanne; Havelaar, Arie H.; Cassini, Alessandro; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Speybroeck, Niko; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study assesses health losses from diseases, injuries, and risk factors using disability-adjusted life-years, which need a set of disability weights to quantify health levels associated with non-fatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to estimate

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Cervical Neoplasia in Women from a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Menéndez

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors associated with the presence of some of the STIs were being divorced or widowed, having more than one sexual partner and having the partner living in another area. A higher prevalence was observed in the reproductive age group and some of the STIs were more frequently diagnosed in pregnant women. STI control programs are a priority to reduce the STIs burden, including HIV and cervical neoplasia.

  16. Effect of dietary and lifestyle factors on the risk of gestational diabetes: review of epidemiologic evidence1234

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cuilin; Ning, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition in pregnancy, is a common pregnancy complication and a growing health concern. GDM has been related to significant short-term and long-term adverse health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. Importantly, this number is increasing with the increasing burden of obesity among women of reproductive age. Collectively, these data highlight the significance of understanding risk factors, in parti...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C and HIV-1 infections among pregnant women in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani Mariane MA; Turchi Marilia D; Minuzzi Ana L; Filho Jose; Filho Clidenor; Avelino Mariza M; Machado Gustavo C; Costa Zelma B; Souza Wayner de; Martelli Celina MT

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infe...

  18. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  19. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  1. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Lifestyle, environment and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the results of studies aiming to identify risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are described. A population-based case-control design was used to perform (1) epidemiological risk factor studies, examining lifestyle factors and environmental exposures, and (2) genetic st

  2. Risk factors for sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li; Ang Li; Yibing Weng; Shuwen Zhang; Meili Duan

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse and acute cerebral dysfunction caused by sepsis. Many sepsis patients exhibit acute deterioration in mental status during the early stage of disease, and central nervous system dysfunction has been shown to increase patient mortality. The present study selected 284 sepsis patients who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January to December 2009. The patients were assigned to SAE and non-SAE patient groups according to SAE occurrence. SAE incidence was 37.68%, and mortality was significantly greater in SAE patients compared with non-SAE patients (41.12% vs. 17.51%, P < 0.01). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated lower arterial partial pressure of oxygen and greater alanine aminotransferase and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores in the SAE group compared with the non-SAE group. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen, alanine aminotransferase, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were determined to be potential risk factors for SAE.

  3. Fraud Risk Factors and Audit Programme Modifications: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modar Abdullatif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of the 20 fraud risk factors included in the questionnaire were only slightly important (if not unimportant, a finding that is arguably alarming. The perceived importance of modifying the audit programme in the presence of each fraud risk factor was related to the perceived importance of the fraud risk factor itself. However, changes in the nature and extent of audit procedures were more important than changes in the timing of the procedures or the members of the audit team. The most important fraud risk factors were related to the characteristics of management and its attitude towards the audit, while the least important fraud risk factors were related to the difficulties in the client’s financial performance. Factor analysis found that the fraud risk factors could be classified into four separate groups. Possible interpretations of the findings were discussed, such as considering the Jordanian business environment characteristics, and the findings were compared to those of extant international studies.

  4. Association of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors With Development of Major and Minor Electrocardiographic Abnormalities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Caroline F; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are prevalent in middle aged and are associated with risk of adverse cardiovascular events. It is unclear whether and to what extent traditional risk factors are associated with the development of ECG abnormalities. To determine whether traditional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the presence or development of ECG abnormalities, we performed a systematic review of the English-language literature for cross-sectional and prospective studies examining associations between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and ECG abnormalities, including major and minor ECG abnormalities, isolated nonspecific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, other ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, QT interval, Q waves, and QRS duration. Of the 202 papers initially identified, 19 were eligible for inclusion. We examined data analyzing risk factor associations with ECG abnormalities in individuals free of cardiovascular disease. For composite major or minor ECG abnormalities, black race, older age, higher blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medications, higher body mass index, diabetes, smoking, and evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or higher left ventricular mass are the factors most commonly associated with prevalence and incidence. Risk factor associations differ somewhat according to types of specific ECG abnormalities. Because major and minor ECG abnormalities have important and independent prognostic significance, understanding the groups at risk for their development may inform prevention strategies focused on modifiable risk factors to reduce the burden of ECG abnormalities, which may in turn promote CVD prevention. PMID:27054606

  5. Diabetes and other vascular risk factors for dementia : Which factor matters most? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenborg, Raoul P.; van den Berg, Esther; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2008-01-01

    Vascular risk factors, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia often co-occur. Each of these factors has been associated with an increased risk of dementia, but it is uncertain which factor imposes the greatest risk. Moreover, the effect of age at time of exposure may differ

  6. Association between Knee Osteoarthritis, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and the Framingham Risk Score in South Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Sun; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Park, Ki Byung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Joo-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a significant burden on personal health and for social cost, and its prevalence is rising. Recent research has revealed an association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease, and this study uses the Framingham risk score (FRS), which is widely used as a composite index of cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A total 9,514 participants aged 50 years or older who received knee X-ray diagnosis of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (total surveyees = 24,173) released by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was included for analysis. Knee osteoarthritis patients were defined as participants with K-L grade ≥2 on knee X-ray regardless of knee pain. The association between major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol, and smoking habits), FRS, and knee osteoarthritis was analyzed, adjusting for various covariates. Results Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in Koreans aged ≥50 years was 36.6%, and higher in women (men: 24.9%, women: 45.4%). Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in participants with hypertension was significantly higher than those without hypertension (fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.48). Knee osteoarthritis prevalence was also higher in participants with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes than those without (age, sex adjusted OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.00–1.41). Also, OR values increased statistically significantly with FRS as a continuous variable (fully adjusted OR 1.007; 95% CI 1.00–1.01). Conclusions Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis was associated with hypertension and diabetes, which are major cardiovascular risk factors, and the FRS. Further studies on FRS pertaining to its relationship with osteoarthritis are warranted. PMID:27764239

  7. Burden of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Pratt, Stephen; Elkin, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users.......Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users....

  8. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  9. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meshram II; Hiwarkar PA; Kulkarni PN

    2009-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban...

