王颖; 邵柏; 于长友; 方绍庆; 刘明杰; 孙宝杰
Bunyaviridae is one of the most important vector-borne viruses which are spread by medical arthropods and rodents including mosquitoes, sandflies, midges, rats and others, with mammals such as the human being as its host. It turned out that the "tick bite event" occurring in Henan, Shandong and other places in 2010 was human infectious diseases caused by a new Bunyaviridae spread by its tick vector. Diseases caused by the virus, if severe enough, may lead to multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and even death with a mortality of about 10%. In the present article, an overview is made of the studies done both at home and abroad on the pathogenicity of Bunyaviridae and the diseases, infections and the immune response associated with the virus to provide a theoretical basis for the detection and prevention of diseases caused by Bunyaviridae.%布尼亚病毒科是媒传疾病中重要的病毒科之一,传播媒介囊括了医学节肢动物和啮齿动物,如蚊虫、白蛉、蠓、鼠等,宿主动物为哺乳动物,如人类等.2010年在河南、山东等地出现的“蜱虫叮咬事件”是由蜱作为传播媒介,病原体为新型布尼亚病毒的传染疾病,该病严重者可致多脏器功能衰竭、弥漫性血管内凝血,甚至死亡,病死率高达10％.为给布尼亚病毒所致疾病的检测和防治提供理论依据,现就布尼亚病毒科病毒病原学、所致疾病及感染和免疫应答方面的国内外研究做一综述.
We investigated the susceptibility of Culicoides sonorensis to Cache Valley virus (CVV) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) infection and the potential that it could be a vector or site of virus reassortment. CVV is native to the New World and causes disease in livestock. Infected blood mea...
Alexandre Rosário Casseb
Full Text Available The State of Pará comprises 26% of Brazilian Amazon region where a large diversity of arboviruses has been described. This study sought to assess the prevalence and distribution of haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against antigens of nine different types of arbovirus of the Bunyaviridae family, where eight were Orthobunyavirus: Guaroa virus, Maguari virus, Tacaiuma virus, Utinga virus, Belem virus, Caraparu virus, Oropouche virus and Catu virus, and one Phlebovirus: Icoaraci virus in sera samples of water buffaloes in Pará State, Brazil. For all Arboviruses investigated there were antibodies, with the exception of Belem virus. Antibodies to Maguari virus were more prevalent (7.33%. The water buffaloes of the present study showed variable levels of antibodies in monotypic and heterotypic reactions that may indicate there are movements from most bunyavirus studied in domestic buffaloes in the state of Pará, and the Maguari virus presents the largest circulation. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the role of water buffalo in the maintenance and dispersal of arboviruses, as well as whether these viruses can cause disease in that species, especially in cases of birth defects and abortions.
Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T
Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299
Darci R Smith
Full Text Available Darci R Smith1, Monica Ogg1, Aura Garrison1, Abdul Yunus2, Anna Honko1, Josh Johnson1, Gene Olinger1, Lisa E Hensley1, Michael S Kinch1United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRII D, Fort Detrick, MD, USA; 2Functional Genetics, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: The family Bunyaviridae is a diverse group of negative-strand RNA viruses that infect a wide range of arthropod vectors and animal hosts. Based on the continuing need for new therapeutics to treat bunyavirus infections, we evaluated the potential efficacy of FGI-106, a small-molecular compound that previously demonstrated activity against different RNA viruses. FGI-106 displayed substantial antiviral activity in cell-based assays of different bunyavirus family members, including Asian and South American hantaviruses (Hantaan virus and Andes virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, La Crosse virus, and Rift Valley fever virus. The pharmacokinetic profile of FGI-106 revealed sufficient exposure of the drug to critical target organs (lung, liver, kidney, and spleen, which are frequently the sites of bunyavirus replication. Consistent with these findings, FGI-106 treatment delivered via intraperitoneal injection prior to virus exposure was sufficient to delay the onset of Rift Valley fever virus infection in mouse-based models and to enhance survival in the face of an otherwise lethal infection. Altogether, these results suggest a potential opportunity for the use of FGI-106 to treat infections by members of the family Bunyaviridae.Keywords: Rift Valley fever virus, bunyavirus, hantavirus, antiviral, therapeutic
Ladner, Jason T; Savji, Nazir; Lofts, Loreen; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Wiley, Michael R; Gestole, Marie C; Rosen, Gail E; Guzman, Hilda; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Nunes, Marcio R T; J Kochel, Tadeusz; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo
A thorough characterization of the genetic diversity of viruses present in vector and vertebrate host populations is essential for the early detection of and response to emerging pathogenic viruses, yet genetic characterization of many important viral groups remains incomplete. The Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an example. The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Here, we report complete genome sequences for 11 viruses within this group, with a focus on the large and poorly characterized Manzanilla and Oropouche species complexes. Phylogenetic and pairwise divergence analyses indicated the presence of high levels of genetic diversity within these two species complexes, on a par with that seen among the five other species complexes in the Simbu serogroup. Based on previously reported divergence thresholds between species, the data suggested that these two complexes should actually be divided into at least five species. Together these five species formed a distinct phylogenetic clade apart from the rest of the Simbu serogroup. Pairwise sequence divergences among viruses of this clade and viruses in other Simbu serogroup species complexes were similar to levels of divergence among the other orthobunyavirus serogroups. The genetic data also suggested relatively high levels of natural reassortment, with three potential reassortment events present, including two well-supported events involving viruses known to infect humans. PMID:24558222
Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses
Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa
Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of
The bunyaviridae family comprises more than 300 viruses. Membership is usually based on antigenic interrelatedness or morphological similarity. Disease characterized by fever, headache, weakness, myalgia, pulmonary edema. The family is divided into 5 genera; 1. Orthobunyavirus: Bunyamwera, La Cross, Tahyna virus, transmitted mainly by mosquitoes. 2. Hantavirus; Hantaan virus, transmission does not require insects. 3. Nairovirus; Dugbe virus infection of cattle in West Africa, transmitted by ticks. 4. Phlebovirus;Sandfly fever, Rift valley fever, transmitted by sandflies. 5. Tospovirus; Tomato spotted wilt virus,only infect plant and non-vertebrate. Man is not known to be a natural or reservoir for any of these viruses. Virions are 80 ~ 120 nm in diameter, 5 ~ 10 nm projections visible on the surface. Genome consists of 3 pieces of negative stranded RNA. Virion has 2 surface glycoproteins Cl and C2, with HA and virus neutralization epitopes. Bunyaviridae is a family of negative stranded RNA viruses. Though generally found in arthropode or rodents, certain viruses in this family occasionally infect humans. Bunyaviridae are vector-borne viruses. With the exception of Hantaviruses transmission occurs via an arthropod vector. Hantaviruses are transmitted through contact with mice feces. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, consequently handling of these viruses most occurs with a biosafe level 4 laboratory. Hantavirus or Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever, common in China, Korea, Scandinavia, Russia, and the American southwest, is associated with high fever, lung edema and pulmonary failture. Mortality is around 55% of laboratory diagnosis of bunya virus infections. Virus isolation-intra-cranialinoculation of suckling mice is thought to be the most sensitive system available for virus isolation. However sensitive cell culture systems are available such as Vero, Vero E6, A549 and mosquito cells. Once isolated the
董雪; 王秋雨; 李欣; 刘娜
近年来在河南、山东等地出现的“蜱虫叮咬事件”是由蜱作为传播媒介，病原体为新型布尼亚病毒的传染疾病，该病严重者可致多脏器功能衰竭、弥漫性血管内凝血，病死率高达10%。布尼亚病毒是媒传疾病中重要的病毒类群之一，传播媒介囊括了医学节肢动物和啮齿动物，如蚊虫、白蛉、蠓、鼠等，宿主动物为哺乳动物。本文综述了新型布尼亚病毒病原学、所致疾病、感染和免疫应答以及检测的国内外研究进展，为该病毒感染的早期快速诊断、对症治疗和疾病预防等工作提供参考。%It turned out that the “tick bite event” occurring in Henan, Shandong and other places of China in recent year was human infectious diseases caused by a new Bunyaviridae spread by its tick vector. Diseases caused by the virus, if severe enough, may lead to multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and even death with a mortality of about 10%. Bunyaviridae is one of the most important vector-borne viruses which are spread by medical arthropods and rodents including mosquitoes, sandflies, midges, rats and others, with mammals such as the human being as its host. This review was focused on the research progress at home and abroad on etiology of Novel Bunia virus, caused-disease, infection immune response and its detection to provide reference for early and rapid diagnosis of Bunia virus and its prevention.
[Taxonomic status of the Burana virus (BURV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Tamdy group) isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 and Haem. concinna Koch, 1844 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae) in Kyrgyzstan].
L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G
Complete genome sequence of the Burana virus (BURV) was determined using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank KF801651). The prototype strain of BURV LEIV-Krg760 was originally isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae), collected from cows in Tokmak wildlife sanctuary, eastern part of the Chu valley (43 degrees 10' N, 74 degrees 40' E) near Burana village, Kirgizia, in April 1971. Molecular genetics and phylogenetic analyses showed that the BURV belonged to the Nairovirus genus, Bunyaviridae and is related to Tamdy virus (TAMV) that is also associated with the ixodidae ticks of pasture biocenosis in Central Asia. Previous studies showed that TAMV is the prototypic virus of new phylogenetic Tamdy group in the Nairovirus genus. Thus, BURV was classified as a new virus of the Tamdy group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae. PMID:25549462
Pappu, H R; du Toit, L J; Schwartz, H F; Mohan, S K
Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), a tentative virus species in the genus Tospovirus and family Bunyaviridae, is considered a rapidly emerging threat to onion production in the western United States (US). The present study was undertaken to determine the sequence diversity of IYSV isolates from infected onion plants grown in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Washington. Using primers derived from the small RNA of IYSV, the complete sequence of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of each isolate was determined and the sequences compared. In addition, a shallot isolate of IYSV from Washington was included in the study. The US isolates of IYSV shared a high degree of sequence identity (95 to 99%) with one another and to previously reported isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that with the exception of one isolate from central Oregon and one isolate from California, all the onion and shallot isolates from the western US clustered together. This cluster also included onion and lisianthus isolates from Japan. A second distinct cluster consisted of isolates from Australia (onion), Brazil (onion), Israel (lisianthus), Japan (alstroemeria), The Netherlands (iris) and Slovenia (leek). The IYSV isolates evaluated in this study appear to represent two distinct groups, one of which largely represents isolates from the western US. Understanding of the population structure of IYSV would potentially provide insights into the molecular epidemiology of this virus. PMID:16320007
Matsuno, Keita; Weisend, Carla; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Anzick, Sarah L.; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Dorward, David W.; Yu, Xue-Jie; Tesh, Robert B.
Bhanja virus (BHAV) and its antigenically close relatives Forecariah virus (FORV), Kismayo virus (KISV), and Palma virus (PALV) are thought to be members of the family Bunyaviridae, but they have not been assigned to a genus or species. Despite their broad geographical distribution and reports that BHAV causes sporadic cases of febrile illness and encephalitis in humans, the public health importance of the Bhanja serogroup viruses remains unclear, due in part to the lack of sequence and biochemical information for the virus proteins. In order to better define the molecular characteristics of this group, we determined the full-length sequences of the L, M, and S genome segments of multiple isolates of BHAV as well as FORV and PALV. The genome structures of these Bhanja viruses are similar to those of viruses belonging to the genus Phlebovirus. Functional domains and amino acid motifs in the viral proteins that are conserved among other known phleboviruses were also identified in proteins of the BHAV group. Phylogenetic and serological analyses revealed that the BHAVs are most closely related to the novel emerging tick-borne phleboviruses severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus, which have recently been implicated as causing severe acute febrile illnesses associated with thrombocytopenia in humans in China and the United States. Our results indicate that the Bhanja serogroup viruses constitute a single novel species in the genus Phlebovirus. The results of this study should facilitate epidemiological surveillance for other, similar tick-borne phleboviruses that may represent unrecognized causes of febrile illness in humans. PMID:23325688
Rosa Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da
Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.
Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Anderson, John F; Main, Andrew J
Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by overall
Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa
Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.
Kuhn, Jens H.; Wiley, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Sergio E.; Bào, Yīmíng; Prieto, Karla; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Savji, Nazir; Ladner, Jason T.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wada, Jiro; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bente, Dennis A.; Palacios, Gustavo
Nairovirus, one of five bunyaviral genera, includes seven species. Genomic sequence information is limited for members of the Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, Qalyub, Sakhalin, and Thiafora nairovirus species. We used next-generation sequencing and historical virus-culture samples to determine 14 complete and nine coding-complete nairoviral genome sequences to further characterize these species. Previously unsequenced viruses include Abu Mina, Clo Mor, Great Saltee, Hughes, Raza, Sakhalin, Soldado, and Tillamook viruses. In addition, we present genomic sequence information on additional isolates of previously sequenced Avalon, Dugbe, Sapphire II, and Zirqa viruses. Finally, we identify Tunis virus, previously thought to be a phlebovirus, as an isolate of Abu Hammad virus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the need for reassignment of Sapphire II virus to Dera Ghazi Khan nairovirus and reassignment of Hazara, Tofla, and Nairobi sheep disease viruses to novel species. We also propose new species for the Kasokero group (Kasokero, Leopards Hill, Yogue viruses), the Ketarah group (Gossas, Issyk-kul, Keterah/soft tick viruses) and the Burana group (Wēnzhōu tick virus, Huángpí tick virus 1, Tǎchéng tick virus 1). Our analyses emphasize the sister relationship of nairoviruses and arenaviruses, and indicate that several nairo-like viruses (Shāyáng spider virus 1, Xīnzhōu spider virus, Sānxiá water strider virus 1, South Bay virus, Wǔhàn millipede virus 2) require establishment of novel genera in a larger nairovirus-arenavirus supergroup. PMID:27294949
Palacios, Gustavo; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W Ian
Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus.
Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F
Cache Valley virus (CVV; Family Bunyavidae, Genus Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis that frequently infects humans and livestock in North and Central America. In the northeastern United States, CVV transmission is unpredictable from year-to-year and may derive from the periodic extinction and reintroduction of new virus strains into this region. To evaluate this possibility, we sequenced and analyzed numerous CVV isolates sampled in Connecticut during an 18-year period to determine how the virus population may change over time. Phylogenetic analyses showed the establishment of a new viral lineage during 2010 that became dominant by 2014 and appears to have originated from southern Mexico. CVV strains from Connecticut also grouped into numerous sub-clades within each lineage that included viruses from other U.S. states and Canada. We did not observe the development and stable persistence of local viral clades in Connecticut, which may reflect the episodic pattern of CVV transmission. Together, our data support the emergence of a new lineage of CVV in the northeastern United States and suggest extensive dispersal of viral strains in North America. PMID:25962774
Blackmore, Carina G M; Grimstad, Paul R
To evaluate the importance of eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) as amplifying hosts for Cache Valley virus (CVV), we tested hunter-provided blood samples from northern Indiana for specific neutralizing (N) antibodies against this mosquito-borne bunya-virus. Samples were collected during the winter of 1994-95. Two seronegative eastern cottontails, captured in July 1995, were also infected with CVV by subcutaneous inoculation, and two others were infected by allowing CVV-infected mosquitoes to feed on them. The results indicate that eastern cottontails probably are not important amplifying hosts for CVV. The prevalence of N antibodies against CVV was low (6.0%, n=82) among the hunter-killed animals. Low viremia (<1.8 log10 plaque-forming units/ml) of short duration (1-3 days) were seen in three of four experimentally infected eastern cottontails. The viremias were insufficient for infecting Coquillettidia perturbans, a mosquito species commonly found naturally infected with CVV. PMID:18263839
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a worldwide tick-borne disease that originally belongs to the Bunyaviridae family, the genus Nairovirus. In addition to infection from ticks, humans become infected if any contact with infected blood or tissue material occurs. To study the disease, several methods such as real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Immunofluorescence assay are used for detection of the virus. All viruses in Bunyaviridae consists of three...
Weber, Friedemann; Elliott, Richard M
Members of the Bunyaviridae family are amongst the most widespread viruses in the world. They can be found on every inhabited continent at virtually every latitude, and are able to infect a wide range of arthropods, plants and mammals including humans. More than 300 named viruses are contained within the family Bunyaviridae (Virus Taxonomy: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2000) 599), and several members cause significant disease in humans or domestic animals. Despite being recognised as an emerging threat, relatively little is known about their virulence mechanisms. Here, we try to summarise the current state of knowledge about how the viruses of the Bunyaviridae succeed in establishing infection in the face of a powerful immune system. PMID:12297332
Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 members worldwide. Several of these viruses cause severe diseases in livestock and humans. With an increasing number and frequency of outbreaks, bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to public health and agricultural productivity globally. Yet, the receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely uncharacterized. The focus of this review is on the early steps of bunyavirus infection, from virus binding to penetration from endosomes. We address current knowledge and advances for members from each genus in the Bunyaviridae family regarding virus receptors, uptake, intracellular trafficking and fusion.
Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo
The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypa...
Bucher, E.C.; Sijen, T.; Haan, de P.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.