  10. CORRELATION OF RISK FACTORS WITH HPE GRADING IN BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Rudramurthy; Pradeep Kumar; Avanthi; Ira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate risk factors for breast cancer with Histopathological grading. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A four year retrospective study was carried out from 2009-2012. 46 cases which were reported as breast cancer in due course were reviewed with histopathological (Scarff-Bloom-Richardson) grade of the tumor and familial, hormonal and acquired risk factors. The correlation of risk factors and the histopathological grade is done by using‘t’ test. RESULTS: Among 46 cases of breast cancer, a...

  11. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  12. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram Benny Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement surgery......, hypertension, general anesthesia, high ASA scores, low intra-operative systolic BP, and prophylactic dicloxacillin as significant risk factors. Low baseline systolic BP, low baseline diastolic blood pressure, and hip fracture diagnosis were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum...... creatinine. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, high BMI, gender, and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors....

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors encountered during medical examination in athletic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cis Spoturno, Adela C; Paz-Sauquillo, María T; López-Zea, Matilde; Fernández-Rostello, Eduardo A

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors can predispose to cardiovascular disease in adults or lead to cardiovascular events while practicing sports. The objectives of this study were: 1) to estimate the distribution of individual cardiovascular risk factors; 2) to establish a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents or grandparents and the children's clinical condition. This was a retrospective study to assess overweight, obesity and hypertension in 1021 child athletes. The family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke was studied. Out of the studied children, 22.1% (n= 226) were obese and 2.1% (n= 21) had hypertension. Obesity was the most common family risk factor (30%).

  14. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.

  15. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  16. Tumor burden as the most important prognostic factor in early stage Hodgkin's disease. Relations to other prognostic factors and implications for choice of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nordentoft, A M; Cold, Søren;

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred ninety patients with Hodgkin's disease pathologic stage (PS) I or II were treated in the prospective randomized trial of the Danish National Hodgkin Study (see Appendix) with radiotherapy +/- adjuvant combination chemotherapy. The initial tumor burden of each patient was assessed, com...

  17. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  18. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Dong; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Norris, Jessie; Wu, Ying; Bao, Chang-Jun; Tang, Fen-Yang; Huang, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng; Peng, Zhi-Hang

    2014-05-01

    Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  19. Disease burden of stroke in rural South Africa: an estimate of incidence, mortality and disability adjusted life years

    OpenAIRE

    Maredza, Mandy; Bertram, Melanie Y; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of an epidemiologic transition in South Africa, in which cardiovascular disease is increasing, little is known about the stroke burden, particularly morbidity in rural populations. Risk factors for stroke are high, with hypertension prevalence of more than 50%. Accurate, up-to-date information on disease burden is essential in planning health services for stroke management. This study estimates the burden of stroke in rural South Africa using the epidemiological para...

  20. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD accounts for more than a third (37% of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954 from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI. Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954 and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs (p Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.

  1. Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    Full Text Available Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries, and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented, and of uncertain reliability and comparability. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has provided a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations using a summary measure of both mortality and disability, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY.This paper describes key features of the Global Burden of Disease analytic approach, which provides a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and a systematic approach to the evaluation of data. The paper describes the evolution of the GBD, starting from the first study for the year 1990, summarizes the methodological improvements incorporated into GBD revisions for the years 2000-2004 carried out by the World Health Organization, and examines priorities and issues for the next major GBD study, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and commencing in 2007.The paper presents an overview of summary results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2002, with a particular focus on the neglected tropical diseases, and also an overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and about 20 million DALYs, or 1.3% of the global burden of disease and injuries. Further research is currently underway to revise and update these estimates.

  2. Quantifying public health risk in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: a burden of disease approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; Melse JM; IMD; MGB

    2003-01-01

    The forthcoming 3rd edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality proposes a preventive management framework for safe drinking water that is similar for all types of contaminants - microbial, chemical and radiological. Descriptions of the level of risk in relation to water are usually exp

  3. The global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables: implications for the global strategy on diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Lock, Karen; Pomerleau, Joceline; Causer, Louise; Altmann, Dan R; McKee, Martin

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We estimated the global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables, an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cancer, and compared its impact with that of other major risk factors for disease. METHODS: The burden of disease attributable to suboptimal intake of fruit and vegetables was estimated using information on fruit and vegetable consumption in the population, and on its association with six health outcomes (ischaemic ...

  4. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  5. Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurn, L; Lindqvist, P G; Jakobsson, M;

    2016-01-01

    National health registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data. RESULTS: A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single...... most important risk factor, which was reported in 49% of all cases of AIP, was placenta praevia. The risk of AIP increased seven-fold after one prior caesarean section (CS) to 56-fold after three or more CS. Prior postpartum haemorrhage was associated with six-fold increased risk of AIP (95% confidence...

  6. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  7. Awareness of risk factors for loneliness among third agers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, T.

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of risk factors for loneliness is a prerequisite for preventive action. Many risk factors for loneliness have been identified. This paper focuses on two: poor health and widowhood. Preventive action by developing a satisfying social network requires time and effort and thus seems appropria

  8. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A;

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an oncocytoma , which is almost always benign (not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Kidney Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  10. FAMILY RISK FACTORS AS INDICATORS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS WITH YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko KOVACHEVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This project researches whether risk factors within family have any predictive power in describing youth behavioural problems. Family risk factors such as family functioning problems and conflicts within family have the strongest predictive power. Preventive actions and treatment must be directed toward the youth living in risky families.

  11. Incidence and risk factors of neonatal thrombocytopenia: a pr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kusumasari

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The incidence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 12.2%. Significant risk factor of mother that caused thrombocytopenia was pre-eclampsia, while risk factors of neonates were asphyxia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:31-7].

  12. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo;

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  13. Risk factors for clinical anastomotic leakage after right hemicolectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Mikkel; Nerstrøm, Malene; Wilbek, Therese Emilie;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anastomotic leakage (AL) after right hemicolectomy is a devastating complication, and risk factors for AL in this setting are rarely investigated exclusively. Recent reports suggest that anastomotic type may influence the rate of AL in ileocolic anastomoses. We investigated risk factors ...