Posttranscriptional silencing of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana plants was suppressed when these plants were infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a plant-infecting member of the Bunyaviridae. Infection with TSWV resulted in complete reactivation of GF
J.P.G. Clement; P. McKenna; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. Colson; T. Vervoort; G. van der Groen (Guido); H.W. Lee
textabstractHantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the m
Miles, Rory W; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Atkinson, Barry; Pullan, Steven T; Lloyd, Graham; Bailey, Daniel
Seoul virus (genus Hantavirus; family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with cases of acute kidney injury in several countries across the globe. We report here the whole-genome sequence of the Tchoupitoulas strain of Seoul virus isolated in New Orleans, LA. PMID:27284149
Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz Asadi; Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mojtaba;
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tickborne viral zoonosis with up to 50% mortality in humans caused by CCHF virus belonging to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. The geographical distribution of CCHF cases corresponds closely with the distribution of principle tick vectors that...
Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to th
Atkinson, Barry; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Fooks, Anthony R; Hewson, Roger
Issyk-Kul virus (ISKV) is an ungrouped virus tentatively assigned to the Bunyaviridae family and is associated with an acute febrile illness in several central Asian countries. Using next-generation sequencing technologies, we report here the full-genome sequence for this novel unclassified arboviral pathogen circulating in central Asia.
Full Text Available ndrome (HFRS) is a group of diseases caused by hantaviruses which are members of family Bunyaviridae. HFRS i...s characterized by renal failure, hemorrhages, and shock and is caused by the serotypes Hantaan, Seoul, Puum...ala, and Dobrava-Belgrade viruses. The serotype Puumala virus also causes nephrop
Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Sudia, W D
A virus isolate from Aedeomyia squamipennis collected in Honduras in 1967 was identified as a member of the Gamboa serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus). This is the ninth Gamboa serogroup virus and the eighth shown to be a distinct serotype. PMID:2903690
At the onset of the studies presented in this thesis, it was already known that the assembly of the enveloped particle of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; family Bunyaviridae) in the infected plant cell was featured by a number of interesting phenomena. This process involves enwrapment of the viral
Garcia, Stephan; Crance, Jean Marc; Billecocq, Agnes; Peinnequin, Andre; Jouan, Alain; Bouloy, Michele; Garin, Daniel
The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae) is an enveloped negative-strand RNA virus with a tripartite genome. Until 2000, RVFV circulation was limited to the African continent, but the recent deadly outbreak in the Arabian Peninsula dramatically illustrated the need for rapid diagnostic methods, effective treatments, and prophylaxis. A method for quantifying the small RNA segment by a real-time detection reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using Ta...
Witkowski, P. T.; Drexler, J. F.; Kallies, R.; Lickova, M; Bokorova, S.; Mananga, G. D.; Szemes, T.; Leroy, Eric; Kruger, D H; Drosten, C.; Klempa, B.
Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Ph...
Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won
Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into ...
汉坦病毒属于布尼亚病毒科(Bunyaviridae)汉坦病毒属( Hantavirus,HV),该属病毒至少包括42个血清型或基因,主要引起肾综合症出血热(Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome,HFRS)和汉坦肺综合症(Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,HPS),对人类健康危害极大.
Khan Najam Ali; Jaiswal Anushree; Choudhray Reenu; Abid Mohammad; Kishore Kamal
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) caused by negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. (CCHF) is a tick-borne infectious disease characterized by fever, malaise, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, sore throat, muscle aches, hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia. CCHF has the most extensive geographic range of the medically significant tick-borne viruses occurring in Africa, Europe and Asia & found recently in India (Ahmadabad) in 2011,become a s...
Sadegh Chinikar; Saeid Bouzari; Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar; Ehsan Mostafavi; Tahmineh Jalali; Sahar Khakifirouz; Norbert Nowotny; Fooks, Anthony R.; Nariman Shah-Hosseini
Background: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. It has a negative-sense, single stranded RNA genome approximately 19.2 kb, containing the Small, Medium, and Large segments. CCHFVs are relatively divergent in their genome sequence and grouped in seven distinct clades based on S-segment sequence analysis and six clades based on M-segment sequences. Our aim was to obtain new insights into the molecular epidemiology of CCHFV i...
Chinikar, Sadegh; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Bouzari, Saeid; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; MOSTAFAVI, Ehsan; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Groschup, Martin H; Niedrig, Matthias
Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) belongs to genus Nairovirus and family Bunyaviridae. The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent of recombination in S-segment genome of CCHFV in Iran. Methods: Samples were isolated from Iranian patients and those available in GenBank, and analyzed by phylogenetic and bootscan methods. Results: Through comparison of the phylogenetic trees based on full length sequences and partial fragments in the S-segment genome ...
Dian Perwitasari; Ima Nurisa Ibrahim; Andi Yasmon
AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV) adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pad...
Zhao, Yicheng; Wang, Tiedong; Yao, Li; Liu, Bo; Teng, Chunbo; Ouyang, Hongsheng
Background In addition to their value as livestock, pigs are susceptible to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and can serve as reservoirs for CSFV, allowing it to develop into an epizootic. CSFV, a pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, has a single-stranded RNA genome. Recent research has indicated that the human MxA protein inhibits the life cycles of certain RNA viruses, such as members of the Bunyaviridae family, the Flaviviridae family and others. Results To produce pigs with antiviral ...
Weingartl, Hana M.; Zhang, Shunzhen; Marszal, Peter; McGreevy, Alan; Burton, Lynn; Wilson, William C.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus able to transition between distant host species, causing potentially severe disease in humans and ruminants. Viral proteins are encoded by three genomic segments, with the medium M segment coding for four proteins: nonstructural NSm protein, two glycoproteins Gn and Gc and large 78 kDa glycoprotein (LGp) of unknown function. Goat anti-RVFV polyclonal antibody and mouse monoclonal antibod...
Blomström, A-L; Stenberg, H; Scharin, I; Figueiredo, J; Nhambirre, O; Abilio, A P; Fafetine, J; Berg, M.
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel Orthobunyavirus within the family Bunyaviridae belonging to the Simbu serogroup. Schmallenberg virus infects ruminants and has since its discovery in the autumn 2011 been detected/spread to large parts of Europe. Most bunyaviruses are arboviruses, and SBV has been detected in biting midges in different European countries, suggesting that they may play a role in the transmission of the virus. It is not known how SBV was introduced to Europe and if SBV is pr...
Edmond Puca; Arben Pilaca; Pellumb Pipero; Silva Bino; Majlinda Kote; Elton Rogozi; Entela Puca; Dhimiter Kraja
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a disease caused by viruses of the family Bunyaviridae,genus Hantavirus.HFRS from Dobrava virus (DOBV) is a seldom reported disease in Albania.Clinically HFRS is manifested as mild,moderate,or severe.Therefore,the number of cases of Hantavirus'infection may be underestimated,and should be included in the differential diagnosis of many acute infections,hematologic diseases,acute abdominal diseases and renal diseases complicated by acute renal failure.We report here an atypical presentation of HFRS from Dobrava virus complicated by orchitis with a positive outcome.
Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo
In the process of translation of eukaryotic mRNAs, the 5′ cap and the 3′ poly(A) tail interact synergistically to stimulate protein synthesis. Unlike its cellular counterparts, the small mRNA (SmRNA) of Andes hantavirus (ANDV), a member of the Bunyaviridae, lacks a 3′ poly(A) tail. Here we report that the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the ANDV SmRNA functionally replaces a poly(A) tail and synergistically stimulates cap-dependent translation initiation from the viral mRNA. Stimulation of ...
Paakkala, A.; Mustonen, J. [Medical School, Univ. of Tampere, and Dept. of Radiology and Internal Medicine, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland)
Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Its course varies from asymptomatic to fatal. The etiologic agent, Puumala virus, belongs to the Hantavirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Respiratory symptoms, from common cold to respiratory distress, occur in NE. Acute renal failure (ARF) is evident in over 90% of hospital-treated NE patients. In this review article, special attention is paid to radiological lung and renal involvement to investigate the occurrence and type of manifestations during the acute phase of infection and recovery.
张野; 李新红; 白雪帆
Sadegh Chinikar; Nariman Shah-Hosseini; Saeid Bouzari; MohammadAli Shokrgozar; Ehsan Mostafavi; Tahmineh Jalali; Sahar Khakifirouz; Groschup, Martin H; Matthias Niedrig
Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) belongs to genus Nairovirus and family Bunyaviridae. The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent of recombination in S-segment genome of CCHFV in Iran.Methods: Samples were isolated from Iranian patients and those available in GenBank, and analyzed by phylogenetic and bootscan methods.Results: Through comparison of the phylogenetic trees based on full length sequences and partial fragments in the S-segment genome of CCHF...
Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.
Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016
Ahsan, Noor A.; Sampey, Gavin C.; Lepene, Ben; Akpamagbo, Yao; Barclay, Robert A.; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Hakami, Ramin M.; KASHANCHI, FATAH
Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) is a RNA virus that belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. It infects humans and livestock and causes Rift Valley fever. RVFV is considered an agricultural pathogen by the USDA, as it can cause up to 100% abortion in cattle and extensive death of newborns. In addition, it is designated as Category A pathogen by the CDC and the NIAID. In some human cases of RVFV infection, the virus causes fever, ocular damage, liver damage, hemorrhagic fever, and...
Crance, J M; Gratier, D; Guimet, J; Jouan, A
Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) was used in our laboratory to screen antiviral substances active toward viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Antiviral activity was estimated by the reduction of the cytopathic effect of SFSV on infected Vero cells. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by determining the inhibition of Trypan blue exclusion. The specificity of action of each tested compound was estimated by the selectivity index (CD50/ED50). Selectivity indices of human recombinant interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) (Roferon and Introna), iota-, kappa- and lambda- carrageenans, fucoidan and 6-azauridine were much higher than that of ribavirin, the only antiviral substance which has been previously investigated for its inhibitory effects on Phlebovirus infections. Other compounds showed significant antiviral activity: glycyrrhizin, suramin sodium, dextran sulphate and pentosan polysulphate. All these compounds caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the virus yield. Ribavirin, 6-azauridine and IFN alpha have been shown to inhibit a late step of the virus replicative cycle, whereas glycyrrhizin and suramin sodium were active at an early step and the sulphated polysaccharides inhibited adsorption of SFSV on the cells. The antiviral compounds selected in this study as specific inhibitors of in vitro replication of SFSV are promising candidates for the chemotherapy of haemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. The combination of IFN alpha and ribavirin, which showed a synergistic antiviral effect, should be evaluated for the treatment of these infections. PMID:9403935
Hornak, Katherine E; Lanchy, Jean-Marc; Lodmell, J Stephen
The Bunyaviridae represents the largest family of segmented RNA viruses, which infect a staggering diversity of plants, animals, and insects. Within the family Bunyaviridae, the Phlebovirus genus includes several important human and animal pathogens, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), Uukuniemi virus (UUKV), and the sandfly fever viruses. The phleboviruses have small tripartite RNA genomes that encode a repertoire of 5-7 proteins. These few proteins accomplish the daunting task of recognizing and specifically packaging a tri-segment complement of viral genomic RNA in the midst of an abundance of host components. The critical nucleation events that eventually lead to virion production begin early on in the host cytoplasm as the first strands of nascent viral RNA (vRNA) are synthesized. The interaction between the vRNA and the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein effectively protects and masks the RNA from the host, and also forms the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) architecture that mediates downstream interactions and drives virion formation. Although the mechanism by which all three genomic counterparts are selectively co-packaged is not completely understood, we are beginning to understand the hierarchy of interactions that begins with N-RNA packaging and culminates in RNP packaging into new virus particles. In this review we focus on recent progress that highlights the molecular basis of RNA genome packaging in the phleboviruses. PMID:27428993
De Miranda, J R; Muñoz, M; Wu, R; Hull, R; Espinoza, A M
The sequence of rice hoja blanca tenuivirus RNA-2 is analysed and compared to its counter-part in rice stripe tenuivirus. The RNA encodes two proteins, in an ambisense arrangement. The 94 kD pc2, located in the complementary sense RNA, has several features typical of viral membrane (glyco)proteins, and also has regions of local homology to the glycoproteins of the Phleboviruses (Bunyaviridae). The 23 kD pv2 lies in the viral sense RNA and has two small conserved domains that are almost exclusively found in retro-viral membrane glycoproteins. Its genome location is analogous to the NSm protein of several of the Bunyaviridae species, which is thought to have a membrane-related function. The two open reading frames are separated by a large intergenic region which, in common with the other tenuivirus ambisense RNA segments, has a short region that is highly conserved between RStV and RHBV. The significance of these results with respect to the virus structure and gene expression is discussed. PMID:8883360
Salas, R A; Garcia, C Z; Liria, J; Barrera, R; Navarro, J C; Medina, G; Vasquez, C; Fernandez, Z; Weaver, S C
From 1997-1998, we investigated the possible continuous circulation of epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus suggested by a 1983 subtype IC interepizootic mosquito isolate made in Panaquire, Miranda State, Venezuela. The study area was originally covered by lowland tropical rainforest but has been converted into cacao plantations. Sentinel hamsters, small mammal trapping, mosquito collections, and human serosurveys were used to detect active or recent virus circulation. Six strains of subtype ID VEE virus were isolated from hamsters that displayed no apparent disease. Four other arboviruses belonging to group A (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), two Bunyamwera group (Bunyaviridae), and three Gamboa group (Bunyaviridae) arboviruses were also isolated from hamsters, as well as 8 unidentified viruses. Venezuelan equine encephalitis-specific antibodies were detected in 5 small mammal species: Proechimys guairae, Marmosa spp., and Didelphis marsupialis. Mosquito collections comprised of 38 different species, including 8 members of the subgenus Culex (Melanoconion), did not yield any virus isolates. Sera from 195 humans, either workers in the cacao plantation or nearby residents, were all negative for VEE virus antibodies. Sequences of 1,677 nucleotides from the P62 gene of 2 virus isolates indicated that they represent a subtype ID lineage that is distinct from all others characterized previously, and are unrelated to epizootic VEE emergence. PMID:11425168
Zhao-rui Zhou; Man-li Wang; Fei Deng; Tian-xian Li; Zhi-hong Hu; Hua-fin Wang
Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus(CCHFV)is a tick-born virus of the Nairovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family,which is widespread and causes,high fatality. The nucleocapsid of CCHFV is comprised of N proteins that are encoded by the S segment. In this research,the N protein of CCHFV was expressed in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus. Under an electron microscope,Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)with various size and morphology were observed in cytoplasmic vesicles in the infected cells.Sucrose-gradient purification of the cell lysate indicated that the VLPs were mainly located in the upper fraction after ultracentrifugation,which was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immuno-electron microscopy(IEM).
Full Text Available RNA interference is a post-transcriptional sequence selective gene control mechanism. Antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway is one of the most momentous constituents of the insect innate immune system that can stymie versatile range of RNA virus like flavivirus. It has been demonstrated that RNA production by alphavirus replication is higher in proportion compared to flavivirus replication in mosquito cells. Studies demonstrated that infection by virus from Togaviridae and Bunyaviridae family of arbovirus to mosquito cells causes defect in RNAi response in-vitro but interestingly, it has also been stated that Dengue virus (DENV could be actively inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi. This article is an endeavor to review the perspectives of the functional significance of antiviral RNA interference as a potent agent of controlling dengue infection in the vector.
Suma B Appannanavar
Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae. CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community.
Tauro, L B; Batallan, G P; Rivarola, M E; Visintin, A; Berrón, C I; Sousa, E C; Diaz, L A; Almiron, W R; Nunes, M R; Contigiani, M S
Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) (Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Bunyamwera) is considered an emerging pathogen for humans and animals in American countries. The CbaAr-426 strain of BUNV was recovered from mosquitoes Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Córdoba province (Argentina), where serological studies detected high seroprevalences in humans and animals. Molecular detection of Orthobunyavirus was performed in mosquitoes collected in Córdoba province. Seventeen mosquito pools of Oc. albifasciatus, Ochlerotatus scapularis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) showed positive results; four of these positive pools, all of Oc. scapularis, were sequenced. All amplicons grouped with BUNV in the Bunyamwera serogroup. The findings highlight the circulation of BUNV in Córdoba province and represent the first report of BUNV-infected Oc. scapularis mosquitoes in Argentina. PMID:25991544
Komoda, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Kawamura-Nagaya, Kazue; Ishikawa, Masayuki
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a negative-strand RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae and propagates in both insects and plants. Although TSWV can infect a wide range of plant species, host factors involved in viral RNA synthesis of TSWV in plants have not been characterized. In this report, we demonstrate that the cell-free extract derived from one of the host plants can activate mRNA transcriptional activity of TSWV. Based on activity-guided fractionation of the cell-free extract, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 1A as a possible host factor facilitating TSWV transcription and replication. The RNA synthesis-supporting activity decreased in the presence of an eEF1A inhibitor, suggesting that eEF1A plays an important role in RNA synthesis of TSWV. PMID:25151062
A review on the geographic distribution, vectors and hosts of Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) is based on reports about: isolations of the virus; antibody surveys. Bhanja virus has been isolated in 15 countries of Asia, Africa and Europe, and antibodies against it have been detected in 15 additional countries. Vector range includes ticks of the family Ixodidae (subfam. Amblyomminae; not subfam. Ixodinae): 13 species of 6 genera (Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus) yielded the virus. Bhanja virus has only rarely been isolated from vertebrates (Atelerix, Xerus, Ovis, Bos; possibly bats), though antibodies have been detected frequently in a wide range of mammals (Ruminantia being the major hosts), in several species of birds (Passeriformes, Galliformes) and even reptiles (Ophisaurus apodus). Natural foci of the Bhanja virus infections are of the boskematic type (sensu Rosický), associated closely with pastures of domestic ruminants infested by ticks in the regions of tropical, subtropical and partly temperate climatic zones. PMID:3108117
Zelená, H; Kumštarová, R; Skárek, J; Bojar, M; Mifek, I
Presented are case studies of 3 patients with aseptic meninogencephalitis occurring after returning from the Mediterranean tourist regions. None of the infectious agents common in aseptic neuroinfections in the Czech Republic was detected in the patients. Serological tests showed that in each case, the illness was caused by Toscana virus, a phlebovirus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. The virus is transmitted by tiny biting insects of the genus Phlebotomus commonly present in the Mediterranean area. The course of the disease was mild to moderate and all the patients recovered without sequelae. These case reports document the fact that this arbovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with aseptic neuroinfections returning from endemic areas of this virus.
Riblett, Amber M.; Didigu, Chukwuka A.; Wilen, Craig B.; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D.; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W.; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth
The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection. PMID:24516383
Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV. Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection.
@@ 肾综合征出血热(hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome,HFRS)在我国多称流行性出血热(epidemic hemorrhagic fever,EHF),是一种疫区分布广、发病率及病死率较高的自然疫源性疾病,其病原属布尼亚病毒科(Bunyaviridae)、汉坦病毒属(Hantavirus,HV).在中国流行的有由黑线姬鼠携带传播的汉滩病毒(Hantaan virus,HTNV)和由褐家鼠携带传播的汉城病毒(Seoul virus,SEOV).HFRS病原体的多型性及传播途径的多样化构成HFRS复杂多变的流行特征.
王世文; 解燕乡; 杭长寿
@@ 流行性出血热(epidemic hemorrhagic fever, EHF)是肾综合征出血热中的一种(hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, HFRS).HFRS由布尼亚病毒科(bunyaviridae) 汉坦病毒属(hantavirus,HV)中的汉坦病毒感染而引起的一种病情重、病死率高的自然疫源性急性传染病.当前该病的发生和流行,已成为全球性的公共卫生问题.自20世纪30年代以来国内外学者进行了大量的调查研究工作,取得一定的进展.
No, Jin Sun; Kim, Won-Keun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Kho, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Daesang; Song, Dong Hyun; Gu, Se Hun; Jeong, Seong Tae; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Song, Jin-Won
Hantaan virus (HTNV), of the family Bunyaviridae, causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Although the majority of epidemiologic studies have found that rodents are seropositive for hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin, the discovery of hantavirus RNA in seronegative hosts has led to an investigation of the presence of HTNV RNA in rodents captured in HFRS endemic areas. HTNV RNA was detected in seven (3.8%) of 186 anti-HTNV IgG seronegative rodents in Republic of Korea (ROK) during 2013-2014. RT-qPCR for HTNV RNA revealed dynamic virus-host interactions of HTNV in areas of high endemicity, providing important insights into the epidemiology of hantaviruses. PMID:26917012
Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.
汉坦病毒(hantavirus，HV)属布尼亚病毒科(bunyaviridae)汉坦病毒属(genus hantavirus)，是肾综合征出血热(hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome，HFRS)和汉坦病毒肺综合征(hantavirus pulmonary syndrome，HPS)的病原体。HFRS是一类以发热、出血和肾功能损伤为特征的急性传染病，病死率0．1％～10．0％；HPS主要引起急性发热，进行性呼吸衰竭，病死率高达40％～60％。HV流行广泛，危害严重，已成为一个全球性的公共问题。
Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Kristensen, Birgit; Kirkeby, Carsten;
to transient clinical symptoms including fever, diarrhea and loss of milk production. However, a more significant consequence of infection in pregnant animals is the production of severe congenital malformations in newborn animals, especially lambs. The virus is a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus within...... the Bunyaviridae family and is closely related to Shamonda and Akabane viruses. These viruses are transmitted by insect vectors (including biting midges (Culicoides sp.) and mosquitoes). To determine whether these insects may act as vectors for SBV, biting midges (Culicoides spp.) caught in October 2011...... be accounted for due to the residue of a blood meal and no ruminant actin mRNA could be detected either. These results strongly suggest that SBV has replicated within specimens of the C. obsoletus group and indicates that these biting midges can act as vectors for this virus. To date (end of March), no cases...
Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review
Bishop, D H; Beaty, B J
Members of the Bunyaviridae family of RNA viruses (bunyaviruses, hantaviruses, nairoviruses, phleboviruses and uukuviruses) have been studied at the molecular and genetic level to understand the basis of their evolution and infection in vertebrate and invertebrate (arthropod) hosts. With the exception of the hantaviruses, these viruses infect and are transmitted by a variety of blood-sucking arthropods (mosquitoes, phlebotomines, gnats, ticks, etc.). The viruses are responsible for infection of various vertebrate species, occasionally causing human disease, morbidity and mortality (e.g. Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Korean haemorrhagic fever). Genetic and molecular analyses of bunyaviruses have established the coding assignments of the three viral RNA species and documented which viral gene products determine host range and virulence. Ecological studies, with molecular techniques, have provided evidence for bunyavirus evolution in nature through genetic drift (involving the accumulation of point mutations) and shift (RNA-segment reassortment).
Full Text Available Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV belongs to genus Nairovirus and family Bunyaviridae. The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent of recombination in S-segment genome of CCHFV in Iran.Methods: Samples were isolated from Iranian patients and those available in GenBank, and analyzed by phylogenetic and bootscan methods.Results: Through comparison of the phylogenetic trees based on full length sequences and partial fragments in the S-segment genome of CCHFV, genetic switch was evident, due to recombination event. Moreover, evidence of multiple recombination events was detected in query isolates when bootscan analysis was used by SimPlot software.Conclusion: Switch of different genomic regions between different strains by recombination could contribute to CCHFV diversification and evolution. The occurrence of recombination in CCHFV has a critical impact on epidemiological investigations and vaccine design.
Nougairede, Antoine; Bichaud, Laurence; Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Brouqui, Philippe; Charrel, Remi N
Toscana virus (TOSV; Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. TOSV is a frequent cause of central nervous system infection during the warm season in several countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we report a case of TOSV aseptic meningitis diagnosed in 2012 in Marseille, France. The virus strain was recovered in cell culture from the cerebrospinal fluid. New-generation sequencing based on Ion Torrent technology was used to determine its complete genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial L segment revealed that this isolate belongs to the lineage B together with other French, Spanish, and Moroccan strains. Although several cases of TOSV meningitis are reported in the literature, few of them are diagnosed by RT-PCR combined with virus isolation and further sequence characterization. This case report supports that virus isolation should be attempted whenever possible because this remains the gold standard technique for diagnosis of arthropod-borne viral infections.
Groseth, Allison; Matsuno, Keita; Dahlstrom, Eric; Anzick, Sarah L.; Porcella, Stephen F.
Batai virus (BATV) is a widely distributed but poorly studied member of the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae and is of particular interest as a known participant in natural reassortment events. Both research and surveillance efforts on this and other related viruses have been hampered by the lack of available full-length sequence data covering all three genomic segments. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of four BATV strains (MM2222, Chittoor/IG-20217, UgMP-6830, and MS50) isolated from various geographical locations. Based on these data, we have determined that strain MS50 is in fact unrelated to BATV and likely represents as a novel genotype in the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:23166251
Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E
One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. PMID:26340723
Full Text Available Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs. The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically.
Rönnberg, Tuomas; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi; Blot, Guillaume; Parviainen, Ville; Vaheri, Antti; Renkonen, Risto; Bouloy, Michele; Plyusnin, Alexander
Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae) are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically.
Full Text Available The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Hantavirus, possessing a single-stranded RNA genome consisting of three segments, designated L (large, M (medium and S (small. In this study, we present phylogenetic analysis of a newly detected DOBV strain isolated from Apodemus agrarius. Analysis was based on partial L and S segment sequences, in comparison to previously published DOBV sequences from Serbia and elsewhere. A phylogenetic tree based on partial S segment revealed local geographical clustering of DOBV sequences from Serbia, unrelated to host (rodent or human. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was confirmed with a high percent of completely or partially resolved quartets in likelihood-mapping analysis, whereas no evidence of possible recombination in the examined S segment data set was found.
Nathan D Grubaugh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses are important emerging pathogens world-wide. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, infect hundreds of millions of people and animals each year. Global surveillance of these viruses in mosquito vectors using molecular based assays is critical for prevention and control of the associated diseases. Here, we report an oligonucleotide DNA microarray design, termed ArboChip5.1, for multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, Alphavirus (Togaviridae, Orthobunyavirus (Bunyaviridae, and Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assay utilizes targeted PCR amplification of three genes from each virus genus for electrochemical detection on a portable, field-tested microarray platform. Fifty-two viruses propagated in cell-culture were used to evaluate the specificity of the PCR primer sets and the ArboChip5.1 microarray capture probes. The microarray detected all of the tested viruses and differentiated between many closely related viruses such as members of the dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Semliki Forest virus clades. Laboratory infected mosquitoes were used to simulate field samples and to determine the limits of detection. Additionally, we identified dengue virus type 3, Japanese encephalitis virus, Tembusu virus, Culex flavivirus, and a Quang Binh-like virus from mosquitoes collected in Thailand in 2011 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that the described assay can be utilized in a comprehensive field surveillance program by the broad-range amplification and specific identification of arboviruses from infected mosquitoes. Furthermore, the microarray platform can be deployed in the field and viral RNA extraction to data analysis can occur in as little as 12 h. The information derived from the ArboChip5.1 microarray can help to establish
Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain
Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.
Luiz Tadeu M. Figueiredo
Full Text Available A virus antigenic characterization methodology using an indirect method of antibody detection ELISA with virus-infected cultured cells as antigen and a micro virus neutralisation test using EIA (NT-EIA as an aid to reading were used for antigenic characterization of Jatobal (BeAn 423380. Jatobal virus was characterized as a Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus genus, Simbu serogroup virus. ELISA using infected cultured cells as antigen is a sensitive and reliable method for identification of viruses and has many advantages over conventional antibody capture ELISA's and other tests: it eliminates solid phase coating with virus and laborious antigen preparation; it permits screening of large numbers of virus antisera faster and more easily than by CF, HAI, or plaque reduction NT. ELISA and NT using EIA as an aid to reading can be applicable to viruses which do not produce cytopathogenic effect. Both techniques are applicable to identification of viruses which grow in mosquito cells.A caracterização antigênica do vírus Jatobal (BeAn 423380 foi efetuada utilizando uma técnica de ELISA para deteccão de anticorpos que utiliza culturas celulares infectadas como antígeno e um micro teste de neutralização para vírus que utiliza o método imunoenzimático como auxiliar para a leitura dos resultados (NT-EIA. O vírus Jatobal foi caracterizado como um Bunyaviridae, gênero Bunyavirus, pertencente ao sorogrupo Simbu. A técnica de ELISA, utilizando culturas celulares infectadas como antígeno, trata-se de método sensível e confiável na identificação de agentes virais, possuindo muitas vantagens sobre ELISA convencionais e outros testes: elimina a preparação laboriosa de antígenos para o revestimento em fase sólida; permite que se teste de forma mais rápida e fácil que por CF, HAI e neutralização por redução de plaques um grande número de antisoros de vírus. ELISA e NT-EIA podem ser utilizados para a classificação de vírus que não produzem
Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.
Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Uppala, Mangala; Sudini, Harikishan
The sequences of five viral RNA segments of pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV), the agent of sterility mosaic disease (SMD) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, Fabaceae), were determined using the deep sequencing technology. Each of the five RNAs encodes a single protein on the negative-sense strand with an open reading frame (ORF) of 6885, 1947, 927, 1086, and 1,422 nts, respectively. In order, from RNA1 to RNA5, these ORFs encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (p1, 267.9 kDa), a putative glycoprotein precursor (p2, 74.3 kDa), a putative nucleocapsid protein (p3, 34.6 kDa), a putative movement protein (p4, 40.8 kDa), while p5 (55 kDa) has an unknown function. All RNA segments of PPSMV showed the highest identity with orthologs of fig mosaic virus (FMV) and Rose rosette virus (RRV). In phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of p1, p2 and p3, PPSMV clustered consistently with other emaraviruses, close to clades comprising members of other genera of the family Bunyaviridae. Based on the molecular characteristics unveiled in this study and the morphological and epidemiological features similar to other emaraviruses, PPSMV seems to be the seventh species to join the list of emaraviruses known to date and accordingly, its classification in the genus Emaravirus seems now legitimate. PMID:24685674
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to the African continent. RVF is characterized by high rate of abortions in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or blindness in humans. RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Vaccination is the only known effective strategy to prevent the disease, but there are no licensed RVF vaccines available for humans. A live-attenuated vaccine candidate derived from the wild-type pathogenic Egyptian ZH548 strain, MP-12, has been conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the United States. MP-12 displays a temperature-sensitive (ts phenotype and does not replicate at 41oC. The ts mutation limits viral replication at a specific body temperature and may lead to an attenuation of the virus. Here we will review well-characterized ts mutations for RNA viruses, and further discuss the potential in designing novel live-attenuated vaccines for RVF.
Hana M Weingartl
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus able to transition between distant host species, causing potentially severe disease in humans and ruminants. Viral proteins are encoded by three genomic segments, with the medium M segment coding for four proteins: nonstructural NSm protein, two glycoproteins Gn and Gc and large 78 kDa glycoprotein (LGp of unknown function. Goat anti-RVFV polyclonal antibody and mouse monoclonal antibody, generated against a polypeptide unique to the LGp within the RVFV proteome, detected this protein in gradient purified RVFV ZH501 virions harvested from mosquito C6/36 cells but not in virions harvested from the mammalian Vero E6 cells. The incorporation of LGp into the mosquito cell line - matured virions was confirmed by immune-electron microscopy. The LGp was incorporated into the virions immediately during the first passage in C6/36 cells of Vero E6 derived virus. Our data indicate that LGp is a structural protein in C6/36 mosquito cell generated virions. The protein may aid the transmission from the mosquitoes to the ruminant host, with a possible role in replication of RVFV in the mosquito host. To our knowledge, this is a first report of different protein composition between virions formed in insect C6/36 versus mammalian Vero E6 cells.
L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Kolobukhina, L V; L'vov, D N; Galkina, I V; Aristova, V A; Morozova, T N; Proshina, E S; Kulikov, A G; Kogdenko, N V; Andronova, O V; Pronin, N I; Shevkoplias, V N; Fontanetskiĭ, A S; Vlasov, N A; Nepoklonov, E A
Solid-phase enzyme immunoassay, neutralization test, and the hemagglutination-inhibition test were used to study the sera from human beings (152 samples), agricultural animals (n = 77), hares (n = 3), and wild birds (n = 69), collected in 2006-2007 in the Kuban River estuary (Temryuk District, Krasnodar Territory). There were specific antibodies against viruses of West Nile (WH), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus), Sindbis (Togaviridae, Alphavirus), the antigenic complex of California, Batai (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Dhori (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus). The findings suggest the presence of arboviruses from 6 transmitting mosquitoes and ticks in the study area and human infection by the viruses of the antigenic complex of California (20-47%), Batai (3-15%), West Nile (3-12%), Dhori (2%). The index agricultural animals (horses, cattle) were observed to have specific antibodies to the viruses of WN (8-15%), TBE (0-2%), Sindbis (2-9%), the antigenic complex of California (27-54%). Out of the representatives of the wild fauna, virus-neutralizing antibodies to Sindbis virus were found in European hares (Lepus europaeus), California complex virus in gulls (Larus argentatus) and terns (Sterna hirundo), WN and Sindbis viruses in herons (Ardea purpurea), and WN and California complex viruses in bald-coots (Fulica atra). PMID:18756814
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the public health risk of human infection from a novel bunyavirus – severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV – in China.Methods: The likelihood of disease spread and the magnitude of public health impact were assessed to clarify overall risk. Literature about hazard, exposure and contextual factors associated with SFTSV infection was collected and reviewed. Information on SFTSV cases and the population in six provinces under surveillance was compared.Results: SFTSV is a member of the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. A widely distributed tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis, can act as the vector; thus the disease is likely to spread in China. Symptoms of SFTSV infection are nonspecific, but have led to multiorgan dysfunction in severe cases. High-risk populations include farmers and older females. Evidence of human-to-human transmission within family and hospital has been reported. The capacity for treatment and diagnosis of SFTSV are adequate in rural communities in China, and community awareness of the disease should be high. Discussion: There is a low to moderate public health risk related to SFTSV human infection in China. There is potential for an increase in the number of cases reported as awareness increases and when surveillance is expanded.
The genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) contains seven serogroups consisting of 34 predominantly tick-borne viruses, including several associated with severe human and livestock diseases [e.g., Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Nairobi sheep disease (NSD), respectively]. Before this report, no comparative genetic studies or molecular detection assays had been developed for this virus genus. To characterize at least one representative from each of the seven serogroups, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) primers targeting the L polymerase-encoding region of the RNA genome of these viruses were successfully designed based on conserved amino acid motifs present in the predicted catalytic core region. Sequence analysis showed the nairoviruses to be a highly diverse group, exhibiting up to 39.4% and 46.0% nucleotide and amino acid identity differences, respectively. Virus genetic relationships correlated well with serologic groupings and with tick host associations. Hosts of these viruses include both the hard (family Ixodidae) and soft (family Argasidae) ticks. Virus phylogenetic analysis reveals two major monophyletic groups: hard tick and soft tick-vectored viruses. In addition, viruses vectored by Ornithodoros, Carios, and Argas genera ticks also form three separate monophyletic lineages. The striking similarities between tick and nairovirus phylogenies are consistent with possible coevolution of the viruses and their tick hosts. Fossil and phylogenetic data placing the hard tick-soft tick divergence between 120 and 92 million years ago suggest an ancient origin for viruses of the genus Nairovirus
Pijlman, Gorben P
Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses. In this short review, I highlight the successes and challenges in eVLP production for members of the three major arbovirus families: Flaviviridae (e.g., dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis); Bunyaviridae (e.g., Rift Valley fever); and Togaviridae (e.g., chikungunya). The results from pre-clinical testing will be discussed as well as specific constraints to the large-scale manufacture and purification of eVLPs, which are complex assemblies of membranes and viral glycoproteins. Insect cells emerge as ideal substrates for correct arboviral glycoprotein folding and posttranslational modification to yield high quality eVLPs. Furthermore, baculovirus expression in insect cell culture is scalable and has a proven safety record in industrial human and veterinary vaccine manufacturing. In conclusion, eVLPs produced in insect cells using modern biotechnology have a realistic potential to be used in novel vaccines against arboviral diseases.
Dan Dong; Shi-hong Fu; Li-hua Wang; Zhi Lv; Tai-yuan Li; Guo-dong Liang
Arboviruses represent a serious problem to public health and agriculture worldwide.Fast,accurate identification of the viral agents of arbovirus-associated disease is essential for epidemiological surveillance and laboratory investigation.We developed a cost-effective,rapid,and highly sensitive one-step "triplex RT-PCR enzyme hybridization"assay for simultaneous detections of Japanese Encephallitis virus (JEV,Flaviviridae)Getah virus (GETV,Togaviridae),and Tahyna virus (TAHV,Bunyaviridae) using three pairs of primers to amplify three target sequences in one RT-PCR reaction.The analytical sensitivity of this assay was 1 PFU/mL for JEV,10PFU/mL for GETV,and 10 PFU/mL for TAHV.This assay is significantly more rapid and less expensive than the traditional serological detection and single RT-PCR reaction methods.When “triplex RT-PCR enzyme hybridization” was applied to 29 cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)samples that were JEV-positive by normal RT-PCR assay,all samples were strongly positive for JEV,but negative for GETV and TAHV,demonstrating a good sensitivity,specificity,and performance at CSF specimen detection.
Full Text Available Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran.Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR.Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H.asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11% in Rh. sanguineus.Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area.
Eastwood, Gillian; Loaiza, Jose R; Pongsiri, Montira J; Sanjur, Oris I; Pecor, James E; Auguste, Albert J; Kramer, Laura D
Landscape changes occurring in Panama, a country whose geographic location and climate have historically supported arbovirus transmission, prompted the hypothesis that arbovirus prevalence increases with degradation of tropical forest habitats. Investigations at four variably degraded sites revealed a diverse array of potential mosquito vectors, several of which are known vectors of arbovirus pathogens. Overall, 675 pools consisting of 25,787 mosquitoes and representing 29 species from nine genera (collected at ground and canopy height across all habitats) were screened for cytopathic viruses on Vero cells. We detected four isolates of Gamboa virus (family:Bunyaviridae; genus:Orthobunyavirus) from pools of Aedeomyia squamipennis captured at canopy level in November 2012. Phylogenetic characterization of complete genome sequences shows the new isolates to be closely related to each other with strong evidence of reassortment among the M segment of Panamanian Gamboa isolates and several other viruses of this group. At the site yielding viruses, Soberanía National Park in central Panama, 18 mosquito species were identified, and the predominant taxa included A. squamipennis,Coquillettidia nigricans, and Mansonia titillans.
Goodman, C H; Russell, B J; Velez, J O; Laven, J J; Nicholson, W L; Bagarozzi, D A; Moon, J L; Bedi, K; Johnson, B W
Arboviruses are medically important pathogens that cause human disease ranging from a mild fever to encephalitis. Laboratory diagnosis is essential to differentiate arbovirus infections from other pathogens with similar clinical manifestations. The Arboviral Diseases Branch (ADB) reference laboratory at the CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) produces reference antigens used in serological assays such as the virus-specific immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Antigen production in cell culture has largely replaced the use of suckling mice; however, the methods are not directly transferable. The development of a cell culture antigen production algorithm for nine arboviruses from the three main arbovirus families, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, is described here. Virus cell culture growth and harvest conditions were optimized, inactivation methods were evaluated, and concentration procedures were compared for each virus. Antigen performance was evaluated by the MAC-ELISA at each step of the procedure. The antigen production algorithm is a framework for standardization of methodology and quality control; however, a single antigen production protocol was not applicable to all arboviruses and needed to be optimized for each virus.
Wanzeller Ana LM
Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.
Spiegel, Martin; Plegge, Teresa; Pöhlmann, Stefan
Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells. Thus, binding of Gn and Gc to cell surface factors promotes viral attachment and uptake into cells and exposure to endosomal low pH induces Gc-driven fusion of the viral and the vesicle membranes. Moreover, Gn and Gc facilitate virion incorporation of the viral genome via their intracellular domains and Gn and Gc interactions allow the formation of a highly ordered glycoprotein lattice on the virion surface. Studies conducted in the last decade provided important insights into the configuration of phlebovirus Gn and Gc proteins in the viral membrane, the cellular factors used by phleboviruses for entry and the mechanisms employed by phlebovirus Gc proteins for membrane fusion. Here, we will review our knowledge on the glycoprotein biogenesis and the role of Gn and Gc proteins in the phlebovirus replication cycle. PMID:27455305
Léger, Psylvia; Tetard, Marilou; Youness, Berthe; Cordes, Nicole; Rouxel, Ronan N; Flamand, Marie; Lozach, Pierre-Yves
Bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to humans and livestock globally. The receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely unidentified and poorly characterized. DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin highly expressed on dermal dendritic cells that has been found to act as an authentic entry receptor for many phleboviruses (Bunyaviridae), including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Toscana virus (TOSV) and Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). We found that these phleboviruses can exploit another C-type lectin, L-SIGN, for infection. L-SIGN shares 77% sequence homology with DC-SIGN and is expressed on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. L-SIGN is required for UUKV binding but not for virus internalization. An endocytosis-defective mutant of L-SIGN was still able to mediate virus uptake and infection, indicating that L-SIGN acts as an attachment receptor for phleboviruses rather than an endocytic receptor. Our results point out a fundamental difference in the use of the C-type lectins L-SIGN and DC-SIGN by UUKV to enter cells, although both proteins are closely related in terms of molecular structure and biological function. This study sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms by which phleboviruses target the liver and also highlights the added complexity in virus-receptor interactions beyond attachment. PMID:26990254
Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV. Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells. Thus, binding of Gn and Gc to cell surface factors promotes viral attachment and uptake into cells and exposure to endosomal low pH induces Gc-driven fusion of the viral and the vesicle membranes. Moreover, Gn and Gc facilitate virion incorporation of the viral genome via their intracellular domains and Gn and Gc interactions allow the formation of a highly ordered glycoprotein lattice on the virion surface. Studies conducted in the last decade provided important insights into the configuration of phlebovirus Gn and Gc proteins in the viral membrane, the cellular factors used by phleboviruses for entry and the mechanisms employed by phlebovirus Gc proteins for membrane fusion. Here, we will review our knowledge on the glycoprotein biogenesis and the role of Gn and Gc proteins in the phlebovirus replication cycle.
Elbashir Mustafa I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF, a tick-borne disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, is a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Recently, CCHFV has been reported as an important emerging infectious viral pathogen in Sudan. Sporadic cases and multiple CCHF outbreaks, associated with nosocomial chain of transmission, have been reported in the Kordufan region of Sudan. Aims To confirm CCHF in an index patient and attending physician in North Kordufan region, Sudan, and to provide some information on virus genetic lineages. Methods Antibody captured ELISA, reverse transcription PCR, partial S segment sequences of the virus and subsequent phylogenetic analysis were used to confirm the CCHFV infection and to determine the virus genetic lineages. Results CCHF was confirmed by monitoring specific IgM antibody and by detection of the viral genome using RT-PCR. Treatment with oral ribavirin, replacement with fluid therapy, blood transfusion and administration of platelets concentrate resulted in rapid improvement of the health condition of the female physician. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial S segment sequences of the 2 CCHFV indicates that both strains are identical and belong to Group III virus lineage, which includes viruses from Africa including, Sudan, Mauritania, South Africa and Nigeria. Conclusion Further epidemiologic studies including, CCHFV complete genome analysis and implementation of improved surveillance are urgently needed to better predict and respond to CCHF outbreaks in the Kordufan region, Sudan.
Nicole E. Eastep
Full Text Available The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult Ae. albopictus mosquitoes had signficantly reduced whole-body LACV titers five days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.
Shu-ling Zhao; Xue-juan Dai; Jian-sheng Liang; Chang-yong Liang
Rice stripe virus (RSV) infects rice and is transmitted in a propagative manner by the small brown planthopper.How RSV enters an insect cell to initiate the infection cycle is poorly understood.Sequence analysis revealed that the RSV NSvc2 protein was similar to the membrane glycoproteins of several members in the family Bunyaviridae and might induce cell membrane fusion.To conveniently study the membrane fusion activity of NSvc2,we constructed cell surface display vectors for expressing Nsvc2 on the insect cell surface as the membrane glycoproteins of the enveloped viruses.Our results showed that NSvc2 was successfully expressed and displayed on the surface of insect Sf9 cells.When induced by low pH,the membrane fusion was not observed in the cells that expressed NSvc2.Additionally,the membrane fusion was also not detected when co-expressing Nsvc2 and the viral capsid protein on insect cell surface.Thus,RSV NSvc2 is probably different from the phlebovirus counterparts,which could suggest different functions.RSV might enter insect cells other than by fusion with plasma or endosome membrane.
Sakamoto, Joyce M; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric; Rasgon, Jason L
The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the United States and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Recently, several novel viruses in the family Bunyaviridae (South Bay virus (SBV) and Blacklegged tick phlebovirus (BTPV)) were identified infecting female I. scapularis ticks collected in New York State. We used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female I. scapularis ticks collected in Centre County, Pennsylvania. We identified both SBV and BTPV in both male and female ticks from all collection locations. The role of male I. scapularis in pathogen epidemiology has been overlooked because they rarely bite and are not considered important pathogen vectors. However, males may act as reservoirs for pathogens that can then be transmitted to females during mating. Our data highlight the importance of examining all potential avenues of pathogen maintenance and transmission throughout the vector-pathogen life cycle in order to understand the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:27602290
Murphy Brian R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, family Bunyaviridae, is a mosquito-borne pathogen endemic in the United States and Canada that can cause encephalitis in humans and is considered an emerging threat to public health. The virus is genetically similar to Inkoo virus circulating in Europe, suggesting that much of the northern hemisphere contains JCV or similar variants. Results We have completed the sequence of three isolates of JCV collected in geographically diverse locations over a 57 year time span. The nucleotide identity for the three strains is 90, 83, and 85% for the S, M, and L segments respectively whereas the percent identify for the predicted amino acid sequences of the N, NSS, M poly, GN, NSM, GC, and L proteins was 97, 91, 94, 98, 91, 94, and 97%, respectively. In Swiss Webster mice, each JCV isolate exhibits low neuroinvasiveness but high infectivity. Two of the three JCV isolates were highly neurovirulent after IC inoculation whereas one isolate, JCV/03/CT, exhibited low neurovirulence. In rhesus monkeys, JCV infection is accompanied by a low-titered viremia, lack of clinical disease, but a robust neutralizing antibody response. Conclusions The first complete sequence of JCV is reported for three separate isolates, and a relatively high level of amino acid sequence conservation was observed even for viruses isolated 57 years apart indicating that the virus is in relative evolutionary stasis. JCV is highly infectious for mice and monkeys, and these animals, especially mice, represent useful experimental hosts for further study.
Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.
Witkowski, Peter T; Drexler, Jan F; Kallies, René; Ličková, Martina; Bokorová, Silvia; Mananga, Gael D; Szemes, Tomáš; Leroy, Eric M; Krüger, Detlev H; Drosten, Christian; Klempa, Boris
Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic l-segment showed that MAKV was the most closely related to other bat-borne hantaviruses and shared a most recent common ancestor with the Asian hantaviruses Xuan Son and Laibin. Breakdown of the virus load in a bat animal showed that MAKV resembles rodent-borne hantaviruses in its organ distribution in that it predominantly occurred in the spleen and kidney; this provides a first insight into the infection pattern of bat-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a tree of l gene sequences of all relevant hantavirus lineages was combined with phylogenetic fossil host hypothesis testing, leading to a statistically significant rejection of the mammalian superorder Euarchontoglires (including rodents) but not the superorder Laurasiatheria (including shrews, moles, and bats) as potential hosts of ancestral hantaviruses at most basal tree nodes. Our data supports the emerging concept of bats as previously overlooked hantavirus reservoir hosts. PMID:27051047
Rothenberger, Sylvia; Torriani, Giulia; Johansson, Maria U; Kunz, Stefan; Engler, Olivier
Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic "capping activity". Hantaviruses therefore employ a "cap snatching" strategy acquiring short 5' RNA sequences bearing 5'cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses. PMID:27144576
Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard
The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far. PMID:27455310
汉坦病毒(Harntavirus,HV)属于布尼亚病毒科(Bunyaviridae)汉坦病毒属(genus hantavirus).HV是人类疾病的重要病原体,人类感染HV后主要导致2种严重疾病,即肾综合征出血热(hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome,HFRS)和汉坦病毒肺综合征(hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,HPS).近几年HV的研究进展较快,世界HV分布区不断扩大,新型或新亚型病毒不断被发现,目前HV至少可分为40个血清型/基因型,并证实至少有22个型的HV可引起人类疾病,其中7个型引起HFRS,15个型引起HPS,尚有10多个型HV与人类疾病关系还不太清楚[1-2].
Full Text Available Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ≥30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients.
Ioni Oliveira Santos
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.
Kim, Won-Keun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Song, Dong Hyun; Lee, Daesang; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sook-Young; Lee, Seung-Ho; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kho, Jeong Hoon; Gu, Se Hun; Jeong, Seong Tae; Wiley, Michael; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Palacios, Gustavo; Song, Jin-Won
Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases caused by RNA viruses pose a critical public health threat. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful technology to define genomic sequences of the viruses. Of particular interest is the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to perform phylogeographic analysis, that allows the detection and tracking of the emergence of viral infections. Hantaviruses, Bunyaviridae, cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. We propose to use WGS for the phylogeographic analysis of human hantavirus infections. A novel multiplex PCR-based NGS was developed to gather whole genome sequences of Hantaan virus (HTNV) from HFRS patients and rodent hosts in endemic areas. The obtained genomes were described for the spatial and temporal links between cases and their sources. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated geographic clustering of HTNV strains from clinical specimens with the HTNV strains circulating in rodents, suggesting the most likely site and time of infection. Recombination analysis demonstrated a genome organization compatible with recombination of the HTNV S segment. The multiplex PCR-based NGS is useful and robust to acquire viral genomic sequences and may provide important ways to define the phylogeographical association and molecular evolution of hantaviruses. PMID:27221218
Ermonval, Myriam; Baychelier, Florence; Tordo, Noël
Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are emerging viruses that are able to cause hemorrhagic fevers. Occasional transmission to humans is due to inhalation of contaminated aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. Hantaviruses are asymptomatic in their rodent or insectivore natural hosts with which they have co-evolved for millions of years. In contrast, hantaviruses cause different pathologies in humans with varying mortality rates, depending on the hantavirus species and its geographic origin. Cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) have been reported in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndromes (HCPS) are observed in the Americas. In some cases, diseases caused by Old World hantaviruses exhibit HCPS-like symptoms. Although the etiologic agents of HFRS were identified in the early 1980s, the way hantaviruses interact with their different hosts still remains elusive. What are the entry receptors? How do hantaviruses propagate in the organism and how do they cope with the immune system? This review summarizes recent data documenting interactions established by pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses with their natural or human hosts that could highlight their different outcomes. PMID:27529272
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic “capping activity”. Hantaviruses therefore employ a “cap snatching” strategy acquiring short 5′ RNA sequences bearing 5′cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure–function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses.
Jin, Cong; Song, Jingdong; Han, Ying; Li, Chuan; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Mifang
The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a new member in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae identified in China. The SFTSV is also the causative pathogen of an emerging infectious disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy, the intracellular distribution of nucleocapsid protein (NP) in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells was investigated with serial doses of SFTSV at different times after infection. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrafine intracellular structure of SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells at different times after infection. SFTSV NP could form intracellular inclusion bodies in infected THP-1 cells. The association between NP-formed inclusion bodies and virus production was analyzed: the size of the inclusion body formed 3 days after infection was correlated with the viral load in supernatants collected 7 days after infection. These findings suggest that the inclusion bodies formed in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells could be where the SFTSV uses host-cell proteins and intracellular organelles to produce new viral particles.