  14. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels. PMID:26478562

  15. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  16. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  17. The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate associated nephrotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigen, Elif Tükenmez; Koltka, E. Nursen; Dogru, Arzu; Gura, Melek; Vahabaoglu, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) associated nephrotoxicity are important. Our study attempts look into the prevalence of CMS-associated nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), and related risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between September 2010 and April 2012 on 55 patients who underwent CMS treatment. Nephrotoxicity risk was defined based on the Risk Injury Failure Loss End-stage kidney disease criteria. Results: Fifty-five patients included in the study. A total of 22 (40%) patients developed nephrotoxicity. The correlation was detected between nephrotoxicity and patients over 65 with a high Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. APACHE II score was revealed an independent risk factor for nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Advanced age and a high APACHE II score are significant risk factors in the development of nephrotoxicity at ICUs following CMS use. Patient selection and close monitoring are critical when starting CMS treatment. PMID:27390460

  18. The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate associated nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tükenmez Tigen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS associated nephrotoxicity are important. Our study attempts look into the prevalence of CMS-associated nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs, and related risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between September 2010 and April 2012 on 55 patients who underwent CMS treatment. Nephrotoxicity risk was defined based on the Risk Injury Failure Loss End-stage kidney disease criteria. Results: Fifty-five patients included in the study. A total of 22 (40% patients developed nephrotoxicity. The correlation was detected between nephrotoxicity and patients over 65 with a high Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score. APACHE II score was revealed an independent risk factor for nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Advanced age and a high APACHE II score are significant risk factors in the development of nephrotoxicity at ICUs following CMS use. Patient selection and close monitoring are critical when starting CMS treatment.

  19. Vitamin D deficiency: A potential risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dima Youssef,1 William B Grant,2 Alan N Peiris3,41Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 2Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center, San Francisco, CA USA; 3Department of Medicine, Mountain Home VAMC, 4Department of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee, USAIn the July 3, 2012 issue of the journal of Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, Martinez et al present a nice review on Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infections.1 The different manifestations of this challenging disease along with the high cost and burden on the health care system were discussed. While the authors did an admirable job in discussing traditional risk factors, they do not mention vitamin D deficiency.View original paper by Martinez and colleagues.

  20. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  1. Urban/rural differences in prevalence and risk factors for intestinal helminth infection in southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, K; Whitty, C J; Graham, S M; Ssembatya-Lule, G

    2000-06-01

    Urbanization may increase the risk of human infection with intestinal helminths. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence, intensity and potential risk factors of acquiring such infection, among children aged 3-14 years in similar urban and rural communities in southern Malawi. Stool samples were collected from 553 children (273 urban and 280 rural). The overall prevalence of helminth infection was significantly higher in the urban subjects than in the rural (16.5% v. 3.6%; P urban community was associated with a significantly higher risk of infection [odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.6-12.1], even after controlling for potential confounding factors. In the urban community, risk factors included having pools of water/sewage around houses (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.4-6.5), not wearing shoes (OR = 7.1; CI = 2.7-19.2), not attending school (OR = 2.8; CI = 1.2-6.5), having mothers with 4-8 years of education (OR = 5.2; CI = 2.0-14.0), and having mothers below 35 years of age (OR = 4.09; CI = 1.39-16.28). In this part of Africa, efforts to reduce helminth infections may best be focused on reducing geohelminth burden in urban areas.

  2. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  3. The burden of inhibitors in haemophilia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher E; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; Auerswald, Guenter; Grancha, Salvador

    2016-08-31

    The burden of disease in haemophilia patients has wide ranging implications for the family and to society. There is evidence that having a current inhibitor increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Morbidity is increased by the inability to treat adequately and its consequent disabilities, which then equates to a poor quality of life compared with non-inhibitor patients. The societal cost of care, or `burden of inhibitors', increases with the ongoing presence of an inhibitor. Therefore, it is clear that successful eradication of inhibitors by immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the single most important milestone one can achieve in an inhibitor patient. The type of factor VIII (FVIII) product used in ITI regimens varies worldwide. Despite ongoing debate, there is in vitro and retrospective clinical evidence to support the use of plasma-derived VWF-containing FVIII concentrates in ITI regimens in order to achieve early and high inhibitor eradication success rates. PMID:27528280

  4. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Sandra; Bakker, Mirjam I; Hatta, Mochammad; Pauline F D Scheelbeek; Dwiyanti, Ressy; Usman, Romi; Sultan, Andi R.; Sabir, Muhammad; Tandirogang, Nataniel; Amir, Masyhudi; Yasir, Yadi; Pastoor, Rob; van Beers, Stella; Henk L. Smits

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua) in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Methods We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of ...

  5. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  6. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  7. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  8. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Kragelund Nielsen

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP, i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP, increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP.The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India.Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed.HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP. Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10-2.93; p = 0.019, whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP.The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening.

  9. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil; Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Seshiah, Veerasamy; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10–2.93; p = 0.019), whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening. PMID:26991305

  10. Schistosomiasis transmission; socio-demographic, knowledge and practices as transmission risk factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2016-03-01

    Schistosoma transmission is influenced by the interplay between various factors ranging from parasite to host associated factors. While many studies have focused on mass chemotherapy to reduce transmission in other populations, no study has examined the impact of social factors that favour transmission in pregnant women in Nigeria. The study was conducted to assess the impact of knowledge, attitudes and sociodemographic factors on schistosomiasis burden in pregnant women of rural communities of Nigeria. A cross sectional community-based field study was conducted to assess the association between Schistosoma haematobium burden and the associated risk factors among pregnant women in rural endemic communities of Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to gather information on participants' socio-demographic data, knowledge on schistosomiasis and water contact activities. Of the 237 respondents examined microscopically for infection, 50 (21.1 %) were infected with overall mean infection intensity of 69.6 ± 165.2 eggs/10 mL urine. Multivariate logistic analysis showed occupation of the women to be associated with infection with the artisans having the highest risk (OR 3.34, CI 1.67-6.69, P = 0.022). Contact with water and water usage patterns are also associated with prevalence of disease with fetching (OR 2.04, CI 0.19-3.51, P = 0.003) and multipurpose water usage (OR 4.31, CI 2.17-8.57, P = 0.0002) being the most predisposing variables respectively. Awareness about water borne diseases showed no association with infection (P = 0.382) with typhoid (23.7 %) and fever (2.6 %) constituting the most and least common water borne diseases mentioned by the women. Health education and provision of good water supply should be integrated into the control strategies in order reduce transmission in endemic areas. PMID:27065605