Wu, Xiaodong; Qi, Xian; Qu, Bingqian; Zhang, Zerui; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J; Li, Dexin; Xing, Zheng
Cells are equipped with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like and RIG-I-like receptors that mount innate defenses against viruses. However, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade or thwart host antiviral responses. Viral inclusion bodies (IBs), which are accumulated aggregates of viral proteins, are commonly formed during the replication of some viruses in infected cells, but their role in viral immune evasion has rarely been explored. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging febrile illness caused by a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae. The SFTS viral nonstructural protein NSs can suppress host beta interferon (IFN-β) responses. NSs can form IBs in infected and transfected cells. Through interaction with tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), viral NSs was able to sequester the IKK complex, including IKKε and IRF3, into IBs, although NSs did not interact with IKKε or IRF3 directly. When cells were infected with influenza A virus, IRF3 was phosphorylated and active phosphorylated IRF3 (p-IRF3) was translocated into the nucleus. In the presence of NSs, IRF3 could still be phosphorylated, but p-IRF3 was trapped in cytoplasmic IBs, resulting in reduced IFN-β induction and enhanced viral replication. Sequestration of the IKK complex and active IRF3 into viral IBs through the interaction of NSs and TBK1 is a novel mechanism for viral evasion of innate immunity.
Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei
Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families. PMID:27405928
Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Sansyzbaev, Yerlan; Atshabar, Bakhyt; Deryabin, Pavel; Kazakov, Stanislav; Zholshorinov, Aitmagambet; Matzhanova, Almagul; Sadvakassova, Alya; Saylaubekuly, Ratbek; Kyraubaev, Kakimzhan; Hay, John; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic and often fatal arboviral disease with a distribution spanning large areas of Africa, Europe and Asia. The causative agent is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Cases of CCHF have been officially recorded in Kazakhstan since the disease was first officially reported in modern medicine. Serological surveillance of human and animal populations provide evidence that the virus was perpetually circulating in a local enzoonotic cycle involving mammals, ticks and humans in the southern regions of the country. Most cases of human disease were associated with agricultural professions such as farming, shepherding and fruit-picking; the typical route of infection was via tick-bite although several cases of contact transmission associated with caring for sick patients have been documented. In total, 704 confirmed human cases of CCHF have been registered in Kazakhstan from 1948-2013 with an overall case fatality rate of 14.8% for cases with a documented outcome. The southern regions of Kazakhstan should be considered endemic for CCHF with cases reported from these territories on an annual basis. Modern diagnostic technologies allow for rapid clinical diagnosis and for surveillance studies to monitor for potential expansion in known risk areas.
Pijlman, Gorben P
Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses. In this short review, I highlight the successes and challenges in eVLP production for members of the three major arbovirus families: Flaviviridae (e.g., dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis); Bunyaviridae (e.g., Rift Valley fever); and Togaviridae (e.g., chikungunya). The results from pre-clinical testing will be discussed as well as specific constraints to the large-scale manufacture and purification of eVLPs, which are complex assemblies of membranes and viral glycoproteins. Insect cells emerge as ideal substrates for correct arboviral glycoprotein folding and posttranslational modification to yield high quality eVLPs. Furthermore, baculovirus expression in insect cell culture is scalable and has a proven safety record in industrial human and veterinary vaccine manufacturing. In conclusion, eVLPs produced in insect cells using modern biotechnology have a realistic potential to be used in novel vaccines against arboviral diseases. PMID:25692281
João Bosco Lima Gimaque
Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.
Full Text Available The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome. We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs. Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae. In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections.
Full Text Available Samples of either gut content from ostriches showing symptoms of enteritis, or allantoic fluid of eggs inoculated with ostrich isolates, were examined for the presence of viral agents by direct negative-contrast electron microscopy. Only a few virus types could be identified with certainty, namely a circovirus (1 sample, a coronavirus (1 sample, a member of either the toga- or bunyaviridae (1 sample, enterovirus (16 samples and paramyxovirus (26 samples. A large number of samples contained structures resembling myxovirus particles that were interpreted as fringed membranous particles of non-viral origin. An unusual observation of probable single-strand nucleocapsid helices, possibly originating from digested plant material and which were identified in a number of small intestine samples, is reported. This is the 1st report of a spectrum of viruses and virus-like particles occurring in enteric samples from ostriches in South Africa. The low incidence and variety of viruses reported here contribute to the multifactorial origin and complexity of enteric disease in ostriches as well as in other birds and mammalian species.
Weingartl, Hana M; Zhang, Shunzhen; Marszal, Peter; McGreevy, Alan; Burton, Lynn; Wilson, William C
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus able to transition between distant host species, causing potentially severe disease in humans and ruminants. Viral proteins are encoded by three genomic segments, with the medium M segment coding for four proteins: nonstructural NSm protein, two glycoproteins Gn and Gc and large 78 kDa glycoprotein (LGp) of unknown function. Goat anti-RVFV polyclonal antibody and mouse monoclonal antibody, generated against a polypeptide unique to the LGp within the RVFV proteome, detected this protein in gradient purified RVFV ZH501 virions harvested from mosquito C6/36 cells but not in virions harvested from the mammalian Vero E6 cells. The incorporation of LGp into the mosquito cell line - matured virions was confirmed by immune-electron microscopy. The LGp was incorporated into the virions immediately during the first passage in C6/36 cells of Vero E6 derived virus. Our data indicate that LGp is a structural protein in C6/36 mosquito cell generated virions. The protein may aid the transmission from the mosquitoes to the ruminant host, with a possible role in replication of RVFV in the mosquito host. To our knowledge, this is a first report of different protein composition between virions formed in insect C6/36 versus mammalian Vero E6 cells. PMID:24489907
Diagnosis of hantavirus infection in humans and rodents in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil Diagnóstico de infecção por hantavírus em humanos e roedores em Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo
Glauciane Garcia de Figueiredo
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome (HPCS is an emerging serious disease in the Americas. Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are the causative agents of this syndrome and are mainly transmitted through inhalation of aerosols containing the excreta of wild rodents. In the Ribeirão Preto region (state of São Paulo, Brazil, HPCS has been reported since 1998, caused by the Araraquara virus (ARAV, for which Necromys lasiurus is the rodent reservoir. This study aimed to show diagnostic results relating to infection in humans and rodents, obtained at the Virology Research Center of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, between 2005 and 2008. METHODS: HPCS was diagnosed by means of ELISA and/or RT-PCR in 11 (21.2% out of 52 suspected cases, and 54.4% of these were fatal. Furthermore, 595 wild rodents (Necromys lasiurus, Akodon sp, Calomys tener and Oligoryzomys sp were caught between 2005 and 2008. RESULTS: Fifteen (2.5% of these rodents presented antibodies for hantavirus, as follows: Necromys lasiurus (4%, Calomys tener (1.9% and Akodon sp (1.5%. Nucleotide sequences obtained through RT-PCR from one HPCS patient and one Calomys tener rodent were compared with hantavirus sequences from GenBank, which showed that both were homologous with ARAV. CONCLUSIONS: This work corroborates previous studies showing that ARAV is the hantavirus causing HPCS in the Ribeirão Preto region. It also shows that rodents infected with hantavirus represent a constant risk of transmission of this virus to man.INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doença grave emergente nas Américas. Os hantavírus, Bunyaviridae, são os agentes causadores desta síndrome, causadas, principalmente, pela inalação de aerossóis dos dejetos de roedores silvestres. Na região de Ribeirão Preto, a SPCVH, causada pelo vírus Araraquara, tem sido diagnosticada, desde 1998. O roedor-reservatório do ARAV é o
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia. Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene
Amélia P.A.T. Rosa
Full Text Available No final de novembro de 1994, o Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC, Belém, Pará, foi notificado de um surto de doença febril na população do garimpo de Serra Pelada, município de Curionôpolis (5°35'S; 49°30'W, no Estado do Pará. Vinte amostras de soro de pessoas, com hemoscopia negativa para tnalária, foram recebidas para esclarecimento diagnóstico. Estudos laboratoriais comprovaram que os casos eram devido ao vírus Oropouche (grupo Simbu. gênero Bunyavirus, família Bunyaviridae. Esses achados, induziram d ida de um grupo de técnicos para realização de investigações ecoepidemíológicas entre 8 e 22 de dezembro. Foram coletadas 296 amostras de sangue, de 73 grupos familiares, sendo 54 para pequisa de vírus (casos febris e 242para sorologia, bem como, procedeu-se a coleta de artrópodes hematófagos. As amostras para pesquisa de vírus foram inoculadas em camundongos recém-nascidos e os soros testados por inibição da hemaglutinação (1H e MAC ELISA. Foram isoladas dez amostras do vírus Oropouche e obtidas seis soroconversões. Ademais, 245 (82,8% amostras foram positivas por sorologia e 71 (97,3% grupos familiares apresentaram pelo menos um membro positivo. Considerando a elevada positividade de anticoipos IH e IgM específica para Oropouche na população de Serra Pelada, concluímos que a epidemia foi extensa e apresentou taxa de ataque em torno de 83%, que correspondeu a infecção de cerca de 5.000 pessoas.In the final of November 1994, an outbreak of a febrile disease was observed in the Serra Pelada gold mine (5°35'S; 49°30'W in the Southeast region of Parã State. Twenty samples were collected and sent to the laboratory of Arbovirus of Instituto Evandro Chagas. The tests showed that the disease was caused by Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus, Simbu serological group. Between 8-22 December 296 serum samples mere taken (54 from febrile patients, 16 paired samples and 242 from contacts and convalescent patients
朱来华; 赵玉然; 王宫璞; 郑小龙; 王群; 肖西志; 邓明俊; 魏乃林; 于红光; 辛学谦; 孙涛
施马伦贝格病毒病(Schmallenberg virus,SBV)是一种新发现的动物传染病,因于2011年底在德国施马伦贝格镇首次发现而临时得名,随后蔓延于西欧(包括比利时、法国、德国、荷兰、意大利、卢森堡、西班牙、英国和丹麦),并分别在奥地利、波兰、瑞典和芬兰等国的牛、山羊、绵羊中检测到抗体.遗传分析显示该病毒与布尼亚病毒科(Bunyaviridae)正布尼亚病毒属(Orthobunyavirus)西姆布血清群病毒(Simbu serogroup viruses)的亲缘关系最密切,西姆布血清群病毒是已知的反刍动物病原,可通过节肢动物媒介(蚊、蠓)传播.施马伦贝格病毒病有2种不同的临床症状:成年牛出现短暂轻微/温和的病症(产奶量减少、发热、腹泻)和新生哺乳动物(牛、羊)死产和先天缺陷.因为同群类似的病毒不是人畜共患病病原,也无该病毒致人发病的证据,但现阶段尚不能完全排除.尽管目前没有特效的药物和疫苗,但因已有类似病毒(赤羽病)的疫苗,疫苗接种应是控制该病的可能选项.因施马伦贝格病毒是一种新发现的病毒,许多方面尚不清楚,还有待于进一步研究.%Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection is a new emerging livestock disease, provisionally named after Schmallenberg town in Germany where it was first identified in late 2011. So far the virus has been detected in Europe, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, the UK and Denmark. Also, Austria, Poland, Sweden and Finland detected antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Genetic characterisation has shown that SBV is closest to the Simbu serogroup of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Orthobunyavirus that are known pathogens in ruminants, and are transmitted through arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes (Culicidae) or midges (Culicoides). The virus has been associated with two different profiles of clinical signs, brief mild/moderate disease (milk
Serologic survey of hantavirus in a rural population from the northern State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Pesquisa sorológica para hantavírus em uma população rural do norte do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil
Ioni Oliveira Santos
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.INTRODUÇÃO: Hantavirus é um gênero de vírus RNA incluído na família Bunyaviridae. Hantaviroses são zoonoses transmitidas por roedores que nos últimos 18 anos tornou-se um problema emergente da saúde pública nas Américas causando uma síndrome cardiopulmonar. Esta doença não tem nenhum tratamento específico e apresenta alta letalidade. A transmissão do hantavirus ao homem ocorre pela inalação de aerossóis dos excrementos de roedores. O
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: El virus West Nile (VWN es un Flavivirus que se transmite al hombre a través de distintas especies de mosquitos y produce brotes y casos esporádicos de enfermedad en distintas regiones del Viejo Mundo, incluída la Cuenca Mediterránea. Las zonas húmedas europeas que acogen aves migratorias procedentes de África constituyen áreas de alto riesgo para esta infección, así como para otras infecciones víricas transmitidas por artrópodos. MÉTODOS: Con objeto de investigar la prevalencia de la infección por el VWN y otros virus de transmisión similar en la población humana del Delta del Ebro, se estudiaron 1037 muestras de suero, obtenidas en 10 localidades de la zona, para presencia de anticuerpos frente a VWN y otros 12 virus transmitidos por artrópodos (3 Alfavirus, 8 Flaviviridae y 1 Bunyaviridae mediante titulación por inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA. En algunos casos se estudió la presencia de IgM específica por IHA tras fraccionar el suero por centrifugación en gradientes de sacarosa. RESULTADOS: En total, se encontró reactividad significativa frente a alguno de los virus probados en 130 casos (12.5%; 4.1% frente a Alfavirus, 8.0% frente a Flaviviridae y 0.4% frente a Bunyaviridae. El análisis de los títulos de anticuerpos reveló porcentajes significativos de muestras con títulos elevados frente a antígenos de VWN y otros. La distribución de la seroprevalencia fue muy desigual, concentrándose fundamentalmente en 3 localidades del interior del Delta (Ampolla, San Jaime y Montells, donde la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a Flaviviridae llegó a alcanzar el 30% y se observaron niveles residuales de IgM frente a VWN en algunos sueros. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados y los obtenidos previamente en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica sugieren que el VWN circula en la población humana de las zonas de riesgo y produce brotes epidémicos periódicos. Habida cuenta del alto porcentaje de
Calisher Charles H
Full Text Available Abstract Background All viruses in the family Bunyaviridae possess a tripartite genome, consisting of a small, a medium, and a large RNA segment. Bunyaviruses therefore possess considerable evolutionary potential, attributable to both intramolecular changes and to genome segment reassortment. Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus are known to cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The primary reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, which is widely distributed in North America. We investigated the prevalence of intramolecular changes and of genomic reassortment among Sin Nombre viruses detected in deer mice in three western states. Methods Portions of the Sin Nombre virus small (S and medium (M RNA segments were amplified by RT-PCR from kidney, lung, liver and spleen of seropositive peromyscine rodents, principally deer mice, collected in Colorado, New Mexico and Montana from 1995 to 2007. Both a 142 nucleotide (nt amplicon of the M segment, encoding a portion of the G2 transmembrane glycoprotein, and a 751 nt amplicon of the S segment, encoding part of the nucleocapsid protein, were cloned and sequenced from 19 deer mice and from one brush mouse (P. boylii, S RNA but not M RNA from one deer mouse, and M RNA but not S RNA from another deer mouse. Results Two of 20 viruses were found to be reassortants. Within virus sequences from different rodents, the average rate of synonymous substitutions among all pair-wise comparisons (πs was 0.378 in the M segment and 0.312 in the S segment sequences. The replacement substitution rate (πa was 7.0 × 10-4 in the M segment and 17.3 × 10-4 in the S segment sequences. The low πa relative to πs suggests strong purifying selection and this was confirmed by a Fu and Li analysis. The absolute rate of molecular evolution of the M segment was 6.76 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year. The absolute age of the M segment
Full text: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne viral zoonosis caused by a RNA virus named Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a Phlebovirus member of the Bunyaviridae family. Historically the disease was present in Africa and Madagascar where outbreaks occur at irregular intervals when heavy rains facilitate the breeding of vector competent mosquito vectors. The occurrence of the first confirmed outbreaks of RVF in 2000-2001 among humans and livestock outside Africa, in the Arabian Peninsula, carries the implication of further spread of infection into non-endemic areas since the virus is capable of utilizing a wide range of mosquito vectors. This work undertook investigation of the molecular epidemiology of the disease (1944-2008) with special reference to South Africa where the first documented outbreak of RVF occurred in 1951 and the most recent in 2008. A total of 149 isolates of RVF recovered over a period of 65 years from various hosts and during endemic and epidemic periods of disease in 15 African countries, Madagascar and Saudi Arabia were characterised by partial genomic sequencing of a 535-nucleotide segment of the G2 glycoprotein coding region of the M segment and the genetic relatedness determined using MEGA software. Pair-wise comparison of RVF isolates revealed divergences ranging from 0-5.6% at the nucleotide level, corresponding to 0-2.8% at the amino acid level. Most isolates are compartmentalized geographically and belong to one of 16 genotypes within three main lineages. Isolates from South Africa collected over 57 years belong to one of 4 genotypes. The 2008 South African isolates were closely related to isolates from the recent east African outbreak in 2006 and a 2003 Mauritanian isolate. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that circulation of RVFV is highly compartmentalized but with favourable climatic conditions a single genotype can rapidly spread from endemic areas over vast distances to cause outbreaks in susceptible human and
Dunich A. A.
Full Text Available Viral diseases became an actual problem in medicinal plants cultivation. The number of viruses known to infect purple coneflower increased significantly in the last years in many countries. However, there is no any review about the viral diseases of this valuable medicinal crop. Therefore, the aim of this article is to summarize the main information about the viruses affecting purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench.. An analysis of the literature data showed that purple coneflower could be infected by 10 viruses. These viruses belong to the families Bromoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Secoviridae, Potyviridae, Virgaviridae, and almost all of them are considered to be highly harmful plant viruses. Additionally, four of them (TMV, TSWV, CMV, PVY are in the top 10 of the most economically important plant viruses in the world and occupy the first places. Such distribution and harmfulness of these viruses are explained by a wide range of sensitive host-plants, wild plants and weeds – reservoirs of an infection, and also a large number of vectors. The data from a few countries show that the viral diseases of purple coneflower are becoming more severe from year to year. The appearance of new viruses is registered on coneflower every year that complicates prognosis and risk estimation of epiphytoties in these regions which, for example, were revealed in Bulgaria, Lithuania and Ukraine. This review presents the detailed symptoms of the viral diseases in purple coneflower, the main properties of each virus and data about their harmful effect on the quality of raw material (the concentration of biologically active substances and heavy metals in plants.
Zientara, Stéphan; Ponsart, Claire
Viruses can emerge unexpectedly in different regions of the world and may have negative effects on reproductive performance. This paper describes the consequences for reproductive performance that have been reported after the introduction to Europe of two emerging viruses, namely the bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV) viruses. Following the extensive spread of BTV in northern Europe, large numbers of pregnant cows were infected with BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) during the breeding season of 2007. Initial reports of some cases of abortion and hydranencephaly in cattle in late 2007 were followed by quite exhaustive investigations in the field that showed that 10%-35% of healthy calves were infected with BTV-8 before birth. Transplacental transmission and fetal abnormalities in cattle and sheep had been previously observed only with strains of the virus that were propagated in embryonated eggs and/or cell culture, such as vaccine strains or vaccine candidate strains. After the unexpected emergence of BTV-8 in northern Europe in 2006, another arbovirus, namely SBV, emerged in Europe in 2011, causing a new economically important disease in ruminants. This new virus, belonging to the Orthobunyavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, was first detected in Germany, in The Netherlands and in Belgium in 2011 and soon after in the UK, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Denmark and Switzerland. Adult animals show no or only mild clinical symptoms, whereas infection during a critical period of gestation can lead to abortion, stillbirth or the birth of severely malformed offspring. The impact of the disease is usually greater in sheep than in cattle. The consequences of SBV infection in domestic ruminants and more precisely the secondary effects on off-springs will be described.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV was identified as a novel member of the genus phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family in China. The detailed clinical features of cases with SFTSV infection have not been well described, and the risk factors for severity among patients and fatality among severe patients remain to be determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical and laboratory features of 115 hospitalized patients with SFTSV infection during the period from June 2010 to December 2011 in Northeast China were retrospectively reviewed. We assessed the risk factors associated with severity in confirmed cases and fatality in severe cases by multivariate analysis. One hundred and three (89.6% of 115 patients presented with multiple organ dysfunction, and 22 (19.1% of 115 proceeded to the stage of life threatening multiple organ failure. Of the 115 patients, 14 fatalities (12.2% were reported. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of risk for severity were: albumin ≤ 30 g/l (OR, 8.09; 95% CI, 2.58-25.32, APTT ≥ 66 seconds (OR, 14.28; 95% CI, 3.28-62.24, sodium ≤ 130 mmol/l (OR, 5.44; 95% CI, 1.38-21.40, and presence of neurological manifestations (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 1.91-31.12. Among patients with severe disease, presence of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.48-14.19 and disseminated intravascular coagulation (HR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.38-13.03 were independently associated with fatality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SFTSV infection may present with more severe symptoms and laboratory abnormalities than hitherto reported. Due to infection with a novel bunyavirus, the patients may sufferer multiple organ dysfunction and die of multiple organ failure. In the clinical assessment of any case of SFTS, independent factors relating to prognosis need to be taken into account by clinicians.
Watts, D M; LeDuc, J W; Bailey, C L; Dalrymple, J M; Gargan, T P
Serological data accumulated during the past decade indicated that a variety of feral and domestic animals of the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia (DelMarVa) Peninsula were infected with Jamestown Canyon (JC) and/or Keystone (KEY) viruses (Bunyaviridae, California serogroup). Neutralizing (N) antibody to JC virus was most prevalent in white-tailed deer, sika deer, cottontail rabbits and horses. KEY virus N antibody was detected most frequently in gray squirrels and domestic goats. N antibody indicative of past infection by one or both viruses also was found in raccoons, horses and humans. JC and/or KEY virus N antibodies were not demonstrable in sera of several other species of small mammals and reptiles. Investigations were extended to evaluate the role of domestic goats as an amplifying host of JC and KEY viruses and to assess their potential as sentinels of virus transmission. Goats maintained in the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp during the summer season of 1978, acquired N antibodies to JC and KEY viruses. Following experimental inoculation with either JC or KEY virus, all goats developed N antibody despite the absence of a demonstrable viremia in most animals. Goats proved to be effective as sentinels for monitoring the transmission of JC and KEY viruses; however, the exceptionally low titers or absence of viremia following inoculation with these viruses would seem to preclude a potential virus-amplifying role for this species. Although findings implicated primarily gray squirrels and white-tailed deer as possible amplifying hosts of KEY and JC virus, respectively, further investigations will be required to clarify their role, particularly since both viruses may be maintained entirely by transovarial transmission. PMID:7149110
Full Text Available Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus(CCHFV, which is a member of the Nairovirusgenus (family Bunyaviridae. The disease now occurs sporadically throughout much of Africa, Asia, andEurope and results in an approximately 30% fatality rate. Numerous genera of ixodid ticks serve both as vector and reservoir for CCHFV; however, ticks in the genus Hyalommaare particularlyimportant to the ecology of this virus.The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CCHFV among the cattle in Berat and Kolonje regions in Albania. The data taken in this study indicates for the presence of CCHFV Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in these countries. The serum samples were conserved in -20°C and tested with immunological methods using indirect ELISA assay in Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (FLI, Greifswald Germany. Through this technique it was possible to identified IgG antibodies in infected serum samples. From these results in Berat-Terpanwe had an indication about the presence of IgG antibodies in 2 blood samples. 3 serum samples were equivocal and 45 serum samples were negative from the total of 50 serum samples in cattle. While in Kolonje-Erseke the results show the presence of IgG antibodies in 4 blood samples from 54 seum samples in cattle. Respectively the prevalence in these 2 countries in Albania is 4.4% and 8%. These results can clearly proved the presence of CCHFV in livestock in Albania.
Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Fall-Malick, Fatimetou Zahra; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Mokhtar, Abdelwedoud
La fièvre de la vallée du Rift (FVR) est une arbovirose due à un virus à ARN appartenant à la famille de Bunyaviridae (genre phlebovirus). C'est une zoonose touchant principalement les animaux mais pouvant aussi contaminer l'homme, soit directement par la manipulation des viandes ou avortons d'animaux malades ou indirectement par la piqure de moustiques infectées (Aèdes sp, anophèles sp, Culex sp). Dans la majorité des cas, l'infection humaine à FVR est asymptomatique, mais elle peut également se manifester par un syndrome fébrile modérée d’évolution favorable. Néanmoins, certains patients peuvent développer un syndrome hémorragique et/ou des lésions neurologiques d’évolution mortelle. Nous décrivons l’évolution de cinq cas de patients atteints de la FVR, admis dans le service de médecine interne du Centre Hospitalier National de Nouakchott (Mauritanie), le mois d'Octobre 2015 et présentant tous, un syndrome hémorragique dans un contexte fébrile. L’évolution n’était favorable que pour 2 des cinq patients. Les 3 autres sont décédés, deux dans un tableau de choc hémorragique et dans un état de choc septique. PMID:27642413
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan African countries. Although the MP-12 strain of RVFV is a live attenuated vaccine candidate, neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence of MP-12 in mice may be a concern when vaccinating certain individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised. We have developed a novel, single-cycle replicable MP-12 (scMP-12, which carries an L RNA, M RNA mutant encoding a mutant envelope protein lacking an endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal and defective for membrane fusion function, and S RNA encoding N protein and green fluorescent protein. The scMP-12 underwent efficient amplification, then formed plaques and retained the introduced mutation after serial passages in a cell line stably expressing viral envelope proteins. However, inoculation of the scMP-12 into naïve cells resulted in a single round of viral replication, and production of low levels of noninfectious virus-like particles. Intracranial inoculation of scMP-12 into suckling mice did not cause clinical signs or death, a finding which demonstrated that the scMP-12 lacked neurovirulence. Mice immunized with a single dose of scMP-12 produced neutralizing antibodies, whose titers were higher than in mice immunized with replicon particles carrying L RNA and S RNA encoding N protein and green fluorescent protein. Moreover, 90% of the scMP-12-immunized mice were protected from wild-type RVFV challenge by efficiently suppressing viremia and replication of the challenge virus in the liver and the spleen. These data demonstrated that scMP-12 is a safe and immunogenic RVFV vaccine candidate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Akabane virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. It is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod vectors such as Culicoides biting midges and is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of the world. The virus is well known as a teratogenic pathogen which causes abortions, stillbirths, premature births and congenital abnormalities with arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle, sheep and goats. On the other hand, it is reported that the virus rarely induces encephalomyelitis in cattle by postnatal infection. A first large-scale epidemic of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle occurred in the southern part of Japan from summer to autumn in 2006. The aim of this study is to define the epidemiological, pathological and virological properties of the disease. Results Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in cattle that showed neurological symptoms such as astasia, ataxia, opisthotonus and hypersensitivity in beef and dairy farms by histopathological analysis. Akabane viral antigen and genome were consistently detected from the central nervous system of these animals, and the virus was isolated not only from them but also from the blood samples of clinically healthy calves in the epidemic area. The isolates were classified into genogroup I a containing the Iriki strain, which caused encephalitis of calves almost twenty years ago in Japan. Most of the affected cattle possessed the neutralizing antibody against Akabane virus. Seroconversion of the cohabitated and sentinel cattle in the epidemic area was also confirmed during an outbreak of the disease. Conclusion The ecological and epidemiological data we have obtained so far demonstrated that the Akabane virus is not endemic in Japan. No evidence of Akabane virus circulation was observed in 2005 through nation-wide serological surveillance, suggesting that a new strain belonging to genogroup I a invaded southern Japan
Full Text Available Background: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. It has a negative-sense, single stranded RNA genome approximately 19.2 kb, containing the Small, Medium, and Large segments. CCHFVs are relatively divergent in their genome sequence and grouped in seven distinct clades based on S-segment sequence analysis and six clades based on M-segment sequences. Our aim was to obtain new insights into the molecular epidemiology of CCHFV in Iran.Methods: We analyzed partial and complete nucleotide sequences of the S and M segments derived from 50 Iranian patients. The extracted RNA was amplified using one-step RT-PCR and then sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using Mega5 software.Results: Phylogenetic analysis of partial S segment sequences demonstrated that clade IV-(Asia 1, clade IV-(Asia 2 and clade V-(Europe accounted for 80 %, 4 % and 14 % of the circulating genomic variants of CCHFV in Iran respectively. However, one of the Iranian strains (Iran-Kerman/22 was associated with none of other sequences and formed a new clade (VII. The phylogenetic analysis of complete S-segment nucleotide sequences from selected Iranian CCHFV strains complemented with representative strains from GenBank revealed similar topology as partial sequences with eight major clusters. A partial M segment phylogeny positioned the Iranian strains in either association with clade III (Asia-Africa or clade V (Europe.Conclusion: The phylogenetic analysis revealed subtle links between distant geographic locations, which we propose might originate either from international livestock trade or from long-distance carriage of CCHFV by infected ticks via bird migration.
Virat J. Agravat
Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is an acute, highly-contagious and life-threatening vector borne disease. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40%. CCHF virus isolation and/or disease has been reported from more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, South eastern Europe and Middle east. Jan 2011 marks first ever reports of outbreak of CCHF in India, total 5 cases were detected of CCHF from Gujarat. CCHF has recently in news again, 6 human cases and 32 animal samples test positive for CCHF from Kariyana village of Amreli district (Gujarat state July 2013. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, member of genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Numerous genera of ixodid ticks serve both as vector and reservoir for CCHFV. Human infections occurred through tick bites, direct contact with blood or tissue of infected livestock, or nosocomial infections. Human infections begin with nonspecific febrile symptoms, but progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with a high case fatality ratio. The most definitive way of diagnosis is the demonstration of virus or viral genome in sera samples. Hospitalization in special care unit with constant effort to prevent haemorrhagic complication along with laboratory monitoring is cornerstone for treatment of CCHF. Till date there is no FDA approved drug or definitive treatment for CCHF, ribavirin is tried by many physician need to be evaluated further. Current article is an effort to update existing knowledge about CCHF by due focus on various aspects especially prevention of this zoonotic disease. Much of the real life queries about this disease are elaborated after extensive literature research. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 392-397
Herbert, D Ames; Malone, S; Aref, S; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Royals, B M; Johnson, P D
Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV), transmitted by many thrips species, is a devastating pathogen of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. TSWV has become a serious problem in the Virginia/Carolina peanut-growing region of the United States. During 2002, TSWV was present in 47% of the North Carolina hectarage and caused a 5% yield reduction in Virginia. Factors influencing levels of TSWV in runner market-type peanut cultivars, which are primarily grown in Alabama, Flordia, Georgia, and Texas, have been integrated into an advisory to help those peanut growers reduce losses. An advisory based on the southeast runner market-type version is currently under development for virginia market-type peanut cultivars that are grown primarily in the Virginia/ Carolina region. A version based on preliminary field experiments was released in 2003. One factor used in both advisories relates to insecticide use to reduce the vector populations and disease incidence. This research elucidated the influence of insecticides on thrips populations, thrips plant injury, incidence of TSWV, and pod yield in virginia market-type peanut. Eight field trials from 2003 to 2005 were conducted at two locations. In-furrow application of aldicarb and phorate resulted in significant levels of thrips control, significant reductions in thrips injury to seedlings, reduced incidence of TSWV, and significant increases in pod yield. Foliar application of acephate after aldicarb or phorate applied in the seed furrow further reduced thrips plant injury and incidence of TSWV and improved yield. These findings will be used to improve the current virginia market-type TSWV advisory.
Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, family Bunyaviridae is a mosquito-borne pathogen of both livestock and humans, found primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The viral genome comprises two negative-sense (L and M segments and one ambisense (S segment RNAs that encode seven proteins. The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N protein in the negative-sense and a nonstructural (NSs protein in the positive-sense, though NSs cannot be translated directly from the S segment but rather from a specific subgenomic mRNA. Using reverse genetics we generated a virus, designated rMP12:S-Swap, in which the N protein is expressed from the NSs locus and NSs from the N locus within the genomic S RNA. In cells infected with rMP12:S-Swap NSs is expressed at higher levels with respect to N than in cells infected with the parental rMP12 virus. Despite NSs being the main interferon antagonist and determinant of virulence, growth of rMP12:S-Swap was attenuated in mammalian cells and gave a small plaque phenotype. The increased abundance of the NSs protein did not lead to faster inhibition of host cell protein synthesis or host cell transcription in infected mammalian cells. In cultured mosquito cells, however, infection with rMP12:S-Swap resulted in cell death rather than establishment of persistence as seen with rMP12. Finally, altering the composition of the S segment led to a differential packaging ratio of genomic to antigenomic RNA into rMP12:S-Swap virions. Our results highlight the plasticity of the RVFV genome and provide a useful experimental tool to investigate further the packaging mechanism of the segmented genome.
Murphy Brian R
Full Text Available Abstract Background La Crosse virus (LACV, family Bunyaviridae, was first identified as a human pathogen in 1960 after its isolation from a 4 year-old girl with fatal encephalitis in La Crosse, Wisconsin. LACV is a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in North America and infects up to 300,000 persons each year of which 70–130 result in severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS. As an initial step in the establishment of useful animal models to support vaccine development, we examined LACV infectivity, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity in both weanling mice and rhesus monkeys. Results Following intraperitoneal inoculation of mice, LACV replicated in various organs before reaching the CNS where it replicates to high titer causing death from neurological disease. The peripheral site where LACV replicates to highest titer is the nasal turbinates, and, presumably, LACV can enter the CNS via the olfactory neurons from nasal olfactory epithelium. The mouse infectious dose50 and lethal dose50 was similar for LACV administered either intranasally or intraperitoneally. LACV was highly infectious for rhesus monkeys and infected 100% of the animals at 10 PFU. However, the infection was asymptomatic, and the monkeys developed a strong neutralizing antibody response. Conclusion In mice, LACV likely gains access to the CNS via the blood stream or via olfactory neurons. The ability to efficiently infect mice intranasally raises the possibility that LACV might use this route to infect its natural hosts. Rhesus monkeys are susceptible to LACV infection and develop strong neutralizing antibody responses after inoculation with as little as 10 PFU. Mice and rhesus monkeys are useful animal models for LACV vaccine immunologic testing although the rhesus monkey model is not optimal.
叶伟; 白露; 张芳琳; 徐志凯
汉坦病毒( Hantavirus)属于布尼亚病毒科(Bunyaviridae),包括汉滩病毒(HTNV)、汉城病毒(SEOV)、多布拉伐病毒(DOBV)、辛诺柏病毒( SNV)、纽约病毒(NY-1)、安第斯山病毒(ANDV)、希望山病毒(PHV)和图拉病毒(TULV)等多个血清型.汉坦病毒感染人类可导致两类不同的急性传染病:一类是以发热、出血、急性肾功能损害和免疫功能紊乱为特征的肾综合征出血热 ( hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome,HFRS),主要由HTNV、SEOV、DOBV等引起;另一类是以肺浸润及肺间质水肿、呼吸窘迫、呼吸衰竭为特征的汉坦病毒肺综合征( hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,HPS),主要由SNV、NY-1等引起.汉坦病毒引起HFRS和HPS的确切致病机制尚未完全阐明.两类疾病的临床表现虽有不同,但其主要的病变特点均包括血管通透性增高、全身小血管损害等.