  11. Risk factors for small airway obstruction among Chinese island residents: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for small airway obstruction (SAO among Chinese island residents to establish means to prevent and treat SAO. METHODS: From October 17, 2011 to November 1, 2011, a total of 2,873 residents aged >20 years who lived on the Huangqi Peninsula of Fujian were recruited by random cluster sampling. They were asked to complete a Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD questionnaire and underwent physical examinations and lung function evaluations. SAO was defined as a forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity, Vmax50%, of less than 70% of predicted. Risk factors for SAO were assessed from among demographic and anthropometric variables, blood chemistry results, and questionnaire response items. RESULTS: A total of 216 (7.52% Chinese island residents were identified as having SAO (95 males; 121 females. Their survey and test results were compared with 432 age and sex-matched healthy controls (192 males; 240 females for SAO risk factors. Among numerous factors investigated, only diabetes mellitus (p = 0.039, smoking index (SI, p600, second hand smoke (p = 0.002, and lack of regular exercise (p<0.001 were significant risk factors for SAO. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for SAO among Chinese island residents appeared to be similar to those among people who live in high-density urban environments and impoverished rural areas. Public health policies and medical practices directed toward improving respiratory health for island residents should be comparable to those used for urban and rural dwellers.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  13. Global Burden of Thrombosis: Epidemiologic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelboe, Aaron M; Raskob, Gary E

    2016-04-29

    Thromboembolic conditions were estimated to account for 1 in 4 deaths worldwide in 2010 and are the leading cause of mortality. Thromboembolic conditions are divided into arterial and venous thrombotic conditions. Ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke comprise the major arterial thromboses and deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism comprise venous thromboembolism. Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for stroke and systemic arterial thromboembolism. Estimates of the global burden of disease were obtained from Global Burden of Disease Project reports, recent systematic reviews, and searching the published literature for recent studies reporting measures of incidence, burden, and disability-adjusted life-years. Estimates per 100 000 of the global incidence rate (IR) for each condition are ischemic heart disease, IR=1518.7; myocardial infarction, IR=139.3; ischemic stroke, IR=114.3; atrial fibrillation, IR=77.5 in males and 59.5 in females; and venous thromboembolism, IR=115 to 269. Mortality rates (MRs) for each condition are ischemic heart disease, MR=105.5; ischemic stroke, MR=42.3; atrial fibrillation, MR=1.7; and venous thromboembolism, MR=9.4 to 32.3. Global public awareness is substantially lower for pulmonary embolism (54%) and deep-vein thrombosis (44%) than heart attack (88%) and stroke (85%). Over time, the incidence and MRs of these conditions have improved in developed countries, but are increasing in developing countries. Public health efforts to measure disease burden and increase awareness of symptoms and risk factors need to improve, particularly in low- and middle-income regions to address this leading cause of morbidity and mortality. PMID:27126645

  14. 阿尔茨海默病家庭负担影响因素分析%Study on factors associated with family burden of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俊伟; 王晓成; 王晶莹; 宋泽婧; 余红梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the family burden of Alzheimer' s disease (AD) and associated factors.Methods The subjects were 168 caregivers of patients with AD selected from two class 3A hospitals and three communities in Taiyuan through cluster sampling.The data were collected by using the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) and the Family Burden Scale (FBS) of diseases.Path analysis was applied to identify the factors associated with the total score of CBI.T-test and One-way analysis of variance were applied to identify the factors associated with the total score of FBS.Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to identify the factors associated with family burden of AD.Results The total score of the caregivers' burden was 52.41 ± 17.07.AD patients' cognitive function had direct (standardized β =-0.280,P<0.001) and indirect effect on CBI;while daily performance of AD patients had indirect effect on CBI.The total score of family burden was 16.23 ± 9.00.Univariate analysis showed that the sex,age,education level,cognitive function,daily performance,mental status,depression and dementia rating of AD patients might affect the total score of FBS (P < 0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that the factors which affected the total score of FBS included the sex (standardizedβ =0.280,P < 0.01),cognitive function (standardizedβ =-0.158,P =0.033) and daily performance of AD patients (standardizedβ=-0.155,P=0.039).Conclusion The caregiver and family burden of AD was mainly associated with the cognitive function and daily performance of AD patients.It is necessary to take targeted measures to reduce the caregiver and family burden of AD.%目的 探讨阿尔茨海默病(AD)家庭生活负担及其影响因素.方法 采用整群抽样方法,选择太原市2家三甲医院及3个社区168例已确诊AD患者的照料者为研究对象,通过照料者负担量表(CBI)和家庭负担量表(FBS)收集信息.路径分析探讨照料者负担影响因素,家庭负担总分

  15. Risk Factors of Dyslexia in Pre-school Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tūbele, Sarmīte

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to actualize early risk factors of dyslexia in pre-school children.There are a lot of research about dyslexia and its impact on the child/pupil's development, learning and other areas of life. Part of the research concerns the development of a child in pre-school age determining, what factors influence acquisition of reading skills and predict potential difficulties. The article is devoted to reveal early risk factors of specific reading disorder (dyslexia), touches dia...

  16. Ergonomic, psychosocial factors and risks at work in informal mining

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa; André Luiz Dantas Bezerra; Branca Maria de Oliveira Santos; José Eduardo Zaia; Dernival Bertoncello; Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the s...

  17. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    OpenAIRE

    En XU; Hai-xia WEN

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia...

  18. Modifiable Etiological Factors and the Burden of Stroke from the Rotterdam Study: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Bos (Michiel); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Stroke prevention requires effective treatment of its causes. Many etiological factors for stroke have been identified, but the potential gain of effective intervention on these factors in terms of numbers of actually prevented strokes remains unclear because of the lack of da

  19. A review of environmental risk factors for myopia during early life, childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Dharani; Lin Chua, Sharon Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. The increasing prevalence of myopia poses a huge socio-economic burden and progressive high myopia can lead to sight-threatening ocular complications. Hence, the prevention of early-onset myopia progressing to pathological high myopia is important. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that increased outdoor time is an important modifiable environmental factor that protects young children from myopia. This protective effect may be due to high light intensity outdoors, the chromaticity of daylight or increased vitamin D levels. This review summarises the possible underlying biological mechanisms for the protective association between time outdoors and myopia, including the potential role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in refractive error development. Recent evidence for the role of other environmental risk factors such as near work, birth seasons, parental smoking and birth order are also summarised. PMID:26497977

  20. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  1. Risk Allocation in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Project: A Review on Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Alkaf Abd Karim

    2011-01-01

    It is important for the public and private sectors to establish effective risk allocation strategies for Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. According to Malaysia’s PPP Guideline, one of the key feature or characteristics is to optimal sharing of risk whereby risk is allocated to the party who is the best able to manage. This mean that in PPP itself, it emphasis risk allocation in construction project. This paper presents on reviewing the risk factors of PPP construction project by map...