Full Text Available Hantaan virus (HTNV, a negative sense tripartite RNA virus of the Family Bunyaviridae, is the most prevalent hantavirus in the Republic of Korea (ROK. It is the causative agent of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS in humans and maintained in the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, the primary zoonotic host. Clinical HFRS cases have been reported commonly in HFRS-endemic areas of Gyeonggi province. Recently, the death of a member of the ROK military from Gangwon province due to HFRS prompted an investigation of the epidemiology and distribution of hantaviruses in Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces that border the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea.To elucidate the geographic distribution and molecular diversity of HTNV, whole genome sequences of HTNV Large (L, Medium (M, and Small (S segments were acquired from lung tissues of A. agrarius captured from 2003-2014. Consistent with the clinical incidence of HFRS established by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC, the prevalence of HTNV in naturally infected mice in Gangwon province was lower than for Gyeonggi province. Whole genomic sequences of 34 HTNV strains were identified and a phylogenetic analysis showed geographic diversity of the virus in the limited areas. Reassortment analysis first suggested an occurrence of genetic exchange of HTNV genomes in nature, ROK.This study is the first report to demonstrate the molecular prevalence of HTNV in Gangwon province. Whole genome sequencing of HTNV showed well-supported geographic lineages and the molecular diversity in the northern region of ROK due to a natural reassortment of HTNV genomes. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of hantaviruses. Also, the full-length of HTNV tripartite genomes will provide a database for phylogeographic analysis of spatial and temporal outbreaks of hantavirus infection.
Murakami, Shin; Terasaki, Kaori; Makino, Shinji
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan African countries. The virus carries a tripartite, single-stranded, and negative-sense RNA genome, designated as L, M, and S RNAs. RVFV spread can be prevented by the effective vaccination of animals and humans. Although the MP-12 strain of RVFV is a live attenuated vaccine candidate, MP-12 showed neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence in young mice and immunodeficiency mice. Hence, there is a concern for the use of MP-12 to certain individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised. To improve MP-12 safety, we have generated a single-cycle, replicable MP-12 (scMP-12), which carries L RNA, S RNA encoding green fluorescent protein in place of a viral nonstructural protein NSs, and an M RNA encoding a mutant envelope protein lacking an endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal and defective for membrane fusion function. The scMP-12 undergoes efficient amplification in the Vero-G cell line, which is a Vero cell line stably expressing viral envelope proteins, while it undergoes single-cycle replication in naïve cells and completely lacks neurovirulence in suckling mice after intracranial inoculation. A single-dose vaccination of mice with scMP-12 confers protective immunity. Thus, scMP-12 represents a new, promising RVF vaccine candidate. Here we describe protocols for scMP-12 generation by using a reverse genetics system, establishment of Vero-G cells, and titration of scMP-12 in Vero-G cells.
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is an acute, zoonotic viral disease of domestic ruminants, caused by a phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae family. A large outbreak occurred in Madagascar in 2008-2009. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the point prevalence of antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV in cattle in the Anjozorobe district, located in the wet and temperate highland region of Madagascar and yet heavily affected by the disease, and analyse environmental and trade factors potentially linked to RVFV transmission. A serological study was performed in 2009 in 894 bovines. For each bovine, the following variables were recorded: age, location of the night pen, minimum distance from the pen to the nearest water point and the forest, nearest water point type, and herd replacement practices. The serological data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The overall anti-RVFV IgG seroprevalence rate was 28% [CI95% 25-31]. Age was statistically linked to prevalence (p = 10(-4, being consistent with a recurrent RVFV circulation. Distance from the night pen to the nearest water point was a protective factor (p = 5.10(-3, which would be compatible with a substantial part of the virus transmission being carried out by nocturnal mosquito vectors. However, water point type did not influence the risk of infection: several mosquito species are probably involved. Cattle belonging to owners who purchase animals to renew the herd were significantly more likely to have seroconverted than others (p = 0.04: cattle trade may contribute to the introduction of the virus in this area. The minimum distance of the night pen to the forest was not linked to the prevalence. This is the first evidence of a recurrent transmission of RVFV in such an ecosystem that associates a wet, temperate climate, high altitude, paddy fields, and vicinity to a dense rain forest. Persistence mechanisms need to be further investigated.
Full Text Available Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus, an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmaniosis and phleboviral infections. To identify a possible link, we investigated the presence and distribution of antibodies against these two microorganisms (i in individuals and (ii at a spatial level in the city of Marseille (south-eastern France. Five hundred sera were selected randomly in the biobank of the Department of Parasitology of the Public Hospitals of Marseille. All sera were previously tested for IgG against Leishmania by Western Blotting, and TOSV IgG were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The seropositivity rates were 21.4% for TOSV and 28% for Leishmania. Statistical analysis demonstrated that seropositivity for one pathogen was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other pathogen. This result provided the first robust evidence for the existence of an epidemiological relationship between Leishmania infantum and TOSV. Addresses of tested patients were geolocalized and integrated into Geographical Information System software, in order to test spatial relationship between the two pathogens. Spatial analysis did not allow to identify (i specific patterns for the spatial distribution of positive serological results for TOSV or Leishmania, and (ii a spatial relationship between Leishmania and TOSV positive serological results. This may reflect the fact that the sample studied was not powerful enough to demonstrate either a spatial clustering or co-location, i.e. that the actual risk exposure area is smaller than the mean of
Pereira, Soraya S.; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S.; Morais, Michelle S. S.; Prado, Nidiane D. R.; Barros, Marcos L.; Koishi, Andrea C.; Mazarrotto, Giovanny A. C. A.; Gonçalves, Giselle M.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Stabeli, Rodrigo G.
In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N) to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ85) of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ85. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ85 in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus infections. PMID
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.
Soraya S Pereira
Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with
Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Hjertqvist, Marika; Magnusson, Magnus; Löfvenius, Mikaell Ottosson; Hörnfeldt, Birger
Pathogenic hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are rodent-borne viruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia. In Europe, there are more than 10,000 yearly cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of HFRS caused by Puumala virus (PUUV). The common and widely distributed bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the host of PUUV. In this study, we aim to explain and predict NE incidence in boreal Sweden using bank vole densities. We tested whether the number of rainy days in winter contributed to variation in NE incidence. We forecast NE incidence in July 2013-June 2014 using projected autumn vole density, and then considering two climatic scenarios: 1) rain-free winter and 2) winter with many rainy days. Autumn vole density was a strong explanatory variable of NE incidence in boreal Sweden in 1990-2012 (R2 = 79%, p<0.001). Adding the number of rainy winter days improved the model (R2 = 84%, p<0.05). We report for the first time that risk of NE is higher in winters with many rainy days. Rain on snow and ground icing may block vole access to subnivean space. Seeking refuge from adverse conditions and shelter from predators, voles may infest buildings, increasing infection risk. In a rainy winter scenario, we predicted 812 NE cases in boreal Sweden, triple the number of cases predicted in a rain-free winter in 2013/2014. Our model enables identification of high risk years when preparedness in the public health sector is crucial, as a rainy winter would accentuate risk.
Full Text Available The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, "fingertips" that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection.
Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke
The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings. PMID:25701819
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1 higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. SIGNIFICANCE: Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsi
Brian B Gowen
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus causes a range of illnesses that include retinitis, fulminant hepatitis, neurologic disease, and hemorrhagic fever. In hospitalized individuals, case fatality rates can be as high as 10-20%. There are no vaccines or antivirals approved for human use to prevent or treat severe RVFV infections. We previously tested the efficacy of the MP-12 vaccine strain and related variants with NSs truncations as a post-exposure prophylaxis in mice infected with wild-type pathogenic RVFV strain ZH501. Post-exposure efficacy of the rMP12-C13type, a recombinant MP-12 vaccine virus which encodes an in-frame truncation removing 69% of the NSs protein, resulted in 30% survival when administering the virus within 30 minutes of subcutaneous ZH501 challenge in mice, while the parental MP-12 virus conferred no protection by post-exposure vaccination. Here, we demonstrate uniform protection of hamsters by post-exposure vaccination with rMP12-C13type administered 6 h post-ZH501 infection while no efficacy was observed with the parental MP-12 virus. Notably, both the MP-12 and rMP12-C13type viruses were highly effective (100% protection when administered 21 days prior to challenge. In a subsequent study delaying vaccination until 8, 12 and 24 h post-RVFV exposure, we observed 80, 70 and 30% survival, respectively. Our findings indicate that the rapid protective innate immune response elicited by rMP12-C13type may be due to the truncated NSs protein, suggesting that the resulting functional inactivation of NSs plays an important role in the observed post-exposure efficacy. Taken together, the data demonstrate that post-exposure vaccination with rMP12-C13type is effective in limiting ZH501 replication and associated disease in standard pre-exposure vaccination and post-challenge treatment models of RVFV infection, and suggest an extended post-exposure prophylaxis window beyond that initially observed in mice.
Sutherland, Laura J.; Anyamba, Assaf; LaBeaud, A. Desiree
The Bunyaviridae family includes a growing number of viruses that have contributed to the burden of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases around the globe. Many of these viruses cause severe clinical outcomes in human and animal populations, the results of which can be detrimental to public health and the economies of affected communities. The threat to endemic and non-native regions is particularly high, and national and international public health agencies are often on alert. Many of the bunyaviruses cause severe clinical disease including hemorrhage, organ failure, and death leading to their high-risk classification. Hantaviruses and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus) are National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogens in the United States. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, a classification that includes many bunyaviruses, are immediately notifiable in the European Union. The emergence of new and reemerging bunyaviruses has resulted in numerous human and animal fatalities. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa (1997/1998, 2006/2007), Sudan (2007), Southern Africa (2008-2010), Kenya (1997/1998, 2006/2007) (Anyamba et al., 2009, 2010; Breiman et al., 2010; Grobbelaar et al., 2011; Woods et al., 2002) and Saudi Arabia & Yemen (2000, 2010) (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2000; Hjelle and Glass, 2000; Madani et al., 2003) and the emergence of Sin Nombre virus (1993) (Hjelle and Glass, 2000) and most recently Schmallenberg virus (2011) (DEFRA, 2012) are prime examples of the devastating and worldwide toll bunyaviruses have on health and economies. Climate variability (precipitation and temperature in particular) greatly influence the ecological conditions that drive arboviral disease outbreaks across the globe. Several human and animal disease outbreaks have been influenced by changes in climate associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon including the bunyaviruses RVFV and Sin
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Genus: Tospovirus, Family: Bunyaviridae) is a major constraint to the production of several different crops of agronomic and horticultural importance worldwide. The amino acid sequence of the two envelope membrane glycoproteins, designated as GN (N-terminal) and GC (C-terminal), of TSWV contain several tripeptide sequences, Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr, suggesting that the proteins are N-glycosylated. In this study, the lectin-binding properties of the viral glycoproteins and their sensitivities to glycosidases were examined to obtain information on the nature of potential oligosaccharide moieties present on GN and GC. The viral proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and probed by affinoblotting using a battery of biotinylated lectins with specificity to different oligosaccharide structures. GC showed strong binding with five mannose-binding lectins, four N-acetyllactosamine-binding lectins and one fucose-binding lectin. GN was resolved into two molecular masses and only the slow migrating form showed binding, albeit to a lesser extent than GC, with three of the five mannose-binding lectins. The N-acetyllactosamine- and fucose-specific lectins did not bind to either molecular mass form of GN. None of the galactose-, N-acetylgalactosamine-, or sialic acid-binding lectins tested showed binding specificity to GC or GN. Treatment of the denatured virions with endoglycosidase H and peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) resulted in a significant decrease in the binding of GC to high mannose- and N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectins. However, no such differences in lectin binding were apparent with GN. These results indicate the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides of high mannose- and complex-type on GC and possibly high mannose-type on GN. Differences in the extent of binding of the two envelope glycoproteins to different lectins suggest that GC is likely to be more heavily N-glycosylated than
JF. Plaza Torres
Full Text Available El término arbovirosis se utiliza para definir a un grupo de enfermedades producidas por virus, que tiene en común la utilización de artrópodos como vectores para su transmisión. Se han reconocido más de 500 arbovirus pertenecientes en su mayoría a 5 familias: Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Reoviridae y Rhabdoviridae. Pese a su naturaleza mayoritariamente zoonótica, al menos un 25% de ellas afectan al hombre, siendo responsables de enfermedades como la fiebre amarilla, dengue o la fiebre de Chikungunya. Desde enero de 2009 un contingente militar se encuentra desplegado en el Golfo de Adén y en el Océano Indico integrado en la operación EU NAVFOR-ATALANTA de lucha contra la piratería y protección del tráfico mercante del Programa mundial de alimentos para Somalia. Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, en especial la malaria y diversas arbovirosis (dengue, Chikungunya, fiebre del Valle del Rift, fiebre del Nilo occidental se consideran un importante problema de salud pública en el area de operaciones (sobre todo en zonas rurales y/o costeras. Los vectores de estas enfermedades se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos por toda esta región, con tasas de infestación muy altas y que se incrementa de año en año. Por todo ello nos planteamos este trabajo cuyos objetivos son: conocer las características epidemiológicas de las principales arbovirosis que pueden afectar a las tropas españolas desplegadas en la operación Atalanta: fiebre del Valle del Rift, fiebre de O´nyong Nyong, fiebre del Nilo occidental, fiebre hemorrágica del Congo, fiebre amarilla, enfermedad de Sindbis, fiebre de Chikungunya y Dengue. Así mismo se pretende analizar las principales medidas para la prevención de estas enfermedades realizadas por el contingente español allí desplegado: educación sanitaria, control ambiental, protección frente a mosquitos.
Whitehead Stephen S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tahyna virus (TAHV is a human pathogen of the California encephalitis virus (CEV serogroup (Bunyaviridae endemic to Europe, Asia, and Africa. TAHV maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. Human TAHV infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. TAHV disease can progress to CNS involvement, although unlike related La Crosse virus (LACV, fatalities have not been reported. Human infections are frequent with neutralizing antibodies present in 60-80% of the elderly population in endemic areas. Results In order to determine the genomic sequence of wild-type TAHV, we chose three TAHV isolates collected over a 26-year period from mosquitoes. Here we present the first complete sequence of the TAHV S, M, and L segments. The three TAHV isolates maintained a highly conserved genome with both nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity greater than 99%. In order to determine the extent of genetic relatedness to other members of the CEV serogroup, we compared protein sequences of TAHV with LACV, Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, and Inkoo virus (INKV. By amino acid comparison, TAHV was most similar to SSHV followed by LACV, JCV, and INKV. The sequence of the GN protein is most conserved followed by L, N, GC, NSS, and NSM. In a weanling Swiss Webster mouse model, all three TAHV isolates were uniformly neurovirulent, but only one virus was neuroinvasive. In rhesus monkeys, the virus was highly immunogenic even in the absence of viremia. Cross neutralization studies utilizing monkey immune serum demonstrated that TAHV is antigenically distinct from North American viruses LACV and JCV. Conclusions Here we report the first complete sequence of TAHV and present genetic analysis of new-world viruses, LACV, SSHV, and JCV with old
Emmanuel G. Kifaro
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an acute, zoonotic viral disease caused by a Phlebovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. Among livestock, outbreaks of the disease are economically devastating. They are often characterised by large, sweeping abortion storms and have significant mortality in adult livestock. The aim of the current study was to investigate RVFV infection in the Kigoma region, which is nestled under the hills of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley on the edge of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. A region-wide serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated small ruminants (sheep and goats, n = 411. Sera samples were tested for the presence of anti-RVFV antibodies and viral antigen, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The overall past infections were detected in 22 of the 411 animals, 5.4% (Confidence Interval (CI 95% = 3.5% – 8.1%. The Kigoma rural area recorded the higher seroprevalence of 12.0% (CI 95% = 7.3% – 18.3%; p < 0.0001, followed by Kibondo at 2.3% (CI 95% = 0.5% – 6.5%; p > 0.05 and the Kasulu district at 0.8% (CI 95% = 0.0% – 4.2%; p > 0.05. The prevalence was 12.5% and 4.7% for sheep and goats, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that only eight samples were found to be positive (n = 63. This study has confirmed, for the first time, the presence of the RVFV in the Kigoma region four years after the 2007 epizootic in Tanzania. The study further suggests that the virus activity exists during the inter-epizootic period, even in regions with no history of RVFV.
Nishiyama, Shoko; Lokugamage, Nandadeva
ABSTRACT Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic to Africa, and the mosquito-borne disease is characterized by “abortion storms” in ruminants and by hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, and blindness in humans. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) has a tripartite negative-stranded RNA genome (L, M, and S segments). A live-attenuated vaccine for RVF, the MP-12 vaccine, is conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the United States. MP-12 is fully attenuated by the combination of the partially attenuated L, M, and S segments. Temperature sensitivity (ts) limits viral replication at a restrictive temperature and may be involved with viral attenuation. In this study, we aimed to characterize the ts mutations for MP-12. The MP-12 vaccine showed restricted replication at 38°C and replication shutoff (100-fold or greater reduction in virus titer compared to that at 37°C) at 39°C in Vero and MRC-5 cells. Using rZH501 reassortants with either the MP-12 L, M, or S segment, we found that all three segments encode a temperature-sensitive phenotype. However, the ts phenotype of the S segment was weaker than that of the M or L segment. We identified Gn-Y259H, Gc-R1182G, L-V172A, and L-M1244I as major ts mutations for MP-12. The ts mutations in the L segment decreased viral RNA synthesis, while those in the M segment delayed progeny production from infected cells. We also found that a lack of NSs and/or 78kD/NSm protein expression minimally affected the ts phenotype. Our study revealed that MP-12 is a unique vaccine carrying ts mutations in the L, M, and S segments. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic to Africa, characterized by high rates of abortion in ruminants and severe diseases in humans. Vaccination is important to prevent the spread of disease, and a live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine is currently the only vaccine with a conditional license in the United States. This study determined the temperature
Kainulainen, Markus; Lau, Simone; Samuel, Charles E.; Hornung, Veit
ABSTRACT Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is a relevant pathogen of both humans and livestock in Africa. The nonstructural protein NSs is a major virulence factor known to suppress the type I interferon (IFN) response by inhibiting host cell transcription and by proteasomal degradation of a major antiviral IFN effector, the translation-inhibiting protein kinase PKR. Here, we identified components of the modular SCF (Skp1, Cul1, F-box protein)-type E3 ubiquitin ligases as mediators of PKR destruction by NSs. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against the conserved SCF subunit Skp1 protected PKR from NSs-mediated degradation. Consequently, RVFV replication was severely reduced in Skp1-depleted cells when PKR was present. SCF complexes have a variable F-box protein subunit that determines substrate specificity for ubiquitination. We performed an siRNA screen for all (about 70) human F-box proteins and found FBXW11 to be involved in PKR degradation. The partial stabilization of PKR by FBXW11 depletion upregulated PKR autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the PKR substrate eIF2α and caused a shutoff of host cell protein synthesis in RVFV-infected cells. To maximally protect PKR from the action of NSs, knockdown of structurally and functionally related FBXW1 (also known as β-TRCP1), in addition to FBXW11 deletion, was necessary. Consequently, NSs was found to interact with both FBXW11 and β-TRCP1. Thus, NSs eliminates the antiviral kinase PKR by recruitment of SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases containing FBXW11 and β-TRCP1 as substrate recognition subunits. This antagonism of PKR by NSs is essential for efficient RVFV replication in mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever virus is a pathogen of humans and animals that has the potential to spread from Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to other regions. A major virulence mechanism is the proteasomal degradation of the antiviral kinase PKR by the viral protein NSs. Here, we
Olga A Lihoradova
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen which can cause hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate of abortion in ruminants. MP-12 strain, a live-attenuated candidate vaccine, is attenuated in the M- and L-segments, but the S-segment retains the virulent phenotype. MP-12 was manufactured as an Investigational New Drug vaccine by using MRC-5 cells and encodes a functional NSs gene, the major virulence factor of RVFV which 1 induces a shutoff of the host transcription, 2 inhibits interferon (IFN-β promoter activation, and 3 promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR. MP-12 lacks a marker for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA. Although MP-12 lacking NSs works for DIVA, it does not replicate efficiently in type-I IFN-competent MRC-5 cells, while the use of type-I IFN-incompetent cells may negatively affect its genetic stability. To generate modified MP-12 vaccine candidates encoding a DIVA marker, while still replicating efficiently in MRC-5 cells, we generated recombinant MP-12 encoding Punta Toro virus Adames strain NSs (rMP12-PTNSs or Sandfly fever Sicilian virus NSs (rMP12-SFSNSs in place of MP-12 NSs. We have demonstrated that those recombinant MP-12 viruses inhibit IFN-β mRNA synthesis, yet do not promote the degradation of PKR. The rMP12-PTNSs, but not rMP12-SFSNSs, replicated more efficiently than recombinant MP-12 lacking NSs in MRC-5 cells. Mice vaccinated with rMP12-PTNSs or rMP12-SFSNSs induced neutralizing antibodies at a level equivalent to those vaccinated with MP-12, and were efficiently protected from wild-type RVFV challenge. The rMP12-PTNSs and rMP12-SFSNSs did not induce antibodies cross-reactive to anti-RVFV NSs antibody and are therefore applicable to DIVA. Thus, rMP12-PTNSs is highly efficacious, replicates efficiently in MRC-5 cells, and encodes a DIVA marker, all of which
Surtees, Rebecca; Dowall, Stuart D.; Shaw, Amelia; Armstrong, Stuart; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W.; Mankouri, Jamel; Edwards, Thomas A.
ABSTRACT The Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family contains serious human and animal pathogens classified within multiple serogroups and species. Of these serogroups, the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) serogroup comprises sole members CCHFV and Hazara virus (HAZV). CCHFV is an emerging zoonotic virus that causes often-fatal hemorrhagic fever in infected humans for which preventative or therapeutic strategies are not available. In contrast, HAZV is nonpathogenic to humans and thus represents an excellent model to study aspects of CCHFV biology under conditions of more-accessible biological containment. The three RNA segments that form the nairovirus genome are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that are substrates for RNA synthesis and packaging into virus particles. We used quantitative proteomics to identify cellular interaction partners of CCHFV N and identified robust interactions with cellular chaperones. These interactions were validated using immunological methods, and the specific interaction between native CCHFV N and cellular chaperones of the HSP70 family was confirmed during live CCHFV infection. Using infectious HAZV, we showed for the first time that the nairovirus N-HSP70 association was maintained within both infected cells and virus particles, where N is assembled as RNPs. Reduction of active HSP70 levels in cells by the use of small-molecule inhibitors significantly reduced HAZV titers, and a model for chaperone function in the context of high genetic variability is proposed. These results suggest that chaperones of the HSP70 family are required for nairovirus replication and thus represent a genetically stable cellular therapeutic target for preventing nairovirus-mediated disease. IMPORTANCE Nairoviruses compose a group of human and animal viruses that are transmitted by ticks and associated with serious or fatal disease. One member is Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Full Text Available Abstract Background Uukuniemi virus (UUKV belongs to the Phlebovirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. As a non-pathogenic virus for humans UUKV has served as a safe model bunyavirus in a number of studies addressing fundamental questions such as organization and regulation of viral genes, genome replication, structure and assembly. The present study is focused on the oligomerization of the UUKV nucleocapsid (N protein, which plays an important role in several steps of virus replication. The aim was to locate the domains involved in the N protein oligomerization and study the process in detail. Results A set of experiments concentrating on the N- and C-termini of the protein was performed, first by completely or partially deleting putative N-N-interaction domains and then by introducing point mutations of amino acid residues. Mutagenesis strategy was based on the computer modeling of secondary and tertiary structure of the N protein. The N protein mutants were studied in chemical cross-linking, immunofluorescence, mammalian two-hybrid, minigenome, and virus-like particle-forming assays. The data showed that the oligomerization ability of UUKV-N protein depends on the presence of intact α-helices on both termini of the N protein molecule and that a specific structure in the N-terminal region plays a crucial role in the N-N interaction(s. This structure is formed by two α-helices, rich in amino acid residues with aromatic (W7, F10, W19, F27, F31 or long aliphatic (I14, I24 side chains. Furthermore, some of the N-terminal mutations (e.g. I14A, I24A, F31A affected the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays. Conclusions UUKV-N protein has ability to form oligomers in chemical cross-linking and mammalian two-hybrid assays. In mutational analysis, some of the introduced single-point mutations abolished the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays, suggesting that especially the N
Galal Fatma H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rift Valley fever (RVF is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7% in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2% in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ≥ 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between
Yadav, Pragya D; Vincent, Martin J; Khristova, Marina; Kale, Charuta; Nichol, Stuart T; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T
Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) virus, the prototype tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae is associated with acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats in East and Central Africa. The closely related Ganjam virus found in India is associated with febrile illness in humans and disease in livestock. The complete S, M and L segment sequences of Ganjam and NSD virus and partial sequence analysis of Ganjam viral RNA genome S, M and L segments encoding regions (396 bp, 701 bp and 425 bp) of the viral nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and L polymerase (L) proteins, respectively, was carried out for multiple Ganjam virus isolates obtained from 1954 to 2002 and from various regions of India. M segments of NSD and Ganjam virus encode a large ORF for the glycoprotein precursor (GPC), (1627 and 1624 amino acids in length, respectively) and their L segments encode a very large L polymerase (3991 amino acids). The complete S, M and L segments of NSD and Ganjam viruses were more closely related to one another than to other characterized nairoviruses, and no evidence of reassortment was found. However, the NSD and Ganjam virus complete M segment differed by 22.90% and 14.70%, for nucleotide and amino acid respectively, and the complete L segment nucleotide and protein differing by 9.90% and 2.70%, respectively among themselves. Ganjam and NSD virus, complete S segment differed by 9.40-10.40% and 3.2-4.10 for nucleotide and proteins while among Ganjam viruses 0.0-6.20% and 0.0-1.4%, variation was found for nucleotide and amino acids. Ganjam virus isolates differed by up to 17% and 11% at the nucleotide level for the partial S and L gene fragments, respectively, with less variation observed at the deduced amino acid level (10.5 and 2%, S and L, respectively). However, the virus partial M gene fragment (which encodes the hypervariable mucin-like domain) of these viruses differed by as much as 56% at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic
Kaya, Selçuk; Yılmaz, Gürdal; Erensoy, Sükrü; Yağçı Çağlayık, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Köksal, Iftihar
Hantaviruses which are the members of Bunyaviridae, differ from other members of this family since they are transmitted to humans by rodents. More than 200.000 cases of hantavirus infections are reported annually worldwide. Hantaviruses can lead to two different types of infection in humans, namely, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HFRS is the most common type of hantavirus infection in Europe and Asia and the most common virus types are Dobrava, Puumala, Hantaan and Seoul. A total of 25 hantavirus suspected cases have been reported from the Western Black Sea region of Turkey and 12 of these were confirmed serologically as "Puumala" subtype. Serological tests such as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), are used for diagnosis and typing of the hantaviruses, however, since cross-reactions are common between the subtypes, the results of these tests should be confirmed by other methods. In this report two cases with hantavirus infection defined serologically were presented. Two male patients, 55 and 50 years old, respectively, living in Giresun province of Eastern Black Sea region, Turkey, were admitted to the State Hospital with the complaints of fever, sweating and diarrhoea without blood or mucus. Since thrombocytopenia and renal failure were detected in these two cases, they were transferred to the University Hospital. Presence of fever, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, with no laboratory findings of a bacterial infection and no growth of microoorganisms in the clinical specimens, admittance of the patients during summer and history of being present in the fields, necessitated to rule out leptospirosis, Crimean Kongo hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus infection which were all endemic in our area. Further investigation of the serum samples at the National Reference Virology Laboratory by IFA (Hantavirus Mosaic-1, Euroimmun, Germany) revealed hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies ≥ 1:100 titer and the results
Alkan, Cigdem; Alwassouf, Sulaf; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bichaud, Laurence; Tezcan, Seda; Dincer, Ender; Ergunay, Koray; Ozbel, Yusuf; Alten, Bulent; de Lamballerie, Xavier
ABSTRACT A new phlebovirus, Adana virus, was isolated from a pool of Phlebotomus spp. (Diptera; Psychodidae) in the province of Adana, in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Genetic analysis based on complete coding of genomic sequences indicated that Adana virus belongs to the Salehabad virus species of the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Adana virus is the third virus of the Salehabad virus species for which the complete sequence has been determined. To understand the epidemiology of Adana virus, a seroprevalence study using microneutralization assay was performed to detect the presence of specific antibodies in human and domestic animal sera collected in Adana as well as Mersin province, located 147 km west of Adana. The results demonstrate that the virus is present in both provinces. High seroprevalence rates in goats, sheep, and dogs support intensive exposure to Adana virus in the region, which has not been previously reported for any virus included in the Salehabad serocomplex; however, low seroprevalence rates in humans suggest that Adana virus is not likely to constitute an important public health problem in exposed human populations, but this deserves further studies. IMPORTANCE Until recently, in the genus Phlebovirus, the Salehabad virus species consisted of two viruses: Salehabad virus, isolated from sand flies in Iran, and Arbia virus, isolated from sand flies in Italy. Here we present the isolation and complete genome characterization of the Adana virus, which we propose to be included in the Salehabad virus species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation and complete genome characterization, from sand flies in Turkey, of a Salehabad virus-related phlebovirus with supporting seropositivity in the Mediterranean, Aegean, and Central Anatolia regions, where phleboviruses have been circulating and causing outbreaks. Salehabad species viruses have generally been considered to be a group of viruses with little medical or
Jennifer A Head
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, belongs to genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, causes high rates of abortion and fetal malformation in infected ruminants as well as causing neurological disorders, blindness, or lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. RVFV is classified as a category A priority pathogen and a select agent in the U.S., and currently there are no therapeutics available for RVF patients. NSs protein, a major virulence factor of RVFV, inhibits host transcription including interferon (IFN-β mRNA synthesis and promotes degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR. NSs self-associates at the C-terminus 17 aa., while NSs at aa.210-230 binds to Sin3A-associated protein (SAP30 to inhibit the activation of IFN-β promoter. Thus, we hypothesize that NSs function(s can be abolished by truncation of specific domains, and co-expression of nonfunctional NSs with intact NSs will result in the attenuation of NSs function by dominant-negative effect. Unexpectedly, we found that RVFV NSs truncated at aa. 6-30, 31-55, 56-80, 81-105, 106-130, 131-155, 156-180, 181-205, 206-230, 231-248 or 249-265 lack functions of IFN-β mRNA synthesis inhibition and degradation of PKR. Truncated NSs were less stable in infected cells, while nuclear localization was inhibited in NSs lacking either of aa.81-105, 106-130, 131-155, 156-180, 181-205, 206-230 or 231-248. Furthermore, none of truncated NSs had exhibited significant dominant-negative functions for NSs-mediated IFN-β suppression or PKR degradation upon co-expression in cells infected with RVFV. We also found that any of truncated NSs except for intact NSs does not interact with RVFV NSs even in the presence of intact C-terminus self-association domain. Our results suggest that conformational integrity of NSs is important for the stability, cellular localization and biological functions of RVFV NSs, and the co-expression of truncated NSs does not exhibit dominant-negative phenotype.
Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, Norbert
The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus). They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick
Hill, Terence E.; Smith, Jennifer K.; Zhang, Lihong; Juelich, Terry L.; Gong, Bin; Slack, Olga A. L.; Ly, Hoai J.; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Freiberg, Alexander N.
ABSTRACT Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to Africa and characterized by a high rate of abortion in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. RVF is caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), which has a tripartite negative-stranded RNA genome (consisting of the S, M, and L segments). Further spread of RVF into countries where the disease is not endemic may affect the economy and public health, and vaccination is an effective approach to prevent the spread of RVFV. A live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine is one of the best-characterized RVF vaccines for safety and efficacy and is currently conditionally licensed for use for veterinary purposes in the United States. Meanwhile, as of 2015, no other RVF vaccine has been conditionally or fully licensed for use in the United States. The MP-12 strain is derived from wild-type pathogenic strain ZH548, and its genome encodes 23 mutations in the three genome segments. However, the mechanism of MP-12 attenuation remains unknown. We characterized the attenuation of wild-type pathogenic strain ZH501 carrying a mutation(s) of the MP-12 S, M, or L segment in a mouse model. Our results indicated that MP-12 is attenuated by the mutations in the S, M, and L segments, while the mutations in the M and L segments confer stronger attenuation than those in the S segment. We identified a combination of 3 amino acid changes, Y259H (Gn), R1182G (Gc), and R1029K (L), that was sufficient to attenuate ZH501. However, strain MP-12 with reversion mutations at those 3 sites was still highly attenuated. Our results indicate that MP-12 attenuation is supported by a combination of multiple partial attenuation mutations and a single reversion mutation is less likely to cause a reversion to virulence of the MP-12 vaccine. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that is endemic to Africa and that has the potential to
Zeier, Martin; Handermann, Michaela; Bahr, Udo; Rensch, Baldur; Müller, Sandra; Kehm, Roland; Muranyi, Walter; Darai, Gholamreza
In the last decades a significant number of so far unknown or underestimated pathogens have emerged as fundamental health hazards of the human population despite intensive research and exceptional efforts of modern medicine to embank and eradicate infectious diseases. Almost all incidents caused by such emerging pathogens could be ascribed to agents that are zoonotic or expanded their host range and crossed species barriers. Many different factors influence the status of a pathogen to remain unnoticed or evolves into a worldwide threat. The ability of an infectious agent to adapt to changing environmental conditions and variations in human behavior, population development, nutrition, education, social, and health status are relevant factors affecting the correlation between pathogen and host. Hantaviruses belong to the emerging pathogens having gained more and more attention in the last decades. These viruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are grouped into a separate genus known as Hantavirus. The serotypes Hantaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), Puumala (PUU), and Dobrava (DOB) virus predominantly cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a disease characterized by renal failure, hemorrhages, and shock. In the recent past, many hantavirus isolates have been identified and classified in hitherto unaffected geographic regions in the New World (North, Middle, and South America) with characteristic features affecting the lungs of infected individuals and causing an acute pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus outbreaks in the United States of America at the beginning of the 10th decade of the last century fundamentally changed our knowledge about the appearance of the hantavirus specific clinical picture, mortality, origin, and transmission route in human beings. The hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was first recognized in 1993 in the Four Corners Region of the United States and had a lethality of more than 50%. Although the causative virus was first termed in