  2. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburt Jon C; James Katherine M; Sinicrope Pamela S; Eton David T; Costello Brian A; Carey Jantey; Lane Melanie A; Ehlers Shawna L; Erwin Patricia J; Nowakowski Katherine E; Murad Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Em...

  3. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.; Hoogendoorn, L.

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of observational studies. Objectives. To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. Summary of Background Data. Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial f

  4. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes......, and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29) in fully adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that onset of sleep disturbances rather than short or long sleep mark an increase in physiological risk factors, which may partly explain the higher risk of CVD observed among impaired sleepers. COMMENTARY...

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF FINANCIAL RISKS MANAGEMENT OF BUDGETARY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rustamovna Mubarakshina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In article such concepts are considered as the risk, budgetary risk, necessity of formation of system thinking at civil servants working in budgetary process. In article the concept of professional motivation for civil servants is considered. As in article necessity of the account of various psychological factors for managerial process by budgetary risks is proved and these factors are considered. In article risks in the field of public finances and a role of civil servants in the course of control over performance of the federal budget parameters and effective and target use of budgetary funds are considered. In article the urgency of the account of psychological factors at each stage of management by risks of budgetary process, in the answer constantly changing environmental conditions is proved.Aim: to reveal and characterize budgetary process risks. Object of research: psychological factors of financial risks. Result: Substantiation of necessity of the account of psychological factors such as style of thinking, the person, professional motivation of the employee at revealing and the analysis of risks of budgetary process and decrease in influence degree of risks on budgetary process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-37

  6. Fuzzy MCDM Model for Risk Factor Selection in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Rezakhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk factor selection is an important step in a successful risk management plan. There are many risk factors in a construction project and by an effective and systematic risk selection process the most critical risks can be distinguished to have more attention. In this paper through a comprehensive literature survey, most significant risk factors in a construction project are classified in a hierarchical structure. For an effective risk factor selection, a modified rational multi criteria decision making model (MCDM is developed. This model is a consensus rule based model and has the optimization property of rational models. By applying fuzzy logic to this model, uncertainty factors in group decision making such as experts` influence weights, their preference and judgment for risk selection criteria will be assessed. Also an intelligent checking process to check the logical consistency of experts` preferences will be implemented during the decision making process. The solution inferred from this method is in the highest degree of acceptance of group members. Also consistency of individual preferences is checked by some inference rules. This is an efficient and effective approach to prioritize and select risks based on decisions made by group of experts in construction projects. The applicability of presented method is assessed through a case study.

  7. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2014-01-01

    and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established......Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...

  8. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk.

  9. Factors Impacting Food Safety Risk Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources

  10. [Is psoriasis a dependent cardiovascular risk factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakkee, M.; Jong, E.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects approximately 2% of the Dutch population. It has been hypothesized that chronic inflammation occurring in psoriasis patients is more than skin deep, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Some observational studies have confirmed thi

  11. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilking Hendrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and also a burden in the elderly in Germany. The results may help to generate more specific hypothesis for infectious disease transmission. Methods We analysed the spatial distribution of hospitalized patients with Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany. The association between the small area incidence and different socio-demographic and economic variables was investigated in order to identify spatial relations and risk factors. Our spatial analysis included 447 neighbourhood areas of similar population size in the city of Berlin. We included all laboratory-confirmed cases of patients hospitalized due to Rotavirus infections and notified between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2009. We excluded travel-associated and nosocomial infections. A spatial Bayesian Poisson regression model was used for the statistical analysis of incidences at neighbourhood level in relation to socio-demographic variables. Results Altogether, 2,370 patients fulfilled the case definition. The disease mapping indicates a number of urban quarters to be highly affected by the disease. In the multivariable spatial regression model, two risk factors were identified for infants ( Conclusions Neighbourhoods with a high unemployment rate and high day care attendance rate appear to be particularly affected by Rotavirus in the population of Berlin. Public health promotion programs should be developed for the affected areas. Due to the ecological study

  12. Large-scale malaria survey in Cambodia: Novel insights on species distribution and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doung Socheat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, estimates of the malaria burden rely on a public health information system that does not record cases occurring among remote populations, neither malaria cases treated in the private sector nor asymptomatic carriers. A global estimate of the current malaria situation and associated risk factors is, therefore, still lacking. Methods A large cross-sectional survey was carried out in three areas of multidrug resistant malaria in Cambodia, enrolling 11,652 individuals. Fever and splenomegaly were recorded. Malaria prevalence, parasite densities and spatial distribution of infection were determined to identify parasitological profiles and the associated risk factors useful for improving malaria control programmes in the country. Results Malaria prevalence was 3.0%, 7.0% and 12.3% in Sampovloun, Koh Kong and Preah Vihear areas. Prevalences and Plasmodium species were heterogeneously distributed, with higher Plasmodium vivax rates in areas of low transmission. Malaria-attributable fevers accounted only for 10–33% of malaria cases, and 23–33% of parasite carriers were febrile. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis identified adults and males, mostly involved in forest activities, as high risk groups in Sampovloun, with additional risks for children in forest-fringe villages in the other areas along with an increased risk with distance from health facilities. Conclusion These observations point to a more complex malaria situation than suspected from official reports. A large asymptomatic reservoir was observed. The rates of P. vivax infections were higher than recorded in several areas. In remote areas, malaria prevalence was high. This indicates that additional health facilities should be implemented in areas at higher risk, such as remote rural and forested parts of the country, which are not adequately served by health services. Precise malaria risk mapping all over the country is needed to assess the

  13. Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and Their Related Socio-Economical, Environmental and Health Behavioral Factors: Focused on Low-Middle Income Countries- A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yuan Sun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD, social determinants for CVD risk factors have been extensively studied in developed countries. However, few studies about them have been performed in low-middle-income countries. This study describes factors related to CVD risk factors in low-middle-income countries at a national level.Data were assembled from international databases for 47 low-middle-income countries and were collected from various sources including WHO, World Bank, and previous studies. Coefficient estimates between male and female CVD risk factor prevalence and each independent variable were calculated via linear regression.Statistically significant inverse associations were observed between adult literacy rate and systolic blood pressure, blood glucose. Pump price for gasoline was negatively associated with blood glucose also. Associations for female unemployment, adult literacy rate, paved roads and urban population, alcohol and western diet were positively associated with CVD risk factors. Unemployment, urban population and alcohol were positively associated with CVD risk factors in males.The effectiveness of intervention program for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in populations in developing countries should be explored, and more attention should be given to women.

  14. Contribution of Individual Risk Factor Changes to Reductions in Population Absolute Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention. Design. Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme. Methods. The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a population of high risk patients identified from general practice records was evaluated. Further, the proportion of the modifiable risk attributable to each factor that was removed following one year of enhanced support was estimated. Results. Mean age of patients (533 males, 68 females was 63.7 (6.4 years. High cholesterol (57% was most prevalent, followed by smoking (53% and high blood pressure (26%. Smoking (57% made the greatest contribution to the modifiable population CVD risk, followed by raised blood pressure (26% and raised cholesterol (17%. After one year of enhanced support, the modifiable population risk attributed to smoking (56%, high blood pressure (68%, and high cholesterol (53% was removed. Conclusion. Approximately 59% of the modifiable risk attributable to the combination of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and current smoking was removed after intervention.

  15. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alize J Ferrari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs and disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%-10.8% of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%-2.0%. Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%-3.2% of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%-0.6%. There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%-3.8% to 3.8% (3.0%-4.7% of global DALYs. CONCLUSIONS: GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive

  16. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Sehrish; Iacoviello, Brian M; Charney, Dennis S

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic experiences can lead to a range of mental health problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading as the most documented disorder following trauma. Epidemiological research has found the rate of exposure to trauma to far outweigh the prevalence of PTSD. Indicating that most people do not develop PTSD following a traumatic event, this phenomenon has led to an interest in evaluating risk factors to determine who develops PTSD. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure fall into three categories: pre-trauma, peri-trauma and post-trauma factors. Pre-trauma factors can include age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, prior psychopathology, and neurobiological factors. Peri-trauma factors can include the duration/severity of trauma experience and the perception that the trauma has ended. Post-trauma factors can include access to needed resources, social support, specific cognitive patterns, and physical activity. To date, several important risk factors have been found to impact the risk of developing PTSD including gender, age, education, IQ, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, pre-trauma psychopathology, prior trauma exposure, familial psychiatric history, and neurobiological factors. This article outlines the state of research findings on pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and posttraumatic risk factors for the development of PTSD and associated psychopathology following trauma. PMID:26206108

  17. Caregiver burden in dependent elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauricio Ocampo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the frequency and the associated factors with the presence of care burden imposed by dependent elderly of Buenaventura, Valle; Colombia. Design: A pilot cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: Between March and May of 2006, data were collected on 35 over 60 years old patients who live in the community of Buenaventura, with a score in the Barthel index Results: The mean age and the standard deviation of the patient group was 78.9±10 years. There was a larger proportion of women (68.5%. In the care givers, the regular age and the standard deviation was 49.4±18.8 years, where 91% were women. It was found that for 54.2% of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 40% of them had a minimum burden and the others a greater burden. Bivariate analysis between the care giver’s burden and the number of chronic disease, the score on the minimental test, elderly depression and the family APGAR, resulted in statistic association (p Conclusions: There is an association between aged people, dependent in basic common day activities related with physical aspects, and care giver’s burden. Being the caregivers mostly family members, further studies must be focused on identifying and realizing interventions to prevent or limit the decrease of declining mental health and loss of life quality and the consequent increase of the care giver’s burden.

  18. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)

  19. Family functioning and risk factors for disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation.

  20. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En XU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, obesity, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle, alcoholism, metabolic syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, etc. Meanwhile, hypertension is the most important one in the above-mentioned risk factors. It would effectively reduce or postpone the onset of cerebrovascular diseases through proper intervention and management on those risk factors. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.006

  1. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies. PMID:18419661

  2. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  3. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Info For Families Bullying Info for Health Professionals Info for Education Professionals ... that likely occurs as a result of the effects of multiple genes interacting with other factors in ...

  4. Effects of Disasters: Risk and Resilience Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long-lasting mental health issues. Certain factors increase resilience after disasters: Social support Social support is one of the keys to recovery after any trauma, including disaster. Social support increases ...

  5. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie A Molodecky; Gilaad G. Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune res...

  6. Risk factors for idiopathic dystonia in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jeremy R B; Boyle, Richard S; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2014-12-01

    It is currently hypothesised that a combination of genetic and environmental factors underlies the development of idiopathic isolated dystonia (IID). In this study, we examined several possible environmental or other non-genetic factors that may influence the risk for IID in Queensland, Australia. We surveyed several environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, medical and family histories to investigate potential risk factors for IID. Associations between putative risk factors and IID were assessed using a total of 184 dystonia patients and 1048 neurologically-normal control subjects sampled from Queensland between 2005 and 2012. Our analyses revealed that anxiety disorders, depression, tremor, cigarette smoking and head injuries with a loss of consciousness were associated with increased risk for IID (prisk for dystonia increased with higher cigarette smoking pack-year quartiles in our analyses. Our results suggest possible environmental factors that influence the development of IID and complement the findings of similar dystonia risk factor studies. Further investigation defining the environmental and other non-genetic risk factors for IID may provide insight into the development of the disorder in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  7. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  8. Human Plasma Lipidome Is Pleiotropically Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Manju; Kent, Jack W.; Wong, Gerard; Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Barlow, Christopher K.; Diego, Vincent; Almeida, Marcio; Dyer, Thomas D.; Göring, Harald H.H.; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Meikle, Peter J.; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in the United States and is associated with a high economic burden. Prevention of CVD focuses on controlling or improving the lipid profile of patients at risk. The human lipidome is made up of thousands of ubiquitous lipid species. By studying biologically simple canonical lipid species, we investigated whether the lipidome is genetically redundant and whether its genetic influences can provide clinically relevant clues of CVD risk. Methods and Results We performed a genetic study of the human lipidome in 1,212 individuals from 42 extended Mexican American families. High-throughput mass spectrometry enabled rapid capture of precise lipidomic profiles, providing 319 unique species. Using variance-component based heritability analyses and bivariate trait analyses, we detected significant genetic influences on each lipid assayed. Median heritability of the plasma lipid species was 0.37. Hierarchical clustering based on complex genetic correlation patterns identified 12 genetic clusters that characterized the plasma lipidome. These genetic clusters were differentially but consistently associated with risk factors of CVD, including central obesity, obesity, type 2 diabetes, raised serum triglycerides and metabolic syndrome. Also these clusters consistently predicted occurrence of cardiovascular deaths during follow-up. Conclusions The human plasma lipidome is heritable. Shared genetic influences reduce the dimensionality of the human lipidome into clusters that are associated with risk factors of CVD. PMID:25363705

  9. Stability across cohorts in divorce risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Jay D

    2002-05-01

    Over the past quarter-century, many covariates of divorce have been identified. However, the extent to which the effects of these covariates remain constant across time is not known. In this article, I examine the stability of the effects of a wide range of divorce covariates using a pooled sample of data taken from five rounds of the National Survey of Family Growth. This sample includes consistent measures of important predictors of divorce, covers marriages formed over 35 years (1950-1984), and spans substantial historical variation in the overall risk of marital dissolution. For the most part, the effects of the major sociodemographic predictors of divorce do not vary by historical period. The one exception is race. These results suggest that the effects associated with historical period have been pervasive, simultaneously altering the risk of divorce for most marriages.

  10. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, A; Niemann, J; Engberg, Jørgen H;

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  11. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24...

  12. Risk Factors for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jing; Han, Zhenhui; Li, Xueying; Ochs, Todd; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Jinyan; Liu, Ping; Xiong, Zhenyu; Gai, Yong; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    Background Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is prevalent in children and adolescents and has a great impact on health. But its risk factors have not been fully understood. This study aimed to explore possible risk factors for children and adolescents with POTS. Methods and Findings 600 children and adolescents (test group) aged 7–18 (11.9±3.0) years old, 259 males and 341 females, were recruited for identifying its risk factors. Another 197 subjects aged from 7 to 18 (11.3±2.3) years old ...

  13. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  14. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Joachim Raabe; Dietmar eSpengler

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation...

  15. Engaging Physicians in Risk Factor Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Springrose, James V.; Friedman, Felix; Gumnit, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    OptumHealth tested the feasibility of physician-directed population management in 3 primary care practices and with 546 continuously insured patients who exhibited claims markers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. During the intervention portion of the study, we asked physicians to improve the following health measurements: blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and smoking status. We offered a modest pay-for-outcomes incentive for each risk fac...

  16. Risk factors for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast-conserving therapy has been widely accepted as a standard treatment for early breast cancer both in Western countries and in Japan. In Western countries, many studies have investigated the risk factors for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy (BCT), but few such studies have been done in Japan. To determine the risk factors for local recurrence in 399 breast cancer patients (stage I and II, n=396; stage III, n=3) who had undergone BCT with or without postoperative radiation therapy, we evaluated their clinicopathological features by univariate and multivariate analyses. The patients were treated at Osaka National Hospital between February 1988 and December 1997. Univariate analysis showed that a young age (≤45 years; P=0.0005) was a significant risk factor for local recurrence, while radiation therapy (P=0.0058) and adjuvant endocrine therapy (P=0.0041) significantly reduced the risk of local recurrence. In patients with BCT, without radiation therapy a positive surgical margin significantly increased the risk of local recurrence (P=0.0470). Multivariate analysis showed that a young age (P=0.0285) was a significant independent risk factor for local recurrence, while radiation therapy (P=0.0457) significantly decreased recurrence. In patients with a negative surgical margin, radiation therapy (P=0.0158) and adjuvant endocrine therapy (P=0.0421) significantly reduced the relative risk of local recurrence, to 0.160 and 0.366, respectively. In patients with a positive surgical margin, radiation therapy marginally significantly (P=0.0756) reduced the relative risk of local recurrence, to 0.181, and adjuvant endocrine therapy significantly (P=0.0119) reduced the risk, to 0.076. Young age and lack of radiation therapy or adjuvant endocrine therapy were risk factors for local recurrence in breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy, with surgical margin status also being a possible risk factor. (author)

  17. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Barnard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption, as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption, or as part of a broader dietary pattern.

  18. The Prevalence Of Hypertension And Its Associated Risk Factors In Two Rural Communities In Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syer Ree Tee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is estimated to cause4.5% of the global disease burden. The prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia is 32.2%.Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in two rural communities in Penang, Malaysia.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among all consenting residents aged 18 years and above from two villages in Penang. Besides the baseline demographic information, blood pressure was measured using a manual sphygmomanometer according to the American Heart Association Guidelines.Results: 50 out of 168 people were hypertensive, giving a prevalence rate of 29.8%. 50.0% of those found with hypertension were undiagnosed and 48.0% of those who were diagnosed with hypertension had uncontrolled blood pressure. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, history of alcohol consumption and BMI were found to be independently associated with hypertension.Conclusions: Age, education level, alcohol consumption and BMI are important risk factors associated with the prevalence of hypertension among the villagers. These risk factors are comparable to those reported in National Health and Morbidity Survery 2006 in Malaysia.

  19. About risk factors in the development of thrombotic complications in patients with chronic myeloprolipherative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolayenko-Kamyshova T.P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Steady increasing number of patients with the diseases com¬plicated by thromboses and embolisms requires intensified study. Practically in all oncologic and oncogematologic patients readiness for the development of thrombotic complications is formed even before changes in hemo¬stasiogramm. In the hematologic clinic the problem of thrombotic compli¬cations especially acute in patients with chronic myeloprolipherative diseases (CMD: the manifestation of disease at the age of 50-70 years, its benign prolonged course with factors, which burden vascularly - thrombocytic changes – hypertonic disease, ischemic heart disease, metabolic syndrome - they aggravate the forecast of disease. The purpose of the work was to estimate influence of the risk factors of thrombotic complications in patients with CMD. Possible risk factors in the development of thrombotic complication in 110 patients with CMD were investigated. In 38 of them vascular complications, occurred which manifested in the age group of 50 years and over. During the expressed plethora and or progression of myelopro¬lipherative syndrome in combination with arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherothrombosis of lower extremities vessels as well as changed laboratory data (significant increase of Hb, RBC,WBC,PLT; high level of cholesterol, LDH, uric acid in connection with high level of throm¬botic aggregation greatly enhance the risk of thrombotic complications. Taking into account complex of these changes and administration of the corresponding complex therapy it is possible to warn life threatening states.

  20. The role of biochemical risk factors in the etiology of AIS in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyta, Ilona; Zimny, Mikołaj; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is an abrupt onset of both focal and global neurological deficits secondary to a vascular event lasting more than 24 h and with a vascular background as its only cause. It can be triggered by a rupture of a blood vessel, aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke, HS), thrombosis or embolisms (ischemic stroke, IS). In developed countries, it is the third most common cause of death in the adult population. Stroke in children is a rare disorder with a reported frequency of about 3 cases per 100,000 children per year. The history of acute brain ischemia is burdened with neurological complications such as motor impairment, speech impairment and intellectual delay. Moreover, in children after AIS seizures and epilepsy are also quite common. Stroke is a heterogeneous disorder; its risk factors in adults are well known, however, in pediatrics, in more than 20% cases, the cause of stroke is impossible to determine. Due to the fact that stroke usually arises as a consequence of the cerebral thrombosis, many of the mechanisms responsible for its occurrence can be considered as risk factors. We have reviewed the recent case-control studies conducted on pediatric patients regarding biochemical risk factors such as elevated levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, lipoprotein(a), cholesterol and its fractions, and compared them with the results obtained from adult patients. PMID:25428197

  1. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  2. Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jiong-Liang Qiu; Yang Zhang; Yu-Wan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the risk factors for colorectal cancer in China.METHODS: A meta-analysis of the risk factors of colorectal cancer was conducted for 14 case-control studies, and reviewed 14 reports within 13 years which included 5034cases and 5205 controls. Dersimonian and Laird random effective models were used to process the results.RESULTS: Meta analysis of the 14 studies demonstrated that proper physical activites and dietary fibers were protective factors (pooled OR<0.8), while fecal mucohemorrhage,chronic diarrhea and polyposis were highly associated with colorectal cancer (all pooled OR>4). The stratified results showed that different OR values of some factors were due to geographic factors or different resourses.CONCLUSION: Risks of colorectal cancer are significantly associated with the histories of intestinal diseases or relative symptoms, high lipid diet, emotional trauma and family history of cancers. The suitable physical activities and dietary fibers are protective factors.

  3. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  4. Dynamical tendencies of health consequences caused by competitive risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the generalized probabilistic approach for analyzing health consequences caused by various exposure factors. Formally basing on the competitive risk theory, it is introduced a general risk model for analysis the influence of environmental risk factors to human health. The usefulness of the model approach is in the opportunity of taking into account: time delay of impact and consequence manifestation; easy comparisons of exposure factors with different nature and various consequences (morbidity and mortality, carcinogenic and genetic); social and environmental components in overall mortality. Preliminary examples of comparative risk analysis are demonstrated on the Russian demography and environmental data with the attempt of characterizing the dynamical tendencies and evolution of introduced risk index. The prospects of the probabilistic approach and the results obtaining on this basis are discussed. (author)

  5. OSA – a risk factor for stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan CM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh M RyanCentre for Sleep Health and Research, University of Toronto/Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder characterized by recurrent and intermittent hypoxia with continued respiratory effort against a closed glottis. The result of this is a cascade of acute and chronic systemic pathophysiological responses that cause endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article focuses on the clinical evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea and stroke and on the specific mechanisms perpetuating stroke risk in this population.Keywords: stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, brain injury, atherosclerosis, continuous positive airway pressure, outcomes

  6. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik;

    1997-01-01

    .6-3.1 PCE/pry and 6.0-6.9 MCE/pry). Finally Pathology, Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a considerable risk (0.8-1.3 PCE/pry and 1.3-2.9 MCE/pry). Potential risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Employment as senior as compared to junior doctor was associated with a higher risk......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish......Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6...

  7. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  8. Risk Factors for Late Diagnosis of Rett Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-01-01

    Investigators at Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Stony Brook, New York; University of California, San Diego; and other centers determined the type of physician who makes the Rett syndrome (RTT) diagnosis and identified risk factors for delayed diagnosis.

  9. Behavioral Risk Factor Data: Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and other...

  10. Prognostic risk factors for stroke-associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Han

    2010-01-01

    Stroke impacts patient's quality of life,but most stroke patients die of complications,such as pulmonary infections,rather than the original stroke.Stroke-associated pneumonia(SAP)is a common complication of acute stroke,but the risk factors are poorly understood.SAP can significantly affect neurological recovery after stroke and markedly prolong the hospital stay.The present study analyzed the risk factors for SAP to improve prevention and treatment outcomes.Age,diabetes mellitus,states of consciousness,nasal feeding,gastric mucosa protective drugs,and prophylactic use of antibiotics are risk factors for SAP.In addition,smoking,cardiovascular disease,stroke location and properties,and dehydrating agents are associated with SAP,but are not risk factors.

  11. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严健华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis(ARAS) in patients undergoing coronary angiography.Methods A total of 2506 patients with suspected and known coronary

  13. Risk factors for medical complications of acute hemorrhagic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jangala Mohan Sidhartha; Aravinda Reddy Purma; Nagaswaram Krupa Sagar; Marri Prabhu Teja; Meda Venkata subbaiah; Muniswami Purushothaman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors leading to medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Methods: We conducted an observational study in neurology, emergency and general medicine wards at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kadapa. We recruited hemorrhagic stroke patients, and excluded the patients have evidence of trauma or brain tumor as the cause of hemorrhage. We observed the subjects throughout their hospital stay to assess the risk factors and complications. Results: During period of 12 months, 288 subjects included in the study, 89% of them identified at least 1 prespecified risk factor for their admission in hospital and 75% of them experienced at least 1 prespecified complication during their stay in hospital. Around 47% of subjects deceased, among which 64% were females. Conclusions: Our study has assessed that hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors for medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Female mortality rate was more when compared to males.

  14. Risk factors for recurrent laryngeal nerve neuropraxia postthyroidectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Despite preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), transient vocal cord paralysis (VCP) occurs after 1.2% to 10.9% of thyroidectomies. The objective of this study was to study risk factors for transient VCP after thyroidectomy.

  15. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  17. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for hypertension after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J.J.; Sep, S.J.; Balen, V.L. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolic and obstetric risk factors associated with hypertension after preeclampsia. METHODS: We analyzed demographic and clinical data from a postpartum screening (blood pressure, microalbuminuria and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) from 683 pri

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  19. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinton, Louise A; Cook, Michael B; McCormack, Valerie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. METHODS: In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium.......41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent findings across case-control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles...... significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1...

  20. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.